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BURIAL

no rlirir oi liic h.rs -1er bocn rlircovcrcd, rll ltLrmanktrd corltirllLcs to lp rs JLLsr, rshcs ,urd bone", to thc grc.rt erlvrnt,rge ot .rLch:Lcolog; l}'ort:c ,{se peoflc $,rr. .o rrirre sucoessiLLl tlrrl1 xntone else rr discovcr irg thc scctct o1etenul liic, ,rncL conseqrrenrl-v tlrclc xrr i lot oi them ,r\',rilrLrlc tor stu.t-v Ll sheleLrl u crmbustcd iomr. Estrntcs oi thcif nurrbers ,uo f.ccsrAlilt 11t de moLe th.rn gucsscs, b t (here is rl.i .lir|t thlt $e sLrllivrng Lruri.d popu lrtLr.n oi the Bron:c Agc rs rnuch grc:Lrcl thAn th.rr oi the Neolirhic, x .1 pnb,rblr' on .r per r itL thAt oi rhe pre RorrlrLrl hlrn Asc. lt ls i hlr{e rcs.rulcc
SLlr0e

errl

Trr,htLunrli,r tfc studr oi LrurLrls h:s bc!. A pnllul.rf rcriviL,! 1ot R,ot:. Originellr Agc scholjrs hLtoiclthc-ve.rrstheirprc.,!rL,f:rt,onshevech,rnged thc que(t ior srav. gr).iJ\ \i..rs nll'nrport'1nri thcsc ricre tlten crrrlog,-Lecl arrl dirrdcd rnto L;pes. L;It.r, i1)1s nliornrlion nas ..!rhlncd liLh Lhar,-rn lgc rndscr,,rn.lrflrh slnrrltrcr on.)flcntrlion nn,1 grr!l] jor1n, to pfoduce conl blll.rtifrl t,Ll)les lhicir.rimcd to shor.'rhe.rssocirLri!t1s oi cech oblecr. Thrs lod dirrrtlr,to dre prodLrcrion (]i chfonJlogic.rl charrs drloogh the use ()1 se ltior i.chlriiucs I]r roiri. rnAlt! indil.nlu.rl 5rLidies (it :ut.t.Lct tlpes ere 1ils\illc,.sp..jrll,! ior unrsual oL 1.ell-repLesertrJ t\trcs. such studies h!\'c also leLl to thc stu(l-.' oi socirl stxru-r, nltrr- rnd c\na r)ti.irl fcl.rtiorlslif!, rhe olutio. oi soci.rl al1d fditlcrl s-vsterlls. .rn(l thc rclrtionshif het\reen .rLch.rer,bglc,rl artciacts .rnd liinshit strucrures Cenef.! riudic\ oi l.Urirl hNe u.uall-v trcen .oncemcd r,i$ illc ilrlornl.r tr0r]]otcflirl oi ihe c! encc anJ spcclficall! l.irh lhar brriel .rn srv rborjt socl.rl org,Lris,Itron 1n rhe socicty ilorn rhlch the ie.ld c.1flti Tlr sttitc oi thc d limld,:s ini oli c.1, ur:nv l.rire, s l.rlici c th.rt regrrlrriri.s lirl<ing livlng soci aLes.rnrl rfclr proccduLes ior rhc .1i.tr.*l oi the dea,l do 1-\isi Fxrticlll:ulv ,s crncerns tlc lxttcrning oi moriunr) drficrcnti.ltion, Lhe corsist.lr.t oi dlii.rentjrliln accrrdirg to socrrl Positiot, arrd thr rt:v thrr con\tc\it) oi nrrru.u1, (liiiofcntirti(!r 1r1cfeilse! i!itlr th. cornplerrt! oi socictic! thcnl sdrer ln Ll Shr! ! e,r.rl-r'sL: ioLrr br"it frifLiplcs rctlcct the lnl]lllnu l.\ cl oi.onstrrxrt otlLiirlg r11 socreLles enploy rcgLrlaL procedLrrcs tLr thc tLLspLrs.rl ol Lhc t1c;rd tlc ahiFrD li iiis rn.r nr!dtl-.,rr Lr.l l'nri i'rtl
O

511.r

ti1

11

FURIA1
rvha

1rlofturry poirulxtlon *ibils dclnogr:tph1c ind lhyiiologrcil charactcrlstlcs thar rllecr thc 1i!ing populift)n; cach l)ur]:rL reprcscnts ,r stsLemrdc rFpll cation of r series of prcscfipdve ancl froscriptil'e difcctivcs rehLing io d1c nxlilidurlj :rnd all rbc clcments in a Lrlrrlal conte:.r wcrc orisin.rlly contcnr |orarlcous in the Iivirlg socit) ir tht tlnrc oi burial.r This rchtil'el-! opri misiic view oI ihc totcntirl oi mortLLrr)' .Lrta correspruc'ls closel-v to rhe vi$v ldrptcd rn the prescnt rvork. A diifcrcnt st.rnce is trkcn b-v Barrctt, n'ho argues fiat ]i lIoftu.rr-v allal,! ses arc to have any powcr they nLlst 'oLrscrv dre 1\':1) nrortuxlv pricdces inrervcnccl 1n an overall cvclc oi social rtfrodrction', th.1i is $c'entire s-!stem in Lroth irs materinl xrld lts humrn aspccts'.'Specilicall-v, Ratrctt rdvocites distirlgLrlshms betwccn ir|neraI,v rrtuals xnd rncesror ritLLsls thc lonner concermrlg drc rites oi passagc thit .ue obscn'cd at the irlnc rt pcrson dies, the hrer co.ccrned to bnrlg anccstors s;[rbolic:r]ly 1n.o the prcscnt. Dr.rt']ng on rhe orl< of Turner and Van G lep, he sccks tu esuLrlish ir1 wh.rt t'rvs th structrLnig oi the archacological reoord ir Ncolithic xtlcl B|onzc Age Dorsct could rcflcct the rcdors of rhc mourners at frLncrals, and spccilically iin .r Brcnze Agc contextl hoir thc dcvelopnentdl scquence l:]1 barow con srrucrion rn $icsscir ceme(eries ight nldicate tlrc nature oI the ritLLal. Thc clcmnt oI contrlulty 1n dle usc of burirl sites, rvbcther llat or molLn.lcd, rightLy emphxsiscs the importancc of'rhe incestors', r'hose burial phccs coulrl have playcd a nAjor role h thc soci.rl sLmc.uri.g oi behjvic,ur.l This concern 1\,idl thc xctidls c.udcd out rt iunerals as part ot a nortrLary 'lield r:ri discourse, rathcr th.rn merely wirh rhe forn oi disposal oi the dead, is a rccurring thenr ir1 rcccnt treatncnti of the subject r:ri rlc,rth.rnd btLrial, :nd has considerrblc aitractlon lrs a subtlc and soplistioxtcd \\'ay oi illler pretng thc finer det]ils oi gr.rve iolu and bod-v dispositicn. lor insrarcc, Mi:ogLLchl h.rs suggestcd that structrLrarion theorl', applicd to the miredal culLure rcmrins oi iunernry sitcs, can be rLSrd ro interprer thc'mortuer-v fieltl oi discoursc', ivhich can bc trcatcd as one aspcct of soci refrodtrcrion, in other \rords thc \La-v hulll'1lrs rcproduce rhe social iorms end actions oi the envir.i Dert in r.hrch thcy li!c.;ln fie specific lnstAnce studicd, tbat ot the berror. cemctcry at Sluewton, $rlltshire, it \\as suggcsted thrr rhc rrsc oi space rv.rs successivcly el,rborated by thc erection of stal<c crrcles in the crcation ol an algmnent oi barrorvs,:urc1 th;rt net'pr.lcticcs wcre introducecl whcrcbv bodrcs r.ere crenatcd clservhere ard thc remains brought brck to rhe gravcs' Roth iearures are intcrpreted as sLtggcsting fint th{- physicrl movencrt oi pcoplc rv,rs conrrollcd, so that lhe aurhodt-! oi nldivlltuals ind groups ca c

Bror

I1|p

rich

p1c

arct

r11g

disr

Cer

' Brrert l!l8rr lhrrrtt,

BrrLllrl rf.1(.rocr 19r1, llUtt


LtS.1.

(;rco11!rJ R!11,, SmLth

'

Cr tiJ

Ccrrctct).

,l !t:ui

:.!

ard Srt\.e ltlttrtDn)S

Ij

r0tix! a L-|uc':rl f,ur jr) {rLLrLurir)g rhe lrortLrrrv field oi Jjscoufsc, A so1r1c lihri conpar:r|l! ,rnrllsis is rhAt oiiered b!. C.tr$,(jod, 111 i,1ich a discussjon ot thr reprodtrciidr oi ihe prir)ciples srrurruring Lrrc Ncolirhic and Fxrl,! $ol:e Ag. societ_v is cr)upled \ irh rhc An.rlvsis .i tr,rrro1, lnd ccrncier,! d.\ clofment ln \licssr, d.sconl L)crrrg slresscd rerlccrrng thc inportarce of:rrces&rrs rirth.r thrn rrry simplisrjc ijrtc4rrelatron Lri 'ra l<rDg' b:rsed o the possessron oi good-<. Thc colrflcxnics r:rf the funcr:rr; riru:i, ard therrrchtionili! to livxrg so.ict\., .rrc.rlso erplorcd bv Kaliif.; Iri4rxal oi rhe d.rLl, .r b.rsic 1d urivcrsrt rLLie of hygienc, i,,ot rs nl rv Ioms rn thc Bron:c Age .rs 1n other pcrjods ,{ b:Lsic diclroronr} benr.ecn rrhu n oon el(l cterrrtion rs pcrtr,rps thc most otr\.ious lorm oi \,uiiL)ili!)., rn.l one to \\hlrh t sh.rll rerLrrn L,\'virrLL. 0i its frol,und implicr!tun-q iol Lrelci slr(ems i.d s|iritu.il liie; but there rrc orhers *.hirh 1rr,v hrrc scemcd cqurll,v mfort:r t to rhos. inlolrcd, sLrch.rs burial jn ,1 simplc fir or uDdr.r moundl bL rl .r orlc si.l. ttt rhe otlrcr oL or Lhe bacl<, rrrlth h.r.t pomrrng rn o.c drecnon or rnothcr, rhe knccs hent or strarght. Lhc:rshes dcposittLl in an urn 0r roi dlere xfc rlun cfo s possjLrilirics. the ilrtc4rh) bcni.er| these sct" 0i l'rri:r|l.s ri is nor ncccss.rrrli |Lcur:rie ro dcflre thcn-r rs ol,troriLs, ls somc hrr. donr r1r.r]<cs the bLrriel record oi thc Bronz. Age erccptronrrlly xdr, but alsl) crccpLnrnellr con4rltcaLed. In rrnn) n.l.s thc sror) oi !|o :c Ale buiil is dr. siort oi rh:rL lntcrtLy. .{ drchorom_r' ihrr (Drrrrcs on xf rlrogcrhcr diiicrent lcrct is ihnt relitjri< ro th! reprcs.ntrrion oa bLrri.rl clnlencc in thc $oun,:l A good lll:lny arejs ardlrrio(ls.t ilrc ELrropcJr tsronzc hare ie l(roNn bLrrint sitrsj .rn cxanl pl. close (o honrr is ttr. L.Le tsfor:e.\gc ^gc oi Britxi. .rhc Frcsrcss ,Lnd chxnces 0i Llisrol.er! rfd sLrfvr!rl h.r!. an rntlucnce on sLLctr rra ers, bur thclc .rrc inL,rcrlogic!1lr irell rcsc.rrchcd areas, iiirtr gor:rrl surlivat of n,,relel irom otlcr perurrls, rich |:Lve nevcrthetess t,Liled ro froducc LrLrri.rts, ,rnd j,r sL,ch crsrs n rs h:rrlL ro.lr.oid ih c.nclLrsiorr rhrr thcjr r]rscrcr is.or mercl] coxr cidrnml hrLt rhe resulr oi spccitic p:rttctns oi Ltryrsltrrlr, or:rs colr.c,ise. Tlis.|rfrrr, rhcfci.rre, d.xls l.ith $e pattcnil3 oi Lrun.ll jtself, (jr l\.irlr sl.Lrl recorl!rructlon irorr thc bunals. Ir vrll cr.rrnjrc cerrr.ieL! p:rttcrnmg alrl buri.rl modc rhforlgh tnrlc:nd -<pace. rnLt certl. specrrl ,,..r_..s,,f rre,rt irg the Llcarl rn p.rrticuLhr thc LLse oi h:lrorrs lturnulii, fyrcs, cilfins And rnof tu.ll houscs, anLl the ntciptay bcnveen inhrrnarion.xrct crerrxrion rs

Cenreterv
AcIOss

prtremirg rnd grave pattcrl1irg

the

ljst

rei

rlrd fcrrl)d. B,L,rdlv spc:krng rhev rrey.

rrc.r ot Euro|c/ rhcLe.rrc clerr trxctiuons r)t bundl h crch :ll bc delircd rs onc oi rhrcc

BUITIAT

varirtions on the general therre oi body disposal: orem.rLion, lLat inhurn:rtron rnd mountled rnhurration. wrthin this brord groupnrg, rnuch detriled vari.L tion rs prcscnt. One c:rn vlew this v:rriatnrn on fir'o levels: that oi broad dlstirctlons bcfii'ccn erees rnd tlut oi detriled distinctions r.1th1n each Arca On fie l)roAd, mlcroscoprc level, it is Decessrry flrst to make the ilistrnc tlon bctwccn diiferent stages oi the BroDze Age. E.rch stage sal.! rarher dri fcrcnt pattcnr oi burral Lrode :rcfoss Europe, though gener.rlisAtion ls dangcro s. In thc EArl-v and x{ddle Bronze Age, buri.rl was usuxlly l)v inhu lnirtrci., rlhcrc:rs in rbc LAtc Br(nzc Agc it \LA\ b,v crcnation. Thc cArlicr inhrLmatiors could bc clthcr u.dcr a ]noLrnd ibarrow, tumulus, ceirn, kurg.fi1 or placcrl in a fit or blrilt gr:tlc icisi, shahl \!ith no covcrnrg r11ounct. h gcn crrl, thc prrcticc of monnclcd burlal lncrcxscd.lunng thc iul.ldlc Bronzc Agc, ccrt$n1r'in ccntrrl x.d wcstcm ILLropc. Thc advcnt oi crcmxtion lcads to t]rc LrLLrjal rirc lcfclirig rts .xmc ro rhc pcriod. Crcnarc.l rc ai.s wcrc pl:rccd ciaher rr pits or ir uottcry conraifcr-s Lurrlsl, anci thc urns placccl in a clciincd deposition irea, ar 'umtield. Herce ihe La.e Bronze Age rrr conrinenl:rl Europe is rlso called the Umiicld pcrrod, ri'hcn crcnatron ivas dornrnant, ii not universal idependrrg on area). Ior the E:rlv Sronze Age, a llunbcr ,.ri studics by A. FI:nLS]cr has ser Lml the m n viri,rbles lsee taLrle,l.ll." Two n'nD trndiiiors nre preseni: rumulus burirl, iound in the e:sr, p:rts of the Balkans, the rorth:rrrd the l\.esr, and fl.rt 1|hurnatrons, iound rhroughour cenLral Europe rnd 111 Itily.rnd Spain 1iig. 3.11. Crem3tion is. r'ith nre e\ceptidrs, reslricted to the HuDgarian pl n end adjacnt re.qions. These distinctions are in dlemselr.es inrerestrng, but the fact th:rt \r'irhin thern it 1s possible to drscern sex-dependeDt orientatron, dlstinc tions in rhe precis tratment oi the bodl', and diiierent prrnciples ]n the uril isation ot sprce uDder tumuli, is .rlso oi importence. At the [rost hasic ]eve], diifcrcnccs rn trcatnremt oi the dead are presuLned to reflect diiicrcnt attrtrclcs to rhc dcad anLl dcath, and potcnrlally thereiore splrrtual and cultural prcicr cnccsl pcrhaps also cthnic Ancl lnrgrnstic Aifinitrcs.

be pl

ln

p:

Fht n&nntutior butirl


wxs thc st:trr:hrd rltc throLrgh much of ccntrai LLLrofc in rh! Earl) BrolEe Agc, $rd farrjcularly Lrclwccr1 tLc Rbiic ucl thc Visrula, rn Ccrnlny, thc forncr Czcchoslovakia, Ausrria arcl lolancl.'! In rhis v,rsr :rren/ large murbers of mult4rlc inhLLnation ccnetcrics rre rc Lre tLrurd, usu.rllt arranged :ccorcling to specific principlcs of nrtcLrrlcnr. Thc derd ilere Lrsuallt laid in the grave with tbe lcgs soncrvhar bcnt, tholrsh sonetmes ihey could
lJiiusler 197r, l9!.1. l9!6

Ilxt inhum:rtio.

C(

|frdrs l9:7r llD.kd.s.h.l l97ii

r, cl

Canrrlcr'l frtta'rr7irt dlrd ljlril:c


Table 3.1.

|illl.rrxrrs
CrtmrLr(ll

't

li,ir.r Br.rr:r 1u. lri!i,r, !ri,hlinrr.i !r,ifJ.r Illr nlllu tlrrrln

E.rl) Brd1ze ,\ge S liu.'ir

(:

Eur()p.

Hrr

N C.rmrir \.rh'hids
Br

C R!\iii
N. Rossl.l
rLtrs

tlin b.th B l Lrn\ F HungI)

Middlc Brunzc Age

N Eur.|.

C.

Frlrcf.

a l!rc|e tielll

(1.

Lur)pc Ltc\r

C Eur.|t rd.nnnlntl

\1ost o{ Brlkrns

iBrnislt Is['s

Luck! Th. diiicrerlt pjns oi Llis LlLrirl irt.)\]nc. c.rn hc rli\rjfguidr..l rcc(irdnrjr tr) tlr. s|ccifics oi the practic. Lttiliscd 1n rhcrn, ,n frLrl!!lr rhc serLi:llv rliiicrcnti,rtcd l)rpoLir del.osjii,nr n<,r1c, thc pr.rc t,t,,i fl.rcirg lDalcs lvng rn ofe clilcction xnd ien ,rles nr thc polrr rgpo slt.. Lhe iiLrc lo.king n1 Lhe s.rn. (lircLti.nr in ..rch cjse becrLLse of tlrc *iJc
l,r fhc.J tLrt on their
I

thorrgh tlc scxrL.rl LLriirrcntr.rtirxl Nrs fot lltr:I\r r)t t)t-.c: ior Ln-.trnce it coulrl bc cxpLtssed n erell b) fl:Lcing ib. rtll rlrls ! lodres or niiicrcnt srttes rhe he.r(ls,rl\A)splxcrLl to the samo c.)rrp,,ss dircc tlin 1I lhis, orj.rjtxrlon tolrirds sr.Lf |osr..]rs mrt hrve teen lmf|ntrL.i Crlnfreries sL,ch rs th.s. rfe those ir ca.tcln Attstrl.l rild rn Slrv:hia, Ir irsunrr Lhoso oJ drc \itfiL, Untetl\'iilblirrr n.d Koit'.ln-v grorrLrs. lhe conrt rrr ri a;enenl.LrrrI Sr lrirlt.n, lorrer ALLS0irl i. thc hcst kno(n oi Lhcn, ,urd [.rs Lreen thr lubictt.i nrin-,' sLL]die5." All grx!cs Ncfe orienLe(l .lflrrox rn.Lrrlr,nonh soLLrh but rn one 3roLrp tle fcrLrl is to thc south, rrr ,lrorhcr roJrr lorLb. Thr.:1rl\ cx.:r\'.rtcrrs drl noL c.rrr r:rrLt brological deLermlnrrlon
oi

onLrrcntrl

tufofc

i:hrrlrI ltr, strLr Lt6; R!.r11.!Lh{l i9a! i:rL:ir L'r-l r.r(rLr.! lrr9,

NeLL!!|rLLrf l!_!l

7l

.;

-.'

n
0 irhdds

lr ,h,-.,.,s

rc rrdqi{--,do

dn!red 6bd

r +.d-

ri9.3.1. Blriil
Hriuslcr l r 17l.

rr.r(lrtrons

r.

Earl-v SroDzc

Ag. Errofe Lriier

ol scx, rcl\i.g rnstc.rd on the orcrLrrcfcc oi ornArrcnts jn the Iirst group rnd 1\'r:1folrs i11 rlc scconrl to idenriil rbcm as icmrlc.tnd male respectivel,v The c\c.l.rrions, ritich drrl scx thc sl<clctons, provrtle conlirm.rtron At iuoLfln in th Yugosl,rl Birnri, ihc lll gr.t\.cs r.ere irringed l]l ol tlris.r' similar m:rnncr.r'At Br.xra in westcrn SlovrLl(ix thc oricnt:rt1on rnrl position of ihc bod\ trxs strongl-r diiierentiatcrl according to s.x. r Hefe dre plnl(iprl odenintior \As fronr crst wesr Lo Nl S$l ihc nrAlcs havrng the head to lhe ilesL and thc iacc loollng sourh, the iernales havrng tLc lcad to thc c.rst rnri Lhe i:ce.rlso lor-,klrg sorth. Silr11hr rrr:rnselrrerrs a|flic.l irr llrvari.t rn gfr.les oi the Srraubing 4r:rup. 'lhe cencrcrv r! Sirlgcrr lKonstrn:l conulned 95 c\crL!,trcd gr.rvcs:rrf.rnsed

: H.rnr.lr rrd r.s.hlrr \i..Li

in Nerseb.,!e,

lt'rl

af

|lrl&i

irril iarxlr

)! rrllil

.!rr1\iLr /J(ll

ifrrrlllS

?-

,; ':'

3sjr

ci

'o

_ '_

.- t
ti,1.3.2.

Ilrr rr

tLr. Lrrl-1

llr(]f-t r\g'

ur rrnrLrlirn

ir'rcttil rr

.t
i,",1,'.r",,f,'.,rt .,,,1

f'. ,,,,,..,.""- ur ilr'rt.rr,orL' lriltr T'rclL ",n ,rl \Irics rrf oiirnl.l \'.st eid rrn'i lic (trl th'ir I lhr irdr l! lr rhcrr lcft srLL': 1n b!tlr ir\e' tLr' ',.,,..'i..; "c.,,r,,,1 I'i"g Lhis .Llc rrhrre r l-;,i i,,,i. i,,,i" 'o",L il," t." c "]rtlons io 11'irh rhr rit' rL)f rht 1.|1r1'J rlcntrnr.l rs .r. r'x lnL 'f."f.',-.".,' nrrLrs qttrl rthr- rre rndjrrLrLi br

BUR]AI-

four ior possilty r1rorcl groups. lvith two oLLtllers thit ma) ionn d fifth, the rreis in Lre.r,ccn !!crc crcrv:rted or wtltchcd durlng developnert so lhxi thc f.rct of grouping is not ]n iloubrLi The ccmctcry xtends or.er an alca roughly 200 : 100 m lfig. 3.31. Th grar.es arc mostl,v formed oi stone sct tings, r.ith inhum'1tion Lrutlrls some nr cofflns laid in then. Bnlies are laiLt north souLh or closc to it, fem:rles Nith hcarl to the south, males \a'ith hcad to the norrh. T'!o gtavcs do nor Iir tlis pxttcrn: a male grave l1nrg Lrn thc rlght side, head t,.r thc south rvest, and a iemalc grave ia young adL r) on
1n

r' l.rr .rd Ir,l r'rl :\\l

\'rr--'.

r'

nd.l

,l(!r,.

confolmcd to expecrrrion rvith an arm spiral .rnd a disc hca.lc.lpin. The issociatio. tablcs shor. rhat gravc goods are strongl-v ser spcciffc, thoush it is norahlc thAt onl) 15 graves could bc attributed ni.h xD,v clcgrcc oi certainry to a givcn sx. Oi rhese, dlggcrs occurred in sir Lrf thc cight naLe graves, the orlr'1lncl to recur in associatiol rvlth men. uiometl, by conrrast, usualll had ore or nrorc p1ns, sonetines a ncckring or.rrnring, nlorc rarcly foot spil'lls :rtld orhcr ornArnnts All rdentiFcd fcnales l.r-r on rheir right sidc and had the head ro thc south; rt is rhus l rcasonahlc assumption th,1r odlcr grxvcs with thjs disposition are rLso ienalc. Dcllncd ]1ke this, dlere lvas nlso a strong association bcfiveen iemale grlvcs ancl arvls, A tool probabl,v used tor lcathcr \\'orldnsr whilc rhere rs no inherrnt rcason r.tr; it should be rvomcn *'ho \\'ere ecluippcd nith these tools, .hc clidcncc tlut this \r:rs rll iact thc casc rt Singen is vcr)'strong. Umrsuallv, pots of any kind are virturlly abscrlt i. the SingeD gravcs. ln spite oi thjs irnprcssion oi regularirl thc|c arc a number oi discrepatt features, ior instancc north south-orientcd gravcs, the bod)' l]'ing or ihc lcit srle, \rith prrs ii.c. alc grav iorm, Ienalc grarc goodslr a mile srave vitb d.rgger bur also jct pcnrlant, srlver t'ire rrng, striral wire and arm-spiral; lncl nro iernale sravcs with daggers. The placrng oi ficse rv:ts Ltttusual: itl thc ncck end shoulder are:] rathcr than by the wrist oI al s as \\'ith male gravesl h ncithef c:rse ere fic rcst of the grave-goods rcrrarkablc. Ho\\r rre these di!crgcnces to be explainccli In ccrt.rin inst.rnces, it may bc that rrxlivitluals $'crc bclng spcciAllv rnarl<ed oLrt bccaus oi socid clraractcrlstlcs or other special circurl1stAnces. The pro_ llslon oi drggers to two \\onrcn one toung, rhe oihcr o1,:1 lnAy L)e r clse jn polnt, Anil the d:ggers ircrc rtorn rn a rliiierenr maurcr from thxt adopted Lr) nrcn. In the c.rse oI dle'1n,11cs'posscssnrg piDs, ir is roteworthy $at none rvas :Ln ropologrcall1' sexed, thc clctcrminatron depending solcly on the north sourh orientrtion oi the gravc. While Srave-goods are corccrltratcd in lenalc gravcs ithose $.idr heacl to $c southl, daggers are alnrost xll in th(rse with hc:rd to the north. The division of soclet-v dulrugh fLLrcrar) rltcs r'.rs

'' Knus.I98S A snril.r

Lh.tu brso.l pnLnrnlv on )rthr.f.logrcrlLr .bsoled

r.nsen

en

{rs .bs.n'cd !t ChsbkmLrr dr Lsiin n.r.h l n rhrnmgix, tlts iull]j.h l97l


L

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< K

' lt)SS Th. dot ald cLasli Lur mdicrtcs thc llrDir ri rrchxlr osi.aL .bs.r\,.ti(!1r thc hcr\) dr\hcd lm. the lormdrrtes

li:. Li. I

.ritef ]tl,lnse

.l

susstsic(l gralc sroutiDg.

I
I
rhus

irmil, perhrps through L'enrg rvonrcn be regarded as ioreign to the nnn Srngcn poprLlation, pcrir,lfs orig inally rrcnbcrs oi r diiierelL conmruriiy and brought nr throush narriasci ln contrrst to these sex-dependent grale rites, in the ceneteries of rhe lntice cultrrre rn Bohemia and adi.rcent rrcils travc lorn rv:s rot usually depentlent on sex &oush srave sood provisiol night bc. A gcncrll study of rhe errl! inedce.qrar.e rite has highlighted the narn ieatures." Flat nrhu mrtions predominite, and onl1' (1r.o ex:nples fron 377 studied had nourded covfings. The d.rd \rere usuall; phced nr rectrnguLrr or ovrl pits, the majority on thelr rlght side, the he.rd to the south,\ cerrain mrmber \\ere muldple sLever The smves could be hrd out lr irregular rorvs, r.iLh some ev ence oi Srouplng \rithin the cemeteries. Snrd; oi hdividual cenereries, horver.er, quickl-v shons that other iorms mi-v occur: lr double-gnve 19 .rt Nlonvskri Nov:t Ves Hruik]', for inst.rnce, the.qra\.e-pir hrd large post-holes it the lour corncrs, r.hrch thc crcrvrtors interpreted as the rernams oi a roofed buildrng co!cring thc burirl.r A rcccni prLbllcatlon is drat of the cernetery ar Tcietlce Vlnohmd-v in south \l .r ..\',r,.rrrl., .. ,..-l
l) tsr, e \\L \'..
tlsatc.l,,l7 in a ccntral grotp anil 4 somrrhAt rrnoved. At leAst 45 indi\.id uals wcrc rcprcscntcLl. Ir 2 gr.r\.cs ther r.re 2 rndrviduals, 1n one:l im.rle, fcmalc, chilrll Orlr'10 oi thc gr,rvcs \\'crc lntact: l8 h.rd l)ccn robbcd and 3 disturbcd by cuftiv;rtion, though in f:tct thls sccns ro harc nadc littlc dlf no icrcncc to I'hat obiccts arc ioumd in thc gr4!cs, ancl sNcrel grrlcr '!ith goocls irc|c i.rxcr. \(roodcn coffins wcrc iound ln 1,1 gravcs with 3 fLrrthcr possiblc cx,rnrplcs; w.rodcD Lrox tloofing sr! iourld n1 a lurthcr,l. Thc clisrributior oi gravc goods Lrt rgc and scx shows $xt adrLlt malcs harc nost tots/ an avcragc r:ri 3.0 Fcr grxvc icxcludlng rrultlplc gravcsl, aclult iemales h:ve 2.08 per gravc, brLt childrcn on1-v L56 pcr sravc. Whrn it co es ro bronzes, horvever, the prtiem is qurtc cliffcrcnt: nale gravcs have only Lhree d.rssers ard three ornaments nr tot.rl, ienalcs only a srrgle dagger but 29 onunerts;2 of these gr.rves contaur luge nunbcrs. Surprisnrgly, clil dren's graves conrarn 5 daggers arcl 26 orra cnts. Il othcr ivorcls, pottery aplrt, m:rle gr:ves rvere poorl,v prLrvrdcd ior, ivhilc vloncr and chilclrer sonc trrnes receiled sigriiicant mrnbers oi goods. This na-v well be coruecterl l.ith rhe prectice oi male or iarnil_v ealth berng exhibiLed irr the ornen anrl chiklren;'the l.rr.ser number oi pors in male sr:rves n.rv be:r rellection oi

Aliost completc, but nor rtlritc Tlid lvoncn \!ho

lcft rs hcad of a rvidoircd, assumc malc rolcsl Coulcl srLch


w_crc

ar.mlrrrfL. Lnsrnc.s o..tr..lsca'boc 1n...!rl r of. inn Cordcd Wrr. rLDcs..\'lds: Srr.l ik D.l Strr.hlrtori lt.r6,76ii \ roulli Bere! drl Polblrsb 1r!r

Car)irif r'l liarlicIxiIS

ilril !rir:! l/rttai r)i)!

Sl

L;li

| <-,

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2
lig. :].,1. lif.:.ist I.t I lrr.ts. r,r.

nl lrl.rrrrr! hou.is in hJrdr.s: tr ltl.lrt Kr h'L.rb(,r, \\.stfh,ll .r Sotrr..: ljar..s.r l99a); LLr]rf|rg b1 L D. BrruLi .l I1(nrtrirr.i:on {roc0(!r rL (irilfhor T+f h ,l. Sourc.: Ii.r-{.I 19.lar.
oLls

oi ttroumers lialrll-v mcrrl)crs or.ithers \!ith obligatir:rns ol Linship or stitusl prcscnt aL thc iuneral
lergcL nrLnbcrs Tabie 3.2. a;rrr't

,!..Jj

dr

Irirtrr.

I'rrxrlrzlril'

\unrh.r
,Ur1.

1l
15

lots 3l
l.c

Drggers j
-

rnlenrs
3.1

Other

ft)rrl

Chil.t

3l

Logicallv, disposal oi thr de.r,l ust be rLndc|taLen nr o|e oi e vcr) lxrncd nur rcr oi rvays. The body'crn be bLrrnr, ii lltificlenr woo.l is .rv:rilable; iL ctr be dinroscd oi in ater or crposed; 1)ut ii it i! to be bLLlic.L xs rn inhrlrnrllrj]r therc rrc onl,!.wo l)rsic fosslbiliti!\: .t pil crrl bc dug io r.cive ihc botl-r'rrs ior rnstancc t'rth nuch oi ChLrstian bLrrral:rt rhc prestrt d:r-!], or !b' l)od) jt iA chrnbc| can be c.rn be lard on thc gfoLrnd xnd mricrial herpcd trf over cre,rtcd Aror.rnd ii, or.r l1l.,und crn bc hcaped uf oycftr pitl The lattcr dcnrnds rnore LLbour, and e supplv oi ernh, turles or ltone but ii has thc rLd\"rntige th:I ir c|cAtes ,r highly vr"jblc Lnonrmc]rt, t'hich 1n .r pre litcl rte socictv t'ith' our Lhe usc ol nonunent:rl stone scrvcd as eloilllcnt lesii'ron-v Lo thc lden_ rlt-r' oi tfc deceascd. The enhalce,l vjsiblliq oi buri.rls Lrrdcr tunLLli along !!1th Lhc trcsumlrtivcl-v sPccial soci.ll circumsrarlc.s d].lt lcd to Lh'ir cr'c tron, rnal<c them nAtuml .rbj..ts oi sturl,v rvherct'ct the,! occLtr' " TunrLlu\ buri,rl appcrrs ln rrxn-v parts oi the lronze r\Hc world lLabl! l ll' bcLng the st,rntlard bLuirl rirc ilr nuch of the e:u1icr parL ol dlc perio(l i the cAsr drc nofth .tnd thc norib lrcst Thcrc t'ere llso other arcas lvherc it was

ccntrrl ErL|.pc .rnd.,i dle lk1dlc rLrc.r1rsLncarl-vLiusjtzccnerericsl lnp3rt!oftheUrntieldrtorld too, LLmuli appc.rL sporadicalll, b(t whert thc-! rre frcscrlt Lhr) .rLe a Ic11 detined phc rr)1|enon It cinnot b. assu]lrccl that eiLhcr thc c:rr.ls.s or the mcth()d 01 eafr's sirnr rre thc s.r[re rr c.rch t.rsc There :]rc, holt'evcr c(iin considerarions whlch ire corrl )n to,rll m:nifcst.rtlrns oi turnuLus buri.rl rcHrrdless ot:Lrc:t

-'r 'rr 'fr.,-l . l

,:

l h '' \' r\l ' tultlnc tsrolEc Age or.lrsidc the TlmLllus

To rftlsc irom rhc rmlers ot gLives rico"cred rD iu]nuli lhc) c' not ha!c Lreen Pro!!le\1 .r Drore rlran a nmorjL) oi the f'ftrlrtion'

clcn in thosc rrers vh.rc lergc rulnl'ers arc pfescnt,


Atklrsor
argucd

rf.

thorlsh r]rosc rrterrcLl in the bairo{s oi LDghLrd rnd

Ls

tr. rtrril,alr thit r rlnli'fulce nr

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if.i

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Lr nr 1'91 trr: Drlr.il!b rLr".i lttr.Ll

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i:t1lli,.xitli,.:*ff
s,'c' sr,!c 1'. fon,l],.,,
'c,

lilrnuli hrl.c.rttr,rdcd the attcnrirn oi

d)r

hr.q

*f *i{i{il:i*'',,l.. *ffi illll* .;i::;ri'

.":.,,,.,,' ''..:.'

i:ii]]ii;.i;lli i:iii.i,,:u:",,{il ii,i,,,ii"-.',,,c o,.n .d.,ed,o :ifii lllll:" G ;,;;;,t ,. ";.: J;t ::i::1,",?{::il:;,..1,,ii:;,tlll:

in:i{ii:,rl'

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ll
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,,:,

jtli:.r,:Ji:::'r:::iilti'i3'i:ti..tj r:,i.l,[Jilu il.li,"il;li'li. i" ii.itil,t, i,'i,;l"iiilt:, ;1"1..;l,ti "H ll "l,,ii;ili:';

Altlrongh

ro o.r, l.r1or\s n)r

Brlrtrl)

sLu. l1o\!

'rld

rlro Lrtrr Cour1.-jes

rnrnr b!no\\.s lrf |rcsent 1r tsrilarn, rb. liits Fublishc,t b_v Ctlrrsel ior tsfil.rir

i6

RIiRIAI

rnd b) other rlLthors, proli,:lc somt guldanue.rr h the studerd t-vpoiog\ ol Brirish b.uro s, lt l)Asic distirlctt(rl1 is c1r,L\\n bet\rccn those bxrrol!'s lrith r'l advel! lxrsc nound-. urrcundcd br I drtch, and those rvith ver; snall nounds, the diich .ncircllnlj thcm :Lt s(rlne disrancc i'disc brrto\\'s'lr' Th! large moLrnds.1]! irLrther dividcd inLo ihosc 1\'iih :r Lnarked grp oL'berm' beN|ccn the m0umd,Lnd thc dltch i'bell l, rntl fiosc \'ithout L'Lro 'l l, LhoLLgh in practicc this diif.Lente secms less sigrilicrnt dran it does on tLre priflcd prge, and clnsell w.rs iorcecl to use 1'rrir)tLs combi.xtlon descrlprors 1'bel1 .tisc'l ro cncomprss thc !iriaLrility encorLrtcred G[nsell cnurnerated 59:]5 roun.L barro\\s ilr '\\esscx, ircm Ersr somersei io west SLL!scr, Lhe nurnl)ers hr!c rncreistLl slnce Lhen (lorrp.urLrlc llsts lor rhe roLrghl) cornparablc erer oi rest -Anglir pro.luced o'cr one rholts'rnd bir rrllts rnd nc.rLl-r 3800 rnls-dilchcs lrablc 3111 Tfc rrtrnber ot birrol"s rccorded jn llrittin,v;Ind norLh \!cir fr:rnlr is liuch snrxllcf ln Rclglurn rnd Holhnd tlrelc Ls : higfcr dcnsiry thrrl rn Frrrcc proL'abl)'conparrblt with th.isc 1n t:lst Anglii ,rnd ncishbourin!, frrrs ol (lermrnl
Tnble 3.3.

Dcn
lastccl

ible ior
Stoneh

ior

fic

()1

Idrrlr j rI

E,rtl .lrr!1r,r
llrDg ditcires
).6).

tt0I
l5:11.

Noriolh Suilink 'Iorl1

6!.5

1lt)
I135

37tl

kno*
Absolute frer}rcncv oi Lrnrl1ll\'s in diiicrcnt ircas ls rn irDo|trnt indicrtor' El.er \ lthin olre gcogr.rphic;Ll arer diiicrc]rt zones wcre diilercntl.rll-v provldcd wrrh banon* IbLLS in Wessc\ thc ch.tll(lAlrd-r lrerc much norc dcnsel-r pop ulated wirh Lrarrol'\ th.n hcAllcr soiis rlc.rLL)-l On rhe lsle oi $rish(, ftrl instancc, the ndges oi chrlli;Lppc.rL Lo:1ct xs lrllglcts i(rr birro!!s, \'hich '1r' rluch lcss comnor oii the chalkr'-{t fic srtne tinrc barro\\'\ cLrrster trlt' other rcrtsons :rs r,cl1, .rnd nr Wcsser Lhis phcno]llefon is nnrsl oh!1'us ir'[n]d rhe malor ccremorial nlonurrcrlts oi Storrchcnge rnd Avehr.rr). Alngsidc r..Lriruons Ln rlell;it-v bano .lisfosiiiorl and ropogllpht alsii far,c Inl,-rrtant rni,rrrr;Itlon LLr )jcl.:L fleming dlstmgrLi!hcd linerr, nuclcrted
Tlr.s. lrrr( L,nJ

Thc c\

beI0r0

Lrr

--\tlefilnr

l.):l (, t,llt

l.rrL

rtDl,t6 .i L.3Dr\ ro

Lhr

rrf

ln Enlhrri

l,Lr\.n, \lrr.rr.nd L'rid!i) l9\ l .r .rLninrL! h!trfr Amfc ri.l le9a, 6l . r..rLrl J.f! frlot'$Jfnr 'jl; .rDrlrrir\

.L ariLj

f.r Lrn rD(l11'n lLIl'r

nrr hrqr

(,t:tl1ctajrptltttr11it1!a,lr/glrlvcp/tttfrxlll,S
ot ,rd disfefs.d .eDr.i.Ies i1) Uiessrr rDetnn.ulil :uc

Nr

hc

e.1

trne.rf !cmet.fj.s lalro secrr rn stfitjDg, suggestrrg:r ]ercl oi p1:rrmng rhrL bskd o!'cr centunc! Thrs can bc rtprecixtc(l cst,cciilh jr rholc instx.ces $Iere .r \coliLhlc 1<ng-ben.or.iorlrcrl i.iri.rt tucus iol ,r tin.x, cenrctcr_r, 'trc as is dr. sc 1{irh rhe \\ irltflbol!.nr Srokc crossrrads gr)rrir ]. Bui rh. scfr rador oi clrnererics one rfonr !not|.r is e91u;111r sn tkhg, illLrsrreti]lg hou the hDdscrpc rrorn{l sn,nehc g1- i|as hLur.rntl, construcrett, ,\idr opcl1 spA.c or woodl.xrd Lr(r.ccn rhe cc,rrierics, and pcrh.rps dtiiererrial lghrs of access rccoLdrng ro krn-rhlp or othcr:ritih,Lrions. Ir is nor onl,v tlrc rrnrrrcdi.rtclr !i-< ible ionr oi the ccrrererj.! thrt ir s1riL1ng. T.hc lrLndsc.rpc tLrs ,,ru.,u,.,j nn r r,rdcr sc,rle :L\ rrell nn hsr:rfcc, cofcenrric rrngs 0i b.rrfuirs crcirclc Stor.hr.se.rrd A\eLrrr. 'On t|c Sourh Dorsc.t Rrdscla,v thcrc is cijrlencc l0r rhc \rLrcLurnr!! oi brrro\1, placing, bLLi it is I tuleaf arr:rngcment rclaLrng r0 mrt(1r terfnt]t'rr 1r]t1ts

Iirlulll

th.

rhr

1r1r)st

,;

rrc.Lrsiorl oi p1:rchg thc qm\c r.irhir-j setrir)gs oi srones or Sfuerl,ilcs Lhcsc are no more rban.r rtng_binl oi stcne cotrbtes. or a s ll criLn hcrped up o\.r rh. sr,r'e pir ivrthtn rtre bod,r oi rhe nrorurd; bnt 0r(]tuer oc.r\lf1s rirrl lre nrlrch [rolc e]ebor. r Tfe r.arjerions are vcrr n ncr'1rns. \'losi .onnn r in thc Lol\.Co|nrfi.s :rn.t thc Bfirilh Isl.! rr thc vrLlcrirs oi posi anrl stehc ring drich surrou cLcd th. cenr|lt Lnrr1.rt.,,, rhcsc can bc smgle .LoLrble o, rrehlc, rd ctoset! o, rfltjcl., spiccd llis. 3 5 . Thr co,1rrt( oi cr'ruhr sr.uclur.s is pre-rtrrrrabt_v dkin to rhtrt oi ttre cl,.culaL bLLr_ irlnonunrut iLseli pa oi .r ifitler r]nrat sccne, es cvrttenccrl bv hcnge rronurnrnti. ld sio]le clrc cs I the c.rsc oi larro1\.circles, ir is 1n]forr:r1ri iL) krrw \heth.r the posr rings i.erc i (trucru.al pirt oi rhc nronun)crl or onl! romcled rfidl l\Lr.ricver rciiviLrs trcredcd dre hcaprng rq oi tl c mrl,,ri. Ihc ['n]en.. is not Jtoger|er consjsienr Ashhcc shtes th,rt , .rosl oi rhe uicrrul ci|clcs rrcrc of I tclr|or.lr! r-ratuf., fie stxhcs bcrng r.ithdrairn hciore rhr efe.tr.f ol thc barr|ri,,' rnd ii 11.:rs .cr1rnl\ iruc ihat in (.rm British crl tles ihr lroodlr1 posrs r.erc lcplaccLL b,r srone strucrures tor ttrc final torn ol rh. lnlnurrrcrl h) other cxlrs, for insr.Ircc rn Hr:rlbnd, ihe lroirs.u. sub!lrrtral ,rnd do nor giv. the ilrprcssron oi bn)g tenlporal! Tire foslings sccl| ro h,Lr c delincd rhe l.rDLI.)r .jr enclolrd ,u c,r i]l .r scmi-pc,,ranc t r,.ar bcioLe thc nulr. frfn:rnent clemcrts lr.rc orecr.ll, .rs crn b !..n h,orr rhc Ntdencc tor lersnfg rnd orher c.r!monrrl actrr;iries cven n,irhour the dcp lsnrrlrt oi rL |odr on c.ftrin siics.il
entlolcd, w.rs
Fosr,i.

'\{..i,],uLln1 rli!!]lii.1

t rtr-_.

pIimary

eral pos

.rblc

till

i\,

./

L'--

if

.'"

Onc
.r

,'

i6s.3.,1

ro\f. sl Toterlc usuall)

It

is

Iig.3.5. Br[.\!s with pLrsr rirlg! of !.rrious tlpes. ] 3. ToteriorltH.rllc i\liil |.rrows 2!..: and 5 i.rter Chsbergerl l95,l.rl ,l Fouf Crosses, rhnd\'srlro, Pol',vs laiter \\,irn]01'.r ,rl l9fi6l. 5 6 Brenig. I)enbighshire brrro!'s l0 and.15 ilii.r Llnch l993l I N,:rfth Nlrins. l,crthshirc irfro llarcla] 19831. S. Tallnigton, Llllcolnshle, srre l6 irircr Simpson 19761

Thc

-ar\1

!l.rr is tf,Lt the hcapi|g up oi thc n oLrrd \"'x-' the flrlAl rtt oi rh' pnnrL-! n\. .i the 5it. rthe sltblc.lueni rLildlrmn ol sccorlJrrt Lrufixls in i r' js:I .lnoillxr) m.rrrerl. All th rctims thjL 1!r\th'ed dis botl.v li rhe nounl turLunre oi dr. origDrLl glound sufi.rce fit diSgxlg Io!r cfcLiof stolle sel tngs crnfot hrr,e bcctr crrLied .iut 1!tril. thefe 1\a! A l rLrn(1 i phoe Furrhonrr! the rro'nJ couLd not hrle bccn crcle(l ii thre rcrc sLgniii c.ut rumb,:r, nt posrs \\1th rht trrofiso rml; th.rt somc or r11 oi thc posr" mnsr hrre b!!n Lemo\ tJ when thc anre camc to trke this stcp thcr!rr'sv crrl tossibilnici iof Lhr ord.r oi crurts lhc Lru .rls n rhe ccntre oi thc rncloposr rlnls sure, $ith or i'ithcuL r'riortrrir) housc' ln.r! hAlc pLeccdcd the rhrm lr.tn.ef in Linrc !r\ lirtle dilftr.rrcc n'rs rre.be Lhuc oLIicL'r'cr..r i:n s{rne c.nrsidcf pL,st LLefined cnclosures S01re brLLL,l\s rc]]unetl opcn as ccn dble rnn1] sncc l)un.rl fiir .ur lnro th. subsoil I'c nol co|tined Lo rhc tle oi lhr tr.]rfo$, .rn(l if rolne crsr\ th. {rr1c gr)(]ds sho$' dittcreni fr)tt'lr st-\'les mg!.elrilr:r l.ng f.tlod oi dercLolurent ore nr! conlfxfc thes. tost Lngs, $hich Isbbc. lnterpr.ts Ai the ronrxins olnorrurLrr, house., to thosc sircs 11'hich cLr.rrlv did contrn sn uct fcsrnrhc Ionn oi r cluflrbr, .f h.,11!c'. surh str Lr.rufes .uc bund r1l L'xn' rs ]n nn')
Whxr is

r.r,cli 1s their ir'.rrr un.nrLrigr(]Lrsl! Lfr'}r1r rlrc oi Crurlhoi Tesflrhnde 1rl Loncr Siron) ' tfig:.1 surh.r cxsc is rlrt rnd ot othrr slco rn the lrnr. irea,:r rlrd rnosr rcccntlr r-'i a rcurarl<ablc I'ooden !nrcmrf irr l)arrow l'1 .rt fltclt jBoroh.f Paderboul '- These corr srsrid oi 1,Lrgc nrLrghlr licLalgul.rr L)uil(li.gs nljde oi larse post>, solnellttt's cont,LnLlg uoo,ler coitins, .rnc1 buLnL dorn prlrr ro thc crccLio' oi thc brr rori. Sonethrng !l ihc s,rrle s(n'r ls prescnt Lulder !1m. Dutch bai'rol\'s' trs nr T0tcLi.uL Tlrlr'e r\lir1, th.ugh rhc sc,rle oi rhcsc corlstr ucrlons is nr u'h srnrllu LrsLLrlh.ritl Llher srrell fo"t\ At the ioltr.corners of.rn rssLr 'd truil(llf! rh$srL.r(l(litd the buri.r1.' I'h$ rcsenblc.uch Brirish .r.rn1pL's as bxvc Lrern ioLrr'l, r"r rr B.:LrlieLi l.;Ifrirl\s II 3n.L l.\ 1ll tlr. Ntl\ I(jrcst, H;mpshilc anLl 'r
prns of thc drsfll.LLtLon' bLLt

onl-r

Lro$rr hoa ih.se noriurrt slrucrurcs operaredr lt seens th'tt thev rrcLc urrentroullr Iirc.1 once dre bufi:rls haLl bccn rn.rde and belLrc thc batr0\! 1!rs e]..tr'd. I h. t.rnr '11ror ru,tr'" housc' sccrls Lc' Lrc somerhug oi e Llrs n0 $, thes! \rcLe ch:LDl).Ls nor urrliLc th.'se i son" Ncr)llrhic Lrrrr'\ts buL, ulllilc theqr, rhc-! neLc trs.rl lor i.Jiliduil fot colLecii\. bLrrl.rl Uflikc d1e (lj thc post rirgs, Lhc clr.ltr1Lrers did not llL\. ro be rem.r'ed ior fi. cfccLio| hrx0\ L r \1'tr.,rn nllcgrxl prrt or rr' Thr n)dorn) oi lrrror. ,LLc uncrccptLLrnrl, in tcrfis oi both corlstrucrlon
It

i\

l1LrL

' Irt0\r:: i.r l Elr lr L:r1r) ' alrlLr !0r Ltr rr Lrlt: C \l L\r:!rii lr l -i lll

Ashl-'!r lra'lr

.l:

tlral

I'jgg

ot .lag:

C;rinrc

a snrall

.rnd l3 stlcndi

, -)
Fig. 3.6. l'hD oi rhe b.rr.y. crnrcrer:rr Orkllr DrNn ltorsct ird dlsb l,nes are cont,,urs, Jashcd lxrcs .rLe arc,cnr ne1,l h,Ili,lJri.-. eii.r llalHn{E l975L

Dlrt

To
lvh.rt

tL

rnd contrnls Const|rLcti(nrnl icerures me. bc rnly pirs or sronc sritrmgs, \rjrh nrounds oi luri rnd.l]'rhr rhc prxn.r|v grrlcs nal contrin.r (loffcr Age res scl illcll lerLer, Cordcd Rc:Lhcrl. or.]n Errl) Rr.mze rr norhrng at 'csscl, xll. Aircrltion h.rs thcrcnrc focused on thosc grrves^se rvhrch.ont;Ljn rrrtrtcfirl thAt i! LurLrsrrrl ln qll.llit\ rn Llu:rntit,! or bnih rrosL notablr tfc Armonc.rr Fi|rr Suies grrvs rn Britt,rrl,!:rnll thosc r)t rlrc'fiiessex crLlirlc,n Brit n.'. Ufnrnunjtelt, th. $clrt ln:rjoritv oi tfcsc heve suitcLcd grcrLily irom jnc.nn t-1!!cnl or unr.cor.lc.l rxcalrrron, lhrch nakes ir \.er! hard ro have .rnl cor f(lcnce h thcoric\ tlr,I depend(,n fin1- (leLril m rhc fi.ds recofd. E!.f clrrchtn)ns \ith rbc ljze or nrfnr oi bxrro\r's rre nor xlwrys easv to csr:LLr lish srnce man; oi tirc published accourrs do not mcludc that iniumrrtrrn Thcrc.rrr, hotocr', lorne correl.rtions tlrrr iure mLdii). Tr is cerr.unh,nuc

Only .r

l.l

Ldi\c

Cctrtetary
that drsc

l)dttcnli g dilal lrdvc patte 11t7.3

9r

brror,s lrc rr1al.l! iouIrd rr Wessex ald hrvc an associxtiol \rlth nalerial oi the l{''esscx crLlturc , though perhaps not as siron:I])- rs Grins.ll madeout sLnce onhis oirn figurcs onl-v 15 oi dle surviving 1,15 disc b;L|rorv\ in Wessex prodrced Wesse\ clrltufc gr.rv soods.r' This is ,1dl1rjrteLlly morc impressirc dun the 16 our ri 2i0 bcll brrrotts. and iar tnore so than lhc 69 out ol sone .1600 bowl hair.ms, brlt it hardly conslitr.rres r sccur! bdsis on whicl to crregorise rhc wholc oi thc southen tsridsh Earl) Bronzc Agc. lC] i Wessc\ cLLlrlLrc', Piggott llsted one hundred grarcs that h 'rttribuled nothlng more diagnosLic rhan bcacls ,rt but sircc manv oi these conlrir1c.l shale,.rnbcr or faience, d1e dcfiniriori has ltccn cntrcised. The disfiLrutior ol dager gravcs, ior rnstrnce, ertcncls iar bc|olcl rhe L)ound.rries oI Wessex,-' and the sr.rc ]s trLre oi iaiencc bcadsrr xnd.rmber.I lronicillv, In the s'1frc nunber oi thc s le loLrmal wlrcrc flggoii published his origrn:l papcr, Cdmes pu|lishcd the maLerirl iron a rich sra\'e 1n Clhmorsrn .rt Bre'1ch IrIm, Ll.nbcddiAn, comtuisng a pyljri) cllp, :t tl.tnsed are, r t:nged thisel, asnall llat rl.rggrr, rIo arro shait smootLcrs'anL1.r grorp oflinelhnL obiects: convex scnper, lcri shAtcd pornt tluee trianguLlar rnd rhrcc dLscoidal l<niles .nd 13 iire a.r'owhcads oi the Corvg'1r Ilill i)pc. ' Thcre .ue man-v other instancesollich gr:rvcs: those in north Rritxi. conrxlning jet crescenric necLlaces," or tha! fiom Mold, nordr w.1lcs. contiinlng x rr.rle nlhumadon, i spleadid gold cr1c, l{)0 :100 imber bea(ls, shtct blonzc frigrrents and gold 'strrps', rre thr ost notrhle.r: Some :Lrthors fNc rcfcrrctl to the'air oi provinclirlisn aLrout cvcn thc nchsL Lri lhc nof \licssc\ n1atcrl.rl, criAnlples oi locrl intepretatjofs r)i \'\'csse\ idrs ,r'Lrui sllclr sLLLrjcctivc jutLgc rcntsdo little to hrther rlrc rrgurrcnt. Whir rs important rLrout wcsscx is drc ltld lre dcnsu) oi'rich' grxlcs m the rrei. To take the exanrplc oi onc wesser ceneier,v: rhat lirm oaklc,v Do$'n, pxnsh oi lvxn|omc Si G]lcs, Dorset.+- The ccmcter y igrouF ot trnnr.llil con tains 30 h,rrror.'s, disposcd in An Apprrntl] irre.qul:rr lnrnrlr. ar1 cx:rrrplc oi what Flclnxrg cills r nuclcatcd ccnctcr! 1tis. .1.61. The .10 c,.nsist or F bo[ I barows I trrll b:rLLor,s, rnd s disc barrows, menn inrer Lr row Llisrxncc ]s only a ic\\,prces. M.ricrinl usuall-v consttlered L,lpicrl of ihc \l'csscr culturc, induding 4 daggers, $,r! iound in harro\rs,l ibelll, 6. 7, 8 i(]iscs1, 9, l0lbowlil, 1Jldisc,10 rntl ll iborlsl Thc fichest srives laccordrns rc rhc lur,vivlng
r Cololi

l.l::
B

13. ihgsos

uri . iurtlrrr

lU l.fin' .1]g!.6

]f.

Lrslr'1,

rr.Lrdnrr 1t t,nsel

.!f

llff L r .r lrtl :l rls 6 L. {Cnnkslri\ s..rlr.errLlhnl.,,nrn(:hik..r ,il LtS: 1..1 ill .1r!,ltr !nf llfr(:rtrr
r! B(k

r !""

Hrdi

Nl SL.n.r.

tri

( cl.rle fr 'rl !9!a l0l i!!l 'r CinllL lt-it illtt

;.it

\|'hcrc thc l\stern mound conurned 100 rmber L'cads and spaccr llatcs, a bron:c at1 .rnd a fl.rt lveted kniie-dagger. ' There is no evidenc. hcrc tl.,'t ;r'.y of thc prlnrxry gr.t\.cs Lrelonr, m anythrng otheL dlin dre pedod oi tlre'\licisc\ ctrlturc , cvcn though not all qu.rlified 1or crtheL L:'iggorl or Cerloif to include thcm as ncnltcrs oi th.rt grorq. ln rhis fespect Lhey diiier fron th! siluxtior ot ftos. cc]ncrcrlcs th.rt c.rn be seen to hal-e begun liie rn thc Rcal<cr fcr ioL1, or c\ cn in rhc Ncolithic, such as the Shrer.ton cemeLef.,r! or.r nrunbcr r-'f th. ccrirct.rlcs xrornr.t stonchcnge such es the Cursus grou!, (herc nt l.ast tn'o Lr:rlrows startcd trlth Bcakcr bunAls'" In endrvourmg Lo nterpre. tlis ccmctcry.)fc is no!rhl) hrrlrpcrcd b! rhc lack oi rnionnrtron about age and sex. It has :l!.cld]]) bccn rssum.d dl:t d,rggers occur rn rnale graves .urd beads in icmalc,i' hLLt thcrc arc viriu:rllt n.) studies on skeleL.rl material to supporr ihis Ffi'ccnrlp;rrisor1, ir is rluc drar :rt smsen alnosr all the male graves cortainccl drLggcis:Lnd:tll drc daggc| gr.nes l.heLe the ser could nor be de.emned iroln thr boncs wcrc or1 lrthu' grou|ds ic S. oLientarnrnl assumed to be llule.]r Accepting this corclatiorr t|)r Orklc) Do\!n lc.rds ro thc conclusron tir:r males rtere nor, as a rule, prcr !idcd wlth Llch gfivc !,oods 1tsush ts:rrroN is eroepdon:1Iin this res|ecrl. ivlorc urual nas rhc sitLr:rt1on 1n O:kley Doivn brrroN C.9, or AmesblLr) C.85, whcrc xn Alrorico Bfitish ts dagger 1\.as iouDtl itith a kriie-dagger, bone pills, :rrro!! stl':rlghtcncrs xnd antler irnp'lements.i B-v conrrasr, ienale gr:ves corLld bc malkcd rith s,gnificant nr.unbers oi goods, as iL O.rLle) Don'n brrro\\ 3, or n:ny othcr iamoLLs \\'csscx grxr'.s. Thls still leaves the great mrioriq ot gLaves nith ier,, li:Lry, ,rr13 of Lllstircrion, other thrn the iact oi burial n a tunlLlus ccmctcr,r rr1 x ccntrxl p.lrt oi wessex. rl,lLrldlrr rrul.I]r.hr, this situ,rrior is no! so cliiicicrt frrm thar obtainrng in cntf.rl luropern l]:1t cemenorc conmonl-v drspl,rved r.rth iernales thrn teries. As in them, \r'calih '!r!ornenrcnts rnd trinl{ets oi wessex,rrc believed r,ith n,1lcs: man\' of thc gr:rld to h.rve come irom iemalc $avcs n:1ic,i.rll !!crc
Lrar,ro\{ .q,

i.

ti!c

i\Iidd

L95t
nncL

Series

Eir

Norn:

Int
r

Ftt1n.e t1rLl

tlrr lor'(lorlnllr.\

in N.
50u

The trrl,! Br.inze Age ru LLli oi Rfirlrny trcscnt rllrn| ol th. sanc prol) len s." The nurnber oi L'tLrials is similxr to thrr in thc \{rss.x aLca pcLh.rps J80 buri.rls are.rttriburable to.hc Arnrorican Rxrrow culttrrc.--S]nc. rhc)

' uerloti lrr!, l{rt rrr rllr A.nr|l! ' Gr'rf .f.l lt.Ll. s.rLlh l!8.1 ' (:r'l.il l97i
16

rn.l sLmts.. 1961 -il D.s .14:

li

D. l:: N0{rll ltlLl

.1.

Cctllatcr\. l1nttc 1ji1g


nere dlvid.d 111l{j r\1.o

nii

SLrlve

pdt!ar11it1,g

9l

'sc es',- {]rc hrving xfrorvhexds and S1).r!ll,! c.n sider.d'rl!h. rh odrcr onlv pottcr.!, I mnnbcr oi lulthcr ercl,arions h.[,c rcrnlnrccd dre drvrsio. \ridrout xlrriHedrer loh,inr thc qLLestiorr r:rf rhe rcle tlvc tutc and lrgniticrlce of thr phenolncn0n, doLlgh a po1,.crru] bod,v oi otinion holds thxt thc Seron.t S.rics is 1n frcr l.rr.r drnn Lhe Fjrst, Lremg oI Middlc lrrn:e,\ge daic ti.e. rhc disrlncrnrn js chrolrologjcal. not .roci,rl ..Thc rlrst S.,ics ronslsis,,t onlv 3t bxrrows, drc Sccond oi 7J; rn addirn[r a iur thcr lll Nere t{ro ]]or)rlr froriJccl ro be assig[ed to .ither scrics 11ig. ,].tl BrrLow\ tforn rhc 50 or l]lorc tfar h:ve bccn discolcrcd or crcnvrred srncc i95l Llo ror irll cxrcil,! into thc nro scrics; derc is, ior mstxnce, .r clals oi ba irrs r{th stonc cisls 1'tunulus lt coiircs'l rhnr cxf contalr Lroth d1|t\!ork anrl lonerr.i' and a consrdcrablc nulnrcr oi seconder.y Lrunal.r rh.rt tr.r,,c fcr. or no gI,e.goods.'. The cist barroirs rlust be seen i. rel.r.jor) ro rhe nrlfifI ous ter srnndnrg ciits |]lat :rrc frcsent 1n Rr i .ln\., :r situ,rrion rclrmblmg rhrl in n0rthern tsfltri. Nhere cists \!ere co.rrroner thxr nounLis. It is also clerr Ihat elen r,ithir rhe Seco d Scries, thuc is consiLicr.rble \ariatn)n rn gr:rve l0nn rnd rccon|,rnrxrg grave-goods -, The crudc inLerprctarion oi th( First Seles gnr,es x\ an intrusi\c princcl) str:rlu1r overlvrng the lot,cl socirl dasses lfeprc-c.nicd bv thc sccond SeLics and thc urclassrfiabtc gr:vesl is rhus
m ol'ersxnflifi ccl

Iarh Bron:c Agc rumuli clserrherc if frrnc. xrc rarher r:r c, L)rougb there rs a larrc \hddlc Bronzr Agc grorp in the iorcst oi Hrgtrcn:ru in Alsxce.. S0me prrts oi c|]rsLnl \onrendy harc l:rge nu bers of bartor.s,i' bor Fr:ncc north rt ilris is virruall\ der.old oi l<nol.n cx.rmples;.,r:rccasional c:iarnplcs omur elsdrhc,c \\eft drc Errlv Bronze Asc in Fr:rncc rs : rrhotc berter knor,n. ri nrighl be posslble to a-<scss rhe p(Jsilioll oi tunlulus burirl mtrfc xccumr1]l). As ir is, drc sorne1{.h:rr allomalous posltjlnr oi tsdiiarv .rnd Norurmdr rrrighl suggcsr thrt th. crc:rdon of a bunal tradiLion urder ber r0rr mllou,cd d1e srmc coursc as in south.rr Enghnd. ln rhc Ncdlerl.rnds, barro s xrc iound throughout rbc centrel pal of thc counr) bL( .re espcciailr comnrm in thc nor rh in Drc.rhe, .rncl jn the south in Nortlr Bf.rlrnnt Gl:Lsbergen's icndemenr:rl srudt csrinares rhat Lefir,ccn Li00 r.d 1000 brLrows l.ere crtrni in thc Nerherlards x1 thc it,ur oi this rennn,!,0t 11hich 5{)0 h,rd been crcar.ated b\ rhe txr. 1.rc,,1.rotc.'. Smce thr! tjnc :roi |hotogrrthv h.r-r tuurd rrorc siies, as,\ith reccnt sLudics in

ficrufe.

lid!.r[.. ]]rnfr ll{l|i., Bx.rrd,r.i trr:) '' t3 rr IL!c L lrLrrrlrrL,., CLr.i d! Nfri &. J Jrl Cnn tgal ' Sdrutu ltl6 tilrret r! .r l9fi.
'' es

'

Crlhr

ltrl

lLirir, l l:

Belsir

AU

Earl,

l,i
Y

Nr-,rrl

Motrr

Euroll

co]1rrL

Dcrrr Holst trr Ea

Brorz

\.isiLrl

ol

S\\,

Fig.3.7. Budrl cisrs m Breton first Series brrro\ls l. SniDt ludc en Forrb rc, Cdtts du Nord; 2 Srint-Adricn, Cores.du Nord i.riter )lriard L9lr,lcl.

Crxratarr pdta[]ili.g

nhi

,{rdvt

pdttcntitl,g

95

Asr lulr :rs ir drtl rn Denna,k; rt Hooghatcn, rhis \vrs rhc dchcsr gr.n e rtc;.o"r,r,ur, .rr Totcrfo t llalvc Ntiii thc trescncc oi rrr "',U buriJs rrdir:rres conrxlui ,g ulercst Lre,!or].1 ihe Errt\.Brorzt r\S.. The con trnulng usr ol brn!rfs nr lrro prrir of rhe llr.orL Agc. ancl bc,vonct, is rrtcsred rot onlr br urn |urirl-( r) najor rroLrnds c,ccLed cattier rrr rhe f.riod. L)rt br cerrctcics oi slrrxll bjrroys coDt.rirjng cfcnr,rLions along nLrch oi the course ol thc lrNef Rhln. .
Br0n:e od

Belgrun,"'rurl r nurrbcr oi othcrs harc been crc:rvnicd or pllbtishd,.. so thai the rruc dclsirt oi blrol\'s in rhe Nctherl.rnds is prrbrblv ro lol.cr th:n ior comp,rLrhlc ;re.rs oi souttrcn Enshrrd or Dcrrln.rrk. Untit c tttrsc :ucas, hor ever; druble linLts rrc r.rthcr rare, cspccialll ihose .lcnrlv etlributAbtc ttr tlrc trrl,! ]lrcn:e Alcr cLagger glales, for jrstancc, are.rbscnL \\rfar rs lnore, rt is cle thrt Lrrrrort 1)u,inl, rncludnrs thar nr colllrs. c,rfrinu.d uro rtrc llxldtr

oi

nmv tcns ot rhoLr!.nds oi b.rrrcu,s surr,ir.e or rre rcor,ded, sornetirncs irl cernctcdes oi r.DrrLal)lr de]ls]t), as cnn bc secn irom rhc rntrics in rhc $ear coryus oi r\ncl anJ I(crsien, rn \\.|ich over -11,000 L)irrows rrc rrLstcJ in Dcnnark crclrLLlrn.q 1)orih.e.rst lL l.rndl anLl thc ivesrcr-n of Schlcs\!i.g faft Holsten i' Admrltedl), somc oi thesc bctong io ih Vil(ing fcrjod, .rnd onl! rtrlativeh snall nunrbcr.rre knovr.n to fave prodrLced fin(is oi Lare Ncotithrc or E|Ilt lror:r r\ge derc, but it is Lhcty rhat rhe vrir n.riorii). jre prchis rolic. Sornr bcgrn liic irl rhe Ctoppef Agc rnd xcre uscd rglrr ln thc Errll Brome lge, irhile othcr s l erc orlr. built jn thc lairer tcriod. lr) S\reilen sorrc areas lre conspicuolls tor thc 1,uge urmLrrrs r:ri c.rirns :nd nounds rhaL .rrc visible 1r trLrts oi Scanii rnd on rhc ilest .orsl \rhcre thcy are iound or pronoriorrcs ,rnd 1\ cts. somciimes !isiblc hom thc se:r .rnd pefhxps xrdj carir.q rh. corDeftirfl oi tIc de.rd Fcrson riLh tcfiitori.s ih.rt ircludc.l strerches oi 11'rler. Ncrr ciiicbLrrg, for rnstance, rhc study oi b,rrror,s and canns, coutlrd $rth fie rcconsuuctio[ 0i sh.rre]incs gir.en x lO rr fchtr\.. ise nr s.r lcvel, his lrxbled sctlrlars !o r.ork oLrr thc hne or rhe tsronze Ag. turLr liird with r!1oLS bcering such mourds.r Estin:rLs ior dre \!csr coalt 0i SNcd.n are oi lS00 c.rif ns,rnd | 00 brrni,s.-, trcl Lrdrng e certain rurnbcr 0t hrgc slrcs isr.rtcr rh.rn 20 m 1 ctiarretcrl

cxlrr hildrrg l\.as cxtrernely popular in ln:tn).prrt! oi northern ll rlrlous sr.rgrs oi the Broue,\gc Espcci]ll,! 1n lL(hnd rn,l adteccnt parts 0l nofth (lcrnrn! lJge mounds lirrcr dre roLrntrvside in ccrrrin xrlxs,
I'loun(l 0r

IuroF

\.n vrr drf " 4tr. i:id lilb1I lrTr t:


lLr

i !r HlxhlJ f{r

\re.n

r.n r.rrrj!! t9r,

rorruncd frts, stone settrrrss or.oifins, .rnd seerrr to ba!c be!. rcgrrd.d as ,lisrrerc contrlners nrr rhc rcsti]]g placc oi the dc.ll At Lodu ur l ; i| Sc.uii, hot$ cr, a gr r.up oi tour b.rr or" s scrvcd as a iocal pornt ior ccmctcly grot'th or.er a 1r:rng pcrrod, aprerenrly iron thc L.rte Neolillit
Rarro\rs u-ruill,!

righr rhroLLgh to the Ror1l,rn lo. Agc ]n this c:rse, bLLri:r]s l\.cre placed both rr arcl ;rourd the brrrolls, so rt ir 1s noL elen possiblc to deternLne lhich brLrirls tr cr'. Ulrlury to rhc berroL|s. This sire ,rlso Lliscs rlLrcstlons .rt)ouL colr rinLLitI oi burixl trndiLion .url, thrugh tt is perhaps ar crtrcrnc exan pLe. ilirLs r tcs tlrc polrt thar rntrj.ir brLrr.i$s of h:rer.er lciod irtr:rcted rllenli|)ll trolll lxtcr glncfAtlons. i{uch ar.cntirrn incl.iubl) iocLtscs .1r th specLrcul:1r firds oi textrles, oodel1 obi-crs, IcatheL, bark ard othcr oLgxnic rrrrerials iro tcrt.In Drnish lrnd rc.r lcsscr crr.nt Cenn,rrl barrcri's, .Lnd Lhe uiorDAtion irorn them is rnrleerl Lrnrivellcd in scope atrd -ca1c PArticuhr],v dle lrrrrois xt skrvLlstrup, Esrl'ed, \'lollbjcrg, Tnndhoi Loithoi rnd BoruLr Eshoi rll in l(tlrnd, rcept Loitlnrl, lrhich is .lrl Zerl.rnd producc.l thc tinds ttlich hclp tc, n.rke the Prchistoric Def:1rtm.nt oi the Narional Nllrs.ulr in Copel ugeD mc ol thc rchesr :nd rnosr importint rn aLl Eurr:pc. These finds havc bccn d.scrll)cd -r rl1ln-\'Lxlles Ii is irnportanr ro rcalisc thar thcfe is no re.lson rr) Lrcli.l'c thcm to lule been exccl.tional et rhe tine rhcy tcre depsired. The blrroils ri'ctc much like nan,r othcr-r, :rnd rhe trcc trurk coffins ttrich ch,uncicrisc n.rn,! oi them .rre repclrcd lrtntlreds oi trncs o\ cr Lscc L)el{r\rl \\ih:1i rs c\c.ptlonal is thc degree oi prcscrvatiolt. It rs rurcert:in iron tLis hort u.rnr and rfat sorr oi people lere brLriccl ir barrol's rn Sc.rndrn:Lvir As 1th rn.u) arc:Is, thcrc .rre a signilicart nLmbct 1)t 1)Lrriils \rith Ie1\' or n,, grar.e goods, 1u \!hi.h onL-v the ircr oi barrorv brn i1l ri drstxrcdve BrLt tlrcr. xrc .Llso a signiticant nLunbcL oi peopLe bLriccl *ith sworLls.rnd oLher prcstigc olrjecrs. Eren \\'idr th. LrLse nurnbers ol balrol brnials tnown, the t-or.rl rumbcr cannot accoLrrt iol rr(Jrc thxn r smill lnlror it,r r:rf thosc nho lived rrr !l'rc pcrioils colered Thcrciorc acccss to barron'bLLr ial \as rcstricted, ard thc rcst oi the population.rrc not,rrchaeol<iilic.llly visiblc. Tl-il] cxrstence oi gr.r!c distirrctions is evrrlellt ilr:rm both the si:e oi llrr-'nu rrcrts anct the type oi consn'tctron used: tor rrr>tx.cc sron or errdr ior tirc body of fic rnound llhoush this rn.rt ha\.e Lreen ratlrc,'a cgcstion oi rvrilablc matcrials rlrn conscrous choiccl. Urlth]n both luditio.s, ccrr.In sites {ere m:rked r:rcLr b.,- crtrr sizc, rolccrirrg cnh.Lnced sL:rLrs ' Thc srzc rnd elaboL.r' don of the grcar rnound ol Br.drror xt K1!iL ln soLldr cssr ScAlrlA. rt 75 m ir di,rnetrr, i! cxccprron.rl:nd prcsunrcd to rndicaLe ertraordinAr,v -rtatus xl its Lrcclrf3]ltl!| thc decor.rLed shLrs r)t thc gmve chamber conlirnr the ilnPres'

CLntrnl

Irr thc I,l

i:ntlfic

with i,:lj niddlc I

and thc

ory rhrLt she callr

goods, a grave ch

Cn)t!c|J. pdttenjng nrd Erdve -'lvh,rt sion Thn11e has renrred ,miri rr1,
point Jidr ic :1t1*,h', "k:,,

ptLttau.|1:7S

,,

:i:i:liTllT:Ji::i,:rr:,o1

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wrilc

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iltts
lilcs,

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an,l

p,,,i

ii

mis
l1rLp,

proughrn3.l\.as a]so rDrt or the sr.lve rirs rel]lrs cre :::.::l::l oence rn uc ":--.-o cr ot rn inr..liorallv consimctca :n"1 tn";",rt"*f ort.r,,",i.,".
Cartrtl fr1)r!)tj

acr,,.,",r,r." i".i li,,ii,l

:il'$,*:.Ti::,::::l

dre

thc
ihed

l; :::.iltl.:\T:t1i:. :ii:11::J:,:iltl;,:i:"*:J ft'll:ili1$'"",ifi idcntrlird \.it| dlc Ttrurllus cultur!, tir

allt
rnal

t,r*;l#ljii,,m:if .*fl :i1* ;ryt;:.*rx ! fi x|:lilill:.:"",:'.:,ili::i:i::'llil

lin
'ith

llv
hc )lc

l{ale in lrcsrcrn poland goods.,nLr,,c iwo cc'rer,,".,",,..,".'

lrlba o$,i,rr LqLi

t" ;';"1.:, i; I r:1


MoL,.r(

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;'i-, :;' :tl::1, ".r:


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n,.m rc,r.,{r 01

Bronz. Agc t'murus

b.,,"jl:t:l:

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rhe

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l!-r I ir\nr tt9.il i tui.lnr! nL \rL! lltl ', Cdl$, H,rtlLns l9-9, rtii (jr1r r0rs

9fl

URI AL

tivel-v ierv oI thc gravc goods survived. " Onc hrge mourd \!as cxcavrtd, rnd anorhcL possible e:amp1c 1ey ne.rLb-v. tur uitid stone selLing 1\'as cncloscd 1n

Szczepanko 'icc

i\lioclartl rs iusr

as inrprcsslve

rs Lqki N{,rlc, though rela'

prirnxry mound. rrto rvbich .r r.ornan s ard ;r chlld's grive h,rd Lrccn inscrtcd Thc mound es l.rtcr cnlargcd. The stonc sctting, 8 r 6 m in extcnr, wAs ini tl:r1ly deflned by rvoodcn clcments; Lhree t:,ost holcs and oLher.r:ccs o1l'ood l:ry rurder the perirncrcr. Thc rnound irsclf harl a substanrial turi stacl< ovcr rhc stone setring, \llrilc thc mxln rnlruld rt'as oi carth The centul gravc had bccrr lobbed, so liltle idcx can be obtained of thc oriSilul st:rte 0r dclrrrcss oi fic burirl, but it 5 11l hish and f5 m across, thjs rnoulrd \t.rs:r clustruction o{ considcrable size, co11lpntrLrlc 1\.1th the Leld M:'lc b.rrrol!'s irespectivel)- l:t, .10, 30 xnd 45 m 111 di,r clcr an.:l:1.6, 11.9, 3.1 rnd 4.,1 m highl. Thc rc:rlly remarkaLne thing:rl)out Helmsdori trl.l LcnL)ingen is the ri.lbcr str ucrulcs, \rhich .ue not kno\ln frorn other sjtcs in ccntral Europe i*ough somcrhi.g slnril.rr is preseDt ilr hstopolje 1ll Bosnia: scc belor']. It is ctLLjtc evidenr rhxt, ii other turnuli hacl conparably good survival, trmLrer ch:mbers rnighr havc bccn shofn to be prcscnt. In other r.Lrrds. it j! x nAtter ol preser' v:rtion rathcr dll1r ofismil rrrir-v. Therc js r lon!, rr.rditi.,n of CoDpct Ase hrrrort bruial throughout the east ern hali oi Iuropc, rvhere Lhe gra!cs arc Associrted {'ith thc provislon oi Lrchre ind sLrlneti c! $'ith cord-decoratcd pottcrt, but Lhis e'1rl) tr':rdirion stops \\irh rhe begin rg oi thc Bronze ,\ge propcr'!r'Earlr Bronze Agr lrirrrows cAn occur in cenetedes oi r scor or more,t'Lrrt rclAtivelr ielt' havc Lrccn tcsterl b-', c\crv.rtion, .rnd r'hcrc thc-v hn'e, drere arc frcclLrentl-v poorl) rLl.i\hcd sraves \\'hich crnror bc attrrbuterl to a specific c1ate. lhe sran,'Lrlcl irork on rhe anetice cemctcrics of Poland lisis 13 lo.alitics 1\'id1 E.ull Rionzc Age frnds antl mounds :rpalt iron LeLi ,\'l.lle.I ID S.rxon;', Billig lisred r nLmlbcr (l1 sltes \rith l).rrro 's, thoLLgh ecLnrittedl-v only that at (lrussig, Kr. BalLrzcr, contrined +plc.rl Earl-! Br0n:c Agc 1inds.'r In Moravir, Lol\'cr Austrix, thc RuLrgcnland and n csten slor.al<ia Earl)' Bronz Age b,rllows arc L<norvn irorn a numbcr ol plxccs " ]n Thurhsir, $'altcr hes Lsted a nurbcr oi sites nhere barror s wctc pr,cscrt, r:rnging rn datc fronr the lull Early Bronze Age ro thet]ansirioll to dlc i\'iiddle Bronze Asc.rt Ncugebruer has madc a casc for seehg thc prcscncc oi srrall tunuli in thc larcr pheses oI rhe cenctcry at (;emeinleLrarn I, gi\tr] thc grcitf distinre bc.rccn graves cornparcd to thc earlier ph:rses.r'Thcsc
d

Barro\\,

munil-v 1 level of c -, -" ,tNhddle I

Middlc

Crabhrlg( iound in

or at Tre

S.rn!Lrlli l!69 1.!9ll NudL.sL ]iliakr L16r Sl!\rL,rl, E.s.6 Lt7, Hufrlr,vl, l'rnrr.n.r and Dersi,the\ l9rl 1lulE.ril, I!!af,)!r' 1975 S.rL-.ir' rl!! nr Hn!.ll.niltrmg 1t!r, SllrrnrFlr le6s nrh cN$err I'.ninJljd anrsnd.rr lr9a TrhsrlriDii Th.r. rr. 1.1 bltu\'' .r kLi Mrl., }d uslDc. SrLr.{sktr 1r6t) .r lltt, l;9tl

lillis lri!

Trl,ilLr 195i, lla., ltr- .l0r Clrlel,l':i.1 lr6iir Bc!k.!sLj llirovrr.r! leS:
Ncrgcbrr.r
19')1,41

Caristlr'j

|dttlrtjns /trd SliTr? J)lr ct-urr!

99

:h-

lin

iftlirrre thxi Lr,uror\ l)trri!1 rr.rs ixr iron u cr]]mron ir rh E.ul).!ron:c n.entrxl Lurqre, but n.rlxrs rhcrn all es high stfLrs grx\.! is prob lenalic. .{fff {rrttr llnrtiring elsc, it le.rvrs .rpen rhc qusrj(,r oi llhxt hrtpened t. hlgh sLrtus rrrclivrdrrals i. arens Nf.re rncrc are no blrrol\.s. Brrrrrll bxrirl r crlh c:ur1c ilro its oln dr:nng rhe ,U1d. c Bron:c AHe, whc. rnuch at colhfollrl furot-.r srlf thc |rer..rl.n!c oi this burr.rl n)rn. nhr]v
sitcs ASc

,'''

rg'r
ri

tc

i.h
Dy

thcLNes1g.j|.]n.eoithcplrenorllcnonse nuni{r lcycl, rlis h.rs lcd to rmfolrurt .rdrences rn urclerstanJir.q. At rhe levet ot crltu,cs .rnLl cultrrre gfoup: iLhe rcrninolog) of D. L. Ctart<et hone|er; thc \is|ificrn.r oi rhc ,lolrirrrfre oi brrron bLuirt icross torope rn the Middle Bro,r:c Aqe rcr.nins obsctrr1- Lvcl) ii Cmrl)ut:1s,s hvportresrs rrbout the sprcrrt .{ Indo frrcfcr]1 spc.rkrrs rrc|c ro be xcccirled, ri(rch rcrririrls uncerllnr :rbo|tr rhc rcletiolship bcrireer E.rt! :rnd N{idd]e tsron:c burjrl tndurcns, and rh,rt or |orh ro th. Coppcr Age b.uron horizor.r Fe11. ^ge s)sicm atic st dlcs hrle bccr cerriert .ur on th. rch[(m\|if bcr .cf bjfr(]$ si:, anehct l'ulth .rnd thc aqc encL ser oi thc dec.Ascd noi ttasL bccause so Iew sncs tlovlle thr rossiL)ilit! oi carrring out such .rn.r11se-, hfl,irg been excrvrr.,l frior Lo rhr r(Lrent oi eclcquatc rccording tcchr qu.s. yeL such srud ies rcmrrir rrLrrirt it rr Lrndcfsfurlding oi tfe thrnulus thc o enon i! io bc Uniiel{l t)rrioa. rfcr.ltion rn tits or rnrs \!js thc rcjrm olcr v.rst lul her. t.)o lrrLtx.s lrc iou|ci: noL lust vcrr. l.uge ones in selectcd rLcxs bLrl slnrLl onrs rs lcll if irjn! pans oi Europe. At ccnetcd.s surh !s thrsc nr ,\'hlr\.c in wesr.r.| B(ihD)ix, several large tulnLrli belong ro thc Miildlc hrl:c A5., rnd ner." sn.rllcr ones io rhe Let. Rron:. Age.. Arl cxtcrsLle cernct.r! oi sm.rl1 lrrrorys ri SolL)crg in:lhurjrgi:r is (ri jusl thrs t)-Ic'' (l rnuch ri r.hrt K.rsien anil orher-< rcrmed th. ,riedcrrhchisch.
In drc

rrcrs

the

lnci

CnbhLigelluliur' cssent1.rlly consr-<trrl oi srnrila, cemrrcrjrs oi snrx| Lrrrfo$!.


IoumlLn
m,iy be

ricstor

CeLm.Ln_r

rfc qult. curmo !long r.iil-r tlrt ccnrcieriesr tl, instircr, S0 100 ricrc rored .rt Zi,r Alsdlr,Lior, rnd in somc .rses snrx| ch.rmhls mlrde oui oi jDesto,)c >l:rbs co.riturxrs drc bunel urns ll.crc presenr,,
ther
moLrrrj"<

iourrt rlr rrrnr r.irlv Lnusii: cem.t.rics, ior 1.sr,rnce i| Nlor.\,jA,,r or at Tfenalxrsl.r Tetlicc ir Slo\'.rkirL.'r crout_.s oi l)x|r1j\!s Lrn orher ofcts cernelerres rdn lrc sen |) r\ cslern Hu.g:rrv 1!hcr c ln tir. crrl,! U|nll.ld pcrjrxl

anri thc Low Counrries.rr Crfnpnr.rblc rllst.rlr.cs

r\

''.! '

atr.r I,, hlh.':r

l!-U Zrrs0[ i!a], Iru:l. trrS, |r.it tlrtt \\j l\,,n\rrl0r lrj-

Nfkrir,

l0:r ,idr rr.r(rrr- ir .rr., Jr{\

rccc.rl)c\crL!xt.drurrulLrs.riS:n.,l!Babocs:rLSomog,'oourt),ncrrthenrsi c,n rfd,)i Lak. R:Ilrionl {xs 15 rr .rcfoss but h:d Lle'elor.ed iron r srrell noL[rderl gr. c in rhe c!r.itlc, I)uri:r1s l]ri1rg .rdde.l to the enl:rged moLrnLl oveL ullle.lr Crrmnri.nr wn! thc stxnd.rrd rltc both 1n b.rrrorrs :nd 1l1 thL gr:rles ln orher irorrls ba,roii-*c,c:rcrurllfrrrhcrcomrnoninthrr.rretsron:e,\se, .rnd b,v nLr mcens rclt|ictcJ tu grrv.s \\lth Llch goods. The othcr siclc of this co]n is th.rr thcr. rrc r crt.i11 nunber oi'speci:rl' barro1\s Best l<rorn is a snrxll nunt)cr oi vcr\' ch sites rn (;ermnn! ind Sclndnrr.ir ior rrlltn.cc drc Kiig \ cr.r\,. xt Scddxr, -th mound rt J-usehoj on !unen,r' rnd'Knlg Biarr s nound' it Hiiga r1.ltf U],psxhi' thcsc ltclong t. .rn adv:nced ph.rse oi Lhe Bro.zc Agc. Bui hlnn x much carhcr p.rt oi tht orLs ])afrowi nr xlof.ryii.rn.tl\'e-rt Lite tsron: rhere ar. r nunrblr or ^ge ,\l n.rl k r| . nulnreL, less lell-kloirn, iror north rlcst Htrngxr\,r'vhich tlatc ro tlrr e,rr liest paft of Lh Urnlield l.eri.rd nf(1 which co.rAin go.rLls ihAt lool. ro b. unmi-rtakaLrh p:rt oi:r \rrrrior'5 rcc.rutrcnrcft! " Thcrc xrc othcr, glo|nrd! hn iniclLins hish L.nk ior the occupanLs oi rhese blujals: not rnly tLc prcscrcroi finc'pottcrv end bron:es, even bod,v .rrmou and w*Lprms, brLt also thc plcs
B.rr(r\\'buri.Ll thus eppe.rreLl rn m.rny diiiercnt pflscs of thc Lrlrc Rro.zc Agc in c.ntr.rl lurope though it ras selLlcm thc norm. whcrc it d(ic. octu, in sociel tcms, onc c.rn pl.lusrblv reg.rrd it .rs har.ng held r special "igri6carcc \hich scc,rls not ro bc rhc c.rse rn the Nlnldle Nronze -\ge Illdecd. thc regLL l:Lr rccurcrcc of thc rLrmulus r1t .rt intcrrrls rhrough Lhe cenLr:rl ELrropcan Rrlnru. Ag. irrtlics th.rr ir Lr.rmrrme(l r role, rL rinlcs dorninant, at othcrs subnrcrgcd, t1lrough nrnch ot rhe penod.
I r'rd

cfn Bos Tit()v|)

the

both eI,

t'hat
Sav.r

is

pL

Still
KL4)fci

Th.) r
De\ oll

tlrr'l,rrr\
Lrlf rtl

The appeararcc oi trmulus buri:r1 irr rhc B.rli.xn fenmsuh c.rn bc traced bacl< Lo rhe Cc4-.pcr A!jc, cqLLivrlc!1t ro iti 6rsr :rttc:rr.rnce 1n e.rsr centril Errropc if rnd r isee nrol,elJ g,-,oLl cramplcs xr. th. B lgtllian sirc oi Ti[n.rl..I LVr.rc]1 ie large ounds rnr rh. Dxlmrti|lrr corst Nith e\otic finds includrng gold ard sih,eL as !r \{:Lla cr'lLdr '' 1 d \"cllk.r (:rudx. ''r ln the Errly Bronze,\sc inrls oi LLr[rtL]i arc ruc a lcrlain rlulnbcr, atI,c.rf ln rstcfrl Sefhl.r.rnd east

thrr

rrr

' LiilrnlcL-: lrir '


Pr

P, L,lrl(

lLr(.ll i l lh l,rlLrLr 1.ra.l, 1.rr.6

1!-l 1tt-r, 1!ll TliiL.nnl P,ulrl( .: rn. l'r.ria l'.ntrn l.l" i

191.!

PrurLa P.iL.m

nrJ\ l19ri l!!61, l)rllr ( .r\.r lr!6|

.r, Trb!lr!\ri l'r-l

Ctn1etary,

patte

l111g t1t1d

:<t.ire

pdtte :rillS

ror

il

burlt on thc Chsrn:rc threAtr enst oi SAr:ri.-ro, ! Lr.r.li unbrokcn dccp innr dre ]ion Age. . Becallsr rhrs are.r is both ele\,xrc.l end rctnotc, the nxteri:rl cultulc reilccrs in onlv ! hnjtcd a). whar rs lm0!!t1 m nore ir''ourcd perts oi thc prinsuh, ior insL.rncc nr rhe Sxva plain or on d1c Llvo sides of $c Adfil|tic. \{ost oi rhc gral'c goods are omatnri\ Lrur notl nS js knorin oi correlation s,xh rgc:rnd seri. This cul]ous iunerar) .ultlnr linds lirtlc rcIlecrion ir setdlments. It has ior ihis lc,rson been s ggesrrd th.t chsrnrc must hayc rctcd as a specrat burj:]l jrcr trr \rhtch pcoplc crlnc sireclllc.th for thc pLr4rose oi Lruryins ttrc dei.l. Still mrfc ren).ukjbl. is thc sitlraii(xr oi tlrc group oi trrnuli rn rhe Xulreilo tolie iupland bashl rn southern R0snra, and specrlicaily rhe trmutr at PLrst.tolje l AhhoLLgh drc;e rlrou]lds \\.ere poor ]r 1int1s, \\,ooLt n:rs ivetl Feserl'ed, so thli der.rrls of thc coifn or ch.mbcr in rvt ch the dcad pcrson l{as urd ilcre rccor.rcd: ,rD rnusuat consrrucri0n corsistins oi a bol lil(e chmber tastened r-lor.n rvith cross bam rhnr Etrcd irro wcclges ar the snles, ore oi thr cross b:rrs bci,rg.r rcused stedgc runrrcr fi,g : Jt. The bodv I:Ly rl] a w0rl roollen r Lrg or clreL but l\.ns othenLrsc niked. rhis frnd serr,cs es a remmdcr thit most ot lhe nost strikrng elerrcnts oi burtals have pcished Also conrempr:rrar,v uith thr Ctl.tsll:rc tLLmnli are those in r\lbania, mostly in the ersr oI thc country. on the nrxldtc and upper rir.er va eys iiis,l Sl i! They,rrc e specr:rlll in rhc r.a cy oi thc NlAi, bur rtso thc i;LLrnn)i, .common Devoll and oLhcrs; rherc :re a numbcr of si:e.rLlc cernctertcs rn rnlaDtt rcgrons anund n1c Lrp|.r Drin nlld irs Lribtrt.rrics. Nlost oi tlrese turmrii datc to thc lnrn Agc, Lrlt a ie$. start earlier, ccrrarnly rn rhe Lare tsronze Age and posli blytn soDe cr\cs in thc Nlrddle BroMe Age. Srch trnruli cont.rtn gralc goods that rlllrrur whxr is lou[d in iler gravcs on and ncar |hc Dalnxrijn co.sr in ceneteics likr drose:rt Nrn or trro:or ! rnd are thcreiorc conuronly rttriLr ukd to tdbcs oi Illyriall aifinrtv. Thc numhcr oi ccftAir Latc f-n.. eg. g res i\ ror lafgc, .rnd the datrng oI a nunbcr of arteiact r,"pes both nctal and ccLrr c is debatablc, ir rr,Lrs notc\lortr),urlrr rn ri tcrr cases rrrrpirftcd Cnek nareri.rl iound iLs ria,v nto locJ Alhanier gnv.s, rn irrrporlrnt sign
ben of

.. rtr\|u,. c,(e.o r' ..,l ,, . r..,r ,r.l ,l the llrl) Bronzr Ag. ',' Br. thc Lat. Dron:c Agc thefc are sig. jcrnt nurr
b,rrou.s being

ft Belotia .rnd Rcla ai-k1..r, ! L)ut rtso .r grcup $ound Thclc irc |r:n,v trnnuius cemcterjcs in tlc hillr plrtcaLrx oi soutlern Ciudn i|d Bosrlia, but the s..ucir) oi find" nakes rt hanl jr manv
emBos r, I]ot,rbl,r dlose
Titovo U:icc.',ir

tion that conrinued

oi st.rrus

rel.rtcd uccumLrlAiion.

t i\l

LnL

D (:.i]!dit tri6
trr,rrL

"f r.rl

r!'B,n.ra i9!.r D!.!hslrr llr:ra t9!1.

Europ

Eur.,1)

'':"

,#
"t+
..

an.l di thc C( BC], A


1c.g

R(

thc po

CoIffn

t.i

;dA:"tqs:,e.

lluriil
rather

clselrtr

{ ) Y.::f:
?
- _t)
t

C.itr iailcd

fj

l
thc

1.ll:

,,)_: , 4:
Fjg. 3.8.

Yugosl.lir I L B.r! tumuli I n Zo!olia 19851. ,l Or!h, tuDulu\ I lxit.r CoIed!ric.r l9t7l.

Tu.Llli rn AlbaDla

\'r

aDd

'

l-,rrnr r hrrrrols

lccn ,rrade for sccing rhesc Ralkan tumuti as an clerncrt oI Indo sprcadrlg rhroLrgh thc ferlxrsrlr xl(nrt \!iih Indo l ntclr hnsu:tg!. rDcludrrg CreeL.r,', This rhco,1. depcrrcls on thc bcliei that tumrlu\ buri.rl is a chrractcrisiicillv Inclo turo|c.rn Lr.rit, afd l\..rs nralnl,! pro poundcd LrI,U GinrLruhs. \,Yhile it rnA\ Lre lesrtifrare to i.lcnrii,! ccriajn itenrs 0l crlture rs chrracieristic:rll., Indo Europe:rn, rhrt does not rnearr rh.rt thcr r trn;rtic,rll,v rndiclre thc prcseDce of sLrch pcoptes. Th. i,1cr oi t)ar.rol. bul irllf itseli se.ms iar Loo ,gcncrtrl r trair io L)c crflbte oi jfdic.rting the sour.c md dirccuon oi mo1'emcnt oi such irrlrLenccs. The B.rlhrf tLrnluli go tr:rck il, Ihe Co|pef Agc trnJit]on \!hich r'3s i.deed nr.!oL]ced sl're mc xr oun.i .JU{l(l BC AlLer rhri, the rtlea srcns to hevc n erntajred rts o\!D n oricnturn, po| ping up here rnrl rhere m tlrc penmsula ar regtrlrr intcrvels, rntl rn sorne arcas 1c.9.llosDjnl l:rsiinr rhroughool rhc Brolze ASc R) dr Lrtc Bronzc Age tunrLrli lr'oe I'dud :rs a neins nt crerting nronuncnt.rl rnarkcrs th,rt rdic,rLed bodl thc losjtion xn(l dle srxttrs oi thc dccersd, r clevelopnent $,holl). littrng jn lhe contrt ot rhe socirl :Lnd polirical development ril<iDg plac. .ri ihe pcriod
A cxsc has

Euopct]t r11rterirl cLrhLrre

Coilin burials

lunrl rn a crntn r'.rs trlcd rn variolrs prrts of rh BloDze,{g. r,orld. rn the xbsence ol r sysrem.rtlc study of rhis phcnonenon, <ne is hrccd to rcly, o]1 nther jmlycssiLDistic srrrerrcnr! Lrased orr rhe rror. ]cressiblc sorrrcci. LisLs 0lcoffi. Lrud:rls h.llc been crcetcd ior Bohrmi.r, Nloraviar,] ,rnd Britain; i elser,hcr. !l1e covclrgc is morc faph.rz:|cl:- Coifi|s are usrull,v thought of m lrnng |*n hol1ol cd orrt trcc tr Lrn]<-q, encl Lhis rs lndeed a i crlLrentl_r toLrltl Imn tsnt ii is bt no nrcrns rhc orh.tlpc oi lvood.n conujfcr ior thc derd.

Nordic rrca ivere rvootien tr.recon-rtru!rrbt., t(jrdr .r smallnrmber rLc tnoirn to have becr ptank Lntlr Cailinr $,ere corrnonest nr the Norclic irea lfiS..3.r)1. Stxrisrics cxf hrrdl) kLcgrrdcd,rs L.tir|le, ]n vlc\\ oi rhc ltkclihood rhar man;.rartv cxcar.rors Iailcd fu Lecognlsc tlrc e\ist..cc of cofll[s unlcss rhey .rctuLall,v sLLr.!ived .ls prescn'crl r,'ood, bur Broholrrr sr.rs thri morc dran onc ihird oi rhc toanl $av! f.ds oi th. Lxiv Bron:c Age ernanate iron .,!k coffins and hii dcuilcd cualoguc lisLs .lss coiiins n'ou l 100,qrnves of p|iod ll rf d coiEns in lS2 oi thc 1300 grar'.s of Period ITT ; A til)Lrlrdon is fresentcci jr1 trhlc 3,1. Th.sc
HnrrnDx:9a:

rs r.]ommorr ]s rre t|unl( coffins thc conuurcn oi r drficrcnt, unspcctfieLl anLl LLsually
At lemt

ir

Crr( ll]ur!
Lr

trh lr,,ru. -\!. rrn,uij in Lr\lJs


rr(1

1rr.1

rfo s..n

1s

x r.Iif!

thjs st..rJ nnr

l.r:1. lirrti Ll!..,.,nnill!r. I9r,.), l!..i :. 6 ihohdrn,nnllhLdl!lirLtt0 r Br!h(j]l. Llrir Th0s. si,riLnj.: rftrerr. -r rhr irit,r,Li.,Lfrf r tlliirt.riur.l Arrer .x {r.\rfl i19-j 9i
'Cnnstll

lork.rh,.!i lra9

hc

n,nnnd ]l

I] UR1A1

figures thc dri

irithltr

Lrldcr! Brofu.

ertl) lflr tl

Si10D)

near Xl

nerr Fi
N

lnc

fin

sr,

Rcbci.

Brrrril' with coitin buri:rl. BetLd(ri, Kf Strde, Lon'.r Saro v iriter Wcscwitz l9,l9l. r-lrtr: gen.ral ].hn ot !h..xcr latcrl laror'; ior.r': det.liL oi thc coilin ivith ti]lds.
Fig. 3.9.

(iitrr }r:riair
shar 6LsL drat rhere rs lonsidcrabte yari:rbitit) jn bxfron. nurrLrers 1r1 diii.fcrlr fror.rnc.s oi Dcrrll]rrt ard nortfcrD Gcrlnrnl. io\er 7rr0o b.rf rom ltt'. Lnor'n in Ancr and KcrsLcn s area X, the Rir)gkobrng disLrlcr oi r\.est en jurllrd co[rparcd 1\.ir]) onl,! 829 m.ucn Xvrrr, Krcis Rcndsbtrrstr .Ir.l wuhrn *cse iiqurcs rhere ls v:rriibilii!.rn the [rcqrLencv wjth rr,lrich trcc trult coiJlrs:re nrurd, less rban 10,1" oI b.rrror.s l.itb t norlrr Lrte Neolirhi.
figLues

the

gr,rles .t the Larc Neolirlic EArll. lrss thrn .lj contrLined r1.r,od| coilnr-r, .jther ircc trunl.rfhDli. allrarl,! .rt this srtc coirin L)rl jal wes rhe norm; rhls *.ns .rpfar errt,r nrt the c.r-<c ilr othcr sires ln s.ruth.rf Sc.rnir Iurtho' sorrh tlrere rf. mrn) Earlv Rron:c Age e\xrnl.les jr Lo\!cr Slron,!, L anJ drc Urniield cenetcrl,.rt V(,ltrrrrrshxusen nc,Lr K.rss.l jtso tr!d ,coLrtc 01 irrsiarccs oi burnL coifins. ; The cenllerv rt Wrhljr:, I(r RrLrg ncdl l{,rsdelrufg in erst.r.n Ce|rnan,v, h:rd coilins in se\..n oi n1|c ]:rrgc grave pus rnd others rr snrll pits; ! rhcl l.erc presemr jf aI iour sr:rl.cs rr Ho;hcrrn nexr Imkllrrr, r'edgng stones ar gr:vc hc.rd rnrt ioot havc be.. jrLfplcte(l $ prcLlrg lor coilirs .rr Singen. r t-or thc Lor. Ctorrrrlcs nherc l1o erA.t figurcs rrc ar..rihl)1., Leiercrcc Lo rhc ct.rssic nork ,cve.rts ,r nuDrbcr oi cx,rmp]rs ln lioll.rn.l rl
Lijdrrul 15 ir1 erutlr crst

r0l. ll ll,nr:e ,\sr fl[ds 1rr west inLt south Zctrh d iArea r| hrv. rhern xs comfr.d Ndr {I.er :10c; in souih Schlcsr.is casr 1Ar.x IVI ,{f cr.nrftr irhclc slstenrnc lno(terlr cxuvrtion revcrlcd largc numbcr" oi coilins is drat oi

Sca

r. .ati,lJ

Br0i:c ASe on rhrr site, no

Lr.. .. , '..1 Rcb0lo\.iftr ' recent cr:mplcs ncludc thosc iror)r Nluio!,,r! Iaictice Virohradv dg. 3.101, ' rr:ecl3r!ice r,, dnd x4orx.,st:1 Novj vr( Hnrit<l I A cuririiq ol -cffIr Uniiice rrxrcs rt Bic:no irlrih-1,.csi Brrh.nriat is tlr,rr oi nuldpic brrials rl coifius, rn l.rttr elidcnce lor rhc renror,:] or collcctrng up ri skul1s Ard oihcr Lronc!. ri tn s.ver:rl oi these ccneter-ics coi iir gr,rr,es accorntcrl for a sizeeblc proporrrun oi ih tor,rl i6t 5gi al Rcl,elo1,icc, -lrl9o .rr NIuao\., 37.)9; .li trzeclxnice. Ir1 the ca(c oi Rcbclovi.. tne er.rutor g:rv. good f.rsons hr beljc\ing thar rhe rrig]|el nrrmbci. wout(l hrlc Lrcrn stlll hi.ghcr Ar ccrreml.lum r, thcrc rcrc,l n.cc trunk

| .

!r nriirrr ri NDfLds.lre r!xr\!f ,,\l I iu|tr.r fl

tl!,r I9l1r

lllhllt riJ

SrrLhLil(itr.1

tta.

Table 3..1. Coiiirri rx

v)r'dr. trrllrrr!'\
T.r,rl
r

N.r

Elit

|th

h.L
35 .t0

hr.L.

I
I] III
IV

\'l v
VI]] IX

\vII]
Tot.r1

lr3i .16l .t700 .l9l 1111 3t3 .l:22 .| i r 7.18 t.ll .l57fi 3ll t9t5 3{t{t 4i.q6 153 16lt .l-la) N.tr) t37

.ll
,t

il

6r
160 3

1:
5l

7f
s7

'lrl

.l.l .lll

l7

.l;
l1 7t I

l 3 :

tt 5l il 5l) 55 .19 550

11

18 Lr.a 100

l|l9

:15

t3 l1
t20

-:l 9i0
Nrl

.\.rr r(ininrrr :lL(..rti(l s nl ri.. i LrrLr fLrrk rn,l{o.d..btrutli.n S.FrItr fisrr.s ! \.f nrf |r,rrs rnd lnds rs th.r. rr iL.q!.rtlr '..rrl .!inn:nr surli l.Jr,,,r l.iir.t SLr(i.tr.! trk.Lr hlLr fu1d rnJ IieLtrr li):l ,i

roilnrs and 10.1 dcfinirr :rnd .35 prcbrblc wr:nd coifins Ldg .1.1(lli ' rt Unrerhlutzerthal Lhere r,erc I tor-,d coillns ; d x trcc rurrL ol.. '1 Thc hirll percent.rge oi collins r1 C chlrLrarn, provisiof r':Inging ir,olri iri.rlris to thc cldcrl-r., sp,:.Lks.r.qarrrsL coiiins luvrrg beel provrdcd fcll ,r sfcci:Illy trfi\il.g.d cl,rss oi pcoplc. On thc other lund, Lhose iLhoLrl collirs rrc scn.rall-\ f,,ctl': thc.ldults come irorn the prxrrer l.eahh clustcL", rnd rhc rcs! nrc childrcr. ln Bflt.lin, coif,ns surlil.e \.cr,! rirel]' usLrrll-1 iL is cml,r thc outlincs llrat cen bc tr.rccLl. Erc$ions nre those ironl $i)don Enls. Ilaltnhistl. Nor thrtrnbcLlen.l ' of roose Ho\\e, ]i)rLshire.:r On the othcr h:rn,l. ,cccrt lxcxrxtr.rns berc prcducrLl plcntv oi coifin traces irhoush lo rcLu.rl rvoodl, rvhlch sn'onglr ruggcsts th.lt rhcr cre xctu.rll] quir.- common rn BriLish bturor burirls R) .ontl,rst, no crarrplcs appcar to be knoi!'n irorn lrehnd.r; Adrnii!cdl), thc 1)Lrrial rltc rhcrc dcpcnds mosdv on crsts.rn{l pits. sorneLilnes rmdc, rn riithir trmuli, arrcl t|c sronc ri'.rllcd crst pLobabl,v lultilled Llre iunc tior oi fic coifir. In llriir|lllr, traccs oi r.ooLl hrve becn reporLed nr sorne ol thc lirst Scri!! barro$s, but rhcsc sccm morc llLe]! to har.e Lreen prrt ol 'nlorlu.rr\ ho(LScs' or ri'oodcn ch,Lmbcts dtan trorablc coffins. such noortcr consLILrriors occrLr in ccrt,rin wcll publiclsrd crerrIhs such .rs Hclnrsdori ind LeLrbngen. brLt i\'crc probrbly ilLLitc crmnrn hr a 1.{ c:ric! trxc.s .t
r \.,I!.lirL.r l9r:, rlll

'' r'

llsee

r\,L.l.L

u'l

lrrl

Elser l'rrr)

ll!91]

Cott''n burrrrlr

;
6n
ials

o7

7l
78
25

',;'r ? f)'t",: r*n[

.E: @

l0
,7
)9

'5
;o
'6

i 6:, r-;i ,1,'' *tuti'

:'.ffi ,U t:.:
!l

-r,,,.,,.8n'

2
0

t
t
:

.'O
+,

ai^
-

a r4,tuik.o

"

Iig.3.10. Lrfffl: Plirn oi dre rerreterv it Tiicticc V ohred),


Lfrencol:i rr .rl l9llTlj lru'r'r Cenex elurn I lllr Lerr shorrng coilin gr.iles ixitef Nengeburler lrrll

\l

,: '

o,i r

l.

o1

rhe

ccn.

'

BIIRI

A1-

wood have becn rccordcd, rs $ith Encollrhic turruli of the tsanat,'r .rnd .,r.ooden plankrng is sonlctinrcs n1cntioncd. It ls likel-v th.rt excrvation tch nrque h,rs trequentL,v not Lrcer adcqlntc tor thc rccognirion oi poofl,v preseLved l.ooden consLructions or coffirs T\\ro drstinct buriil rraditions uLtilising coffins sccri to 1'rc dlsccrniblc. onc, the berter Lno1.rn, is thar oi lortL and north \!rst Erropr, $.hcrc r sisnific.rni propotlrn perhaps ,i tmjoriry of burirls wclc dcposltcd n trcc tntnk or othf coffins,.l| least in certain arcas and ir! ccrt.in pcriods. Thc orhcr is thxt oi th lht n rurniLion cenetericb of ccrltrdl llLrc)pc, rs typlfi.d by thc sirc\ oi Rcl)ciovlce or laietice-\'rnohrrdv. lron thc ,lllalysis of Tiicticc VinoLradt coili]ls r.ere nor especirll-v .rssocinted ith rich gravcs or with tlrosc ot r far riculxr.rs. or se\. Sone coilh burirls rrl Bri.,1ur \rcr. ln'1rl(cd Lr)'prcstigc gravc goods: the clrisrhorpe burial cortarned a br-rne prn, a bron:c claggcr rvit1t a ponrncl oi rvhale Lrone, a ivooden l<niie or spatula, a bonc ornamcrt, a bark basl<ct, a flint arror.tread .rnd nro llrnt Uakes.'r'The Hovc barron' contaircd rhc iarrorLs ambcr cup, a bron:e drgger oi C.rmerron r-r'pe, a r'hetstone pen dant ard :L littlc battlc axc.rit Another 'rich coifin burial rtrs thaL :rt Wi.lcdrotrrnc Stolc (;.5.'- But equrll]', sone coiiin Lrurirls had ler.or no gr;Ic goocls, ior rnstance the unaccompanied crern:rtion at Rushnore b,rrro$, 9, rJ or drc coflln bunal rn the L).rrror.at Poor's HeiLh, Risbv, Sulfoll<.r! Lirdc xitcntion hxs bcrn p.rid to the environmental inlplic.rtions ot Lhe pro. visior of oak coifins or to thelr s)nlbolic significance Large nullrbers oi rnature oal<s, oi diamcrcr typicall1'onc mctre or more,rnd thereiore scores or hundreds of years olcl, wcr-c tcllcd dtrring tbc Earl), tsronzc Age. Given thrt <irigrllally dre urbcr of coifins nust havc bcen rruch greater than the pres enL roral, and that t.rs oi tholLsands oi barrorvs oi potcntrally Bronze Are date cover the landsc]pc of rorrhcrn Eurlpc, thc potcntiel iict on the oxk populatnlr would h.I'e L]ccl mr <cd. Equxll], lnport.rnt \trs thc symbolic sig nific.rncc oi burirl h .r rrr,rssivc oxk trcc trunl coifin, ar,:l thc conncctlor \L1th o.rk-buih domestic strLrcnLrcs llouLscs ot rhc Rrnrzc Agc in tc pcratc Europe $'ere ofren predonnunrly of oak. Thc fclatio.shif bcrwccn houscs .rnd tombs has oiten Lreen ccnnertcd on in a Ncolirhic corltcxt, xrld it ]s proLraLrly no conrcrtlence Lhat a runber oi housc tlnrs havc bcc. found unc1.r n.rth Bronze brrrirl mourds'rt Th.fc is a str.rng and rccurrc.t syn1Lrd ^ge isrn 1n the motii oi the tree, not necessaril,v drc ork, ir \ordic m1-tf orrl lcgcnd. Thus 'thc rrodd rsh-tree iYggdrasill is one oi the mah cosnoLogic.rl \r.itl-i

tl

Bo:rts ir

The clo

Loose F

siblc th,

bod,v ur

wrt1l Jlr.

belong t

\ir1.hrr 1976 Tritpcnild lorsrD arl nrde.ser


rD.1

|rrt llr\.r: lllii


\iri.hcr

.11, .1f)

fl

S: +

1'o H llFr in

reJ-L

4 l!.n

ll!.rt\
and
symbols

,rn.1

JL,rtl

Onc,

kor
that 'itcs rady
par\rith

t|c leutonrc \-orth ieprcscnting rh. uDr\.crse, r Hun.llns.s hous! r nrisht\ ash rising in irs mrtldte and rui'rtt u"", "pr"*A,,,,q thc tuol. Askr lash treei r.:rs one oi rhe firsr t\\.o pcopl. rn rhc \!ortd. Tllc ronrelt oi thc Tr.c oi Life is inporr,rnr i. rhc Tlrd.r.o Chfisfrn tradiliLxl, xs $,ith the srorl oi rhe G.rrden oi rdrn iccnesis ll; rhe trcc l\,as gu.rded hr. cherubnn rf{l br' .r srvorrt r'hirlnrg and ftashlng rr Crcck nrythologr., thc humal nrc sfe$. irom rier sceLts, rsh accortt;n! to rresroa. o,rt< in iromc,, trccs rre. rls! rsnrci.rtcd rrth the d\\.ellings oi gods and wirh longc\rit_v or imm0nrLi) Th. xssocjrrion oi verls r.i+ grar cy.rrds probabty cxprc$es this notrOn, rs mi! thc grcAt evcrgrer. trc xr Old Uptc,rl.r rccordcd by Adam of It'l'* T,.:, a|c ircqluently anthroponorphi;ed in r.ortd nr).rhotos!., thus Daphne irhc l.lulcl rre.l ludalin I rrc trunh coi6n, as it,r,erc ursidr,a trce, thus urn'rrs r.it| ii ol)\,iirus connor,Iions oi rhe rctrLm t,:, rhc oI ltfe, "ourcc a re.erd.sirlg i$in $e l.ornb Irr:rrn rhich atl humans spr.rng.
0f
accordinsl_r'las
Boats and The closc

death

gc

ak
ig

is

I
Ld

ir:ncrrrv bo:rts are ectually known tn B,onz. Ase Elrrop. iuntrkc Otd Kingdojr Ls,vprl Wh.rhef airv; rhe shi}r dcplruo|s ln Scandin,rvrAn rock rrt arc conrecrcd wrth rirunls oi dearh, rs hrs been sLrgscsred t sonrc othcr norrrs, rq ,j Drool porrt. \\ihrt is not rn douh!, hor$,er, is drc connccrio. oi boar-slrlped lrrril)gs oi >(xrcs
rhorLgh no

. tr. I bodr ln l.rirr mlihokJ3) are strikrng.

similaritv bch'ccn c! irunk coin]1s enct dug out canocs crn ,,lso be seer * norc than n coinci(lenle oi the sane m;Lterials uscd ioL srtnilnrl,v shaped obiectsr fie br:ut ot de.rtlr'is I recurrrng rhemc nr.ritiquiry. r rhe llose HrUe rrd Shap burials actuallr.invotvcd canoes used ," ur t,u,i als, x dues r Fnd ir.rm Disgr.vlf: f.r,\r, Ccredlgion, j rtone is r.st Wrlesr",iLt, close tu srgnitjcani stretchcs oi w.rtcr lloosc Ho\\.e tics higlr on the ccllr_ral watcrsherl ot dre Nor rh yorL X,Ioors, Shep .n thc Culibri|l]r tellst. k is pos sible tlrii th.sc c.rnors lrc,c uscd becaLrse thc,v h.rci Ibidrrd rtreir userut s:il ingl,1r and $cre.rvaihl)lc ior f.use, hLrL rhc labour invotvcd rn transpo,rrng then i! (heir restrrg pl3cc rnusr h.rrc Lreerr consr(LerAlr c. Onc oi rhc trincit-.,rI motijs oi Urrrfield sr.mbolism r.as the l)oaL. Llsurlh

D,.

.,.

11.,

,,

\..,.-

rl

!t,
rnd

Srnitilrd .rnd on a;oihnd i1js. ,l 111 ,,j ttxry rc0jlror Age xnd \lking dxre, but sonrc luvc recn snoun Lr,\,crcA\luon to lrclOlg m t re tsnrlze Age Oirhc .]00 350 r'hole or tr.rgmentAf sctirngs on
nonh Cennrn!, cspcci.rll) ln

^,

rl

sti.nbrllg

r!f1 \liiller \\jite

19ar!

,i

(_rtjqti.

jrrij, ,!e:

-" ' ' ''"-',

"u ..

only of

behg bu the hurr

Inhuruflt

in EriL.ir

Iig. 3.1i. Shit set ris tfonr (lernrnr-l'and Swcdc.. l. Sl:riicrild 6 V;rstr.r lirnu lxiter Strijnrbcrs l96ll I Luglrro. Hrr]l:r]1d Lrit|| C.Uelle lt)!);i. .l ThL.nbr Schl.swis Holstc]]l Lrit.r Crt::,cll. lt95 Aner rn.1 K.rsLcD l9:J 9-<1. t Hjortllirrg, To|rrsi.r]], Smil.rnd t.itci SrilDh.rs 961
1 1.

Celnet
ir cnl)'

t]1

Gotl.rnd,onlr':rorLnd,l0harcbccni,r\.!rlg.rr..l thc,:arlest belongng to the Lransr. end ol the \fiddle Bron:e Agc thc lxtcst to th. frtc Br.n:e lron ^gc flon isome l0 oI Llc.l0 crc,Lrrtcd rxrnplcs on ciod.rnd hrd L.tc tsronze r\se findsl. llosL rre lcss tlan 1.0 m 1rmg, bLrt thc cxamples ircln Cnisv:ird on cotlnnd .rre 3.1 trnd 15 m ir lcrgth A wc]l lnv.stigxt.d eranple is thrt rt sl:ittflird 1\i. K.rruf, lvestenl Scrri,r]. c\c'1lrLrccl iri 1959 6{). r'rucrsurlng ll.5 r 1 m, .rnd ofiented w'N\ti ESE. ii consistcd oi 3lJ blocls oi gr!nrt., th. intc nor hLlcd l.Lth stones' under then \\'!s ch:Lrco:r1 lalcr, xrd in rt r crcmx '1 tlon plt. Fituls, not n!rrerous, inclldrd flift errlrhcads,Lntl othcr objccts potsLrcLtts rnd.nnrl bones, Llc lrircr i.dicnting ica!iinS n connccrion \fldr tlr. .lcfosirion frt .rls.

rrdition

any largc

-!
[i]hL1t11t1ti()'

t td

a.rct)1 a

tiatT

'i.
*

.ljgil)l! ror burixl 1r1 a s|ip sctrug in rhe Rrolr:e Agc ir unl<nor,n rh! contL rifg t,opularir! oi the riic rs ;narL,rt,r,r tu,- thc sn,rlr.rrc,r odv ol reiigion huL. also of entire beltci sl srenrs .rn(t ci lnrc rttjDirrcs. The
W}o Nis
r0xs, buL

f,

'' ' it']"' nrkc lrclrron oi $c


l
Ineorctal stlurcr.s
beins
rne

nrri( I

i.

fi

,..'.,
,' , ,

burncll

Lruntng

crsc

r.]dr d1e Nlnse sod Brtd.,

custolr, sornetimcs 11.iih rhe l)o:rt so,ir*rres nol, jn rh! c.rsc oi Reon'ufi :u"1 *i * 1.s",,,i;, "_,. bot nrs senr out to sce rirh ihe corprc rn ir, . a-< r.:rs rlso
rhc

.)..r,,ri.,.

