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Q. 2.1. State the Fourier law of heat conduction.

Clearly mention the various assumptions under which this law is applicable. Ans. Whenever, a temperature difference exists in a body, there is an heat transfer from high temperature region to low temperature region by conduction. The Fourier law states that the rate of heat conduction per unit area (heat flux) is directly proportional to the temperature gradient.

Where, Q = rate of heat transfer (W) A = heat transfer area in m2 r*xnI w dirtkzi of heat flow.

k= constant of proportionality, called the thermal conductivity of material (W/mC or W/mK) The minus sign is inserted to make the natural heat flow, a positive quantity. According to the second law thermodynamics, the heat always flows in the direction of decreasing temperature, thus the temperature gradient becomes negative. The Fourier law is essentially based on the following assumptions; steady state conduction heat transfer one directional heat flow bounding surfaces are isothermal in character i.e., constant and uniform temperatures are maintained at the two faces isotropic and homogeneous material constant temperature gradient and a linear temperature profiles. no internal heat generation. Q. 22. Give electrical analogy of heat transfer by conduction. Or Explain the concept of thermal resistance. Ans Observations indicate that in systems involving heat and electricity, the flow quantity is directly proportional to the deriving potential and inversely proportional to the flow resistance. From Ohms law I = V/R and from Fouriers law of heat transfer

As potential difference across a resistance makes the current to flow similarly temperature difference across a solid makes the heat tcjpw. Obviously there is a one- one correspondence between the flow of electric current and heat i.e., Electric current is.ana1ogcu.is to thermal heat flow rate Electrical voltage corpon to thermal temperature difference. Comparing equations (1) and (ii) electric resistance is analogous to quantity dx,4cA. This quantity is called thermal resistance. So, Thermal Resistance R =

Q. 2.3. What is the effect of temperature on thermal conductivity of metals? Ans.

Thermal conductivity of a material is the outcome of migration of free electrons and lattice vibration waves. In metals the molecules are closely packed molecular activity is rather small and so thermal conductivity is substantially due to the flow of free electrons. At elevated temperature, thermal vibration of the lattice becomes higher and that retards the motion of free electrons. Consequently thermal conductivity of most metals decreases with temperature growth; aluminium and uranium are the exceptions. Thermal conductivity of aluminium stays almost constant within the temperature range of 130C to 370C. Most of the outer electrons of the uranium atoms are tied up in covalent bonds and as such the contribution of free electrons to the conduction process is small.

Conduction of heat within uranium depends mainly on the vibration of atoms. The vibration tendency increases with temperature rise and so does the thermal conductivity of uranium.

Q. 2.4. How does the temperature effects the thermal conductivity of gases and liquids Ans. For gases: Heat transfer by conduction in gases occurs through transport of the kinetic energy of molecular motion resulting from the random movement and collisions of the molecules. From the concept of kinetic theory, mean travel velocity V of the gas molecules is prescribed by the relation:

where G is the universal gas constant, M is the molecular weight of the gas and T is the absolute temperature. Thermal conducth ity is worked out from the relation.

where 1 is the mean free path (average distance travelled by a moule before experiencing collision) C, is the specific heat at constant volume and p is the mass density. Experimental investigations show that with incr. ii p-c-..the gas density increases; while the mean free path diminishes in the invest proportion. However, the product (p1) practically remained constant indir2ting there by that thermal conductivity of gases does not depend upon prewe. So with increase in temperature thermal conductivity of gases increases attributed by the ftors ; mean travel velocity and specific heat. For liquids : For liquids, the thermal conductivity is governed by the relation:

The parameter A depends not on the nature of the liquid but on the temperature ; the quantity (Ace) is nearly constant for all liquids. As temperature of gas increases its density p decreases and hence the thermal conductivity i.e., thermal conductivity of liquids decreases with rise in temperature. Q. 2.5. Is there any relation of thermal conductivity value of a gas with its molecular weight ? Or What is the effect of molecular weight on thermal conductivity of a gas? Ans. Thermal conductivity of gas is governed by the following equation:

Where mass density and Ce specific heat at constant volume. Above relation show that has more value for a gas with low molecular weight and hence thermal conductivity will be higher for a gas with lower molecular weight, other parameters remaining constant. For example; K for hydrogen (mol. weight = 2) = 0.190 W/mK. K for oxygen (mol. weight = 32) = 0.0272 W/mK. Q. 2.6. What do you mean by Thermal Diffusivity? Ans. Thermal diffusivity denoted by a of a material is the ratio of its thermal conductivity K to the thermal storage capacity pc i.e. weight, T is absolute temperature, is mean travel velocity, 1 is the mean free path, p

The following reflections can be made with regard to a (i) The heat storage capacity represents sluggishness of the material to conduct heat. A high value of thermal diffusivity could result either from a high value of thermal conductivity or from low value of thermal capacity. Liquids have a low thermal conductivity, high thermal capacity and hence small thermal diffusivity. Metals possess high thermal conductivity, low thermal inertia and hence large thermal diffusivity. (ii) Larger the thermal diffusivity, higher would be the rate of change of temperature at any point of the material. Equalization of temperature would then proceed at a higher rate in materials having large thermal diffusivity. Q. 2.7. Derive general heat conduction equation in Cartesian co-ordinates. Ans. Cartesian Co-ordinates : Consider the flaw of heat through an infinitesimal volume element oriented in a three-dimensional co-ordinate system (Fig. 12). The sides dx, dy and dz have been taken parallel to the x,y and z axis respectively.

The general conduction equation can be set up by applying Fourier equation in each cartesian direction. If k represents the thermal conductivity at the left face, then quantity of heat flowing into the control volume through this face during time interval dt is given by

During the same time interval the heat flow out of the right face of the control volume will be,

Accumulation of heat in the elemental volume due to heat flow in the x-direction is given by the difference between heat influx and heat efflux. Thus the heat accumulation due to heat flow in xdirection is

Likewise the heat accumulation in the control volume y-and z-directions will be: due to heat flow along the

Sum of heat accumulations as prescribed by equations (1), (ii) and (iii) gives the total heat stored in the elemental volume due to heat flow along all the co-ordinate axes. Total or net accumulation of heat is equal to

If q is the heat generated per unit volume and per unit time, then the total heat generate in the control volume equals to qg dx dy dz dr .. .(vii) The total heat accumulated in the lattice due to heat flow along all the co-ordinate axes Eq. (vi) and the heat generated within the lattice Eq (vii) together serve to increase the thermal energy of the lattice. This increase in thermal energy is given by:

where p is the density and c is the spedfic heat of the material. Thus from energy balance considerations

Equation (viii) represents a volumetric heat balance which must be satisfied at each point for self generating, unsteady state three-dimensional heat flow through a non-isotropic material. This expression, known as the general heat conduction equation. Homogeneous and isotropic material:

A homogeneous material implies that the properties i.e., density, specific heat and thermal conductivity of the material are same everywhere in the material system. Isotropic means that these properties are not directional characteristics of the material, i.e., they are independent of the orientation of the surface. Therefore for an isotropic and homogeneous material thermal conductivity is same at every point and in all direction. In that case = k, = = k and the differential equation (viii) takes the form.

The quantity a = k/pc is called the thermal Uay. Q. 2.8. Derive general heat conduction eqn. ii cylindrical co-ordinates. Ans. Cylindrical Co-ordinates: When heat occurs through systems having cylindrical geometries (e.g. conduction through rods and pipes) it is considered more convenient to work in the cylindrical co-ordinates. The general heat equation can be set up by considering an infinitesimal cylindrical al volume element. Refer Fig. 2.3. dV = (dr rdr,b dz) and writing energy balance equations in the radial, tangential and ixia1 directions. (a) Radial direction (x9 plane) Heat influx

Heat efflux Heat stored in the element due to flow of heat in the radial direction. Heat influx (b) Tangential direction (rz plane):

Heat efflux

Heat ef flux

Heat stored in the element due to heat flow in axial direction,

Heat generated within the control volume Rate of change of energy within the control volume

From energy balance considerations, the rate of change of energy within the control volume equals the total heat storage plus the heat generated. Therefore,

Dividing both sides by dV dx

which is the general heat conduction equation in the cylindrical co-ordinates. Q. 2.9. Derive general heat conduction equation in spherical co-ordinates. Ans. Spherical Co-ordinates The general heat conduction equation in spherical co-ordinates can be set up by considering an infinitesimal spherical volume element and writing the heat balance equation for the r, 0 and 0 directions.

