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2 (8) 2012

III
2 (8) 2012
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2 (8) 2012

CONTENTS

- .................... 4

Editorial and expert council............................... 4

............................................ 6

Periodical dispatch............................................. 6

ACTUAL THEMES



.
. . . ....................................................10

The technogenic deposits


and technogenic abnormalities
in Moscow territory
Kazdym A. A. ......................................................10



. ., . . ..................... 20

The anthropogenic eutrophication


of city water reservoirs
Sadchikov A. P., Kotelevtzev S. V. ........................ 20

SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITIES

. . ............................................... 28

Toxic elements in biosphere,


an ecological problems of detoxication
and advance of ecological
monitoring
Ostroumov S. A. . ............................................... 28




. ., . .,
. . . ................................................ 42

The problems of GLP implementation


in Russia
Rzhevskiy D. I., Zharnuhamediva T. Yu.,
Murashov A. N. ................................................. 42

. . . .................................................. 46

The preparation of compost from municipal


waste products
Lukanin A. V. ...................................................... 46

.................................................... 56

Library .............................................................. 56

......................................................... 58

Exhibition ......................................................... 58

................................... 60

For readers information................................... 60

................................ 64

For subscribers attention................................. 64

III

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2 (8) 2012

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26

III

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574:614.715:502/504



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, (
).
. ex-living
matter (ELM). ELM ,

.
:
, , , , , , exliving matter, .

n order to understand the natural processes


of detoxification of toxic wastes and waste
waters, it is worthwhile to consider the main
challenges to the current conceptualization of
the types of matter in the biosphere. To meet
and respond to the challenges, the author suggested a new conceptualization which is based
on his suggestion to identify so called ex-living
matter (ELM). The author discusses his experiments (carried out together with his co-authors)
which provide a solid factual foundation to this
conceptualization, as well as other data available in literature. The main functions of ELM in
the biosphere were also formulated and considered by the author. Some alternatives and variants in verbal expression to be used as a name
for the new type of matter are also included in
the publication.
Keywords: detoxification of toxic wastes, biosphere, environment, ecology, living matter,
types of matter, ex-living matter, heavy metals.

2 (8) 2012

29

1.

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2 (8) 2012

31

3) (- ,
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, ,
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, 1001015 C

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2 (8) 2012

33

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7 1 .
.
2. . , , .
,
, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb,
1


1
()

2
()

Viviparus viviparus, ,
( )

33,7

31,6

Ceratophyllum demersum, ( )

16,3

15,1


Viviparus viviparus,

( ),

, M 7

M 7 (1 ),


1 7,

Fe2(SO4)39H2O

40

40

K2Cr2O7

40

40

Cd
CH3COO)22H2O

20

20

MnSO45H2O

40

40

CuSO45H2O

40

40

ZnSO4

40

40

CoSO47H2O

40

40

34

III

. .

(As )
, / [3 .]

1
()

2
()


( 2)

( 1), %

As

1,85

1,42

76,8

Co (+)

0,67

9,36

1397,0

Cd (+)

0,62

2,25

362,9

Pb

11,75

12,25

104,3

Cr (+)

0,32

56,0

17 500,0

Fe (+)

4830

5788

119,8

Mn (+)

3233

4729

146,3

Zn (+)

1398

2501

178,9

Cu (+)

293

592

202,0

Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V, Z; Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge,


Ho, Ir, Nb, Rb, Ta, Tb, Te, Th, Tm . (
J. Tyson, M. Johnson, B. Xing, University
of Massachusett, MA, USA; ).
3. , , ( J. Tyson, M. Johnson,
B. Xing, University of Massachusetts, MA, USA; ).
, , ,
() ( . . ; ).
4.
.
.
5.
,
,
. ,
Cd, Fe, Co, Ni, As, Cr, Pb, Cu, V
[25].

, , ,
ELM.
6. ,
, .
,
Al (III), Cu (II), Ag (I) (biologically
generated materials), . ,
,
, Chlorella vulgaris Datura innoxia [26].
7.
.
, ,
,

[24, 29].
,
,
, [30, 31].
,
-

2 (8) 2012

35

6.
ELM.

ELM (
) ELM, ,
, , .
.
, .
5.

, ,
, .
4.
, ,
ELM
.
[34, 68].
,
ELM ( )
ELM, ,
,
,
.
ELM
,
ELM (. 5).

-, , ,

. ELM,
,
, (,

).
-, , (ELM)


. . ,

,
,
,
.
. ,

(terrestrial) [9]

.
[1042],
. 6,
,
,
3.
. 6 , .
4

(.)
/comment

/name
Ex-living matter

; timing

;
;

; ,

36

III

. .

ELM
(.)
ELM /
Functions of ELM

/ Examples

1. ,

[24, 29].
, . .
. . . [4, 68],
. . [3]; J. Tyson, M. Johnson, B. Xing,
University of Massachusetts, MA, USA ( )

2. ,

Fe, Cu, Zn, Co; . . [3];


. . [4, 68]

3. ,

C
(, .)

4.
(substrate, habitats)


, .

5.

6. (,
)

;
, .

7.
/


()
[35]

8.

, P N , ,

,
, [1218]
.
7.
: ,


(ELM)
.
.

,
ELM. , , , , .

(humic substances)
[43]. ( humic

acids fulvic acids) (natural sorbents


and chelators) [43].

.
. , .
,

[25].
.
, , -,
,
.

2 (8) 2012

37

(ELM, ex-living matter,


- )

ELM

()

.
,
(Dissolved organic carbon) 10001015 g C;
,
(Organic sediments) 1071015 g ;
(Terrestrial biota) (420830)1015 g


(. 5)

,


[25].
ELM ()
(),
. (humic substances)
5 / ),
(marshes, bogs, swamps)
30 / [43].

() (). .

, ,
.

38

-,
,
.
8.

.
1. ,
, ELM
(ex-living matter, - , , ).
2. ELM
.
,
, , .
,
, .
, ,
.
3. ,
ELM , ,
, .

III

. .

4. ELM

() .
5. . ,
.
6. ,
(, [12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 27, 31,

35, 37, 3842, 4448]),


.
, [3, 21, 22 ].
:
, , .
.

(28.06.2011) . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . ,
, , . . . .
,
.
. , . , . (University of Massachusetts).

1.

. . . .: . , 2001. 244 .

2.

. ., . . (, , , , , ,
, ) : - // , 2009. 9. . 4245.

3.

. ., .. (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr) // , 2010, 2. . 5356.

4.

. ., . . : // , 2010, . 12, 1. . 153


155.

5.

. ., . . Ceratophyllum demersum Au // , 2010, . 431, 4. . 566569.

6.

. ., . . , - // , 2009, 10. . 3740.

7.

. ., . ., . . :
// : , 2009, 8. . 1824.

8.

. ., . . - // : , 2009, 10. . 3640.

9.

. ., . . . .: , 2000. 186 .

10. . . ex-living matter (ELM) [New typology of matter and the role of exliving matter (ELM)] // Ecol. Studies, Hazards, Solutions, 2010, v.16. P. 6265.
11. Vernadsky V. I. Problems of biogeochemistry. The fundamental matter-energy difference between the living and inert natural bodies
of the biosphere // Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci., 1944. 35: P. 483517.
12. . . . .: , 1982. 80 .
13. . . . : , 2003. 351 .
14. . ., . . . .: , 2008. 315 .
15. . . 80- . . // 2007, 16(3).
.135143.
16. . . . //: , 2007, 1.
.6368.
17. . ., . . . .: , 2000. 763 .

2 (8) 2012

39

18. . ., . ., . . . .: , 2006.
261.
19. . ., . . . .: , 2007. 229 .
20. . ., . . // , 2010, 4. . 525531.
21. . ., . . Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb
Ceratophyllum demersum: // , 2009, . 428, 2. . 282285.
22. . ., . ., . ., . ., . ., . : (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu) //
, 2009, 18(2). . 111119.
23. . . . .: , 1986. 176 .
24. Ostroumov S. A. Biological Effects of Surfactants. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis: Boca Raton, London, New York. 2006. 304 p.
25. . . . .. .-. . . , 2011. 25 .
26. Stark P. C., Rayson G. D. Comparisons of metal-ion binding to immobilized biogenic materials in a flowing system // Advances in
Environmental Research, 2000, Vol.4 (2), P. 113122.
27. . . : . . , 2002. 852 .
28. . . - / : Ecological
Studies, Hazards, Solutions. Volume 17. .: , 2011. 20 .
29. . . . // (), 2004,
. 396, 1. .136141.
30. Summerhayes C., Thorpe S. (Eds.) Oceanography. London: Manson Publishing, 1996. 352 p.
31. Wetzel R. G. Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystems. San Diego: Acad. Press, 2001. 1006 p.
32. . . . .: , 1978. 392 .
33. . . . .: , 1991. 244 .
34. . ., . ., . . . .: ,
2008. 544 .
35. . ., . ., . . .: , 1994. 400 .
36. . . . .: . 1991. 271 .
37. . . : :
- (. . . ,
.. , . . ) // , 2009, . 79, 8. . 749750.
38. . ., . ., . . . .
: , 1999. 396 .
39. . ., . ., . ., . ., . ., . ., . .
. .: .. (.)
. . .. .: , 2010. . 152160.
40. / . . ., . ., . . .: , 2008. .54
56.
41. : - (. . . , . . , ..). : -, 2008. 108 p.
42. . . //
, 2010, . 3. . 2631.
43. Rand G. M., Wells P. G., McCarty L.S. Introduction to aquatic toxicology. In: Rand G.M. (Ed.) Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology. 2nd
edition. Taylor & Francis. Philadelphia, 1995. P. 367.
44. . ., . . . .: , 1978.
182 .
45. . ., . ., - . ., . . . : . , 1996. 128 .
46. . ., . . : . : - , 2008. 381 .
47. . . - . .: , 2009.
186.
48. . . // , 2011, 11. .2427.

40

III

: - (. , )


:

119334, . , -, . 40.
.: +7 (499) 137-70-76, (499) 137-12-23.
E-mail: vorobyevi@mail.ru


140100, ., . ,
. , . 5.
.: +7 (496) 463-69-51, (496) 463-33-02.
E-mail: market@farmakon-ram.ru


. , ,
. , . 31/22.
.: +7 (495) 911-74-85.
www.tcareva-apteka.ru
( 24 )

107553, . ,
. . , . 26, . 6.
.: +7 (499) 162-76-75.

, 2012
615.076:615.038



. ., . ., . .
. . .
. . ( ), .


,


.

, ,
. ,
.
:
, .

12 2010 . N 61-
( , 2010, 16, . 1815; N 31, . 4161). 11


,
.

23
2010 . N 708 [2].

he problem of development in Russian


Federation of good laboratory practice
(GLP) system is sufficiently critical because up
to date there is no uniform system of formation
and carrying out of non-clinical researches on
the basis of the international norms and rules.
There are obvious contradictions between legislative and normative acts currently regulating
activity in this area in Russia. Thereby, they need
further harmonization.

Keywords: non-clinical studies, good laboratory


practice.


(
, 53434-2009),

2 2009 . 544-.

()
(OECD. Principles of Good Laboratory
Practice),
[6].

(GLP) ,
-

: 142290, ., . , . , . 6.

42

III

. . .

, . ,
,
.
, , .
(GLP)

[1, 5].
53434-2009
,
, , ,
, , , .
, ,
.
, /
/
. , ,
708,
,
,
.
, ,
. ,

. .
(), , ( ).
: (test item) ,
;
(), -

(GLP) ,
,
. ,
, .
() (reference item, control
item) (),
,
() ; (vehicle) , ,


-.
( ).


.

( ),
, , ( ),
.

, ,

.
: ; ;
,
,

, , ;
(, ,
, ,
, );
;
; -,

2 (8) 2012

43


,

, .
,
;
; ; ;

, ;

; , ; .