Iniumition and crelrration


Althou$ cfcrnrti!n bLrrixl is incr.iiabh rssoci.rtcrt ahL[.c a]t

'.:r. '\ L', r, ', i


\
U..
m rlrc

riirb thc UrnfietLl

/a

)5,

i
ae

'dl
50

$rn. srit)itir! oi pi:rctirc ard dlerrnrr. oi trctiei Tlrcrtl ,,r., tr,,;:;"., tlcnn oi cli:llrtles r)t sires wherc botl infLrnrerron pr;l ",r.1.r",,rr,irrr,,.r" trssd, sorneri|rcs sinNitrnc.rusly .rs i.l] es orc c.ri tel I hLr-q trlnlc o1)r Drrv not be s.ue in Nriish or lfish rnourrds rr.herher scp.rr,,,. t,,,rtrt" Irr ,il;;;;, t&liu..s m a silgle .nrlnrd \!rre conrcmfl)unlous,,,,in some l,i rhe ,hi
lng

..,.,. \.,-, cst lLuo|e h tsrjtrjn. crlmr t10r.nrs sldclt irr.rciisrd in rhe Larh.Bronze Age, rnd w.rs dol)ru.tfl 1n dr. trrii). in \\rcsscr, yorksh]rc rnd 0rhcr.rrc.rs. .r Dur]nS rhc clulst oj ihc Mjddl. Bronze Age jt l)cc!lnc rhc corrlnrmest ritc pr.rctiscrl in ntitrrr, .s rs se.n rn ih nercrct Rimbor,! barr,,,"" ,,,.1;;;'_;. ",.,1,.1".",1 fifis of hgt.rf d. -' 'oL's Cencrlries us!:rlll.fractrsed +e..anr,. ,iLe ciuring I srn,glc pc[(]d,
,lso OrrLnr

''( _ 'I'\

'' \,,..r

. .

,.r ,r,. \1. I d, | \--

",.' .. .r,

trrlv llron:e Agc nr nofrh

suggest

it

tire creDratrir|s nrd o c rrnr.e fr*f. ,"f,r-",""] ,,,.f ".i,1 crcnrtrnr., Ih.fe r.x> Dr, rn.lic.riion fronr tire gralc-go.rds th.rt thcrc nrs rnl hr!. diticrerce jn rilrc l)cii\-rc[ the 3r.aves, thoLrgh rn gcncrrl tfe crernhrlnarrons,

.' ,' I, I t , ..,


,

t.,rr,.

I !lLlll!r

!\,11.

t!n! !

i. i;,;.,f,:rs

Il:'i,,] l, ll);'. 1 rtl


llr,

,tt".',,t,., Lr+r, |!tLf rrd s{r lr iri.l Itr}..n l!-l llLfi.si trcll,, t!iii

,-

mrtions \L.rc lcss nc11 pror.Ldc.l tor than $e rdrumaLnrns Llor mst.rnce, rhc! do not posscss thc lolg dr.ss t)lrls so tlprcal oi th Tumulus culturcsl. Th. ccmctcr') xt Str'..Ix fx.t llo.tfogonr lKf:l]olskt (lhLrccl contxln.d arl Br.rr1:c Agc grx\,cs, o1 irbich l-l 11..f. inhurr.lr1ons,.l.l cr.1natlons,.rnd 9'i)]rlbr)llc grx\cs i c. srx!.s with grx!. goo.is t,ur no srg| of :r l)od!l " Thr lxrgcsi,Lnd mosr r r|.ft:rl)t ccmctcl! of th. Ml.tdlc Ur{r|ze Ag. m c.ntrrl Eufof., lt Piti.n ln L.\r.r Allstrl.r, h3d 2ll oic,r\.itcd srrvcs of \rhich 7.1 hcrc inlru |rrtr.ns Arrd l:1.7 crcr)rrtions, th.fc \fis .r sllght rcntlcncy tor malcs to br rnhunrctl rnd fcnalcs ro bc crcrrarcd thoLrgh rhc nurrbc,'s elc too small to b. stltristicrll) !dlid tt:rblc,l Slri'Ar Gcnrcinl.bdrn l'.:L singlc crcnation r'.ri nrund anrong !hc 15,9 gr,a\cs, prcsLLn]blr indicrLling nf c\c.ftron:rl nnlilnirLal r:n circumstarcc of dclth
Table 3.5.

Thc in
adoxic,

illhrLlnrl:

UDaLice

frr',ri rrr. /rf !r! irr l'rrr, ', l.l


t2
1.5

of the bc Althousl

posslbrlit

X1.1le

lal

Irr

.utrirnrs fkr rs,isnirg.fl. rhl irditi,i:r

Vi.s

s ur

trx

Widr th Lnre tsron:e -,\ge U|lrticlds, crelr,rtLon bccorrcs :rbsol tc].' doml n.rnt, l)ut b1 rltu.rl crreterics :rre .llso nlnr.t ,{t hz.cz}rc ir Silcsir tlrclc 11.err ll7 inhrl]DAtlons .rnd l:ll .r.rraiiorls;r': ri crrndicld i. frnfc|.rrir roughl_v cqual numtrcrs oi c.rch ' On thc oth.r h:trd, tLcr! rlc lerv nriLnl l.rrge Urnfrclct ccmctcrlcs which utillicd rxclu!i!cl) cr'.ii;rtio. frn insranct \lor.rviarnr LMoh.lnicc, \'lofr\ lrl, s hich bxd l l6ll rcgisrc, cd grar cs, onll one oi thcm tlcfinnch'1].i x cr.rn:rt].nr/' .tr \irll xrlhauic. tK,rsstll, rvidr -l5l rcco|cr.d grav.\ :rll l)) rfcnrAiiorl . This is a stardarcl;.rtrern fOr nLrch ot c.nt]'xl lutufc in tirc Latc Rrof:r Ag.,,rs ri,cll .rs ior hrge p:rts oi t]re NI..litcrln.*Ln ar cas, Sllndi.nvia, Fr ancc .ur(l elsenhere. Nor sLrrprisrnrll', the chrngc tr) .r'.rr1ltriol1 as srrfdn burial rirc has bccn secn rs i rellerri(xl ot pntounil cbangcs i. attitudcs to dcath, r',ith presenrdon oi rhe body .riter d.lrb.o longcl bclng sccn !s inrtortani. for this rerson, sorne auLhoritres harc sougbt to place maior cthrogerctic changes ar rhe sL.rrL oi rhe Unfield pc,ro11, nel bclieis Lepresenrrrg Lhe arriv.rl oi net peoples

abll sirr:

lcrds thc

buri,rls

Ihr
' i '
l.s.hl.i \i..Lr lrSl i S:rflnr*.r 1,)r.S :l Ielrr.rnl Nrller Lr)r;
H.frrfl

sugg

.r!i l95lrlrii,llefi\:hh!I.:r!r.i
l1):

lrrl: T.s.hi.r Ni..ii Lti.l

,-

I i1

|1L na ! iat1 ili

ar ulitl lia)n

rll

ic
rci

clcnrrron .rchic\ cs ,r cufl(Jtrstf f,rrxr ih. irci Lhnt sfx\c Iorms |figjralh.cre.rtcd ior dre iihumxtiof rite rrrnc to Lrc prordcd rith orenAtilnr!. The rn.!r sirij.mg crrmfl.s arr |erh:r|s tlc coftins rntl cirrs.,i Den,r)xrli, which rn rtrlod llr IreqncrtlY conr.Ined cr'.nrations i. but anoLrcr prr gra\.es or Chrrnfrgnr. hrge enough ior trn rnhrrnati,-rn but .rciurlh,cont.riring I cre nur.tl.''' A curnrus cornbinaurlrr oi coifin Lo D. lccn rL an U.atic! |urirl lrirh lrJircci crern.rtiorr ri lessrlrr:, Kr. Brutzcn, r'hcre liLc r,ds.rirflirJ ro r bo.tv rlrcrdr. 1,vrn3 rn e plank coifinl +rs dedLrctron I rs rr.rrlc bccau"c rhe.r-$ rll lrr rl Lhe r4pcl parr oi th. hurirl .rnd rras r.,r prescnr lo$cr Jortn 'r Ii ihc grave itscli ues rL sr.mhol oi rc sort .rn.l rtre irejurcri 0l the bod_r' nioth.f, ihis siru.rriorr rcfr.senr-r i kird oi conflict of sr.n Lrols. AltloL,sh conrroni,r rcgarded as ndic,rthg.r mrior shiir rn b.lici!. ihe m.rir) trNnce ol the graic forrns oi e cllier peloLl ln:rv suggesr thri rhe syrn bolLrn oi contlrcr'r'.r: sLrongcr thln th:t oi thc rrcaLmcnt. Thrre,rre nr:rny possibihties iol i.!c4rretm.q this trlr.norrenon in terrns of ccmpcr11rg rttcolo gies, rhr. d.\n! io |lice thc dccc:Lscd rflthin the tree, intcryr.ctcd rLro,,c e. rhc sorLce oi Lic or tlte lorrb, hcrc rcn,med d,nninanl. lrr liel\. .J rl1. vcr! rbLrntl:nt crirlel1ce ror t|c Urnlieltl l,rfu throughout Lrte Xlol: ASc Etrrotc, one mig|t r onder r.hcrbcr diiierenccs bcrileen trrtjcLr lar cenetcncs :rc signific.rlrt. Thc number oi lires is s.) lelgc, and thc rilrlc or,errtirh thc rire r.rs utrhscd so ertensirc, fiat iL seclrs orh,Lo l)c cxFccied that olr siic will (liiier nrarlcLll,v irom thc ncxt. In i.rct, fi,Lny siLes .rrc rcnrrk,b\ n ilJ, xnd r'rthin :i Siven irer rh. rcteLirious rirlrLre Lrt rh. cvidence
Th. LrerNen lllhLtm.rtion .m.t

lni.rplrt

rdfiilcrl culrrrirurnxr

),

thc pnrcnonenon .r lc.rden qualtty i,.o,r thich ell hLLr fie h.rr.li.sr hale rtrc.u.d Ncvrrlhels-r, ir'ricr sile conl1rArisons can bc irstrucrir.e Ol;rLLsson, ior nqtlnrcc, looked.lr Pilcd,rl:rnd Sr;rrrc rc:rr ysr3.l (n dre sourh Scuirn corsr rrrl iounLi Lh,rt, tIough ihe\.rtcrc brc:(ll! cont.rrtror!4.im.lirtl fcrnrrl Yl rfu,: u,ere nrLl<cd diiierences bcrrccn Lhem thri coLrtd nor:rltoscdrer bc rc!|ur1r.d l{ir fl. trphrnonli. irctors, un}nltani th(,ugh rhsc hcrc.r., Urn bLuirls Ior rnstencc, c,ulier .ri Slrrtc. onlv bccrfirhg thc rlrtnr ln ihe ht. pclirrl oi use.rt lil!(l.rl, rhefc lcrc geleratlv rnoLc bronzc objlcr! rt S\.tur. 1lr.l!L(hr1g t1\.o graics l\,irh jn rrrrusLL.rllr.high number.rnd sc!url bron:es c\|rhitirgline rrorkDlnship Ihc S\lrte rcrnct.r,, \\as hrgcr, rilccrLng n pofuhiior consrstlng oi an estirn:rtcd tr.o ertcnJcil famiLes :rs 0pposel rLr onc rt tiiedrl. Yri botlr sires secnr to har.e servcd ai Lrurirl plicc! ior conLenpor.rrr poPLrhtrons {itlrrn i short .:list,rrlre ic. l0 hml oi e:rch othu. The srgilestrorr hls been.rdvanccrl thereforc tLar the npp.rr.rr irerlth oi thc
tends

Liir. r l9ll llit:

l!l

IJ U

RTr\I

Svrrtc cemeter) rcllccts groq)s

l\io

tonirollcd both coastal and hl:nd

resources, nrcLLrdnrg coasixl nxde. Thc dLiicrences betivccn contcmporer-v crenrtion ccrrlct.r'ics in the same arca have.rlso been c:plorcd. '' tirsson sho\\ed thc ciislcncc oi tivc hier:rr chlcxl stf.rrr rn Lhe ccnctcr; oi lisLeL)y ne.rr Norkajfing in south crstcrn slr'c.:ten, \riLh rhc dcgrcc r:ri.lliicrcntirtn)n incrersug through tlnrc into dle Iron,{!,e, vrrious inctlris such xs popuhdon Lncrerse. !hnngcd cconolrlc Lcla

tons and conilicrs ol intclcsr l.ere

suggesred as bting r.sponslblc Skloldcl)r.Lnd ln)l<ed ar thc diffcrcnccs betr,'een Fiskebl. Klrlg:L and Rlngc|r rLll in thc s.ne are.r On ell sitcs, thc connnonest buri.tl t,vpc wns thc crc nrati,n Fir \f irh urn and pyrc dcbrls, bLLt rvhere.rs rt fisi(eLr,! an(l Kliflja rhis eccountcd for r.ell over hali thc burlAls, .1r Rinsebt iL r..rs a tLch snrllct frop.ntron, other speci.rl budnl ipcs rn.rkrng up the rennindcrj sto.c clnl siru.ti.lrs \Lcre.rlso much colrlroncr thcfc, .rnd pots tound in nany mr]re gra!cs. Tbc crclrared bone ilso ,1ffc{rs io hxr.c been tre,rted difierertl,v. Thcsc rliitcrcnccs erc rrken to rellecr dillcrlng soctal ci]nditnrns on Rrngeby as olposed tr-' riskcbl ind Klingj, ir belns lLrggcsicd th:rt clites rrainuned r sirorgcr dlnni xncc .rt the hrer conpnrcd with thc former. h \ic'! oi thc laLge nurnber Lri gravcs on Urnficld cemeteries, one rnishr exprci ihcrc to bc si3nificint evrdercc tl) sp:ltial ordcrxls oi the graves. In sonc iDs!anccs thls h,rs Lrcen reported, but in g.ncral lLttle rrteresr has been evDced in this alpcct. At Vollmirsl]lrLrser sili discrcrc dcposLtLon are.rs ri'ere rLlentilied, scparatcd by unused sprce ilis. 1.12| thcsc:rrcas $.crc xltefpreted as i:n ill brLdal :oncs, cech l'ith .r sorner.luL (liiicrent hurixl hlstoLv rnd prr ticrrlrr rraits oi irlLri:r1 practlce ior instrnce ihc fro!isior1 oi h.ls ro the urns, comrnoner h sonc :rcrs than othrs. Civen a toral usc pcrlod ot sorne 50u vears, i:mil,v of rblcc to scven lrLlir.LrlLr.rls crn bc rcconstluctctl tfom "izcs these burial:oncs " At C;cm.inleL)drn I Lhree dctositinr z.ncs \rcrc ldenti llcd, which it is sLrggcstccl cr:ruld rcpfcscnt the burirl phccs ot rhrcc conicrrr forlneous iirnily srouls ifig..l l.l1.r"

Plles (lrcm.rtlon burirl LrsLL.rlb jmplics thAt rhc L)od-v \rjs burnr on a prrc.r"'Tlc rcconstmcti(xr ol srrch elcllrcnts is Al1r1ost entife]-v conieclLrrnl: th.rc nrc nr srr'!i!i.g f)rcs, onl-v Lhe possiblc spots wbcrc rhey once srood, nr Lhe fom r:ri blaclcncd or reddened sLretchcs of grr:rurd, usu.rll-v surri\.xls r.here thcr h,rrc bccn protected b,! Lhe heapcd Lrf cntth oi r ound. Sorr e har.e rhought rhrr thc 'hcaps oi Iire"cr:rcked sronrs so crltnrnon in sc.tndmrtirn irch,reolos!

' Slnlllehmd llrir Lr,ss.n l9;. i' l]rrUrrrn. l9!l I lla-. r' \.I!.hru.r 1991 1lL r"' u.KiDlcr LttT to r iull Llr;.6n.f .r ticrul!.n ftrcs Dd pvr. d.bns u(]er brflr.s

,ll--

'.!.

-.

l1

l0
j-

li

- -=

,':- -\' 83 I to

t,/

__.

ir^

^ \r

ZONE

tL)LLtld

Haunl

;\ I /a: a-a rl
I I
ZONE 2

14ouli burnt

tangul

J^'L?.)
a

lowed .I

..'.7
I

(lo. D
Cemr

rhich

al ".t r tr

'\:i/

ZONE 3

i ;t.]
ra
. Male . Female
ienih
o

al ,,,:\

selllng //l
uaexcavaLea

aLr

child :

Post

Iig. 3.13. GcmelnleLri]rn F H\fr)dictic:rl r.corsrnlctlon rl Lhr.. crnttnlorar,v LrLuI ng c(,nDruniti.s. Cifclcs xrdicrte tossrblr
groLrps Lirrter

hlt

Ncugcbru.r

19911.

4.

nrcfrrl t r;cJr,rrur's

II7

in,fact the rcmarns

oi crclnation p_vres, anrl cxperrncrtrr evr.tencc sho\vs lil<ct\' in every casc.., prre fiaccs hxye Lrer.r led ir e-ralmbcr oi sites ArDohf |crer, sofuc or rre n)[urratron gii]v.s nng uncn.s rlso possclserj ,hcarthr,, r,hich \Lrre p.ri opr 1,vr., iulr.r" .lso occurfcd of thc sjtc toot< pl.rce. , l\ late Urntielij
thrs

is possiblc,

if rot

cronatiul inst:tllatjons, in othcr rvords t),*r, *" """,r ;, ;i ; muttn cclttetcr1 at X,hilhac in coutherf Ffrncc.r . Sojnc tvcssc. lr";" ;;; burnt rrcas underrearh \rirh the rcmains or Lrurnt L).rne 11l the.1; |hcse uaces v&1 rn siz. rnd sh.rpe. rhe c.rsc of Rutford C.49 is ,emarkable: a rcc.. ,',,.. :r Inew' ,. r, . t.\t. Ar 1 .,, . /. rr r .F I, L ,.
remrns ot

.' '' ::T-" 1' l'' / ''" ,. - al


tered r.

', n '"herrl-.

HrL,r'r+,

fl";rl;l-,.: " ::,'.' i l", ...\t-.. ,"9'. , .l.


",...__,'; finrgh a srLlstanrial burnt ara.r-r I1l Scandin:rvio, pyr.
, ^r, ,.,,....,,t

b,(r \\ | ll,

..d

.,, l.

i'
.,,., ,i;l
a.l.t" *u"

,|

".'' '; "';


,., 1r.

i9,: ;. :.r:'1'
\'\'.,,'\;

I.

,r..,.r ,,,..4rr.r..

uoe'\
lowed

whicl x turi nacli rvrs er.cte.tr5', Trr.cs oi:r pyrc ivcre Co Down, lrcinnd, and possibtr:rt orher sjLes Ceneterl enclosure5

out oi the nound rather thrr plc-,:hiing it r , l, Si"if O""" rrr, Wiltshrc, r pyre of substanrial rnrbeis. about I ff squrrr, rlrs l)uitt "i. on rhe gass sLlLlce and fired, priLrr to the inlel,rent oi dr;:tshes,,r

r,r.;,;-;;.;

found at

Cf.gi*t.ft,

on th:rt rslAnd.r,l

oi crclorurc rn connedion \vrtlr blLri.rl iil]cls ir rprcssior i. ioo, ri is not mercl}' rhe rubstantj:l barrr:rl\.s of the Eart_v Broruc ,\e ti:u rnadc usc oi such fcar',cs. h ttre Urnffcld perod, t,; ;;;., ;" cenetrirs oi (.esrern Fllropc csrcrn Clcrnr,rny, rhc fora,Ci:runnies, fr,Ircc
The

co.cepi

otner.r0rms

mrdc trequcnt urse

oi tfe r:nr1os rirrlrale ro .l.fil,.

,,.,.1irr.1.,,,1

;t;;;;

ri Sriei(lrnt t'ra.l talrti.

61, I tNr5.r il lril.her l9:6 lhou! ,md rhoDrs l!r: ' l4r\\i.ll n d ll9rlr, 2a
!r

" Hral!r

lllt l0

tTli

LrLi. llron:e Ig. ccf-i.tlrrt Ln these .lrers \oult rrxll drtthed i.:Lruf.s, the ,lirdlts usuAll! round 1/Q/i!l{r,rb.rl ln'in some crses i. thc northeLn hrLli oi the l-o\\ CoLrrrics.rnd ]n \\iesl]rhrlir kc,rhole shrped, lcss ircquenrl,r ,)1;Il ol suh-recufsLLl:tr ' The stnall rountl ditchcd cnrl,su, cs wcL. rlnrsrl-.' s ,Lll l,rrf.,1's sLrcb as rc,'c comnttttt tn m.ut' t-urts oi the Urffiel.L tlistfihuri.rf. T|. lerger ierrLucs sccnr gcmrlnel-1 r.r have

rfcrs r\n.rir fl-iot.qr.rph oi,r

\ho

r mrss o{

Llcfinrd 'iLrnenr y crclosures'. nhich ilr sorre c:ses in tbc Nethcrl.m(ls clfl r3incd 1\'i]ollen Lr.rsr ltrLrcrufes L'r Ar Rroussv le-Cr.1n(1 iNlArncl .r rather Jight pcn:Lrrrla| rlrtch Llcfinctl .rn rrer I I l1 nr .rcross rnd c.nt'unc.l .r numb.'L oi l.r,fc g|oups rs lrell xi trottcf-v, sronc brLnrt chrlk rnd chrrco.rl 'L This sile recrll! r1]. penrnnlLl,1r clrllr.rtnJn e|c]16ur.s 1n tsril:rin su.h .rs Cadoss \\ihi!cstxlcs ruoor rnd Lo.rnherd oJ D:t!iot,' l'hllc southcm EngliJr rr.nrrti.r cerreteric> !uch .ls Snnofs Gtound shoN oL.!iou\ s1lr1ll.rrities fhe suLb lcctangul:r cncloru|('s rre le"s con:rron, I'ur rhcy rrc rcc .rt Ar:lnrrrur tlanchcs lxhrnel, ior i stllce h.re th.! corltrin cr.nrliionsi \ orl the sirre siic \as loun,l r loflt rcct.rnsul:r cnclosLrrc th.L i5 ific4n'ct.d rs crrl tlc see chxfrcr 91. Ar lllgr., Kr. $irrndori \\i!stfhxl1.r,.r ten.tcr) cxt.ndcd oler some I h.L.rnd rr lhc i.lcstlgrted l'.rr.7l dltches ol !:rriou! drxpcs.rnd 1.11 rr.Irati,)ns rvcre recovcrcd, inclLrdlrs 9 l,,ns ditches l6 r1)(rrd ditche(, ,Lnd l5 keyholc drtches a. oi drcrn rriih !(nrrl1.\ 1r'(xxlof cofstlucilons

lEg L1,ll " Thse ercloilr.c rLitches denrcd spccill .fra; Thc ke-rhole shairc .alrnot h,Llc .rn-r such iurcron.rl sigrllic:tncc xs is thc crLs. rtrth nn)Linds lnd c!.n thc iutr re.r.rnsrLlxr.nclosures c,rnn.t rcahsticrllv hr\. bcen colercrl bl brt nrv moulJs Oilc c.x1 conp:Lr! i1l. shjpe \\'i!h th.rr oi pendrnts 1n lrtc Ulnficll irld TlrLllstrtt dare rn crrnel EuroPe, tlolrbl) thc Erst AlPi.e:o.. r)trcn sccn rs .l|thr.4trrotrlic. 1-.crh,rps coplilrg a rl<rrtcd hul1lal1 figurc. ' \\ihAt ls im|orunt i\ thr re.(rgfiri.rr .)ithcir slrnboli. lmport.l]ld tbcir \:rli unilorn tlln.l'xr-\'rjte, Nilh f.)lrr rLrilit) n'h1ch cortrrlts \1,lth the L,thc
"rsc

othcr spccial tlentIncrl ol the


Bec.rusc

dead

sr) 1xr, the criisl.rct l].rn gone \\ihilt hrs lLnrn.ntldled in the.\'ledircr'rA oi s].rclal iorrrs oi btLrirLl Ln Sicil! th rock cLrt tornL)s oi CastclluccLo Ihapsos, Prnt.rllc.r irdels.whcfc

h.r\'e been

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ri

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2

Ii:. l.lr. lf !rr Iir \\.rrr rili,.i, \\'.(rfLr,jlir l I l(,ri srlf r\']tLr ilr.r (l trh.urJ.r( ]l.ir!,, ih.'.!r.r t|Li:h .rltfr \\i hflLDi 1!li

BI]R]AI thr frovisiin (ii irl1t,orrc.l (;rccL irotterv rt llupsirs rcllccts ihc .rlril cxcheugc goods t-r' vrrtue oi LheiL rlherire,l or irv oi Lrc:L elites to '1!(trLilc achieved sLarus. Still rrore rcm:r'kablc Ar. thr monurnentrl construcri,rns ol sornc MediLerr.ne.rn isl:Lrdsr drc llnrts gfrlcs oi S.tLdtnt.r .rnd rhe r,r'rt,ir oi the B:le,rrics. r.r Dafrc but iu.) iorn)s Girnts gmves Ltorrrb. rir::i.grrirl, essenritrll_v LLuH lncgrlirhic trnrbs rith clebo||lte c.rned sLone trcrdes .rnl seru-circuhr iorecoLrrr" iLrmcd by proicct,ng horntorl<s, belong mosLl-r rn thc larlv tsroD:e Age. th.rugh s.nr. go .)l] lrrcr. ! N,rl'rld.\ .rre .rlso elong:Lel monrulcntrl stone srnrctures uifi ,1n i.!erirlr' clarnbcr', thc J.tttn3 oi lhtclt ls conccnrrrted in the second nillcnniurr RC.'r' Bot| lo rs |rscnt rn.xrr oi thc s.rnc pLoLrlclns.rnd inle4rr.rnti\,c NS.ihiliri.s Ai mcgrllthic i{r1nhs of dre Nc.lirhLc smce Lher .rre collccrirc tr:mbs wbclc irdi\.idurls could not be Lttcnrificd once detleshrng h.rd occurccl It i! c.,'txi,rll Argurble, ho11el.er thir thcr. 1t'cfc stecirl reqrrirenerls ro r]Lr:rliiy fcr blrrixl irr onc oi the-.c toLnbs ln othcr 111rrds thet the-v repre"ent nsp.cis of foncr crcrclscLl l,rthrn thc crm.rtrniti.! ihxt crcctcd thcrr 'l T. nra \ i]rlrrnccs the .rccornp.rnyng goods n,1,r i|.licatc thc .fAlt of o..u F:lt].)r) ot rhc occupnt, norably Lhrough mcr,rl\\'orl(ifg tools.Ln.1 oftcr corn p:Lrablc c.lLl]pmcnr. Thc C.rt:rcorDLr Crave bLLri.rl n kurg;In -l ai N.\'r)r K!:rsnllio\.r lVoltosL.rdl .rccompnnieLl b,v.r sledgc \\'irh wn)d.n tutr]lcts rrJ itcnri ot .qui1rncnt suSgsting th.rr rhe dereased spccielisccl in rrrlor plt, ducriir. ii r1o'. u uslr.rl 11i9. :l 151. ri tsut none oi rhe"e c:rscs rllvolr,c. spc r l irc.lrnrcni oi c co4,sc, as irr .rs one c.rn tell ah Lhe oLheL hrnd, thr i,,cc- oi tlc bo.Lics At scrscr\.ka liherson Crxre.l ri'ere covercd with rihat lrpcarccl t(i bc masks thc c-vcs with l):rlls of ochre cla-v anrl bhcl soil, thr rlorLdrs \ itlr \oi], and i|. rostrils 1r.ith soot and pol.dered shell " Thi" nar not h:Lvc bcc. e nasl ]n thc usuel sense oi rhe rrord, L'ut ir i5 ccrt:1inlf sr k ing, rs dre ercnvar.rrs toifi out, ibxt drcs. scrlsc ofgans rrere close,l up. Thr" m.r-r'lure been corncclcd wiih tLc comtnon pr.rctrce of pluggrng orilices rL death, bLrr erlu:rllv ir mar h:rr c bccn intcntlcd svnrltolic.tllr provrLlng Lhe ,leud irith.r speci:l persolla fr:r drc grarc Thc usc oi ochrc 1s .rnother speoirl ier. rure, going back to thc a,4rpcf Agc,r'' lr-r r.d .r -r'cl1o11.co1our nusr h.rle been prrr oi iLs speci:rl sigriticrLncc. r\nother specirl torm of bLLri;tl arok plecc ln c.rlcs C.rtes used tor l.un:ls arc especialLv cornmon rn fr.urcc:rnd Rclgirm r\ !'irh thc Grottc dcs Duii.rlts
Lhe de.rd

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ln C ral Crortc
rng had

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rurbed;

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re

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ga7lLi),

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I

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1 the

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arrl Lofarin
spe
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thc
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ead

Clrrnre, 'i drc -frou de l,Ambre rnd othcr sjtes in upland Relglum, ,- thc Gntte du Has.rrd rr Card. r' anti r:nr othcr srtcs. It is cltflicrlt, and proba blynrslcrrirng, Lo scp.rrare thcse caves iron ttrosc r.hjch.rre r"g"^f"A,i.r frr; inshadi c hic srgnificarce ise Lretorv, pp. JlZiil.
rn

cuve-robbing

qi n .,._t, ,,,,...,i. drqglng is oi rehiively recenr darc; btt ir i! rlso ,cr).conmolr ilr, irrltr"

,r lt.9 D.lllr'.,... I
./
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als

its

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,1. thc boncs

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abl,!netrll sorr.tim.s l.crc disordcred; in extrerrc c:rscs thc !\.hole skelctou lirs rerror.ed.r"' rncvltrbt,v rherc is tcss elidence lor lh. disiurb;,rce

:'r RrdJ;ri:

'.

ilolL] JJ S!uir., tt'6

'! Norld,rru ir9L,

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ltrji

ol crernnLions. smce
goods. Crrl.e roLrbrng

iht!

riid nrr

LLsLLxll\

corrrAr such

LlLtArrtrt-v

ot lrct:rl iurthcr Thc


Jlrnlc

corcrnoxtrJ

on.rrcnrs rnd esperirll-]' objects thcre 11'rs a tendencl tor degger" t0 bc robL.crl Jrom alc grjrcs, arcl carlicr fithcr thrn latef grr\.es presurnabl! by rhe |olrlrlnri.nr th]t iirs rcsprnsiL.le ior the l.rter sr.r!s, 1or unless sizcablc amorLnrs oi uLlrrLL.lc mct,rl r'c,c de!,ositeil, rhe ob ects rn question \!ere orl,! oi i.rercst tr) thosc ilr s,honr thc-v rfc sflll currenL, Us:l'le iLerns Ihis c\.1dcn.e iof ertnsive i! .rn imponant consicleratir,rn r,her 'lisLLrrbiDce .nrc co )cs to lool< et qucstions of soci.rl ofs.rnisitnrn, since iL meins rhrL one c,lrnrr bc surc ro rih:rt crtcnr onc Le.rll_v h.rs r truc ficrure oi vhich buried i.di!idtrAlr {.rc rLch rnd ritrich ll,ere not lr jlso crrries r.irh ir i sLrong inrplicrriolr r|,rt gr.l\'es r.erc mrrl<ed on the surirre b; posLs, sLones or fi,,u,rds. sincr thc gfl,cs oi drc Lrch rd porveriul nrght bc rr ore likelv to bc or:r nerlccl, thcsc would bc thc oncs nlost liLrl-v ro rttmct rtrentirrn from ,obbcrs, rLnJ xc.ordinsl) r i.r'cnc.s on sncl.rl org.rrllsarjon should br df.l\\,n l\.ilh e:ilrerne (]ir cLLnrsf ec!ion
Epilogur: BLLrirls oi tfe rr.nr:c Asc, ,rs 1,i xn) p.rind, !cr!. A sfcci:r1 pur|osc rrr th. sruLiy oi rhe p:rst b.c!Lr!c .ii ih!ir lrLriqlLii) In tl1. spccifi. corrtcxt oi th. Bron:e r\ge, $r,o rehted snL(lils irtrrxcr: thc rclatirc rr'.r!rncn! ot i.di!idu als lrthrn r srngle site or groLLp ol sitcs; nr,l dic rel;Lri.nrship bctwccn clii ierenr groups oi sites across \\,j(lcr trnittlrjcs. lr1 r)rlr.r $'oldi, thcrc is A irrn.rc lrr.J on which ro liel rhe evidurcc i(li5iincriofs bcrtcer dliicrcnt rcglons

tnftictrlrr clxssG oi obi..t, .it)cciAllr irom:1(lLrlt grr\.s 1' At fitrcn ncrlr Vic.n,l
rnr

tlonall

tl-irouS

is llftl
Sinc.

irlclLldr

il]nllics, nrolrri.s or ar rrost tribal rrniLsi. XlrcI hcr. d.pcnd-r or1 the spccitic ]nrerpretrrnrn rdrrflcd Ior rhe relaLion. shit-. 1).t\!rcr) cono.rsrms rnorles oi tuncrir! fractice brrrorsiihr gl.lles, cr..rrriorrlrnhum.lrlon,:rbund.Dt pro!isnJn oi srr!e-soodsrslishl prcirisr|)ll. Th. |r.\xll rg r.icrl.h.rs l)een thjt s-vsrenrrir riiilerences Lrefr'een regions J|d |iirs.s Ar'. slgrrllc rr ior the rconstructnxr oi soci.rl .rnd political liie. J|Li ihltr,iriln shiirs oi t)rrcricc ln thc s ne Le!,nrn rerlecL ch:nges nr beliei s,rs. tcns, r,hich in tuu'n corlrl rcflccr chrngrng cthnlc of linguisric :rifinlt-! On thc othcr frnd !ifcc nrx \ buri.rl tonns and accoutrrnrents are l.rrgel-v s-vrn bolic rn natrLrc lnd on. cxnnot urdcrst.Ird 'rh,rt thc s-urbolisrr rr.ans, 1t rs rnpo>siblc to p,edict what tIc rocirl a|d pcrson.rl corrcl.rrcs oi such ie.rnrLes n,c. T1r. hlnfins uf (ii,r r1rotrn.L irrto r t,.rrrr11 ries i s![rl]olic .rct islnce rll rhar u.rs fcr,1r,1 if iuriciiorlrl icfir! uas cnoug| certh to prcvcnt thc dec']l'

oi Eurcp, perhaps corres|ondhg to mator crhnic dir isiorsl, rLnd ] rrrrr:r o /4,r1 ldrstl1lrrnrns betrreen ]l(iivrrlLr.r]s rir irroL,fs of hdiriLlLLrls, co,respcDdirs to

I]]rlr.{rr.

rrrll)

rrli.r
sihlt

Iif.l

ir.

I|r crlrcerrL,n rrit| rr Lrodrl gtlrc LunrrLnr,rnrl tr,lr rrLrnlas j: l lullrr isi,r.t .i rhi! 1..r1rrf.r \ !\ l1lhi)lisirl Thr rol:r'r(rlfg modcs oi L1,,posrtnr. trtlh ii.ir (ltiiritn! ,q1.rL,rchr. ro gr t S,,i\l tL.\isrfr, hnlrIr,Lftr.(r.rri. (,] sorixl r!srrlrs.riidr tlrL rlo ||r l,rt\'fr1 ii.r]nr!!ilr,r lhf L.L,trir. strrcii) . ri.h si,r\.,s Lth.sr rIh.LL,uf rl.rnt S.(ii n,r. l..crr ]ntc4,11.rL.11 js l: .qclr rccidrnrel LhL r,.sLrLL oi |.sr \1.f0!ruonrl i,LriLrr! Lliri rl).r, rre p[|ry |i rrornrJ ,r th1|lrfS Lh.rt rhfl $Lre rll.us s|1rer: rhr tlr(1.,n1n1.rncr oi thr c.rnorerlrs ir curu.rl trfL,fe Nirhrlrr\| ) flor tr.\i!r1!r rlLrcs rr.r appe:u to uask.r sy.rL.rn,rr Jii}|rc]1 lirilri rlut r.ul,i orl!ir)ril\ lr.!r s.fr sLJ]n. Sr,L\rs ]nJrrrLtLLrlst .rs rrrep in, llrnullii!Lir1 Srsirirrrric (Liirflrcfs benrrcn Ltiiitrcrrr ,L, c.rs .rt irkLtr rr r,1l..r ir urL r 1e.rr.riLrbilii\ oi nrrurrls.rnd crr I skilLs, rnJ tLr p,nr Lhe r.Sx,rLrl n,riLrtir!,! Lri nLrrrlr r pr.rcrrrr Alr|iug| ,,if Drrhi .\|t.rr 1ro|r rrr tLfrlrsrs (ir Irfrer crLlrurlt ehnrcrr: Lh.rt tLnrugh rlnf LirL)n:. Agf b ll.]l tir':(rjce rroul,l cxhihrt irfrersrns r(jnr|lf\ :tr.uxl JriirLnrixriilr tlris is r1|i rr1 .qf]lenl tlr. c.rst. hr rtrose .rrras rherr hr!. n)lirm:uir,n ccm.t.rlfs ;.r\r $r\ to hfS. .rcmltioir rcnlrtcn.s Lhcjf rs llnh rrJlr,,'r(xr 1-|:ri if! s rl] {rLLrrural clrrnge occu rrt. 11.hr c jn Lhc lLrtlr rrrn trrsi, rrlrcr. b.rrro\\ L)trrirl r..rs ff|lrcu,l br ,L mrnt lrrrrciL r1Lc r0clLr,lf\rL.:Lr,:lrnt crrrrllr(Jn, rh..lrrrlie 1 s ri!ther ilr rlrc rc!ersr Jjrr(11i]|. nr1i0 r,Lblrrrf mri,LlrlrL xr.rl:,Lsr(l in rlrrrrtir rnJ .ttrrIr! .rld o*rr rndr r,nL)r\ lr'llh rl r\r,ifr:ior1i)i r\xrl,tlrle D.x|s (,1 ,Lsfh\ ifs |restrg.. rtre1rrtif
urfrirgrn

rl,r Lofi L.rrsrn! snflls .lr.l iDlrclr(Jnl, rrr(L !ne nrx\ if.rLrlLri. (!r Irh!ih,I r r!iiun 1| Lhi {1!fI (l1 'LI.rlr,f crrrh 1r lxorh.f .jnril.rr |rjrfh.j sr{
,it

ilc-!rir o1 (jhrrlrur!. rfLaflnglul ir1r1n1.ri. irorn bufiat 5rlei. Lr rAt: \lrirrr xrt.lf:rii(fr ,ri rcn.irr) rhL.r rrrrh ;rLLlcnrcnt.rntt otlrrr rriLicncc hrs 1,,u pr*srl,ir:,r ;iL:rL,rc oi u,f trrl]r:d c1,!]ry tr.rs bcu ot L.rjurJ,,i LlrL,n:r ,\:r lliin{ 51sir.rir{ Tt mrrst br rhr go.rl .it llrr,nze Agc lreluco|,gr Lo rrtrr,l rr\l|llL,lxt (ucLr ,nllrsts to ifclL(1,: rrrd.r ilrJ nrofc djy.rs. .rfr,rs or Elln,1,!

rrrf{

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