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ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
CHAPTER 6
Frequency Response, Bode
Plots, and Resonance
1. State the fundamental concepts of Fourier
analysis.
2. Determine the output of a filter for a given
input consisting of sinusoidal components
using the filters transfer function.
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
3. Use circuit analysis to determine the
transfer functions of simple circuits.
4. Draw first-order lowpass or highpass filter
circuits and sketch their transfer functions.
5. Understand decibels, logarithmic frequency
scales, and Bode plots.
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
6. Draw the Bode plots for transfer functions of
first-order filters.
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
Fourier Analysis
All real-world signals are sums of sinusoidal
components having various frequencies,
amplitudes, and phases.
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
Filters
Filters process the sinusoid components of an input
signal differently depending of the frequency of
each component. Often, the goal of the filter is to
retain the components in certain frequency ranges
and to reject components in other ranges.
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
Transfer Functions
The transfer function H(f ) of the two-port filter
is defined to be the ratio of the phasor output
voltage to the phasor input voltage as a function
of frequency:
( )
in
out
V
V
f H
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
The magnitude of the transfer function shows
how the amplitude of each frequency component
is affected by the filter. Similarly, the phase of
the transfer function shows how the phase of each
frequency component is affected by the filter.
( )
in
out
V
V
f H
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
Determining the output of a filter
for an input with multiple
components:
1. Determine the frequency and phasor
representation for each input component.
2. Determine the (complex) value of the transfer
function for each component.
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
3. Obtain the phasor for each output
component by multiplying the phasor for each
input component by the corresponding
transfer-function value.
4. Convert the phasors for the output
components into time functions of various
frequencies. Add these time functions to
produce the output.
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
Linear circuits behave as if they:
1. Separate the input signal into components
having various frequencies.
2. Alter the amplitude and phase of each
component depending on its frequency.
3. Add the altered components to produce
the output signal.
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
FIRST-ORDER LOWPASS
FILTERS
RC
f
B
2
1

( )
( )
B
f f j
f H
+

1
1
( )
( )
2
1
1
B
f f
f H
+

( )
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

B
f
f
f H arctan
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
( )
( )
2
1
1
B
f f
f H
+

ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
CONNECTION, AND LOGARITHMIC
FREQUENCY SCALES
( ) ( ) f H f H log 20
dB

ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
( ) ( ) ( ) f H f H f H
2 1

( ) ( ) ( )
dB
2
dB
1
dB
f H f H f H +
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
Logarithmic Frequency Scales
On a logarithmic scale, the variable is
multiplied by a given factor for equal
increments of length along the axis.
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
A decade is a range of frequencies for which
the ratio of the highest frequency to the
lowest is 10.
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

1
2
log decades of number
f
f
An octave is a two-to-one change in frequency.
( )
( )
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

2 log
log
log octaves of number
1 2
1
2
2
f f
f
f
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
BODE PLOTS
A Bode plot shows the magnitude of a network
function in decibels versus frequency using a
logarithmic scale for frequency.
( )
( )
B
f f j
f H
+

1
1
( )
]
]
]
]
,
,

,
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+
2
dB
1 log 10
B
f
f
f H
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
1. A horizontal line at zero for f < f
B
/10.
2. A sloping line from zero phase at f
B
/10 to 90 at 10f
B
.
3. A horizontal line at 90 for f > 10f
B
.
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
FIRST-ORDER HIGHPASS
FILTERS
( )
( )
( )
B
B
f f j
f f j
f H
+

1
in
out
V
V
RC
f
B
2
1

ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
SERIES RESONANCE
Resonance is a phenomenon that can be
observed in mechanical systems and
electrical circuits.
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
LC
f
2
1
0

R
L f
Q
s
0
2

CR f
Q
s
0
2
1

( )
]
]
]
,

,
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+
f
f
f
f
jQ R f Z
s s
0
0
1
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
Series Resonant Circuit as a
Bandpass Filter
( ) f f f f jQ
s s
R
0 0
1
1
+

V
V
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
L H
f f B
s
Q
f
B
0

2
0
B
f f
H
+
2
0
B
f f
L

ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
PARALLEL RESONANCE
( ) ( ) fL j fC j R
Z
p
2 1 2 1
1
+

LC
f
2
1
0

L f
R
Q
p
0
2

CR f Q
p 0
2
( ) f f f f jQ
R
Z
p
p
0 0
1 +

ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
Ideal Filters
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
Second-Order Lowpass Filter
( )
( )
( ) f f f f jQ
f f jQ
f H
s
s
0 0
0
in
out
1 +

V
V
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
DIGITAL SIGNAL
PROCESSING
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
Conversion of Signals from
Analog to Digital Form
If a signal contains no components with
frequencies higher than f
H
, the signal can be
exactly reconstructed from its samples, provided
that the sampling rate f
s
is selected to be more
than twice f
H
.
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
Digital Lowpass Filter
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) n x a n ay n y + 1 1
T
T
a

1
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING
Principles and
Applications
SE OND EDITION
Chapter 6
Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance