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BIOS is a software located inside the ROM chips, which consists of low level software that controls the system hardware and act as an interface between the operating system hardware. POST When we switch on the power of a computer it literally rediscover itself. This is done through it literally rediscover itself. This is done through POST (Power On Self Test). During Post the system BIOS communication with all essential hardware devices like keyboard, mouse, disk drives, RAM, display adaptor etc. and in essence tells them to identify themselves. Then run internal diagnostic routine and report back to BIOS. It one of the device reports and report back to BIOS. If one of the device reports on error condition back to the BIOS, then the BIOS reports this back to the user by using special POST error code. It gives msg. by 2 ways. 1. Beep error 2. Message Error (Numeric and Text Code) Error Codes 100 Series (100-199) 200 Series (200-299) 300 Series (300-399) 400 Series (400-499) 500 Series (500-599) 600 Series (600-699) 1700 Series (1700-1799) Devices Motherboard RAM Keyboard Monochrome Video Color Video Floppy drive Hard Disk

System start


No error

Error stop

MBR Beep Message

No error

Error stop

Os - load

User log on windows

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MBR (Master Boot Record), where all the OS files are stored. IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, Command.Com, NTLDR etc. are known as the OS files.

Post error beep codes

Every time a computer is switched on it performs a short diagnostic routing known as the POST, or power on self test. The POST is a small program contained in the BIOS. It checks that basic hardware is present and perform a rudimentary memory test the POST announces the results of its routing both audibly (a series of beep on the PC speaker) and visually (displaying a brief summary or codes on the screen). The audible method is essential since a fault may exist with the graphics card or monitor .it all is well, the computer typically emits single beeps and carries on booting. The number and duration of the beeps is intended as a coded message and understanding them will allow you to diagnose any problem the computer may have

The code vary according to the manufacture of the BIOS, here are some of the more common codes:
AMI BIOS Message DRAM refresh failure Parity circuit failure Base 64K RAM failure System timer failure Processor failure Keyboard controller / Gate A20 failure Virtual Mode Exception error Display memory read / Write failure (fault with video card) ROM BIOS checksum error(fault with BIOS chip) CMOS shutdown read / write error Cache memory Passed (no errors) Video failure Base / Extended Memory failure Display / Retrace Test failure AWARD BIOS Message Passed(no errors) Any non-fatal error Video failure Keyboard controller failure(applies to 286, 386 and 486) IBM BIOS Message Power supply system Board failure Passed(no errors) Video error(check cable) Floppy Drive error Configuration error(displayed on screen)

Number and duration of beeps one short two short Three short four short five short six short seven short eight short nine short ten short eleven short one long one long, two short one long, three short one long, eight short

Number and duration of beeps one short two short one long, two short one long, three short

Number and duration of beeps None One short One short(Blank screen) One short( no boot) Two short

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Repeating short Continuous one long, one short one long, two short one long, three short Three short Power supply or system board failure Power supply or system board / keyboard stuck System board failure Video(Mono / CGA) failure (check cable) Video (EGA) Failure (check cable) Keyboard card error Phoenix BIOS CMOS read / write ROM BIOS checksum failure Programmable interval timer failure DMA initialization failure DMA page register Read / write failure RAM refresh verification error First 64K RAM chip / data line failure First 64K RAM odd / even logic First 64K RAM : Address line First 64K RAM : Parity failure Fail time feature (EISA only) Software NMI port failure (EISA only) First 64K chip / data line failure (combination indicate which bit) Slave DMA register failure Master DMA register failure Master interrupt mask register failure Slave interrupt mask register failure Keyboard controlled failure Display memory failure Display retrace failure Video ROM search proceeding Timer tick failure Shut down failure Gate A20 failure Unexpected interrupt in protected mode RAM test above 64K failure Programmable interval timer, Channel 2 failure Real-time clock failure Serial port error Parallel port error Math co - processor failure System board select Extender CMOS RAM

One, One, three One, One, four One, two, one One, two, two One, two, three One, three, one One, three, three One, three, four One, four, one One, four, two One, four, three One, four, four Two (followed by various combinations.) Three, one, one Three, one, two Three, one, three Three, one, four Three, two, four Three, three, four Three, four, one Three, four, two Four, two, one Four, two, two Four, two, three Four, two, four Four, three, one Four, three, two / three Four, three, four Four, four, one Four, four, two Four, four, three (Tone)one, one, (Tone)one, one,

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Types of BIOS: 1. AMI BIOS (American mega trends Inc Corporation) 2. Award Bios 3. Phoenix Bios Note: Press DEL key after starting the system to enter on the BIOS of AMI & AWARD. Press F10 to load the BIOS of Compaq Press Ctrl+Alt+sc to load the BIOS of Accer. Press F1 or F2 for PHOENIX. = menu type = Single column/Double Column = Double Column


PHOENIX: - (For Setup) 1. Main BIOS version Processor Type : Intel/ Celeron type Processor Speed : In MHZ of GHZ System Bus Speed : In MHZ Cache RAM : Total Memory : Main Memory capacity of Mm.( Dynamic RAM) Memory Bank 0 : 1st priority is bank 0 and then only 1& 2 Memory Bank 1 : 1st priority is bank 0 and then only 1& 2 Memory Bank 2 : 1st priority is bank 0 and then only 1& 2 Language : Preferred Language System Time/ System Date : In large network system domain and client system time and date should be approx. same. If not it is not possible to run system. (BIOS, Task Bar, Control Panel to change time and date) 2. Advanced Set up warning PCI configuration PCI slot 1 IRQ (interrupt request) priority Auto 3 4 5 9 10 Boot configuration Plug & play O/S [No] Reset config. Data [No] Num lock [No] (Computer is properly working and boots when num lock lit)

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Things to remember during checking bios IRQ No. Devices 0 System Timer 1 Keyboard 2 For use (PCI Slot) 3 Default Com 2 4 Default Com1 5 Sound card (LPT 2) 6 Floppy disk drive 7 LPT 1 (Printer) 8 Real time clock(only for processor, located inside processor) 9 Open for use 10 USB 11 PS/2 12 Math co- processor (ALU) 13 Primary Hard Disk Controller (IDE 1) 14 Secondary Hard Disk Controller (IDE 2)

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Peripheral Configuration Serial Prot A Disable / Enable/ AutoIRQ-4, I/O Add: 3F8 Serial Prot B Disable / Enable/ AutoIRQ-3, I/O Add: 3F8 Mode Normal Parallel Port Default PortLPT1 Enable/Auto IRQ: 7 I/O add: 3F8 Mode (Bi- directional) use in network output only EPP ECP Error correction port Audio Device Enable/ Disable Legacy USB support Enable/ Disable IDE Configuration Note:- After adding on storage device (i.e. HDD, CD-ROM) & after removing any storage device go to BIOS and press on IDE configuration of Auto detect hard disk to update IDE configuration. IDE controller : (Both/ Disable/Primary/ Secondary) PCI IDE bus master : (Enabled/ Disabled) Hard Disk Pre Delay : (Disabled / 3, 6,9,12,15,21,30 seconds) If not disabled, Data read and write will be slow according to time setting. Primary IDE master: Diskette Configuration Diskette Controller Floppy A Diskette Write Protect Event Log Configurations Event log Event log Validity View event log Cleat all event logs Event Logging ECC Event logging Mark Events as Read Video Configuration AGP Aperture size Primary Video Adaptor 3. Security Supervisor Password Is User Password Is Set supervisor password Set user password

: : :

(Enabled/ Disabled) (Not installed/ 360 KB/ 1.2 MB/ 720Kb/1.44/1.25 MB/2.88 MB) (Enabled/ Disabled)

: Space Available : : : (yes/ no) : (enable/ disable) : (enable/ disable) : (yes/no)

: 64 MB * Always* [Default size] {If 52MB 3D card on setup 256 MB} : AGP/PCI

(Not allowed) (Not installed) (---------------)

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4. Power ACPI After Power failure Wake on LAN Wake on PME Wake on Modem King

(Last State/ stay off/ power on ) (Stay off/ Power On) (Stay off/ Power on) (Stay off/ Power on)

5. Boot Quiet Boot (Enabled) Intel(R) Rapid Bios boot (Enabled) Scan User Flash Area (Disabled) USB Boot (Enabled) PXE Remote Boot (Enabled) Boot Device Priority Note: At the time of installing OS make first boot device CD-ROM otherwise Hard Disk or IDEO 6. Exit Exit Storage Changes Exit Discarding Changes Load setup defaults Load Custom Defaults Save Custom Defaults Load Custom Defaults Discard Changes ] AWARD BIOS (For Setup):1. Standard CMOS Features Date Time IDE Primary Master IDE Primary Slave IDE Secondary Master IDE Secondary Slave Drive A Drive B Video

(yes/no) (yes/no) (yes/no) (yes/no) (yes/no) (yes/no) (yes/no)

Half on Base memory Extended memory Total Memory

[ ] Depends on Device installed [ ] Depends on Device Installed [ ] Depends on Device Installed [ ] Depends on Device Installed [ ] type o FDD [ ] {latest for 3D cards} [EGA/VGA/SVGA] 32/24 bit (16 million colors) [EGA 40] 4 Color [EGA 80] 8 Color None 2 Color [All but keyboard] always set this function [640] to operate system (mix requirement) 129024 KB 130048 KB

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2. Advanced Bios Features Virus warning CPU Internal Cache External cache Processor number feature Quick power on self test First Boot Device Second Boot Device Third Boot Device Boot other Device Swap floppy drive Boot up floppy seek Boot up Num Lock status Gate A20 option Typematic rate setting Typematic rate Typematic delay Security option OS select for DRAM> 64B Report No. FDD for WIN 95 [No] 3. Advanced Chipset Features (Check at Home) 4. Integrated Peripherals On- Chip Primary PCI IDE On- Chip Secondary PCIIKE USB controlled USB Keyboard Support Imt Display First AC 97 Audio AC 97 Modem IDE HDD Block Mode Power on Function On board FDC controlled On board Serial Port 1 Onboard Serial Port 2 VART Mode Select Onboard parallel port Parallel port mode EPP mode selects ECP mode use DMA PWRON after PWR-fail Game port address Mini Port Address Mini Port IRQ [Enabled] (At the time of installing OS virus warning should be "disabled", otherwise "enabled") [Enabled] [Enabled] [Enabled] [enabled] [CD- ROM] {while installing OS other time ) [HDD} [ ] as required [ ] as required [Disabled] [enabled] [on] [fast/normal] for keyboard [disabled] [ ] not needed [ ] not needed [System/setup] system for both BIOS and OS] [non-OS2]

[Enabled] [Enabled] [Enabled] [Enabled] [PCI slot / Onboard] AGP [Auto / Disabled] [Auto / Disabled] [Enabled] [Button only] [Enabled] [3F8 / IRQ4] [2F8 / IRQ 3] [Normal] [378 / IRQ 7] [SPP] [EPP 1-7] 3 [OFF] [Disabled / 207 / 209] [330 / 3001 / 298 / Disabled] [10 / 5]

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5. PC health Status CPU waxing Temperature Shut Down Temperature 6. Power Management Setup ACPI Function Power Management Video off method Video off in Suspend Suspend type Modem use IRQ Suspend Mode HDD power down Soft-off by PWRWake up by PCI card Power in by Ring CPU Thermal-Throttling Resume by Alarm [] []

[Disabled] [User Define] [V/H Sys + Block] [No] [Stop Grant] [open for PCI Slot] [Disabled] [D] [Instant Off] [Disabled] [Disabled] [Average Setting] [Disabled]

AMI BIOS 1. CPU configuration Setup Never Change it. 2. Peripheral Setup Duplex Mode Full (when 2 VGA Card is used we can apply 2 monitor at that the select full.) 4. Hardware Monitor Setup Hardware monitor support Disabled 5. Standard CMOS Setup Same Function 6. Auto Detect Hard Disk Same Function 7. Advanced CMOS Setup SMART for hard disk Enabled (*always) (*self monitoring analyzing report technology) 8. Advanced Chipset Setup SDRAM lead off and Timing Auto In AMI BIOS, Following should be checked:1. System Date and Time 2. Auto Detect Hard Disk 3. Boot Sequence 4. Password 5. Never change processor speed 6. IDE Controlled enable both 7. USB Controlled enable 8. Boot virus protection Disable 9. SMAT for hard disk enable 10. windows aperture size- 64 MB

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Trouble Shooting If system is halted then check IDE configuration i.e. IDE data cable Date (of month) 0 Time (HH:MM:SS) 00:00:00 Reload Global Time Events Primary IDE 0 [D] Primary IDE 1 [D] Secondary IDE 0 [D] Secondary IDE 0 [D] Secondary IDE 1 [D] FDD, COM, LPT Port [D] PCI PIRQ [A-D] # [D] 7. PnP / PCI Configuration (PnP-Plug and Play) Reset configuration data (disabled) Resources controlled by [Auto (ESCD0] (*Extended system configuration data) IRQ Resources Press Enter PCI/ VGA Palette Snoop [Disabled] 8. Frequency / Voltage Control Auto detect DIMM/PCI [Enabled] Speed Spectrum [Disabled] (related with monitor) Host CPU/DIMM/PCI Clock Default (*Processor speed range) CPU clock rate [ ] (*multiply range)

BIOS Troubleshooting 1. Gate A20 Error 2. BIOS ROM check sum error

3. Driver Error 4. Cache Memory Bad 5. CMOS Batter Fail 6. CMOS Check Sum Error 7. Data Error 8. Drive Not Ready 9. Floppy Disk Fail 10. Hard disk geometry fail 11. Hard disk failure 12. Incompatible Processor 13. Insert Bootable Media 14. Invalid Boot Diskette 15. I/O card parity error 16. Memory parity error 17. Memory size changed 18. Keyboard Controlled failure

:- Error on keyboard controller. :-Error in chip, sometimes it will function by making auto default setup. If time error occurs after making default, change the ROM BIOS Chip. :- Primary / Secondary, Hard Disk type may occur. : - Error 00 L1 & L2 Cache (Replace CPU) : - Replace CMOS Battery. : - Replace the CMOS battery, if it occurs after replacing the battery, then there is error on ROM BIOS chip. : - The media is error (If these are error in source data) : - Check the drive (Auto detects Hard disk) : - Check on the BIOS. : - Check the configuration of HDD (head, sector, cylinder etc) : - Check the cable. : - The BIOS doesnt support the processor. : - Check CD or Floppy : - Replace the Floppy. : - Expansion card Fail (Modem, N/W card etc) : - An error occurred on memory (Replace Memory) : - Memory size increased / decreased (Go to BIOS and auto detect) : - Keyboard Interface failure.


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19. Not Boot Device Available 20. Not Boot Sector on HDD 21. Disk error 22. Parity Error 23. Primary Master Hard Disk Fail To Check BIOS in details: www.megatrends.com www.award.com www.phonix.com : - Check proper boot Device. : - Configure the Disk Properly (Auto Detect) : - There is no Bootable Operating System : - Error on System Memory : - Check the IDE controller


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A sample of the PHONIX BIOS beep code Set : BEEP

1-2-3 1-1-4 1-2-1 1-2-2 1-2-3 1-3-1 1-4-1 1-4-2 2.. 3-13-2-4 3-3-4 4-2-4 4-3-4 4-4-1 4-4-2 4-4-3

CM O S M e mor y Er r or B IO S F ai l e d S ys t e m Ti me Er r or M ot h e r b oa r d Er r or M ot h e r b oa r d Er r or M ot h e r b oa r d Er r or M ot h e r b oa r d Er r or M e mor y Er r or M e mor y F a i l u r e ( 2 b e e p s F ol l owe d b y a n y b e e p c o mb i n a t i on ) Ch i p s e t Err or ( 3 b e e p f ol l owe d b y 1 b e e p , f ol l owe d b y a n y b e e p s c omb i n a t i on s ) K e yb oa r d Con t r ol l e r Er r or Vi d e o Ad a p t e r F a il u r e Ex p a n s i on Ca r d F a i l ur e Ti me Da t e Cl oc k F a i l u r e S e r i a l P or t Er r or P a r al l el P or t Er r or M a t h Cop r oc e s s or Er r or

A Sample of the AWARD BIOS beep Code Set: Beep

1 Long 1 Long, 2 Shor t 1 Long, 3 Shor t Conti n uous B e e ps

M e mor y Er r or Vi de o Er r or Vi de o Fai l ur e M e mor y or Vi de o Fai l ur e

A Sample of the Standard IBM BIOS beep Code Set : Beeps

No B e e ps Re pe ati ng Shor t B e e ps 1 Shor t 2 Shor t 1 Long, 1 Shor t 1 Long, 2 Shor t 1 l ong, 3 Shor t 3 l ong

P owe r Suppl y Fai l ur e P owe r Suppl y or Syste m B oar d Fai l ur e PO ST i s Compl e te PO ST i s Compl e te Syste m B oar d Er r or Vi de o Di spl ay Adap te r Fai l ur e Vi de o Di spl ay Adap te r Er r or K e yboar d Er r or


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A Sample of the AMI BIOS beep Code Set : Beeps

1 Shor t 2 Shor t 3 Shor t 4 Shor t 5 Shor t 6 Shor t 7 Shor t 8 Shor t 9 Shor t 10 Shor t 11 Shor t 1 Long, 3 Shor t 1 Long, 8 Shor t

P ost Is C ompl e te M e mor y Er r or M e mor y Par i ty Er r or Syste m Ti me r Fai l ur e M othe r b oar d Fai l ur e K e yboar d Contr ol l e r Fai l ur e CPU Fai l ur e Vi de o Adap te r Fai l ur e RO M B IO S Che ck sum Er r or CM O S Re ad/ Wri te Er r or Cac he M e mor y Er r or M e mor y Fai l ur e Vi de o Adap te r Fai l ur e