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SEMINAR ON TRENDS IN GENERAL AND NURSING EDUCATION


SUBMITTED TO Mrs.THANKAMANI V K SUBMITTED BY KRISHNA M M FIRST YEAR MSC NURSING ASST.PROFESSOR GOVT.COLLEGE OF NURSING

INTRODUCTION The changes that are occurring in the social and cultural life of the society as a result of the impact of advancements in the science based technology are broadly described as modernisation .Since education is a multi-polar process, it is influenced by the modernisation in different Ways. Due to globalisation and liberalisation, changes occuring in other parts of the world will also influence the education pattern of a country. Even though certain aspects in the new trends are painful to those who view education as a noble Process' they are irresistible in the current context. Let us see some of the current trends in education. Nursing education is a sizzling hot topic. The whole profession of nursing is under the microscope, as hundreds of experts and stakeholders study where nursing fits in and where it's going in the era of healthcare reform. However, the foundation of any profession, including nursing, is how its newest members are educated. TRENDS IN GENERAL EDUCATION 1. Paedocentric Student is the focus of present day education system The interest shifted from the subject matter to the student and the teachinglearning process is largely directed by the nature and needs of the learner. This basic shift in emphasis from the subject of instruction to the nature and needs of the learner is based on the mathetic principle .The term mathetics derived from the Greek word mathetin which means to learn . Mathetics is the science of behaviour of the pupil undergoing the process of learning 'Mathetics is in contrast to pedagogy whose main interest is in the behaviour of the teacher while instructing pupils. The teacher today does not consider the child as a vessel waiting to be filled up with facts; nor as a pliable plastic material which can be transformed into any shape enabling him to project his ideas on it. The modern teacher considers each child as akin to a plant and helps the child to grow according to his abilities and aptitudes. Teacher helps the child to learn .Progressive educationists like Rousseay, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Montessori and others have contributed to the development of a child centre education. As a result education has become more interested in the whole child, all the thoughts,

feeling and actions of the individual pupil, in his mental and social development rather than presenting some information to him in a in a ready-made form. In accordance with this trend the student is motivated to participate actively in the teaching-learning process. This way of teaching by eliciting ,maximum student participation is called participatory approach teaching. 2.Teachers Role The shift in emphasis from the teacher to the pupil in the process of education and carrying out of instructional activities with the realisation of specific and clear cut learning outcomes has inevitably led to a reassessment of teachers role in the class room .The model of teacher as the pivotal and dominant figure in education, presenting a variety of information to pupils has practically disappeared .Modern education transformed the teachers role from a dictator to a friend of students. Teacher of today is considered as a facilitator of learning ,whose main duty is to prepare students for learning by enabling them to actively participate in the teaching learning process rather than simply spoon feeding .The less the people rely upon the teacher, the better a successful teacher must enable his pupils to do without him .The changing role of the teacher in education has been the result of plurality of intertwining influences like philosophical psychological, social, technological and educational .psychological studies have clearly revealed the influence of classroom climate and atmosphere in the creation of a fertile learning environment .In the creation of such an environment The nature of teacher student relationship teachers personal attitude towards hi students his professional philosophy and life values plays an important role.AS said earlier teacher of the past functioned as an authoritarian figure .But with changing goals of education and newer psychological discoveries related to effective learning ,such a style of teacher functioning is not only unproductive but even detrimental to learning .The classic study of Lewin Lippift and White has demonstrated the long term benefits of a democratic class room set up as compared to the authoritarian or lissez faire teacher behaviour. There have been criticisms of this Study but other investigations have also indicated, the importance of the emotional component in learning and have generally tended to support. The view that a warm, humane and responsive teacher attitude has a stimulating effect on the pupil learning .Eventhough the role of teachers have changed, we cannot ignore them because ethe future of education directly depends upon the quality of

intermediary inventive minds of teachers and their ability to invent and innovate. 3.Activity centered Modern education is actively centered .We are currently giving more emphasis to learning by doing .Curriculum of today is organized in terms of tasks to be performed and goals to be reached rather than in terms of lessons to be learned .This will provide knowledge and skills essential for leading a good life. Teachers have to motivate the children to do experiments search out facts for themselves and undertake projects. 4.Creative education One of the most significant trends in todays school is the encouragement of creativity. Human advances comes through original thought and intervention. Creative education is a good medium to develop original thought and intervention 5.More community participation Considering the reciprocative relationship between education and society this is an expected trend .Education Is seeking more community participation for solving its problem.The presence of parent-teacher association in all most every educational institute is a good example for the community participation .Parents participation can also be elicited through socialised projects and programmes. The result is that parents and the teachers meet in small and large groups to discuss their common problems .Funding of various projects in the technical institutes by the industrial sector is also an example of this trend. 6.More reliance on technology Technology exerts great influence on education tool for teaching and learning. Judicious use of educational psychology in the development and practice of educational technology has increased its user friendly nature considerably. cost effectiveness of technology. Based educational programmes is good when compared to the cost of traditional programmes. Educational system is preferring technology not because it simplifies the teaching learning process , but because technology empowers new solutions. Technology will help the teachers to solve the emerging educational problems created by factors like

growing school population, heterogeneity, of pupils in schools, divergent and even confusing needs of learners, rapid development of new information, expanding curriculum and the social changes arising from modernisation. Developments in educational technology bring about changes and shifts in educational goals which in turn stimulate the emergence of newer techniques. Technology of education is being developed with the aim not only of making education more widely available but also of improving life quality of education. As stated earlier, the nature of emerging techniques of education has been influenced by modern psychology. The facility for online education through information technology enabled services has redefined the concept of nonformal education .With the wide spread use of computers in education, computer assisted learning and computer assisted instruction are becoming common even in the lower levels of education' Now a days ,universities are changing to virtual universities by fully utilizing the technological advancements for imparting knowledge. 7. Increasing acceptance of Non formal type of education Universities and other elite educational organizations has come out from glass towers for providing non-formal education through study centers and regional centers. Some of them are generating more revenues through providing non-formal education than the formal education .Information technology enabled services has redefined the concept of non-formal education .Different from the pastvarious forms of non-formal education like correspondence eduction,distance education, etc are gaining acceptance among the youth. 8.Restructuring traditional programmes: In order to meet the challenges of globalization education system is restructuring the traditional programme by integrating and correlating various subjects, for example, traditional B.Sc botany programme has converted to applied botany in many, institutes by way of integrating some aspects of biotechnology. 9. Increased opportunity for higher studies: In the present situation, a talented student and flexible educational loans are available for meeting the expenses of education. 10. Methods of appraisal

Because of multiple educational goals a comprehensive system of evaluation is being evolved. The childs progress is judged by the comparison of his own work and achievements .Latest method of evaluation is based on a vision of learning and well defined performance indicators. 11. Innovation in teaching and learning Lot of innovations is there in teaching and learning. These innovations will help in intellectual development personal development and career development of youth. 12. Educational quality assurance Present day educational system is more concerned about quality, cost effectiveness, and accountability .Educational quality assurance is a process o monitoring and evaluating efficiency and effectiveness of educational provision and to institute remedial measures as and when needed. 13. Emergence of teaching as a teaching unit: Class as a unit of teaching is disappearing. As a result of advancements in instructional planning and evaluation of learning teachers realize the existence of widely different backgrounds, difference in student abilities and interests. Hence teachers of today realize the need for presenting learning experiences to suit individual differences existing among pupils by using the media and methods generated by educational technology motivated the teachers to view education as an individual activity rather than a social activity. 14. Commercialisation of education and presence of foreign universities: Due to lack of fund and resources the Government concentrated on basic education leaving higher education to private sector .If the Government can control private sector properly this can do more in society .Foreign universities are now attracting more students from India by offering jobs. Since Indian universities are still continuing the age old programmes and very much reluctant to change according to the new trends in the international level, India has become a gold mine for the foreign universities. 15. Distance learning

Online education has now become a popular choice for Americans because of their hectic and stressful lifestyles. There are actually a lot of reasons why you need to consider enrolling your child to an online school. The first is that it is more convenient than that of standard education. Online schools are also proven to be cost-effective. In comparison to standard school programs, online education is proven to be cheaper. Another advantage of online schooling is that it allows students to attend their online classes wherever they are so long as there is internet connection. This means that online schools can be easily accessed without any interruption. Disadvantage is that it cannot give socially active child. 16. Global education Global education aims to help pick up these children and to give them a boost, putting them on an even footing despite their unprivileged background. Global education can also be founded on international affairs, as the name would suggest. It aims to make students who have this concept running through their curriculum more curious about life and about the various intricacies which are associated with it. It aims to allow those who are being taught to think about how their actions and how they live their lives has an impact on the world in a far bigger scale than they might have imagined beforehand. 17. Teacher as a researcher Today, teachers are not just lecturers, but guides; students are not just listeners but co-explorers of knowledge. Education has become more interactive and experiential for both parties. Thus, teaching skills have also evolved, with more techniques available for teachers to use. So there is increased need for researches from teachers side. 18. Inquiry based learning Inquiry based learning is mainly involving the learner and leading him to understand. Inquiry here implies on the possessing skills and attitude of yours, which allows you to ask questions about new resolutions and issues while you are gaining new information. Dictionary meaning of Inquiry is seeking knowledge, information, or truth through questioning. All the people carry on with this process throughout their life, even if you might find it not very much reflecting. For example, infants use inquiry to build their sense of the world, the babies

turn towards voices, put things in their mouths, grasp things, and observe faces that come near. The inquiry process is mainly the gathering of data and information and applying them to senses like smelling, tasting, touching, hearing and seeing. Traditional method of learning hinders inquiry. 20. Co operative learning For a teacher who is trying to teach through cooperative learning from the teacher's resources or lesson plans, he or she might face problems of discipline or noisy lessons as after all it's just a class full of students. Hence, there are some cooperative learning instruction strategies, which can be followed for effective teaching. The main challenge behind cooperative learning is that it needs to be planned in such a way that it fits perfectly and the students gain positively from it. For example, it can happen sometime that the students in a group are noisy and all the workload is shifted onto one student, in such a case you can either change the activity or reconsider your seating plan in order to neutralize the class dynamics. TRENDS IN NURSING EDUCATION A profession is a dynamic integration of various faculties of knowledge. Since nursing education is a professional education it is dynamic by its own nature and thereby giving rise to trends. 1. Curricuum changes Flexible curriculum designs are evolving to facilitate diversity of educational opportunity and overcome barriers of distance and time. These curricula are often competency based focused on outcome and emphasis student participation and responsibility for learning. 2. Innovations in teaching and learning In nursing education lot of innovations are taking place in the areas of teaching and learning .Invariably these innovations lead to intellectual development, personal development and career development. 3. Educational quality assurance

Eeducational quality assurance is a process for monitoring and evaluating Efficiency and effectiveness and of educational provision and to institute remedial measures as and when needed. In India, nursing education is flourishing in an unprecedented manner; naturally this will lead to dilution in the quality of nursing education in the absence of proper quality control measures. Motivated by this situation, accrediting bodies and nurse educators are expressing deep concern regarding the quality of nursing education. It is high time to prepare a quality index of nursing institutions all over the country by categorising them into different grades based on the infrastructure and faculty profile. 4. More reliance on technology 'Technology exerts greater influence on nursing education as a tool for teaching and learning. Judicious use of educational psychology in the development and practice of educational technology has increased its user friendly nature considerably. 5. Emphasis on high tech high touch approach High tech high touch approach in nursing was devised to preserve the human component of nursing care without undermining the advantages of technological advancements in the field of patient care .Present day nursing education is preparing the students to maintain the human element of nursing while caring the patients with the help of sophisticated gadgets. 6. Preparation of global nurses Nursing education is all set to reap benefits created by globalization and liberalization by way of preparing global nurses. Many institutions are preparing students with a global perspective through providing learning experiences to each students knowledge in English along with attainment of other objectives. 7 Transnational acceptances Nursing Education programmes in one nation is widely accepted by other nations. Infact this transnational acceptance is the main reason for the development of nursing education in the countries like kerala. 8.Ensuring a promising career

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Unlike any other professional education programmes nursing education ensures a promising career either in India or abroad. A study conducted by Johnson and Johnson reveals that nursing education will maintain this status at least for the coming 20 years. 9Emergence of new specialities In part with developments in the Medical and allied fields nursing education is also offering new specialities to meet the needs of community. 10.Increased opportunities for higher studies Different from the past many institutions are offering programmes such as post certificate bsc Nursing Msc nursing M .phil and PhD.An eligible candidate can easily pursue higher education without much time lag. 11. Potential shortage of nurse educators As a result of the exciting career opportunities in the service sector when compared to the educational side talented nurses are now opting a career in the service sector when compared to the educational side.This may lead to shortage of nurse educators in the near future. Since the presence of talented nurses in the service sector will do a lot in the service sector will do a lot in uplifting the public image of our profession, it is not wise to prevent this flow.Allowing the qualified nurses from the service side to work in the teaching institution on a par time basis will help to solve this problem to a certain extend. 12. Diminishing Government role Shortage of funds coupled with certain policy decisions has prevented the Government from investing further in the field of nursing education.Now the private sector is playing a dominant role for the development of nursing education. 13.Uniformity and standardization Various universities and nursing boards are conducting nursing programmes in a different manner. Even though efforts are on the way to bring about the much needed uniformity and standardization nothing significant have been achieved so far.

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14.Coping with the impact of globalization As a result of impact of globalistion the status of nursing shifted from that of a caring profession to a rewarding profession. Very few students are trying to inculcate the traditional values of nursing profession during their student bring 15. Enhanced student status In the past students were viewed as student nurse rather than nursing as well as tremendous increase in the nurse institutions. Prompted society and other health care professional to consider nursing students FUTURE TRENDS IN NURSING EDUCATION The millennium has become the metaphor for the extraordinary challenges and opportunities available to the nursing profession and to those academic institutions responsible for preparing the next generation of nurses. Here are 10 trends to watch, described in terms of their impact on nursing education. 1. Changing Demographics and Increasing Diversity 2. The Technological Explosion 3. Globalization of the World's Economy and Society 4. The Era of the Educated Consumer, Alternative Therapies and Genomics, and Palliative Care. 5. Shift to Population-Based Care and the Increasing Complexity of Patient Care 6. The Cost of Health Care and the Challenge of Managed Care 7. Impact of Health Policy and Regulation 8. The Growing Need for Interdisciplinary Education for Collaborative Practice 9. The Current Nursing Shortage/Opportunities for Lifelong Learning and Workforce Development 10. Significant Advances in Nursing Science and Research 1. Changing Demographics and Increasing Diversity

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Population shifts in the United States have affected health care priorities as well as nursing. Due to advances in public health and clinical care, the average life span is increasing. Nursing practice, education, and research must embrace and respond to these changing demographics, and nurses must focus on spiritual health, as well as the physical and psychosocial health of the population. Student demographics are also changing. Ethnic and racial diversity of nursing schools has increased dramatically, creating a rich cultural environment for learning. Students are entering schools of nursing at an older age and are bringing varying college and work experiences, as well as more sophisticated expectations for their education. They are typically employed in full-time careers, and many are raising families, which places constraints on their educational experiences and necessitates greater flexibility in scheduling. 2.The Technological Explosion The rapid growth in information technology has already had a radical impact on health care delivery and the education of nurses. Advances in processing capacity and speed, the development of interactive user interfaces, developments in image storage and transfer technology, changes in telecommunications technology, and the increased affordability of personal computers have contributed to the explosion of information technology applications. Advances in digital technology have increased the applications of tele health and telemedicine, bringing together patient and provider without physical proximity. Nanotechnology will introduce new forms of clinical diagnosis and treatment by means of inexpensive handheld biosensors capable of detecting a wide range of diseases from miniscule body specimens. Dramatic improvements in the accessibility of clinical data across settings and time have improved both outcomes and care management. The electronic medical record will replace traditional documentation systems. Through the Internet, consumers will be increasingly armed with information previously available only to clinicians. Electronic commerce will become routine for transacting health care services and products. Nurses of the 21st century need to be skilled in the use of computer technology. Already, distance learning modalities link students and faculty from different locales and expand the potential for accessible continuing professional education. Technically sophisticated preclinical simulation laboratories will stimulate critical thinking and skill acquisition in a safe and user friendly environment. Faster and more flexible access to data and new

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means of observation and communication are having an impact on how nursing research is conducted. 3. Globalization of the World's Economy and Society Globalization has been brought about by many factors, including advances in information technology and communications, international travel and commerce, the growth of multinational corporations, the fall of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, and major political changes in Africa and Asia. With the "death of distance" in the spread of disease and the delivery of health care, there are both extraordinary risks and extraordinary benefits. Along with the potential for rapid disease transmission, there is potential for dramatic improvements in health due to knowledge transfer between cultures and health care systems. Nursing science needs to address health care issues, such as emerging and re emerging infections that result from globalization. Nursing education and research must become more internationally focused to disseminate information and benefit from the multicultural experience. 4. The Era of the Educated Consumer, Alternative Therapies and Genomics, and Palliative Care. With advances in information technology and quality measurement, previously unavailable information is now public information, and consumers are asked to play a more active role in health care decision making and management. The media and the Internet have facilitated this trend. Technological advances in the treatment of disease have led to the need for ethical, informed decision making by patients and families. Increased power of the consumer in the patientprovider relationship creates a heightened demand for more sophisticated health education techniques and greater levels of participation by patients in clinical decisions. Alternative Therapies and Genomics Amazing growth is taking place at opposing ends of the technological spectrum. The impact of the Human Genome Project and related genetic and cloning research is unparalleled. Gene mapping will drive rapid advances in the development of new drugs and the treatment and prevention of disease. At the low-tech end of the spectrum, the voracious demand by consumers for "alternative" or "complementary" therapies to enhance health and healing has begun to influence mainstream health care delivery. Several academic medical centers now have offices of alternative medicine, and the National Institutes of Health recently funded new initiatives dedicated to this field. The inclusion of non traditional health care providers

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may augment the health care team. Palliative and End-of-Life Care Technological advancements in the treatment of illness and disease have created new modalities that extend life while challenging traditional ethical and societal values regarding death and dying. New settings for care, such as inpatient and home-based hospice, and new forms of care, including pain management, spiritual practices, and support groups and bereavement counseling, are now likely to be part of well-developed health care systems. 5. Shift to Population-Based Care and the Increasing Complexity of Patient Care Rising costs and an aging population have led to new settings and systems of care across the health care continuum. Managed care and riskbased contracting mechanisms have forced a shift from episodic care with an acute orientation to care management with a focus on population based outcomes. Patients in inpatient settings are increasingly more acutely ill; the standard ratio of critical care/specialty beds to general use beds in hospitals today is close to 1:1, up substantially from a decade ago. The community has largely become the setting for chronic disease management and prevention. Nurses must demonstrate management skills at both the organizational and patient care levels. These concepts must be incorporated into the nursing curriculum. 6. The Cost of Health Care and the Challenge of Managed Care Cost of Health Care a concern of businesses and governments for at least 30 years, the cost of health care in the United States has approached 15 percent of the total gross national product. Many reasons have been suggested, including the advanced technology available to virtually all residents through academic medical centers, the scientific and technologic infrastructure that has led to most of the diagnostic and therapeutic breakthroughs in medicine, cultural norms regarding aging and end-of-life, the cost of violence and drug addiction, and the growing economic and health disparity between segments of the population .Concerns about cost are present in every form of nursing practice; they affect how work is organized, treatment plans for patients, and patients' perceptions of and participation in care. For Nursing professionals, who have historically taken the lead in health education and health promotion, are disappointed by the lack of financing and reimbursement available through managed care organizations for these vital services. However, advanced practice nurses - nurse practitioners

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and case managers in particular - have benefited greatly by the managed care movement. Demand for these lower cost providers has dramatically increased, and their competence and quality in the primary care field have been acknowledged. Nursing education programs must prepare students at all levels for roles in case management and employment in the managed care environment. 7.Impact of Health Policy and Regulation The impact of federal and state health policy and regulation on the practice of nursing cannot be ignored. Issues surrounding health care are often complex, involving the fields of medicine and economics, and affecting individuals' rights as well as access to health care Two major trends will have a significant impact on health care delivery. First, there will be an increase in state and federal regulation as costs rise and managed care continues to expand. Along with regulation, there will be attempts to shift to less expensive settings and apply market forces to restrain costs. Second, shared responsibility for the Medicaid program and the shift to managed care has resulted in an increased oversight role for the states. States must define ,measure, and assess quality, and serve as contractors for corporate entities while enforcing accountability of managed care organizations. Both new regulation and devolution have serious implications for health care delivery and the practice of nursing. Historically, nursing's influence on policy and regulation has been disproportionately low relative to the breadth of nursing practice and its importance within the health care delivery system. Nursing schools, scholars, executives, and professional nursing organizations must more actively contribute to the development of health policy and regulation. Ethical issues involved in working in an integrated system constrained by economic incentives are being defined more and more by government policy makers, not health care professionals. 8.The Growing Need for Interdisciplinary Education for Collaborative Practice A wide range of knowledge and skills is required to effectively and efficiently manage the comprehensive needs of patients and populations. While interdisciplinary and collaborative practice is still not the norm, there has been a heightened awareness of the need for coordinated care and a significant increase in the use of midlevel providers, such as APNs, as part of the primary care team. With care management a critical component in health care delivery, nurses must

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demonstrate leadership and competence in interdisciplinary and collaborative practice for continuous quality improvement. Teaching methods that incorporate opportunities for interdisciplinary education and collaborative practice are required to prepare nurses for their unique professional role and to understand the role of other disciplines in the care of patients. 9. The Current Nursing Shortage/Opportunities for Lifelong Learning and Workforce Development Nursing shortages have a negative impact on patient care and are costly to the health care industry. While the number of male and minority students has been steadily rising, their ranks are still underrepresented. The current shortage is judged to be deeper than past shortages and probably more resistant to shortterm economic strategies that have worked before. However, as in the past, the current shortage will almost certainly raise salaries and increase flexibility for nurses. Other recent advances in the profession and the health care industry are likely to have a positive impact on recruitment. These include the opportunity to practice in a variety of clinical settings; the dramatic in opportunities for APNs; new careers in care management and case management; and the interest of biotechnology, information technology, and pharmaceutical companies in hiring skilled nursing professionals. Nursing education must partner with the health care industry to develop innovative short- and long-term solutions that address the nursing shortage, including aggressive student recruitment and the initiation of an intense media/marketing campaign. The public image of the nursing role must be revitalized to change outdated perceptions. The need for more sophisticated nursing management and leadership to respond to the clinical, organizational, and fiscal challenges faced by the health care industry has not gone unrecognized. Nursing schools are called on to expand their core and continuing education programs to address these needs. Schools of nursing have many of the core resources needed to deliver continuing professional education and can provide appropriate courses efficiently and effectively. Health care and health-related organizations may serve as institutional partners in sponsoring such program offerings, which would contribute to their relevance, increase participation, and lower costs. 10. Significant Advances in Nursing Science and Research Nursing research is an integral part of the scientific enterprise of improving the nation's health. Research is conducted to improve patient outcomes and

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promote the health and well-being of communities, especially of the most vulnerable populations. Nursing research and scholarship has received significant funding by public and private agencies in the last decade and is increasingly recognized as an independent body of knowledge. As we position ourselves to meet today's challenges and tomorrow's, we must understand the drivers affecting nursing. CONCLUSION As nursing education as such is an emerging one ,the newer trends are to be developed more .All nursing professionals and researchers have this responsibility also .A dramatic change has been occurred in this era by the evolvement of privatisation. But the standard decreased a lot .So further movement should be careful to with hold the standard along with forward movement. DISCUSSION TOPIC Issues related to trends in nursing

REFERENCES 1.B sankaranarayananB.Sindhu Learning and teaching Nursing3rd edition ,Calicut,Brainfill publications .pg-12-14,18-20 2.JoannZervekh Jo Carol Claborn Nursing education Transition and Trend5 th edition Elsevier publications, pg-134-135 3.Neeraja k pNursing education first edition,New Delhi, Jaypee publications.pg-93-97 4.www.teach.nology.com/current trends 5. Laura A. Stokowski, RN, MS Trends in nursing education in 21stcentuarywww.Nursing education/trends./nursing journal

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INDEX

sl no. 1 2 3 4 5 6

content Introduction Trends in general education Trends in nursing education Future trends in education Conclusion Bibliography

Page no 1 1 8 11 17 17

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AIMS On completion of seminar the students describe various aspects of trends in general and nursing education, and apply this knowledge in their teaching learning experience with a positive attitude.

OBJECTIVES On completion of seminar students 1. explain the trends in general education 2. discuss the trends in nursing education 3. identify future trends in education