Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 436

yC-NRLF

051

flO?

m
BC*T*
u
it
it
it

'X c

\i
:

'

"

m:^

)fl^J<

WmiM
A FIRST
Director of Public

BI

Ml
>,

iAI

CATECHIS^-I OF
L
'ftuju^n

TAMIL CxRAIMMAE,
'
.

for Schools.

Office of the

outh InJi

^'hri.ii'^-..

School Book Society.

A SECOND CATECHISM C^
the Director

TA.

'IL

GRAMMAR.

Si.

th Edition.

Office

of

(f Public Tnstnict

TAMIL POETICAL ANTHOLOGY.


summaries
oi
>\

.'""ing in Taaiil
,

This work contains 612 select verses, with and English, references throughout to the Third
Office

Grammar, an and Ainerii-" Ik

'"

Vo^:abulary.

of

the Director o'' Public Instruction,

--a;--

j'?

^uistos ^l9<c
Christian

A TREATISE ON
Press, Madras.

\^

ir.::r -J;-,:l .\|eliSST.

Krwledge

Society's

^
'S^ElSjI'SLD.

A COMPE.
Families.

i.>li

..1

i.)F

R 4y^O-i_J-^- ACHING,

for Schools

and Christian

2d Edition.

^^^i-^Q\j^'sitory.

THE FOLLY OF DEMON V,

^^

Ki\iiOi\.

a !ijoie

Mission Depository.

A TAMIL

'i

-^

COLENSO'S ARITHMETIC*
iELD.

/<?

A TAF^^

"

''NSCS /LGEBRA.*

A TAMIL TRA: ORATION

Oi'

LUND'S GEOMETRY AS

SCIENCE.*

A TAMIL TRANSLATION OF LUND'S GEOMETRY AS AN


[*

ART.*

These works were translated by T. Vencata Gharry; and were revised and

edited

by the Rev. G. U. Pope.

Office

of

the Director

of Public

Instruction.']

A TAMIL HAND-BOOK:
FULL INTRODUCTION TO THE COMMON DIALECT OF THAT LANGUAGE,
ON THE PLAN OF

OLLENDORF AND ARNOLD.


FOR THE USE OF FOREIGNERS LEARNING TAMIL, AND OF TAMULIANS LEARNING ENGLISH.

V/ith copious Vocabularies (Tamil-English, and English-Tamil), Appendices containing Reading Lessons, Analyses of Letters,

Deeds, Complaints,

Official

Documents, and a

Key

to the Exercises.

THE KEY.
Head Master of
the

G. U.

POPE,

Ootacamimd Grammar School.

Difficidtks will vanish as

you learn on. Pro v.

THE SECOND EDITION.

ilia
And
sold at the

rt

s$
P.

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY


1859.

R.

HUNT.

American Mission Press.

Price Seven Rupees.

V\r

\ V*\>

<

IfB^
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

No

apology

is

necessary for offering to the Tamil student a book

which has long been wanted. In regard to the imperfections which detract from its value the writer can only say, he has done what he
could.

He

has tried to state the facts of this noble language succinctly

and

clearly.

The examples, with few

exceptions, have been selected

from books in universal use in the Tamil country.

Should a second

edition be published, these examples will be considerably increased in

number.

No
that

v/ork can remove from the elements of a language like

Tamil

all

may embarass
;

the learner.

There are

difficulties in it

which must

be met bravely

but there

are, certainly,

none which a very moderate

degree of attention will not enable any one, however unpractised in such
studies, to

overcome.

The
1.

following hints

may be

of use to those

who

use this book

Do

not proceed too quickly.

An
its

entirely

new language

requires

great accuracy in the mastei'ing of


2.

elements.

Write down every thing from the very beginning.

Read always
and be very

with pen, or pencil, in hand.


3.

Read aloud

all

the exercises with a Tamil teacher

careful in ascertaining the correctness of


4.

what you have

written.
for it in the

At

first,

whenever you meet with a new word, look


it

vocabulary, and decline or conjugate


5.

in

full.

Begin

to talk

though with stammering


Never speak English
the

lips

as soon as pos.sible

the very

first

day.

to a native if

you can help

it.

Why

say, "salt,"

when you knoAV

word "s-ul/?"

Do

not be afraid

of makins: mistakes.

e\k

Jt

/r%.

brr

ti

4rV

IV
6.

PREFACE.

Be very

careful

in

noting

down

differences

in

idiom,

between

Tamil and your own language.


Tamil, beware of thinking
cultivate a
all

If you hear

much

Clu-istian or

Cutcherry

you hear to be really Tamil.

Try

to

Tamil

ear, so as to detect

an unidiomatic expression, as you


should understand
is all

would a

false note in music.

You

you hear:

you need not use any expression that


This
little

not good Tamil.

work has been

written with a deep feeling of the vast

importance of the acquisition by all

who

sojourn in the land, of the

language of the people among

whom

they dwell.

Two

hours a day for

a year will enable most people to converse freely on ordinary topics

with those around them.


It is proposed in

due time, to publish a 2d part* in which the poetry

of the language will be illustrated.

The
a book

author would scarcely have ventured to publish, in this country,

requiring such peculiar attention to accuracy in type and arrangement, had he not been zealously seconded by Mr. P. R. Hunt, the able superintendent of the American Mission Press, to whose efforts
to

improve Tamil Typography

all

who

use the language are indebted.


is

The
tend, in

earnest wish

and prayer of the writer

that his efforts

may

however small a degree, to facilitate free intercourse between Hindus and their brethren from the West, and so aid in the impartation

to the former, of all that

God has bestowed upon

the latter.

Tanjore,

October 5th, 1855

J
entirely re-written,

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.


The work has been
has been added.

and greatly enlarged.

A key

This will be of great

use, if

consulted prudently.

The

author has to oifer his sincere acknowledgments to

many kind

friends for very valuable suggestions.

Ootacamund,
March, 1859.

<

* Sec Tamil Poetical Anthology.

TAMIL HAND-BOOK.
INTRODUCTION.

I.

Of the Tamil Language

in

General.

1.

The Tamil

(^iSCp, perhaps from Sans. Dravida) is the vernacular people, inhabiting the great plain of

speech of

about ten millions of


Tlie
limits

the Carnatic.
in the
is

within

which

it

prevails are thus

defined

Nannul

(a standard native

grammar):

"The

eastern boundary
is

the eastern sea (the

Bay

of Bengal), the southern boundary


is

Cape

Comorin, the western boundary


is

the west sea, the northern boundary

nearly on the same parallel with Pulicat)."

Vengadara (or Tripety a town about 80 miles N. W. of Madras, Here the western boundary
[@Lo/fl] to

from Comorin

Trivandrum

{_^(i^<si:Bis^L\nLD\

is is

correctly stated,

but from Trivandrum northward the Tamil country


eastern side of the Ghats.

confined to the

The Tamil

region thus includes a portion

of south Travancore, the entire Zillahs of Tinevely,

ing the dominions of a great part of

the

Madura (includTondiman Raja), Trichinopoly, Coimbatoor,

Arcot and Chingleput.


communities are
the Dekkan.
2.

Salem and of North Arcot, with the whole of South North Ceylon also is a Tamil Colony. Tamil
to

be found in most of the British cantonments in

The

principal languages cognate to

Tamil are the Telugu, the

Canarese, and the Malayalam.


is bounded north by the Uriya (beginning with the Ganjam), on the north-west by Marathi, on the south-west by Canarese, and on the South by Tamil. It differs from the Tamil

The Telugu

district of

more widely than do the other cognate

dialects.

INTRODUCTION,

I.

The Canarese

is

the language of the table-land of

Mysore, of part

of the Nizam's territory, and of a part of Canara.

The Malayalam
tains

is

spoken on the western side of the Malaya mounto

from Mangalore

Trivandrum.

It

seems to be but a corrupt

Tamil.

Minor cognate

dialects are (I.) the Tuluva,


is

which

is

a dialect spoken

in the neighbourhood of Mangalore, and

nearly allied to the Canarese.

(2.)

The

v,arious

dialects

spoken by the rude inhabitants of the


is

Nilagiris, of

which the Tuda


Canarese.

more

allied

to

Tamil and the Kota


is

[gohata]
Canarese,
(3.)

to the

The Burgher [badaga]

simply old

much corrupted. The Gond and Ku,

in

Gondwana and

the adjoining

hills..

The

rude languages of some other mountain tribes in Central and Northwestern India possess more or less resemblance to Tamil in idiom and
structure.

To
This
also
3.

this family of languages the epithet


is

" Dravidian" has been applied.

hardly correct as that term must include Marathi.

They have

been styled " Tamilian," from Tamil, their chief member.

The

origin

and

affinities

of the South Indian group of languages

have been much discussed.

On
it

the one hand the more deeply they

ai-e

studied the

more

close will

will their affinity to Sanscrit be seen to be,

and the more evident

appear that they possess a primitive and very near relationship to

the languages of the Indo-European group.

Yet they are


I

certainly not

mere

Pracrits, or corruptions of Sanscrit.

have always supposed that their place was among the members of the last mentioned family, and that they were probably " disjecta membra" of a language coeval with Sanscrit and having the same origin
with
it.

They

certainly contain

many

traces of

a close connection with the

Greek, the Gothic, the Persian and other languages of the same family,
in points

even where Sanscrit presents no

parallel.

On
Dr.
tribes

the other hand. Professor Rask, Mr. Norris, and more recently

Caldwell, have

shewn that the

original language of the

nomadic

from

whom

the races of South India have sprung was probably

in

what they term " Scythian," that is, a member of that group of tongues which are included the "Finnish, Turkish, Mongolian, and Tungusian
families."

INTRODUCTION.
4.

I.

Grammars

of the Tamil
scholars,

may

be divided into two classes: those


to facili-

composed by Native

and those written by Europeans

tate the acquisition of the languages


(1.)

by foreigners.

In the

first class it is

only necessary to mention the following:

It seems very doubtful whether the book which now goes under the name of Quir ^s^^luld is really an ancient composition. As a whole this woi-k is not extant, but fragments of it have been published.

(a.) Agastycis Sutrams.

(b.)

The Tolcappiam, written by ^nsmsr^LDir&QstB of the town of

Q^ireosirui^Lua^L^, south of Madura.

part of this

is

in print.
treatise^,

(c.)
piled

The

Q^iTGsr^^nTeo

( QfiiT<so= ancient,

m'^= scientific
This
is

com-

by the learned Jesuit R.


its

J. C. Beschius.

a very compre-

hensive work; but


excellencies
only.

author imitates the Native writers not in their

It

can hardly be considered an original work;

though the chapters on Composition and Prosody are more so than the
former part.
(d.)

The

fB<Bir_^iirSo

(mSo=good,
this

^irio),

composed by Pavananti of the

town of
lished,

F'zsrems.

Of

very able work

many

editions have been pubs^im^n


fBLoJ^SeurrujiT

and a copious commentary has been added by

of Tinevely.

The whole
and

of the Nan-iuil with a plain prose

Commentary,
as

Vocabulary,

Second part of

my

Summaries in English, has been published Third Grammar. I would recommend the
beyond the present

the

learner,

who may wish

to carry his studies

woi'k, to

read

over this Third Grammar, as introductory to the Nanniil.

I venture

to hope that he will find that after mastering that work, the writings

of

the Tamil
(2.)
Ccf-J

Grammarians
earliest

will

present scarcely any

difiiculties.

The

Grammars published by Europeans were

those

of the Rev. Father Beschius, of

which there are two, one of the comthe other of the poetical (Qs^i^iBip).

mon dialect (QsirQi^LSi^) and They were written in Latin.

A translation of the common Tamil Grammar was published by Mr. Horst, and subsequently with corrections by the Rev. Mr. Malion.
It
is

has been superseded in a great measure by later publications, yet


deserving of an attentive perusal by every Tamil student.

The Shen Tamil Grammar was


Babington.

translated

This

is

an exceedingly correct

and published by Mr. and scholarlike edition

of a most masterly work.

INTRODUCTION.
(b.)

I.

The

early Missionaries of Tranquebar are said to have published

a Tamil Grammar; but 1 have not been able to meet with any account
of
it.

(c.)

Grammar was
Service.
its strict

published in Europe by Mr. Anderson of the

Madras

Civil

This

is

an able work, but

its

usefulness

is

lessened by

imitation of the native grammars.

(d.)

The next work was by


This
is

the late Rev. C.

T. E. Rhenius of

Palamcottah.

a very clear and useful work, and was founded


It

upon that

of

Beschius.

has gone through


is

three

editions,

and

though not a philosophical grammar,

a plain, useful manual.


for

The Syntax

is

deficient,

and the examples were mostly made

the grammar, and not taken from standard Tamil authors.


(e.) Dr. Graul, a director of the Leipsic Lutheran Mission, has very recently published

a small manual, which, while

it

contains nothing

new,

is

an elegant

and scholarlike compendium.


first to

It is to

be regretted that the author should have allowed himself

to speak as

though he had been the

" introduce Tamil into the

sphere of European studies."


(f.) Since the publication of the 1st edition of this work a ComparGrammar of the Dravidian Languages has been published by the

ative

Rev. Dr. Caldwell, which thi-ows great light upon every part of the
subject.
5.

No

real student of the language should

be without

it.

The

native Tamil Literature, though greatly inferior in extent and


Sanscrit, contains

intrinsic value to the

many works which


of

will

amply

repay the careful student.


of their difficulty, I subjoin.
(1.)