, ,
c,
,

.
, . , :
, ; ; ; ;
( -,
-,
, /, ,
); ( , ).
, , , . ,
,
,

44

, ,
() .
(. 49), , , (
, , ), , , ,
. , ,
(. 4.8.1.2.).

, .
.
, ,
/ .
[3].
.
(.53),
, , . (. 4.8.3.4.),

, ;
.
.
, .
, ,
[4,
7]. ,
( ), .
(. 17.), : )
; ) , -

III

. . .

, ; )
. ,
, ,

,

.
. (. 57),
,
,
,
: ,

; .


()

, - .
-





()

.
,
.
, ,

, , ,
, ,
. ,




()
.

- 20092013 ( 02.740.11.0773).

1.

53434-2009 .

2.

23 2010 . N 708 .

3.

. . .
,
// , 2009, 5. . 24.

4.

. . .
(GLP) // , 2008, 12 (3738). . 36.

5.

. . . () // . .: , 2008. 89 .

6.

. . . , // , 2007, 2. . 7179.

7.

. . . (, ) // .: ()
/ . . , 2- ., . . .: , 2005. 832 . . 2841.

2 (8) 2012

45

. ., 2012
631.484



,
, . .




1951 . . 1975 .
()
. - . , .
1984 . : , .
1986 . . . , . 1989 . . .
.
1994 . . . : .
2000 . 2008 . - .
. .
(
).
1983 . . . , 1989 .
. 2002 .
2- .
2005 . L- . . 5-
, 3- : .
2008 . . . .
.

: 105066, . , . , . 21/4.

46

III

. .



()
.

.
. -
.
.

(
, , , , ).
.

.
: , , , ,
, , , ,
, ,
, , , .


. ,

( ), , . ,
5 ,
. 6275 %.
.

, , -

he objectives of research were the development of installation and technology of


optimal utilization of organic parts of undergratting products of domestic garbage (DG)
combined with saw cuts of tree and settled
sludges of waste effluents of disposal works.
For achievement of desired objective the following problems were solved: the review and
analysis of existed technology schemes of composting were conducted; the apparatus and
technological scheme of installation and constructive decisions of main parts were developed; parameters of waste composting process
of city municipal services were studied.
The developed scheme allows to use flexible
composting ingredients in different proportions
(fermented waste effluents, surplus active silty
mud, saw cuts of trees, edible by-products).
The mass-exchanging and hydraulic calculation
of installation was carried out. The calculation
contains thermal and material balances of composting in summer and winter periods.

Keywords: composting, compost, aeration,


wood waste, undergratting ridding of domestic
garbage, waste water effluents, stack of wood,
dewatering, microorganisms, mass-exchanging, artificial ground, hydraulic calculation, material balance, criteria of similarity.

.
,
.
,
1200
1500 .

,
,
.
, . .

-

2 (8) 2012

47



- .
,
( ), ,
.
.
, ,
, . . ,
.

. ,
, . .

.
,
,
, .
,
,
,
.
[1].
.
, .
( ) 2040 %
, 520 %, : ,
,
.

, 40 %
.

(, -

48

), (N, P, Ca, Mg) (Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Co, B, Mo). 15 %
1030 .
- ,
,

,
,

.
2545 % ( ) ,

, , .
70 92 %.
(
) . 34 . ,

21 ,
, ,
,
2 1
,
.
.
1520 3/ 1

78
34 .
1015 % 68 %, . C:N = 2530, N:P= 7095.
4050 % .
50 .
4550 %, 5070 %, pH = 79, -

III

. .

,

,
,
.
,
.

,
300 . -
65 .
( ):
- (30 % 65 .);
(40 % 87 .); - (20 % 43,5 .);
(10 % 21,5 .);
(10 %
21,5 .). , , 238,5 .
.
2, 55
1
0,38 , , ,
2,96 2. , 119 3, p,
250 /3,
29 750 , 8 .
1 = 100 .



.
,

,

. ,

.
,

.
, - ,
. .
,
, .
.

200300 . 200300 .
, .

20
40 300 . 30105
.

,
, 3040 %
[2, 3]. , 100 %,
60 %.
,
, , .
, ,
[4]
,
2530 %.
30 %.
,
: +18 C, = 70 %, : 10,8 C, =
88%[5].

2 (8) 2012

49

,

, /2; pB
, /2;

[7]:


(
1 )

,
20 C
2446,9 / [5].
1 4
[4]. ,
1 ,
5 . ,
.
, .

[7]:

Nu' = ARemGr'nPr'oGup,

(1)

A, m, n, o, p , [7] (. 1).
. ,
. 1, m p
. ,

(1).
:
Nu' = l/D (l , ,
D- , 2/); ,
1 .

gB = F x k x x (pH pB),
gB ,
/; , /; k .
, ,
,
(
30 ), , ,
k.
k = 0,001. F , 2. pH


(g /2;
m, m
,
, ; T, T ,;
Pr' = /D . g
1

A, m, n, o, p
A

0,65

0,0

0,25

0,25

0,0

0,065

0,0

0,248

0,248

0,0

1,26

0,435

0,0

0,0

0,0

Re = 300

0,60

0,560

0,0

0,0

0,0

1 000

0,52

0,58

0,0

0,0

0,0

3 000

0,38

0,62

0,0

0,0

0,0

10 000

0,21

0,68

0,0

0,0

0,0

30 000

0,82

0,78

0,0

0,0

0,0

100 000

0,87

0,54

0,0

0,33

0,135

2006 000

0,347

0,65

0,0

0,33

0,135

6 00070 000

50

III

,
,
.

. .


.

,
.
,

, [7], R

1 .
R = 47,06 / = 461,5 / .
[8].
[7]:
2/.
:
, (5075 C) .
,
,

.
3,964 1010 1,143 108, .
:
Nu' = 0,065 (3,964 1010)0,248 (1,143 108)0,248 =
= 0,065 424,95 0,011 = 0,296
=>

/.


, . , 20 C 75 C,
, . g /
(108/).
,

25 C. -

7 C; g = 0,022 /.
,
88 %, 60 %,
, ,
, , , ,
.
. 2
3.

40 % . ,
0,3:0,7, . :
m = 0,4 0,3 = 298,125 0,4 0,3 =
= 35,755 /.
m2 = 0,4 0,7 = 298,125 0,4 0,7 =
= 83,475/.

,

. , , :
G = 10837,775 = 70,225 /.
QH2O = 108 4 = 432 .

(
1 )

,
, .
, , .
Q + Q + Q = Q + Q + Q + Q.
: Q ; Q ; Q ( ).
: Q
; Q ; Q .; Q
( ) (
).

2 (8) 2012

51

( 1 ).

(/)

81,25

108,75

54,375

26,875

26,875

,
*

35,775

,

*

83,475

(/)

298,125

159,585

16,315

295,15

( 1 ).

(/)

81,25

108,75

54,375

26,875

108

26,875

, *

35,775

,

*

83,475

298,125


, ,
, :
Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 + Q5,

52

159,585

(/)

16,315

403,15

: Q1 (
-), Q2
, Q3 - , Q4
, Q5
.
Q = m to .
(
-), ,
7382 %, -

III

. .


[5] 1 =4200(1) + ' = 4200(10,2)+
+ 10000,2 = 3560 . ( , , , ).
, , [6]. ,
8595 % , ,
, .
[5] 2720 /().
9598 % [4],
.
m to , 1 .
, , Q.. = 5,21 + 8,221 +
2,66 + 2,032 + 2,032 = 20,155 .
, ,

, . . , .

, 1 (),
21 (2,6),
(297,5 )
Q. = 21 297,5 = 6247,5.
:
,
(30 % ,
).
( 40 % ).
, . , ,
[5]:
.
, /(24); F
, 2; , ( = 1) [7], T1
,
; T2 4

()

()

()

20,155

12,1

6247,5

0,8

432


()

1043,8

1488,7

6267,6

()


()
21,09
6247,5

()
12,65
0,8

1718,5

6268,59

2 (8) 2012

1732

53

, . C = C , = 5,7 /(24) [5],


( = 0,92) [5].
,
18 oC
63 oC,

.
7 oC,
10,8 oC.
. 4 5.
. 4 ,
(
4 ). ,
, ,
,
, ,
.
. 5 , . ,
, ,
,
.

1.


2040 %
, 520 %, : ,

, , 15 %
1030 2545 %
.
2.
: ,
.
3. ( ) . ,
35 83 108 . ,

( 70 ). ,
.
4. , ,

.
5.
,
. , (6248
), .
6. , , . , .
7. . , 11001400 ,
745 3/. 4-70 3.

1.

. 2414444 20.03.2011 .
.. .

2.

: . . . . . , . . . . .: , 1990, . .: ,
1987. 384 .

3.

Chang Yung / Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc/ 1967, V.50, 4. P. 667.

4.

. . . . .: , 2008. 376 .

5.

. ., . . . . . .: ,
1981. 560 .

6.

. ., . . . .: .
. 303 .

7.

. . . 3- .. .: , 1962. 352 .

8.

. ., . . . 3- .-., , 1962. 304 .

54

III

119517, . , . , . 14, . 2. ./: +7 (495) 449-20-46, +7 (903) 592-19-19

.
.
. ,
. .
.: -, 2012, 256 .

. .
.
.
. . , . . ,
. . . .: -
, 2012, 104 .


.
.
.: , 2011, 296 .

. ., . .,
. .

. .: ,
2009, 352 .

. ., . .
.
.:
, 2008, 576 c.

. ., . .


.
.: ,
2007, 230 .

56

III

. RU 77.99.23.002..033803.08.11 24.08.2011 .

300

286 .

804 .


.

5 , 30 .

(IV ).

,
,
, ,
;

, ,
.

, ,
, -;


( , ,
, , , .).

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, .



,

;

,
:
,
;

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;
,

;


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:
;
,
;

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.

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;

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;

58

III

. RU 77.99.01.002..038633.09.11 21.09.2011 .

100

479 .

1
100
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2214837

479 .

,
, , , , , ,
- ,
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.
.
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.

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.

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; ; (, , , ); (
, -, ); ;
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.
.
5 .
.

. : . , . 14, . 2. ./: (495) 739-56-42 (43, 44, 45). E-mail: group@velt-npo.ru.


. : . , . 9. ./: (3532) 770459; 7743-89. E-mail: velt@esoo.ru.

2 (8) 2012

59

! ! ,
,

. ,
.
, . ,
,
, ,
, .
, , , , ,
, .

(, , , )
. 25 000 ,
250300 .
, ( , ,
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) ( )
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, (1997). .
.
DOCX, DOC, TXT RTF, 12
1,5, Times New Roman Cyr, Math Type. , .

60

III

www.velt-media.ru

: 119517, . ,
. , . 14, . 2
: +7 (495) 739-56-42 (43, 44);
+7 (495) 449-20-45; +7 (909) 163-25-37;
+7 (903) 136-23-46

E-mail: union@velt-media.ru

red1@velt-media.ru

red3@velt-media.ru

red3@velt-media.ru

red3@velt-media.ru

,
-


, ,
,


, ,

62

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: +7 (495) 739-56-42 (43, 44), +7 (495) 449-20-45
: +7 (909) 163-25-37
: red1@velt-media.ru, red3@velt-media.ru, union@velt-media.ru

335,00 .

335,00 .

2 (8) 2012

670,00 .

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. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37317
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +7 (495) 680-88-45

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-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

+7 (495) 500-00-60
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-
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www.setbook.ru Setbook.ru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +7 (495) 795-23-01
www.pressa.ru .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +7 (495) 722-51-00


www.periodicals.ru
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, .

, ,
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e-mail: red3@velt-media.ru, union@velt-media.ru
.
: 77-35605 11 2009 .
: 2 . 25.07.2012 . 1000 .
.
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.: +7 (495) 739-56-42 (43, 44); +7 (495) 449-20-45; +7 (909) 163-25-37.
E-mail: red@velt-media.ru, red1@velt-media.ru, red3@velt-media.ru, union@velt-media.ru
, ISSN 2079-441X.
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www.velt-media.ru

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