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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents an introduction of the study. It consists of background of
the study, limitation of the study, statements of the study, objectives of the study,
significances of the study, operational definition of the key terms, and organization of
the thesis.
A. Background of the Study
Language has closest correlation with humans life, especially in
communication. Of course, people need cooperate with others because it has been
the characteristics of human as social being (Ramelan, 1992:3). For that reason,
people need something as a means of communication that is a language. Here are
some definitions of language according to some experts; language is defined as a
system of communication by which some massage can conveyed (Ramelan,
1991:4). Harmer says that language is an intensely political issue since it is bound
up with identity and power. Another definition is written by Carol as quoted by
Ramelan that language is an arbitrary system of speech sounds or sequences of
speech sounds, which are used in interpersonal communication by aggregation of
human beings and which are rather exhaustively processes and events in the
human environment. Ramelan (1992:1) also provides another explanation
regarding to the importance of language, as follows:
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Remembering of how it is important for human beings to study language,
recently, it has been approved that it should be there is a language that is
universal so it can be used everywhere. For that reason, English has been the
most appropriate choice among the other language as an international means of
communication. Therefore, not only English men that are able to use the language
but also people from different countries. Many people from several countries
study about English since it is reasonable that if someone wants to communicate
with foreigner, of course, he has to able to speak English, for example when you
meet a stranger in somewhere or when you go abroad.
We know that studying language cannot be separated from studying
vocabulary that continues to knowledge of meaning. But improving vocabulary
for students is not easy.
In Indonesia, government has chosen English as the first foreign language
that is taught at school. Furthermore, English has become the compulsory subject
that must be learned by students of Elementary school to College students. There
are four basic skills that have to be mastered by English learners, among others
are: reading, speaking, writing and listening. Beside all those skills, Basic Course
Outline (GBPP), which is relevant to Competence Based Curriculum, has also an
emphasis on some language components, among others are: grammar,
vocabulary, and spelling. However, I would like to discuss one of the components
that is vocabulary.
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The teacher should be able to create or choose a technique, which is good
for students. In this thesis, the writer choose multiple choice exercise to improve
students vocabulary mastery
The basic argument that makes the writer interested in this component is
that students have some difficulties in learning English vocabulary. As you could
see that there are lost of ranges in English vocabulary items that will make some
difficulties for the students to understand. The other reason is that there is a lack
of attention from teachers of English in teaching vocabulary. On the one hand,
most of teachers English only pay attention on teaching grammar rather than on
teaching vocabulary. On other hand significant problem that their students
mastering English is due to their lack of vocabulary knowledge. As a result, when
the teacher asks a question to his student about why cant you finish your work
well? the student probably will answer the examination is too difficult, Sir.
Then the teacher goes ahead on the next question, such as why is it too hard for
you? they might reply, I cant understand this word or this sentence, Sir. Lets
take an example of how it is difficult to study vocabulary; the word elf
probably will make confusion for the non-native English learners. This problem
actually because this word does not familiar in daily communication. .
The writer tries to select multiple choice tests as the materials with using
consideration.
B. Limitation of the Study
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Based on background of the study above the writer wants to what extend of
multiple choice exercise can improve the students vocabulary mastery of the
tenth grade of SMK Farmasi Nusaputera Semarang in the academic year
2009/2010. In this research, the writer uses experiment research. The writer uses
two classes as population that is one class taught with multiple choice exercises
and other class taught without multiple choice exercises. And the writer uses
multiple choice exercises as method to teach vocabulary at the tenth grade of
SMK Farmasi Nusaputera Semarang in the academic year 2009/2010. By this
research, the writer hopes it can be more useful for the students to improve the
students vocabulary mastery.
C. Statements of the Problem
The writer limits the discussion by starting the following problems:
1. To what extent do the tenth grade students of SMK Farmasi Nusaputera who
are taught using multiple choice exercise master vocabulary?
2. To what extent do the tenth grade students of SMK Farmasi Nusaputera who
are taught without using multiple choice exercise master vocabulary?
3. Is there any significant difference of the students English vocabulary mastery
between those who are taught using multiple choice exercise and those who
are taught without using multiple choice exercise?
D. Objectives of the Study
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The purposes of the study are as follow:
1.To find out the vocabulary mastery the tenth grade students of SMK
Farmasi Nusaputera who are taught using multiple choice exercise.
2.To find out the vocabulary mastery the tenth grade students of SMK
Farmasi Nusaputera who are taught without using multiple choice exercise.
3.To find out whether or not there is a significant difference of the English
vocabulary mastery between those are taught using multiple choice exercise
and those are taught without using multiple choice exercise.
E. Significance of the Study
After having done the study, the writer hopes can give a useful contribution for:
1. The Headmaster
Result of this research is hoped can give a model to improve students
English vocabulary mastery in English teaching-learning process
collaboration.
2. The English teachers
The result of this study can be used by the teacher which the best technique in
teaching vocabulary. The teachers can apply and can achieve the objectives of
teaching vocabulary as effectively as possible. The teachers also can find out
whether or not the students mastery of vocabulary has matched with their
level as senior high school students.
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3. The Students
The tenth grade students of SMK Farmasi Nusaputera can improve their
vocabulary by doing much practice using multiple choice test more and more
to support their English skills.
4. The Writer
The writer will know the students ability in learning English vocabulary
based on multiple choice test.
5. The other researcher
Result of this research is hoped can be used as one of the information source
in improving students vocabulary mastery in SMK Farmasi Nusaputera or in
other schools.
F. Definition of the Key Terms
1. Application
Ask for something or ask to do something (Longman, 1993:53).
Making of a request (Hornby, 1974:37).
2. Multiple choice test
Showing several possible answers from which the correct one must be
chosen (Hornby, 1974:556).
3. Exercise
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Use your power, authority, or a right in order to achieve something (Hornby,
2003:149).
4. Improve
To become better in standard or quality (Longman, 1993:664).
5. Vocabulary Mastery
Vocabulary is total number of words which with rules for combining them
make up a language (Hornby, 1974:959).Mastery is complete control or
knowledge (Hornby, 1974:523).
Based on definition about vocabulary and mastery above, the writer
concludes defines vocabulary mastery is someones competence or
knowledge to uses and arranges words into a language.
6. SMK Farmasi Nusaputera
The pharmacist senior high school located in jl.Medoho no.3 Semarang is the
location of the research.
G. The Outline of the Thesis
In this discussion, the writer makes thesis outline to facilities the readers in
understanding this study. This thesis is divided into five chapters.
The first chapter, the introduction, introduces some elements such as the
background of the study, limitation of the study, the purpose of the study, the
significance of the study and organization of study.
The second chapter presents the theory that related with the thesis.
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The third chapter, that contains type of research, subject of the study,
population of the study, research variables, type of data collection, the instrument
of the study, the technique of data analysis.
The fourth chapter is research finding and discussion, which concern with
the result of the study.
The fifth chapter contains conclusion and suggestion.
CHAPTER II
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REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
This chapter presents a discussion of related literature as a theoretical base for
the study. The discussion includes previous study, relevant theories and hypothesis of
the research.
A. Previous Study
In this case, the writer will show the result of the research from the last thesis
which related with the writers research it is done by Ainun Jariyah on research
The effectiveness of teaching English vocabulary through pictures at elementary
school the case of the fourth grade students of SD N Candisari I Mranggen Demak
in academic year 2007/2008 .
The objectives of the research are, (1) to find out the vocabulary mastery of
the fourth grade students of SD N Candisari I in academic year 2007/2008 who are
taught without using pictures. (2) to find out the vocabulary mastery of the fourth
grade students of SD N Candisari I in academic year 2007/2008 who are taught
using pictures. (3) To find out well or not there significant different who are taught
using pictures and those taught without using pictures.
The writer used classroom action research at fourth grade students of SD N
Candisari I Mranggen Demak in academic year 2007/2008 for the method of
reseach.
The instruments of collecting data that the writer used are questioner,
observation sheet and test. The population of the research is all of the students of
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SD N Candisari I Mranggen Demak in academic year 2007/2008. That is 33
students.
The finding of the research that the picture as the media more effective in
improve student vocabulary mastery in elementary school that learning vocabulary
than learning without using picture as the media. It can be seen from the result of
the pre-test and the post-test.
Based on the result of her research, the writer gives suggestion that using
picture as the media is giving positive effect in the teaching vocabulary.
B. Relevant Theories
1.Language Definitions
Human is social being who always needs company in their life. It can
be hardly that we should life all alone without anyone to accompany us. We
need help from the others. That is why human beings always live together in
groups, cooperate, and interact with another. Interaction is a realization of
human beings instinct to fulfill their needs. One of the ways to provide the
necessities of life is cooperating, associate, and exchange information and
experiences. To express their idea, they absolutely need a means of
communication, which is called language, because through communication
we will understand each other.
Sandra Lee McKay and Nancy Hornberger (1996:3) define language
is an intimate part of social identity. Longman (1993:2831) language is the
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system of human communication with of the structured arrangement of
sounds (or written representation) into larger u miss, e.g. morphemes, words,
sentences, utterances.
Jenny Hammond (1992:1) language is functional, the way it is
because of the meaning it makes used in a context of situation of well as a
context of culture. William O Grady, Michael Dobrovolsky, and Franciska
Tamba (1994:1) language is many things, a system of communication, a
medium for thought, a vehicle for literary expression, a social institution, a
matter for political controversy, a catalyst for nation building.
2.Teaching-Learning English at SMK
The teaching- learning English at SMK should follow the recent
curriculum of SMK which is determined by the government. Curriculum is a
set of teaching plan that give direction for the teaching and learning process.
According to Sutomo ( 1998:12) teaching is the interaction process between
teachers and students for developing the function of human being in receiving
their culture.
The teacher and students influence the success of teaching learning.
Teaching is an interaction of process between the teacher and students or
group of students to get knowledge skill, attitude and to stable what they are
learning. The teacher has quite important role to make the students successful
in learning process. Therefore, the teacher must work effectively. If the
teacher can work effectively, in teaching and learning activities, the process
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of teaching learning English will be success. In addition, the writer can say
that he will be effective if he tries new methods and interesting techniques
and he always looks the better way to do the job ( Charles, 1994:20).
In teaching learning at SMK, the English teacher should have a good
mastery of four skill languages. A good teacher should serve a model of good
listening, speaking, reading and writing. In addition, English teacher may still
need to have a good mastery of the English grammar because they should be
able to diagnose their student. The student still gets difficulties in using
English communication ( Depdiknas, 2004)
3.Vocabulary
Language has vocabulary. It consists of great number of words, each
of which is dependently meaningful. Besides pronunciation and grammar,
Vocabulary is an important role in a language. Vocabulary supports the
speakers or writers in the context of communication or written to express their
ideas in target language. There are some definitions of vocabularies as follow:
a. Vocabulary is total number of words which with rules for combining them
make up a language (Hornby, 1974:959).
b. Vocabulary is a listing of words used in some enterprise or the system of
techniques and symbols serving as a means of expression (accessed from:
http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu.com:2009).
c. Vocabulary deals with word as lexical units that are considered as the
culture meaning of speech community (Lado, 1964:182)
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d. Vocabulary is a language users knowledge in words ( The Sage English
Dictionary and Thesaurus: 2009)
e. Vocabulary is an alphabetical list of words used in a book, often including
their translation or definition.
From the explanation above, we have a conclusion that vocabulary is
a list of words in the written or spoken English with their meaning, which is
employed in a language by group or individual or vocabulary is the stock of
words used by people or by particulars class or person.
4.Learning Vocabulary
In learning vocabulary, the students already have satisfactory words-
in their own language for everything in the classroom that they might want to
name from the students point of view, such words do not seem really
necessary because words in the mother tongue serve all practical purposes.
The teachers must look at vocabulary from the students point of view. They
might use the written words and put them into display in the classroom.
Repetition is the one way to learn new words. There are two ways in
which the teacher can aid comprehension to approach the students in English
teaching- learning process, linguistic and non- linguistic ( Krashen, 1983:
64). To make the speakers speech more comprehensible to less competent
speakers. According to Allen, the characteristic of linguistic aspects of
simplified input which appear to promote comprehension as follow:
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a. Slower rate and clearer articulation, which helps acquirer identify word
boundaries more easily, and allows more processing time.
b. More use of high frequency vocabulary, less slang, fewer idioms.
c. Syntactic simplification, shorter sentences.
The vocabulary mastery in English as the foreign language is very
significant in daily conversation. It is explained by Davies and Pearse (2000,
Chapter 4), In communication, vocabulary is often more important than
grammar. It frustrating to the intermediate learners when they discover that
they can not communicate effectively because they do not know many of the
words they need.
Based on the explanation above we know that without mastering a
large number of vocabularies it is impossible to master English as much
vocabulary as possible so they can develop their language skills. The more
vocabularies the learners have, more chances they master the language.
According to Allen (1989:9), there are five facts about vocabulary
lesson
a. Foreign language for familiar object and person are important to teach,
but we can not expect most members of the class to learn them easily.
b. Teaching such words will require special skills because students often fill
their native-language words familiar objects and persons are all the really
need.
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c. Students are very likely to feel that foreign words for familiar object are
not really needed when the foreign language is not used for
communication outside the language class.
d. When the students feel no real need to learn something, a feeling of need
must be created- by the teacher.
e. To create in students mind a sense of personal need for a foreign word, it
is not enough to say, Here is a word to learn. Here is what the word
means. The word will be useful to you someday
According to Thornbury (2004:13) that vocabulary teaching has not
always been very responsive to such problems and teachers have not fully
recognized the tremendous communicative language in developing an
extensive vocabulary. The importance of having an extensive vocabulary is
about knowing a lot of words. But what does it mean to know the word? At
the most basic level, knowing the meaning of a word involves knowing its
form and its meaning.
Finally, knowing the meaning of the word commonly associated with
it (its collocations) as well as its connotations, including its register and its
cultural accretions
5. Teaching Method
According to Harmer (2001: 78) a method is the practical realization of
an approach which describes how language is used and how its constituent parts
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interlock- in other words it offers a model of language competence. Methods
include various procedures and techniques as part of their standard fare.
When methods have fixed procedures, informed by a clearly articulated
approach, they are easy to describe. The more all- embracing they become,
however, the more difficult it is to categorize them as real method in their own
right. For effective teaching to take place a good method must be adopted by a
teacher. A teacher has many options when choosing a style to teach by. The
teacher will need to consider students background knowledge, environment,
and learning goals when deciding what teaching method to use.
According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, that there are many
diversities in teaching methods as follow:
a. Questioning
A teaching method that includes questioning is similar to testing. A
teacher may ask a series of questions to collect information of what students
have learned and what needs to be taught. Testing is another method of
questioning. A teacher tests the students on what was previously taught in
order to identify if students has learnt the material.
b. Explaining
Another teaching method is explanation. The form is similar to
lecturing. Lecturing is teaching, giving a speech, by giving a discourse on
specific subject that is open to the public, usually given in the classroom.
This can also be associated with demonstrating or modeling. A teacher may
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use experimentation to demonstrate a science class. A demonstration is the
circumstance of proving conclusively. Modeling is used as a visual aid to
learning. Students can visualize an object or problem, then use reasoning
and hypothesizing to determine an answer.
c. Demonstrating
Demonstrations are done to provide an opportunity in learning new
exploration and visual learning tasks from a different perspective.
Demonstrations can be exercised in many ways.
d. Collaborating
Students working in groups is another way to teacher can enforce a
lesson plan. Collaborating allows students to talk among each other and
listen to all view points of discussion or assignment. It helps students think
in unbiased way. When the lesson plan is carried out, the teacher may be
trying to asses the lesson of working as team, leadership skills, or
presenting with roles.
e. Learning by teaching
Learning by teaching is a widespread method in Germany. The
students take the teachers role and teach their peers.
6. Multiple Choice Test
Hornby (1974:556), defines multiple choice test is showing several
possible answers from which the correct one must be chosen that use for
examination. Multiple choice test is a test consisting of items containing either
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a question or uncompleted statement and the students are required to select the
correct or the best answer from the alternatives provided (accessed from:
http//plymouthschools.com:2009).
From the explanation above, we conclude that multiple choice test is a
form of assessment in which respondent are asked to select one or more choice
from the list that usually used in education testing, but sometime we can find
multiple choice used for elections and in marketing research.
According to Heaton (1975:42) multiple-choice can be divided into two
kinds as follow:
a. Multiple-choice that is useful to distinguish between the following two
major kinds of multiple- choice vocabulary items.
For example:
Group A: choose the letter of the word which is nearest in meaning to the
word in italics.
Hes been very feeble since his illness.
A. unwell B. thin C. foolish D. weak
Group B: Choose the letter of the correct or best word to complete each
sentence.
Have you heard the planning committees for solving the
city traffic problems?
A. theory B. design C. proposal D. purpose
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b. Multiple-choice that constructs more difficult based on the context: too little
context is insufficient to establish any meaningful situation, while too much
context will provide too many clues (both grammatical and semantic).
For example:
1) I saw nasty between two cars this morning.
A. happening B. danger C. damage D. accident
2) I was speaking to Ann on the phone when suddenly we were
A. hung up B. run out C. broken down D. cut off
3) I should have returned this book last Tuesday, it is now five days
A. postponed B. Excessive C. overdue D. delayed
4. Application of Multiple Choice Exercises to Improve Vocabulary
Learning a new language involves mastery of the skill of listening,
speaking, reading, and writing. Need vocabulary oral training is generally
assumed to be the key to mastery of these skills. It is the purposes of the thesis
to suggest how visual aids can help the teacher add variety an especially, reality
to the classroom situation.
All actual teaching of new language material must be done in relation to
the situation of the classroom and familiar studying activities. We should never
attempt to speak about who is not familiar until we are confident that the words
we need have been exercised enough and have proved themselves reliable tools
in the familiar spares of the students situation.
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As the person who manages the classroom activity, a teacher may use
multiple choice tests as the media to measure a specific students ability. It has
been familiar for the students that every time they finished new topic, they are
usually provided with multiple choice test.
Through media multiple choice test, the teacher can give students
motivation to enrich their vocabulary more seriously, they will know more
about the structures. Consequently, in daily activities the students will get more
vocabularies or words that they never known or heard before.
C. Hypothesis of the Research
Based on the review of the theory and the logical frame work above, the
hypothesis of the research is formulated as follow:
1. Working hypothesis
There is any significant difference of the tenth grade students in improving
students vocabulary mastery between those taught by using multiple choice
exercises and taught without using multiple choice exercises.
2. Null hypothesis
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There is no significant difference of the tenth grade students in improving
students vocabulary mastery between those taught by using multiple choice
exercises and taught without using multiple choice exercises.
CHAPTER III
METHOD OF THE RESEARCH
This chapter presents a discussion of the research method used in this study.
The discussion includes design of the research, setting of the research, subjects of the
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research, design of the research, procedures of collecting data, instrument of the
research, and techniques of data analysis.
A. Design of the Research
The method is basically a means is used to solve the problem to get a certain
objective. In addition, method is a procedure in carrying out the research dealing
with the technique of collecting data and analyzing the data. In this research, the
writer uses descriptive quantitative especially in experimental method. In this
research, there are two groups. One of group is called as an experimental group,
which will be given a treatment by using multiple choice exercises to improve
students vocabulary mastery, and another group is called as a control group,
which they will be taught without using multiple choice exercises. In order to get
the reliable data, the writer uses pre-test and pos-test control design to measure the
students ability. Pre-test is used to measure the students ability before they are
taught using multiple choice exercises. Post-test is used to measure the students
ability after they are taught using multiple choice exercises. The writer chooses
two classes for experimental research. One class is an experimental group and the
other class is the control group.
Group Pre-test Independent Variable Post-test
A
B
Y1
Y2
Teaching vocabulary by using multiple choice exercise.
Teaching vocabulary without using multiple choice
exercise.
Y1
Y2
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B. Setting of the Research
The writer will conduct the research on August 2009. The writer takes place
in SMK Farmasi Nusaputra in the academic year 2009/2010.
C. Subjects of the Study
I carry out an action research since there are some previous researchers who
conduct an applied research, especially for relationship between the use of multiple
choices and students vocabulary mastery. Based on the reason above, I intend to
make the research to be more effective; that is, the application of multiple-choice
test to improve students vocabulary mastery. The subject of this study is
researcher, English teachers and the tenth grade students of SMK Farmasi
Nusaputera Semarang in academic year 2009-2010.
1. Population of the Study
Population is a set of individuals that meets sampling criteria. Arikunto
(2006: 130) defines that population is all subject of the research. The population
intended here are the tenth grades students of SMK Farmasi Nusaputera
Semarang in academic year 2009-2010 and entire numbers of students in the
school are 110 that divided in the four groups.
2. Sample
According to Arikunto (2006: 131) says that sample is a part of number of
the subject that is investigated. Based on the definition above, sample is a part
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of the individuals or subject sample from the population who investigated so
sample has to represent the population in this research.
Arikunto (2002: 120) explain that if the subject is more than 100 people,
it can be taken 10% until 20%. Because the total member of population is 110
students, therefore in this study, the writer will use sample as the subject, and
the counting of the total member of samples are 22 110
100
20
x . Therefore, in
this study, the writer uses 22 students as sample of the study.
D. Research Variables
A variable is object of research or anything which become attention point
from a research (Arikunto, 2006: 118). Variable is something which varies in many
ways. Basically, there are two types of variables in the research, as follows:
1. Independent variable is experimental group; the students are given treatment by
using multiple choice exercises during teaching learning process.
2. Dependent variable is control group, the students are taught without using
multiple choice exercises during teaching learning process.
From the two variables, then the writer tries to create three possibilities. The
first possibility is that there will be a positive different between the variable, so by
teaching vocabulary with multiple choice exercise the students can improve their
vocabulary. The second possibility is that there will be a negative difference
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between the variable, so by teaching vocabulary with multiple choice exercise the
students cant improve their vocabulary effectively. The third possibility is that
there is not any different between two variables, so both teaching multiple choice
exercise or without multiple choice exercise will have equal score in vocabulary.
E. Instrument of the Study
Instrument plays an important role in the research project. Instrument of the
research is equipment or media that it is used to get the data. Arikunto (1996:139)
says that an instrument is a means that plays an important role to collect data in a
research. There are some instruments that we can use them to collect the data, such
as test, questioners, observation, interview, document, etc.
In this research, the writer used objectives test to collect the data. A test, in
a simple term, is a method of measuring a persons ability, knowledge or
performance in a given domain (Brown, 2004: 3).
There are two tests will be used the writer, they are:
1. Pre test
Test is given to the students before the writer giving treatment to the
students. It is used to know the students vocabulary mastery at first. The test
is given to all of group, experimental group and control group.
2. Post test
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It is used to know the students vocabulary mastery after they are taught.
It is done to find out whether or not any significant difference between the
students are taught by using multiple choice exercise and the students are
taught without multiple choice exercise.
In this study, the writer asks the students to answer the test. The test
consists of 20 multiple-choice tests with four options A, B, C and D. The students
were given 45 minutes to do the test. On scoring each item number of the test has
scored 1 point if the students answer correctly and the score 0 (zero) is given if the
student answer wrongly.
To get the score of the test, the total score of multiple choice then divided
by 2 (two), so that the highest score of students who answer all of the test items is
10 (20: 2).
After the writer scores the test, the writer analyzes each item of the test to
find out its validity, reliability, difficulty level and also the discriminating power.
1. Validity of test
Validity is important quality of any test. A test will be called to be
valid if there is measure what is intended to measure. According to Arikunto
(2002: 65), a test is valid if it measures what it purpose.
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To prove whether the test is used by the researches is valid or not,
she uses a formula called Pearson product moment as follows :

2 2
xy
y . x
xy
r
Where:
r
xy
= validity
x = the number of respondent
y = items number

x
= sum of x scores

y
= sum of y scores
2
x

= sum of the square of x scores


2
y

= sum of the square of y scores


(Arikunto, 2002: 70)
After getting the result, the researcher categories it into standard of
validity as follows:
Table3.1. Standard of Validity
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0.80 1.00
0.60 0.80
0.40 0.60
0.20 0.40
0.00 0.20
very valid
valid
valid enough
less valid
not valid
(Arikunto, 2002: 75)
2. Reliability
A reliable test is one that produces consistent results when administered
on different occasions (Penny, 2006: 44). Reliability of the test shows the
stability and consistency of the test scores when the test is used. Whenever a
test is administered, the test uses would like some assurance that the results
could be replicated if the some individuals were tested again under similar
circumstances.
To measure the reliability of the test, the writer uses the formula as
follows:
xy
xy
11
r 1
2.r
r
+

Where:
r
11
: reliability
r
xy
: validity
x : the sum of add numbers of the correct items.
y : the sum of even numbers of the correct items.
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To know the reliability of the test from the computation above, value r
11
is consulted to the category as follows:
Table3.2. Standard of Reliability
> 0.90
0.80 0.90
0.70 0.79
0.60 0.69
<0.60
Very highly reliable
Highly reliable
Reliable
Marginally/minimally reliable
Unacceptably low reliable
(Cohen, Manion, and Marrison, 2007: 507)
3. Level of difficulties
The difficulties index of an item shows how easy or difficult the item
proved in the test. The level of difficulties uses the formula as follow :
Js
JsB
P
Where :
P : level of difficulty
JsB : the number of the correct answers
Js : the number of the respondent
After getting the result, the researcher categories it into standard of level
of difficulty as follows:
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Table3.3. Standard of Level of Difficulty
0.00 0.59 Difficult
0.60 0.75 Medium
0.76 1.00 Easy
From the computation above, the writer gets the level of difficult of the test.
4. Discriminating power
Discriminating power is an index that dedicates what extent is the test can
discriminate between upper and lower grade students. It is important to know
about discriminating power of the test, because if we know it, we will know the
discrimination between upper grade students and lower grade students. The
index of discriminating power can tell us whether the students can do it well or
not in each item.
JA
BA
D -
JB
BB
Where:
D = discriminating power
BA = the number of an upper group of students who can answer the
items correctly
JA = the number of an upper group of the students
BB = the number of an lower group of students who can answer the
items correctly
JB = the number of a lower group of the students
30
Table3.4. Standard of Discriminating Power
D: 0.00 0.20
D: 0.21 0.40
D: 0.41 0.70
D: 0.71 1.00
D: negative
Poor
Satisfactory
Good
Excellent
Not discriminating power
(Arikunto,2006:218)
F. Technique of Data Collection
In collecting data, there are some steps or procedures will be taken by the
writer as follows:
1. The writer comes to SMK Farmasi Nusaputera Semarang and asks permission
to the head master of the school to do research in his school.
2. The write gives pre-test to the students.
3. The writer teaches vocabulary by using multiple choice tests as the treatment.
4. The writer gives post-test to the students.
5. The writer corrects the students answer.
6. The writer analyzes the data.
G. Technique of Data Analysis
31
After gathering the data, the writer computes the data by using a statistical
formula which called t-test. The writer calculates the significant of difference in
effectiveness of using natural learning process in teaching English as follow :
1. There are two group namely experimental group and control group.
2. To divide the experimental group and control group randomly.
3. The research subjects are the same in each group.
4. Here the steps of using t-test:
a. First, the writer makes a table for the writer.
Control Group Experimental Group
No Pre Test Post
Test
Residual Squared
Residual
No Pre
Test
Post
Test
Residual Squared
Residual
X1 X2 X X Y1 Y2 Y Y
b. Second, the writer calculates the result of t- test
This technique is use to find out whether using natural learning
process is effective or not.
The following is the steps of using t-test:
The writer calculates the mean of each group.
32
The writer uses to formula as follow:
1) Control group
Mx =
N
x

2) Experimental group
My =
N
y

Where :
Mx : mean of control group
My : mean of experimental group
x : residual of control group
y : residual of experimental group
N : number of sample
c. Third, the sum of squared deviation each group
1) Control group
2
2 2
1
1
]
1

N
x
x x
2) Experimental group
2
2 2
1
1
]
1

N
y
y y
Where:
= the arithmetic standard deviation of control group
33
= the arithmetic standard deviation of experimental
group
= Residual score of control group
= Residual score of experimental group
N = number of the sample
d. Fourth, the writer applies all of the into t-test formula. That test
formula is as follow :

,
_

,
_

+
+


y x y x
N N N N
y x
My Mx
t
1 1
2
2
2
Where:
t = The t value for non independent (correlated) means
M = The mean of each group
N = The number of pairs
x = Deviation of each score x
2
and x
1
(post test-pre test)
y = Deviation of each score y
2
and y
1
(post test-pre test)
x
1
= The score of control group pre test
x
2
= The score of control group post test
34
y
1
= The score of experimental group pre test
y
2
= The score of experimental group post test
After finding the result with t-test, it is consulted to t
tabel
to
know whether the hypothesis accepted or not. If t
counted
> t
tabel
so the
hypothesis alternative (Ha) can be accepted. It means that the
students who are taught by using multiple choice test learning
process have better English vocabulary mastery. While if r
counted
< r
tabel
, so the hypothesis is not accepted. It means that there is not a
difference between the students taught by using multiple choice test
learning process and those taught by without multiple choice tests
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Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2002. Dasar-Dasar Eveluasi Pendidikan (edisi revisi). Jakarta:
PT Rineka Cipta.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2006. Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta: PT
Rineka Cipta
35
Hammond 1992. English for social purposes. Moquiare University
Hornby, AS. 1995. Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English. Oxford:
University Press.
http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu.com:2009
Longman, 2000. Language Activator. Longman.
Longman. 1993. The Word Dictionary of Language Teaching Applies Used Linguistic
the Words First Production Dictionary. Longman Group UK Limited 2000.
McKay, Hornberger. 1996. Sociolinguistic and Language Teaching. Cambridge:
University Press.
OGrady, Dobrovolsky, Tamba, 1997, Contemporary linguistic : An introduction.
Pearson education
Ramelan, MA. 1992. Introduction to Linguistic Analysis. Semarang: IKIP Semarang
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Sandra Lee Mc Kay, Nancy H Hornberger. 1996. Sociolinguistic and Language
Teaching. Cambridge: University Press.
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