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You will be given an exam paper that will look something like this: SEMESTER TWO EXAMINATIONS, 2013 INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND RURAL SCIENCES

RD23520/RG23520BR23420/BG23420 RESEARCH METHODS

Time allowed: THREE HOURS Answer ALL questions from ALL FIVE sections. The questions are to be answered on-line using QMP You will be given information on how to get started in a separate document Each section consists of an investigational scenario, and in three of the sections there will also be an output from SPSS. In each section there will be a number of questions relating to the investigation and, where relevant, the SPSSS output.

In the actual exam you will need a calculator for at least one question and one can be found as follows: To find the calculator click box in the bottom left corner of your screen and type calculator into the

SECTION 1 1. Research suggests that in courses where students regularly do formative quizzes, average marks increase by around one half of one standard deviation. A lecturer allocated students at random within a course to follow either the Standard course (lectures only) or the Modified course (the same lectures as the Standard treatment plus regular quizzes) and their marks in the exam were compared. Use the output below to answer quiz questions numbers 1 to 9.

Descriptives Treatment Mean 95% Confidence Interval for Mean 5% Trimmed Mean Median Variance Modified Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum Range Interquartile Range Skewness Kurtosis Mark Mean 95% Confidence Interval for Mean 5% Trimmed Mean Median Variance Standard Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum Range Interquartile Range Skewness Kurtosis Lower Bound Upper Bound 53.50 43.09 63.91 53.61 50.50 494.789 22.244 12 93 81 35 -.006 -.834 .512 .992 4.974 Lower Bound Upper Bound Statistic 62.15 57.44 66.86 62.22 62.50 101.292 10.064 43 80 37 11 .026 -.265 .512 .992 Std. Error 2.250

Group Statistics Treatment Standard Mark Modified 20 62.15 10.064 2.250 N 20 Mean 53.50 Std. Deviation 22.244 Std. Error Mean 4.974

Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances F Sig. t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Equal variances assumed Mark Equal variances not assumed -1.584 26.466 .125 -8.650 5.459 -19.862 2.562 13.671 .001 -1.584 38 .121 -8.650 5.459 -19.702 2.402 Upper t-test for Equality of Means

Suppose the experimental design was modified so that students were paired for equality of performance in other tests. One of each pair follows the standard teaching method and the other experiences teaching + quizzes. A paired t-test is used to analyse the data (which have not been changed from the previous example). Use the output below to answer questions 10 to 11.

Paired Samples Statistics Mean Standard Pair 1 Modified 62.15 20 10.064 2.250 53.50 N 20 Std. Deviation 22.244 Std. Error Mean 4.974

Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Standard & Modified 20 Correlation .548 Sig. .012

Paired Samples Test Paired Differences Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Pair 1 Standard Modified -8.650 18.723 4.187 -17.413 Upper .113 -2.066 19 .053 t df Sig. (2tailed)

SECTION 2 2. Bouton et al (2005) Waterbirds 28: 487-497 noted effects of boats passing within 20 m of

nests on breeding success. There was no such effect of pedestrian observation from distances greater than 75 m. This data set shows the percentage of time when at least one adult bird was present at the nest for a control treatment (no tourism), in comparison with boats and pedestrians. Use the output below to answer questions 12 to 15.

Descriptives Time N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound Upper Bound Control Boats Pedestrian Total 16 16 16 48 86.087 90.969 86.531 87.863 6.5522 5.6807 6.8882 6.6411 1.6381 1.4202 1.7221 .9586 82.596 87.942 82.861 85.934 89.579 93.996 90.202 89.791 77.1 83.8 78.1 77.1 97.0 97.7 95.4 97.7 Minimum Maximum

Test of Homogeneity of Variances Time Levene Statistic 1.107 df1 2 df2 45 Sig. .339

ANOVA Time Sum of Squares Between Groups Within Groups Total 233.146 1839.746 2072.893 df 2 45 47 Mean Square 116.573 40.883 F 2.851 Sig. .068

Multiple Comparisons Dependent Variable: Time LSD (I) Treatment (J) Treatment Mean Difference (I-J) Boats Control Pedestrian Boats Control Pedestrian Control Pedestrian Boats -4.4375 2.2606 .056 -8.991 .116 *. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level. -.4437 4.8813

*

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound -.328 4.109 9.434 8.991 4.997

-4.8813

4.4375 .4437

SECTION 3

3. Flight costs (adjusted to 2004 values) were recorded for a given journey between 1993 and 2004. Flight cost was then regressed on year to determine whether there is a significant trend in prices. Use the output below to answer questions 16 to 20.

a

.324

.256

16.054

ANOVA Model Regression 1 Residual Total Sum of Squares 1233.566 2577.434 3811.000 df

F 4.786

Sig. .054

b

Sig.

95.0% Confidence Interval for B Lower Bound Upper Bound 12034.452 .054

(Constant) 1 Year

6056.220 -2.937

2.257 -2.188

.048 .054

77.988 -5.928

SECTION 4

nature reserve over a two week period in summer and a similar period in winter. The data were analysed using Chi-square for contingency tables to test for an association between season and length of walk. Use the output below to answer questions 21 to 25.

Season * Length Crosstabulation Length 2 Count Summer Expected Count Season Count Winter Expected Count Count Total Expected Count 161.0 136.0 114.0 47.0 458.0 45.3 161 38.3 136 32.1 114 13.2 47 129.0 458 34 16 39 40 129 115.7 97.7 81.9 33.8 329.0 127 3 120 7 75 15 7 329 Total

Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2sided) Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 99.409

a

3 3

.000 .000

94.024 458

a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 13.24.

SECTION 5

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