(a) Heat flow through r - 0 plane ; direction: Heat influx

Heat efflux

Heat stored in the elemental volume due to heat flow in the direction

(b) Heat flow through r -, plane ; 0 dIrection: Heat influx

Heat efflux

Heat stored in the elemental volume due boat flow in the 0-direction

(c) Heat flow in the 0 , plane ; r - direction: Heat influx

Heat efflux

Heat storage in the elemental volume due to heat flow in the r-direction

Heat generated within the control volume = q8 dV dr Rate of change of energy within the control volume

From energy balance consideration, the rate of change of energy within the control volume equals the total storage plus the internal heat generation. Therefore,

Dividing both sides by k dV dr

The which is the general heat conduction equation in spherical co-ordinates. Q. 2.10. Give various examples where internal heat generation takes place in conducting medium itself. Ans. In many situations of practical importance, heat is generated internally at uniform rate within the conducting medium itself. Notable examples are (i) Resistance heating in electrical appliances ; essentially it is the conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy in the current carrying medium. (ii) Energy generated in the fuel element of a nuclear reactor. (iii) Liberation of energy due to some exothermic chemical reactions occurring within the medium. (iv) Drying and setting of concrete. Temperature distribution within the medium and the rate of heat depiction to the surroundings assume great importance in the design of thermal units. Q. 2.11. Derive a relation for temperature distribution and heat flow rate in the plane wall with a uniformly distributed heat generation. Ans. Plane wall with uniform heat generation: Consider heat conduction through a plane wall in which heat sources are uniformly distributed over the entire volume. The wall surfaces are maintained at temperature t1 and t2, and the wall thickness 6 is small in comparison with other dimensions.

Considering the general heat conduction equation in cartesian co-ordinates.

This equation is restricted by following assumptions: Assumptions: 1. Steady state conditions i.e.,

1. One-dimensional heat flow in x-axis direction only

3. Constant thermal conductivity k. 4. Uniform volumetric heat generation (q per unit volume) within the wall. The general heat conduction equation reduces to

Constants of Integration are found by considering following two cases:

CASE I. Both surfaces are maintained at a common temperature: (Refer Fig. 2.5 (b).) From the prescribed boundary conditions,

the constants of integration take the values

Substituting these values of C1 and C2 in equation (Ill), the expression for temperature profile becomes

Maximum temperature and its location within the wall can be worked out by differentiating the equation for temperature profile with respect to x and equating the derivative to zero.

The temperature distribution as prescribed by equation IV is thus parabolic and symmetrical about the mid plane. Maximum value of temperature occurs at x = 6/2 and it equals

Heat transmission then occurs towards both sures and fo each surface it is given by:

For both surfaces = (volume of conducting medium) CASE II : Temperatures of both the surfaces are different: When the boundary conditions

are applied to equation III, the constants of integration take the values

Substituting these values of integration constants in equation Ill, the expression for temperature profile becomes;

Further, rate of heat flow from any face of the wall is;

Heat flow from the right hand face i.e., at x = 6

Let us now examine two cases (1) Maximum temperature occurs within the wall; the heat flow will then be from both the surfaces and the total heat flow will become (ii) = Q1 + Q2 Maximum temperature occurs at the left hand face, i.e., t1 is maximum; the heat flow will then be only towards the right i.e., in the direction of falling temperature = Q2 (only)

If there is no internal heat generation (i.e., qg = 0), the above expression reduces to heat conduction equation Q = kA (t1 - t2)I6 for a plane wall without any internal generation of energy. Q. 2.12. Derive a relation for temperature distribution in the piston crown. Ans. Heat transfer through the piston crown : With reference to Fig. 2.6, let R = outer radius of piston, b = thickness of piston crown = outer surface temperature of piston material, k thermal conductivity of piston material, = convection and radiation heat flux (heat transfer per unit area) from the gases to the piston.

[he appropriate differential equation describing the temperature distribution can be obtained by making an energy balance on a cylindrical element of thickness dr and radius r. Q (heat conducted in at radius r) =

Upon integration

Another integration gives the general solution for temperature distribution.

The constants of integration are determined from the relevant boundary conditions which are (1) dt/dr = 0 at r = 0; because temperature is maximum at r = 0 (ii) t t0 at rR Using expression (ii) C1 = 0 Applying the boundary condition t = t0 at r R to expression (iii) and noting that C1 = 0, we get

With these values .of integration constants, the expression (iii) for the temperature takes the form

Undoubtedly the temperature distribution is parabolic and the maximum temperature occurring at the centre of piston (r = 0) is given by

If Q denotes the total heat given by the gases to the piston crown, then

The above expression is used for calculating tt desired thickness of piston crown

Q. 2.13. Establish a relation for temperature distribution in Nuclear fuel element without cladding and with cladding. Ans. Nuclear fuel elements without cladding The heat generation due to fission within a nuclear fuel element (cylindrical in shape) is generally given by

where q0 is the heat generation rate per unit volume at the centre (r 0) and R is the outer radius of the solid fuel rod. Evidently qg is a fanction of position r, i.e., the radial distance from the axis of the rod. For steady state one-dimensional heat conduction in the radial direction, we have (from general heat conduction equation in cylindrical co-ordinates)

Upon integration

Or

Integrating again,

Boundary conditions

With these values of integration constants, the expression (3) for the temperature distribution takes the form:

The heat flow at the surface of the rod is,

Nuclear fuel element with cladding. The fuel elements of a nuclear reactor are likely to get damaged due to oxidation, if these elements come in direct contact with the cooling medium. To prevent this damage, the fuel elements are usually lagged on the outside with a protective material called cladding. The heat generated rate per unit volume in the fissionable (fuel rod) material is given by

where is the generating rate at any radius r, q0 is the heat generating rate at the centre of fissionable element, R and RL are the outside radii of fuel rod and cladding respectively.

The temperature distribution within the fissionable element and tl dadding can be worked out from the following steady state one- dimensional heat conduction equation

Q/A)is The heat flux q (heat flow per unit area,

Assuming thermal conductivity k to be constant and with substitution of dt/dr = - the basic governing equation becomes

Let the fuel rod and the cladding be denoted by f and c respectively. Then,

and upon integration of expression (7) we ottain

Applying the boundary conditions qj=finite at r=O qj q at r= Rf The integration constants workout as CI =0

Accordingly the heat flux through fuel rod and cladding may be rewritten as

Applying the boundary condition t = (outside surface temperature of the system) at r = R

Applying the boundary condition t = tjat r = RrtO expression (12) and substituting there in the value of t as evaluated above, we get

The maximum value of tf occurs at the centre of fissionable material, i.e., at r = 0 and would be given by

Q. 2.14. Derive expressions for temperature distributions, under one dimensional steady state heat conduction for the following cases: (I) Plane wall (II) Cylinder (III) Sphere. Ans. (I) Plane wall : The general heat conduction equations in cartesian co-ordinates is given by : 1

Now refer Fig. 2.9 which represents a plane wall of thickness 6 having temperatures t1 and 2 on its two surfaces considering the following constraints:

2. 3. By integrating the above equation

Again integrating

Putting the values of C1, C2 in equation (2)

This equation gives the variation of temperature w.r.t. distance x along the directional of heat flow, which is a linear relationship. So the temperature profile (a line representing the variation of temperature w.r.t. distance) is represented by a straight line. Now heat transfer through the plane wall can be found by using Fouriers equations.

(II) Cylinder: The general heat conduction equation in cylindrical co-ordinates is given r:

Now refer fig. 2.10 which represents a cylindrical shell of internal radius r1 and external radius r2 with inner temperature t1 and outside temperature t2. Heat transfer through this cylindrical shell is put by following constraints:

Now, taking integration of above equation

Again, integrating

Putting the values of C1 and C2 in equation (4)

This equation gives the variation of temperature w.r.t. radius of cylindrical shell. Equation represents that the temperature variation is logarithmic for cylindrical shell. Now heat transfer Q

where R, = Thermal resistance =

(III) Sphere: The general heat conduction equation for spherical co-ordinates is given as

Now refer fig. 2.11 which represents a spherical shell with inner radius r1 and outer radius r2. The temperature on the inside is t1 and at outside is t2. Now applying the following constraints for the heat transfer through the shell

1. Steady state heat transfer i.e.,

(ii) No internal heat generation i.e., (iii) One direction heat transfer, only in the radial direction i.e.,

Integrating this equation

Again integrating

Puffing the value of C1 and C2 in equation (6)

From equation (7) it is evident that the temperature distribution associated with radial conduction through a spherical shell is represented by a hyperbola. Now, Q = heat transfer rate

where R1 = thermal resistance for spherical shell

Q. 2.15. Derive expression for one dimensional, steady state heat conduction for composite plane wall. Ans. Refer Fig. 2.12 It represents a composite wall made up o three different layers of tjinss.6 and 63 with thermal conductivities respectively. This composite wall is exposed to temperature 11 on one side and t2 on other side such that the temperature at the interfaces are ia and tb. Since the heat transfer rate through each layer is same, we have,

Adding (i), (ii) and (iii), we have

= Temperature difference across the composite wall Total thermal resistance If the composk wall consists of i layers, then;

Ans. Refer Fig. 2.13. Q. 2.16. What do you mean by Thermal contact resistance? Ans. Refer Fig. 2.13. In the analysis for heat flow through a composite wall it is assumed that the contact between layers is perfect. But in real system, due to surface roughness and void spaces (usually filled with air) the contact surfaces touch only at discrete locations i.e., there is no single plane of contact, which means that the area available for the flow of heat at interface will be small compared to geometric surface area. Due to this reduced area and presence of air voids, a larger resistance to heat flow at the interface occurs. This resistance is known as thermal contact resistance and it causes temperature drop at the interface as shown in the fig. The contact resistance is given by

Q. 2.17. What do you mean by Logrithmic mean area or equivalent area for the hollow cylinder? Ans. Refer Fig. 2.14, (a) and (1,)

Heat transfer for plane wall having thickness d = r2 r1 is

If both the hollow cylinder and plane wall transfer same rate of heat transfer with same material and temperature difference across the wall, then

Am is so chosen that the heat flow through cylinder and plane wall will be equal for the same temperature difference across the wall.

where A1 and A0 are inside and outside surface areas of the cylinder. The expression is known as logarithmic mean area or equivalent area of plane wall or hollow cylinder. Q. 2.18. Explain the concept of critical thickness of insulation. Ans. The addition of insulation in some cases may reduce thermal resistance due to the reduction in convective thermal resistance because of increase in surface area as in case of cylinder and sphere. It may be shown that the thermal resistance actually decreases and then increases in some cases with the addition of insulation. The thickness upto which heat flow increases and after which heat flow decreases is termed as critical thickness. In case of cylinders and spheres it is called Critical radius. Let us consider a hollow cylinder provided with in insulation with inner radius r, and outer radius r as shown in Fig. 2.15.

Total thermal resistance offered by the insulation,

When r radius of insulation increases it will increase the second factor and decrease the third factor in the above equation. The R i.e., thermal resistance will be maximum at a radius where.

This r is written as Ti, called critical radius ct insulation of cylinder.

