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THE GRAVEL LAYERS CONTENTS 3201 SCOPE This Section describes the selection of materials from borrow pits and cuttings for the various purposes for which they are required, stockpiling the materials excavated but which cannot be dumped direct where required, breaking down the material during the excavation process, when it is processed on the road, or when special processing for breaking-down by crusher is required, controlling the moisture content, placing and compacting the soil and gravel layers and constructing the rock fills. In addition, this Section describes the treatment of material recovered from existing pavements, and construction in restricted areas during rehabilitation work. Unless inconsistent with the context, the provisions of Section 3200 relating to borrow pits or to material obtained from borrow pits shall apply mutatis mutandis to such places where material is recovered from an existing road, and to the material recovered from an existing road respectively. 3202 SELECTING THE MATERIAL The Contractor shall use materials strictly in accordance with the purpose for which they have been approved and in accordance with the details as indicated on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. During his activities in borrow pits or cuttings, he shall ensure that approved materials are not unnecessarily polluted with unsuitable material or that approved materials are not unnecessarily wasted. The Contractor should note the provisions of Sub-clauses 3104(c) and 3105(d) and (e) in regard to activities at borrow pits, and of Sub-clause 3306(d) in regard to activities in cuttings. Where the Contractor has unnecessarily polluted or wasted suitable material, he shall supply other suitable material at his own cost.

3203 STOCKPILING THE MATERIAL The Contractor shall so plan his activities that materials excavated from borrow pits and cuttings, in so far as is possible, can be transported direct to and placed at the point where it is to be used. However, where utilising materials in this manner is impracticable, and, if so instructed by the Engineer in writing, it shall be temporarily stockpiled for later loading and transportation to where it will be used. Compensation for stockpiling materials will be payable only in regard to material stockpiled in accordance with the Engineers written instructions. The temporary stockpiling of material within the borrow area in heaps with a view to loading, or any other stockpiling method used in connection with the loading method adopted by the Contractor in the cutting or borrow pit, will not be classified as temporary stockpiling. The costs for these processes will be deemed to be covered by the rates for the various items of work for which material so stockpiled is used. Stockpiling areas and maximum heights of stockpiles shall be indicated or approved by the Engineer. Before any stockpiling of material may be done, the site shall be cleaned, and all loose stones or any vegetation or other material which may cause pollution shall be removed. During use, the lower 100 mm of stockpiled material shall not be utilised for construction. After the stockpiled material has been removed, the site shall be reinstated as closely as possible to its original condition, and the surface shall be lightly scarified to promote vegetation growth. Payment will be made for stockpiling the material from existing pavements only if the material is intended for re-use and if its stockpiling has been approved or directed by the Engineer. 3204 BREAKING-DOWN THE MATERIAL FROM CUT AND BORROW (a) Breaking-down the material in cuttings and borrow pits

The material from cuttings and borrow pits shall be broken down in the cuttings or borrow pits to the maximum sizes as set out below, depending on the use envisaged for the material, before it is loaded and hauled to the road. Rock fills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 mm maximum dimension Normal

fills . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 mm maximum dimension Pavement layers . . . . . . . . 300 mm maximum dimension Spoil material need be broken down only sufficiently for convenient loading and transporting, but the Engineer may require sufficient material to be broken down to a maximum size of 500 mm with a view to effectively trimming the spoil areas. Material intended for crushing need only be broken down sufficiently to permit acceptance by the crusher. 3200-2 In order that the material can be broken down to the abovementioned sizes, the Contractor shall adjust and control his blasting, ripping, excavating and other operations so that the desired result can be achieved as effectively as possible. In so far as may be practicable, drilling and blasting patterns shall be such as to break down the material to the desired sizes, and, where this is impracticable, secondary blasting or other methods shall be used for breaking down oversize materials. If, in the opinion of the Engineer, the working methods of the Contractor are such that unnecessarily large quantities of oversize material are produced, he may instruct the Contractor to change his methods in order to produce less oversize material, and the Contractor shall not be entitled to any additional compensation for carrying out such instructions. Care shall be taken not to load oversize material and to bring it onto the road. However, where this is nevertheless done, the Contractor shall, at his own cost, remove such oversize material from the road or break it down further to the required size on the road. Where surplus material is available and the Engineer so agrees, the Contractor, instead of breaking down any oversize materials, may work it out or leave it in the borrow pits, or in the case of materials from cuttings, spoil it, but in the latter case not without the written approval of the Engineer. The Engineer may also require oversize materials to be used for other purposes, such as for rock fills instead of breaking it down. (b) Further breaking-down of pavement material brought onto the road

Pavement material brought onto the road shall be further broken down to the sizes as specified for each layer by using equipment suited to this purpose. The Contractor shall be at liberty to employ any methods and equipment he may prefer, but, where any difference of opinion may arise in regard to the practicability of the breaking-down process or the suitability of the methods and equipment employed by the Contractor, the Engineer may require normal grid-rolling to be done as described below. The results so obtained will then serve as the norm of the degree to which the breaking down shall be attained by any alternative methods. For the purposes of this specification, normal grid-rolling shall mean the following: (i) The material shall be placed or bladed to the one side of the road to provide working space for breaking-down the material. (ii) Subject to the approval of the Engineer a portion of the material shall be spread in a thin layer on a compacted surface to promote effective breaking-down of the material, and to a width which the grid roller shall be able to cover in a single pass. (iii) The grid roller, which shall proceed at a speed of at least 12 km/h and which shall have a minimum mass of 13.5 tonnes, shall do four complete roller passes over the material. (iv) Any oversized material shall be removed by hand, and/or constructional plant as provided in Clause 3210. (v) The broken-down material shall be placed in a windrow to the opposite side of the material still to be broken-down. (vi) (vii) road. (viii) If so ordered by the Engineer steps (ii) to (vii) shall be repeated until all the material that needs to be broken down has been treated. However, should too much oversize material remain Repeat steps (ii) to (v), but place the second windrow next to To mix the material, the two windrows formed in steps (ii) to the first. (vi) shall then be bladed into a single windrow to the side of the

after normal grid-rolling, the Engineer may instruct that any one of the following be done? i. That additional normal grid-rolling or its equivalent be done; ii. That, instead of attempting to break down the material on the road, it be crushed as described in Clause 3205; or iii. That the Contractor and Engineer agree on the use of any other methods and equipment which may be more suitable, and determine compensation for such work in terms of the General Conditions of Contract. Any oversize material still remaining after processing in accordance with any of the processes described above shall be removed from the road as provided in Clause 3210. (c) Further breaking-down of fill brought onto the road

After fill material in borrow pits and cuttings has been broken down to the maximum size specified in Sub-clause 3204(a) and then spread on the road, it shall be further broken down by means of suitable equipment such as grid rollers, subject to the approval of the Engineer. In many cases breaking down by the normal compaction process should be adequate, and no special effort should be necessary for breaking down the material, but, in the case of hard and coarse material, the Engineer may require that the material receive at least a light grid-rolling, and the degree to which breaking-down will occur by means of the light grid-rolling process will then serve as the norm of what may be required in regard to alternative methods the Contractor is permitted to employ. For the purposes of these Specifications light grid-rolling is defined as follows: (i) The material shall be spread in a layer, the un compacted thickness of which shall be more or less equal to the average maximum fragment size, but with a minimum of 200 mm. It shall then be rolled by means of at least two complete passes per 200 mm of uncompacted layer thickness by a grid roller with a mass of not less than 13.5 tonnes, moving at a speed of at least 12 km/h. Should the

un-compacted layer thickness be in excess of 200 mm, the number of roller passes shall be increased pro rata. The material should then be thoroughly mixed with a motor grader to disperse the broken fragments of oversize homogeneously through the layer. (ii) Compensation for light grid-rolling and processing as part of the compaction process will be regarded as being included in the price paid for providing and compacting the material. This grid rolling will not be included in the number of roller passes which may be paid for compacting the material. 3200-3 (d) Milled material

Milled material need not normally be broken down further unless so specified or instructed by the Engineer. (e) Existing cemented layers

Existing cemented layers to be broken down and reprocessed may be reprocessed either where it is to be placed, or it may be hauled to a crusher for processing, whichever may have been specified or instructed by the Engineer. 3205 CRUSHING AND SCREENING Where the material intended for use in the pavement layers cannot be suitably broken down by the methods set out in Sub-clause 3204(b), the Engineer may direct that the material be crushed, screened, or crushed and screened, or be modified by screening out certain fractions. A singlestage crushing plant implies the utilisation of a primary crushing unit in which only one size reduction stage occurs, irrespective of the magnitude of the reduction ratio possible by nature of its construction. The single stage crushing plant, shall be capable of breaking down oversize material to the maximum size specified for the layer concerned. A second crushing stage, while not always necessary to achieve the required reduction ratio, is required by utilising a secondary crushing plant in addition to the

primary crushing unit, to control the grading of the product to fall within the broader specified envelope for gravel base materials and lower quality selected materials, as well as yielding specified shape characteristics as appropriate. This shall be termed a two-stage crushing plant. A third , and where appropriate a fourth crushing stage utilising in addition to the earlier stage crushing plant, tertiary and quaternary crushing plants as appropriate to control the grading and shape of the higher quality crushed stone materials, as well as surfacing and concrete aggregates, shall be termed a multi-stage crushing plant. For the single-stage and two-stage crushing plant, selective screening may be ordered by the Engineer. Screening only of material involves screening the material into various fractions through a series of screens, the smallest of which need not be smaller than 6.7 mm. For the multi-stage plant, all screening and or any other required activity and concomitant equipment required to produce the specified end product, shall be considered to be included. For all stages of crushing plant, precautionary measures required in terms of the Local by-laws regarding Occupational Health and Safety and any other relevant Acts, and the latest amendments thereof shall be deemed included in the rates tendered for the relevant products. 3206 CONTROLLING THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF MATERIALS The Contractor shall take all reasonable precautions to prevent material in borrow pits, excavations, stockpiles and on the road from becoming excessively wet as a result of rain or groundwater or storm water. In view hereof, the excavation of borrow pits and cuttings shall, as far as possible, be so planned and executed as to prevent the damming-up of water in the borrow pits or cuttings, and the Contractor shall also provide the necessary temporary drainage for this purpose. During the rainy season, material spread over the road shall be spread with a proper cross slope, and, if not directly compacted, it shall be rolled several times with a flatwheeled roller in order to let the water runoff and not penetrate the material unduly. Care shall also be taken not to allow the water to dam up against material heaps, windrows, or any spread material. Where

material, despite proper precautionary measures, on account of its in situ moisture content, is nevertheless too wet to comply with the requirements in regard to moisture content during compaction, the Contractor shall dry out the material until it is adequately dry for compaction, but, in the first instance, he shall, in so far as is practicable, so plan his construction programme that material with a high natural moisture content will be used in the dry season and not in the wet. No prescriptions apply in regard to drying out the material, and the Contractor himself shall decide on the best methods. No additional payment will be made for keeping dry and drying out the material, but the cost of such work shall be included in his tender rates for the various items of work for which the material is to be used, unless provision for additional compensation of this nature has been made in the Project Specifications. However, where the Contractor has taken all reasonable precautions to keep the material dry and to dry it out where necessary and it is nevertheless impracticable to dry out the material as required, the Engineer shall: a) permit the material to be compacted at a higher moisture content, subject to the required dry density being achieved; or b) declare the material to be unsuitable and instruct that it be not used, and, if already on the road, be removed at the appropriate compensation and replaced with suitable material; or c) Further, instruct the Contractor as he may deem necessary under the circumstances and compensate him for any additional expenses brought about thereby, but only to the degree to which the additional costs have not arisen through the failure of the Contractor to comply with the provisions of this Clause. 3207 LAYER THICKNESSES AND SPREADING THE MATERIALS a) Fills

The layer thickness of fills will generally be determined by the maximum size to which the material can be broken down in the borrow pits and cuttings, and thereafter when it can be processed on the road itself. The layer thickness will therefore normally be based on the pre-estimation of what the maximum size will be to which the material can be broken down, and shall be such that the maximum size of 3200-4 the fragments will be more or less equal to the layer thickness after compaction. The maximum layer thickness (after compaction) required from the Contractor shall be 200 mm, but layer thicknesses as little as 100 mm will be permitted. In order to prevent the layer thicknesses from being determined by the presence of isolated large fragments, the Engineer may require such isolated fragments to be removed from the road, as determined in Clause 3210. The Engineer may also agree to the material being compacted in layers in excess of 200 mm or the maximum fragment size, provided that he is satisfied that the material will be properly compacted. Layer thicknesses shall be agreed on in advance between the Engineer and the Contractor. Where a new layer is constructed on an existing or already constructed fill and the new layer will be less than 100 mm in compacted thickness, the existing fill shall be scarified to such a depth as will give a layer thickness after compaction of not less than 100 mm of the new plus the scarified material together. No additional payment will be made for this. Where coarse material is to be processed in layer thicknesses which make mixing by road grader impracticable, the material shall be so excavated, transported and dumped that it will be properly mixed after dumping and exhibit a minimum segregation of fine and coarse material. Such material shall be placed to the correct thickness by end tipping, and the surface levelled by bulldozer, after which some fine material shall be spread on top of the layer and worked into the depressions on the surface.

b) Pavement layers All material placed in position before compaction shall be spread evenly over the entire surface of the layer concerned, and the quantity of material spread shall be such that every layer will comply with the specified requirements for thickness when measured after compaction. The layer thickness shall comply with the requirements as indicated on the Drawings and in the Project Specifications. Spreading material in restricted areas may be done in any manner approved by the Engineer, on condition that the required level and grading standards can be attained. Where the compaction apparatus used is of such a nature that the material in thicker layers cannot be properly compacted, the Engineer may instruct that material be placed and compacted in layers as thin as 75 mm. Where the thickness of any existing pavement layer requires to be supplemented and the thickness of the added material after compaction will be less than 100 mm, the existing layer shall be scarified to a depth that will give a layer thickness of at least 100 mm after compacting together the loosened existing and added material. In the case of gravel or crushed-stone bases and sub-bases, the Engineer may direct the existing layer to be broken down to its full depth. The composite layer shall be watered, mixed and compacted as determined in Clause 3208. Payment for adding the material will be made as determined for the respective pavement layers. 3208 PLACING AND COMPACTING THE MATERIALS IN LAYER THICKNESSES OF 200 mm AND LESS AFTER COMPACTION When the layer thickness after compaction is 200 mm or less, any oversize material which cannot be broken down to the required size shall first be removed from the road and then disposed of or used as may be prescribed by the Engineer. The material shall then be sprayed with water, mixed, and compacted as described hereafter.

a) Spraying and mixing (i) General Requirements Before the material is compacted, it shall first be thoroughly mixed by grader or other suitable plant so as to obtain an even mix of the various types of materials and to spread the fine and coarse material evenly throughout the mixture. If necessary during the mixing process, water shall also be sprayed evenly over and mixed into the material to bring it to the correct uniform moisture content. The moisture added shall be just sufficient to bring the material to the optimum moisture content for the compacting equipment being used and the compaction required, provided that, should the moisture content of the material be in excess of 2% above the optimum moisture content for modified AASHTO density, it shall be compacted only when so approved by the Engineer. (ii) Additional Requirements In Respect Of Work In Restricted Areas The Engineer may, in restricted areas, permit the Contractor to spread, water and mix the gravel or crushed stone in a windrow next to the pavement excavation. Care shall be taken not to damage existing surfacing and not to pollute the mixed material with other deleterious material. Where this method of mixing is impracticable or impossible, the Contractor shall make use of concrete mixers or any other equipment or method acceptable to the Engineer. Irrespective of the layer concerned, the mixing shall be of such quality that a uniform mix will be obtained at all times to the satisfaction of the Engineer. b) Compaction (i) General Requirements Compaction shall be carried out in a series of continuous operations covering the full width of the layer concerned, and

the length of any section of a layer being compacted shall, wherever possible, be not less than 150 m nor more than can be properly compacted with the available equipment. The Engineer reserves the right to order the Contractor to reduce the length of any layer compacted in any single operation if the proper compaction of such layer is not being achieved. The types of compaction equipment to be used and the amount of rolling to be done shall be such as to ensure that specified densities are obtained without damage being done to lower layers or structures. During compaction the layer shall be maintained to the required shape and cross-section, and all holes, ruts and laminations shall be removed. 3200-5 (ii) Additional Requirements In Respect Of Work In Restricted Areas Suitable equipment and methods acceptable to the Engineer shall be used in restricted areas so that the required densities will be obtained throughout the thickness of the layer. If necessary, the layers shall be placed in thicknesses which are less than the specified layer thickness, as determined in Subclause 3207(b). Work in restricted areas consequent upon the actions of the Contractor himself and not upon specified work, will not be regarded as work in restricted areas for purposes of payment. c) In place reworking of pavement layers Where so specified in the Project Specifications and/or instructed by the Engineer, and the material in any existing layer complies with the requirements for the new layer, the Contractor shall scarify the layer to the specified depth, add extra material if necessary, and reprocess the layer in place. Reprocessing includes watering by spraying, mixing, and compacting the layer to the density specified for the layer concerned. Payment will be made as determined for the respective pavement layers.

3209 PLACING AND COMPACTING THE MATERIALS IN LAYER THICKNESSES IN EXCESS OF 200 mm AFTER COMPACTION (only applicable in the case of fills) a) Soft-material fills Materials which readily break down to a maximum size of 200 mm shall be compacted in layers not in excess of 200 mm after compaction, and spraying, mixing and compacting the material shall be executed as described in Clause 3208 for pavement layers. In the case of cohesion-less sand, the layer thicknesses may, however, be increased to as much as 400 mm, and spraying and mixing the material may be omitted or limited in so far as is practicable, all, however, subject to the required density being achieved over the full depth of the layer. In this case efficient vibratory rollers shall be used for compacting the sand. b) Hard-material fills Should the material used for fills be of such a nature that, during the breaking-down effort as described in Sub-clause 3204(b), it does not readily break down to a maximum size of 200 mm or less, the material shall be spread as described in Sub-clause 3207(a) and processed as follows: The material shall be sprayed and mixed as described in Sub-clause 3208(a), but, should this be impracticable on account of the thickness of the layer, these processes may be omitted on condition that the material be thoroughly mixed and placed as described in Sub-clause 3207(a) (last paragraph). The material shall subsequently be compacted in accordance with one of the methods described in Section 3300, depending on the method directed by the Engineer. c) Rock fill Rock-fill processing and compaction shall apply to material consisting predominantly of stone and boulders, with some fine

material, and which, due to the mechanical interlocking of the rock, cannot be compacted effectively by construction methods normally used for soils and gravels. When the layer thickness after compaction is 500 mm or less as instructed by the Engineer, the processing and compaction of such material shall not be classified as rock-fill processing and compaction, and the Engineer may prescribe that the material be compacted as described in Subclause (b) above. The maximum size of rock which may be used in rock fill is 750 mm, and the layer thickness before compaction shall not be in excess of one and a half times the average actual size of the rock. The Engineer may prescribe that 5% of the oversize material shall be bladed off the road after the material has been dumped onto the road, and it shall be disposed of as described in Clause 3210, so that the layer thickness will not be determined by the presence of isolated large rock fragments. The compacted layer shall contain no rock fragments with a maximum dimension greater than the compacted layer thickness. The material to be compacted shall be off-loaded by the end-tipping method. The material shall then be spread by bulldozer or other suitable plant in such a manner that the fine material is well mixed with the rock. The routes to be followed by hauling, spreading and compaction equipment shall be uniformly distributed over the entire width of the layer to be compacted. The material shall be broken down and compacted during the spreading and compacting process by grid or other suitable rollers and finally compacted with vibratory rollers in accordance with the following formula, to achieve a good mechanical interlock of the rock and the maximum compaction of the finer material in the spaces between the rocks. The type of vibratory roller used, the operating speed, the number of passes and the layer thicknesses are determined by means of the following formula: Pe x n hxv

_ 1 500 (minimum) Where: Pe = total static and dynamic force per metre width generated by the vibratory roller at the operating frequency given by the manufacturer (KN/m) n = number of passes required h = thickness of the compacted layer in metres v = roller speed in metres per second. Operating frequencies shall be between 18 Hz and 30 Hz and Pe shall be at least 120KN/m. 3210 DISPOSING OF OVERSIZE MATERIAL All oversize materials removed from the road in terms of Sub-clause 3204(a) and all excess fill removed from the road 3200-6 in terms of Sub clause 3207(a) shall be disposed of at the Contractors cost or, with the approval of the Engineer, may be used for other suitable purposes. Oversize pavement material left over after application of the provisions of Sub-clause 3204(b) and removed from the road in terms of Clause 3208, shall be loaded and disposed of as determined by the Engineer and will be paid for subject to the provisions of payment Item 32.04. Where, however, such material is used direct for any construction work, the Contractor will be entitled only to compensation at the rate in respect of the construction item in question. Notwithstanding the methods of payment described above, the tender rates for constructing all pavement layers shall include full compensation for the removal of up to 5% by volume of oversize material without any additional payment being made to the Contractor. The limit of 5% will apply to Individual layers and not to all the layers together. The Contractor shall take all reasonable precautions not to place on the road any material which cannot be broken down to the required size by processing on the road. This shall be avoided by proper selection during excavation in the cuttings or borrow pits. If such material is encountered in cuttings, it shall be spoiled directly or used as prescribed by the Engineer.

3211 DRAINAGE AND PROTECTION The compacted layers shall be adequately drained and shaped to prevent water from standing on or along or scouring the completed work. Windrows shall be removed to facilitate the drainage of water from the surface. No material for a subsequent layer may be placed if the underlying layer has been softened by excessive moisture. In cases where pavement layers are replaced over a section of the road width, or where pavement layers are widened and the new layer is more or less permeable than the adjacent existing layer, for example in the case of a stabilised or bitumen-treated layer next to an untreated layer, it may be specified, or the Engineer may instruct that pavement subsoil drainage be installed in accordance with the details indicated on the Drawings or determined by him. The installation of subsoil drainage will be measured and paid for under the pay items of Section 2100.