We can see from the graph (Fig. 2.16) between R and r that when r < rc, thermal resistance decreases with increase in r upto r i.e., heat transfer rate increases. r > r, thermal resistance increases with increase in r i.e., heat transfer decreases.

Q. 2.19. What is the significance of Critical radius? Of insulation in design of insulations for a stean pipe and an electric wire. Ans. Critical radius of insulation is that radius up to which the heat transfer rate increases and beyond that it start decreasing as shown in the fig. where r is the critical radius of insulation. These are some applications like steam pipe in which we want to prevent the heat to pass through the wall but on the other side there is an application like electric wire in which we are bound to put insulation to avoid electric shock but at the same time want to increase the heat dissipation to keep it cool. By using the concept of critical thickness of insulation we can meet the above requirement as follows Design of insulations for steam pipe : The outer radius of insulation for steam pipe 7 is always kept greater than re because heat transfer after rate decreases beyond re. Design of insulation for electric wire : Radius of insulation for electric wire (r) to kept less than re in order to increase the ratio of heat dissipation. Formulae used for the solution of numerical problems: 1. Heat transfer by conduction

Design of insulations for steam pipe : The outer radius of insulation for steam pipe 7 is always kept greater than re because heat transfer after rate decreases beyond re.

Design of insulation for electric wire : Radius of insulation for electric wire (r) to kept less than re in order to increase the ratio of heat dissipation. Formulae used for the solution of numerical problems: 1. Heat transfer by conduction

where t Temperature difference across the wall R - Thermal resistance (a) For plane wall

(c) For spherical wall

Heat transfer by conduction through a composite wall (when the walls form a series system of resistance)

Thermal resistance offered by fluid having convective heat transfer coeff or film coeff. h = 1/hA

Q. 2.20. One of the surfaces of a plane wall is at 60Cand the other is at 35C. Calculate the rate of heat transfer per m2 of surface area of the wall which is 22cm thick. The thermal conductivity of the brick is 0.51 W/mk. Ans. Given t1 = 60C, t2 35C

Q = 57.95 w/m ans

Q. 2.21. The insulation boards for air conditioning purposes are made of three layers, middle being packed grass 10 cm thirk (k = 0..02w/mk) and the sides are made of plywood each 2 cm thickness (k = 0.12 w/mk).. Determine the heat flow per m2 area if one surface is at 30C and other surface is JC. Ans. Given: Refer Fig.

= 30C, = 20C

0.02 + 0.12 x1 = 5.334 From (1)

0.1 + 0.02 x1

0.02 0.12x1

Q = 2.81 w/m2.

Q. 2.22. A mild steel tank of wall thickness 12mm contains water at 95C. Thermal conductivity of mild steel is 50 W/mk and the heat transfer coefficients for the inside and outside the tank are 2850 and 10 w/m2k respectively. if the atmospheric temperature is 15C calculate: (a) the rate of heat loss per m2 of the tank surface area (b) the temperature of the outside surface of the tank. Ans. Refer Fig

= 12 mm = 0.012 m =95C =15C K=50w/mk Heat transfer coeff. side = h., = 2850 W/m2k inside i.e., on water w/m2k Heat transfer coeff on air side ha = 10 area 1. Rate of heat loss per m2 of tank surface

___1____ + 2850 x 1

1 10 x 1

Q = 95 15 0.1006

(b) Temperature of outside surface We know that

Q. 2.23. Calculate the rate of heat flow per m2 through a furnace wall consisting of 200 mm thick inner layer of chrome brick, a centre layer of kaolin brick 100 mm thick and an outer layer of masonary brick 100 mm thick. The unit surface conductance at the inner surface is 74 W/m2k and the outer surface temperature is 70C. The temperatures of the gases inside the furnace is 16700. What temperature prevail at the inner and outer surfaces of the centre layer?

1 + 74 x 1

0.2 + 1.25 x 1

= 0.0135 + 0.16 +1.351 +0.1802

= 1.7047

Q = 1670 70 1.7047 =938.58W/rn2 Temperatures t and t1 We know that heat flow rate through each layer is same, o;