The names

a few of these, in the order

The

writings of Auvei (Lesson 97).


is

When

the student

able to read with ease plain prose

Tamil he

will

find the little

works of

this far-famed poetess the best introduction to

the study of the poetical Tamil.


a. b. c.

They

consist of,

The Atti-sudi (^^^(^i^), The Kondrei-veynthan ( Q.siT(Ssr<s<np Ceul/i^idr), and The Mudurei ( Qp^emir).
these consist of Ethical and Miscellaneous maxims,

The two former of

arranged in alphabetical order.

The

last

work

is

not altogether a

genuine production of the authoress; but the greater number of the


verses are of considerable antiquity and of undeniable merit.

INTRODUCTION.
(2.)

I.

The KuRal

of Tiruvalluvar.
its

This work was intended by


wisdom, and to stand
It
is

author to be a compendium of

all

in the place of the

Vedas

to the

Tamil people.

divided into three parts, viz:

a.

^p^ giuu

IT eo,

the division ( ufT&) ) which treats of ViKTVE (^i/dld, 131.


into,

d_).

This contains 38 chapters of 10 stanzas each, which are divided


(a.) Introduction,
1-4.

(b.) Domestic virtue, 5-24.


(c.)

Ascetic virtue, 25-37.

(d.) Destiny, 38.


b.

QuiTQ^LLuirSo, the division which treats of

WEALTH,

( Qun-(msir,

131

App.

xi. (iii.)

In this are included 70 chapters, which are thus classified:


(a.)
(b.)
(c.)

The functions of Royalty, 3963. The necessary adjuncts of Royalty, 64-95.


Miscellaneous, 96-108.

The
(3.)

third part treats of se7isual pleasure and

much

of

it is

not

fit

to be read.

The Raymajanam

of

Kamban.
versification

Nothing can exceed the sweetness and harmony of the


of this real poet.

The
of

first portion or uirso^mskrii}) (the canto which Rama, the hero; Sans, bala, a youth, kandam, a

relates to the youth

chapter),

is

deserv-

ing of careful study.


(4.)

The Naladi-nanntiRU

(tztreo,

four, ^i^,

line, rBrr^^ss,four

hundred

(172)= the four hundred quatrains).


This work consists of 40 chapters on the same subjects as the KuRal.
It

seems to be a collection of verses by various Jain authors, and

is

of

undoubted antiquity.
of singular beauty.
(5.)

The Tamil

is

pure, and

many

of the verses are

The Nai-shad'ham, a
of

poetical

version,

pandiyan,
said,

the History of
is

Nala.

Of

this

by king work it

Ativiraramais

proverbially

"the Naishad'ham

the nectar of poets."


the history of

(6.)

The Sivaga Chintamani, an Epic grounded on


This
is

king Sivagan.

a difficult

work, but without doubt the finest

Tamil composition extant.


(7.)

The Tembavani

(Q^lduit, unfading,

.^gysssfl,

a garland) of Beschi

must not be omitted

in this enumeration.

INTRODUCTION.
This woi'k contains a kind
le^-ends.
of"

I.

summary
its

of the Bible, mingled with

It is a close imitation of the diction,

Chintamani, from which much


figures are bori'owed.

of

its

poetical

and most of

Some

verses are brilliantly poetical.

There are many prose works


adaj)tations

in

Tamil, which are translations or


less,

from the Sanscrit.


being
full

All of these are, more or

unsafe

models of

style,

of foreign idioms
read,

and pedantic expressions.

The

following are

much

and

will be useful to the discriminating

student.
(1.) (2.)

The The

s^mix^s^ffl

( s^rr

=fahlc, LD(^^rff cluster J.

SfSrr&iB^irLoeixfl (S.

Chintamani, a gem supposed

to yield wliat-

ever its possessors wish for ). (3.)

The u^s'jSSih^ns.sen^, (U(S^^, five, ^i^ins), victhod of grounded upon the Sanscrit Hitopadesa.
is

acting),

6.

There

a large and rapidly increasing translated literature in

Tamil.

These works had better be studied sparingly by the learner,


language shall enable him to detect unidiomatic

until his progress in the

forms and expressions.

INTRODUCTION.
II, [The following pages are intended to assist the student who reads with a native teacher. Throughout tlie work all matter included in brackets, or printed in small type, should be left by the learner to the second or third perusal.]

I, The Tamil letters (sr-^^-gi) are 30 in number. vowels, and 18 consonants.

Of

these 12 are

[The characters by which these are represented are evidently derived from the Grantham, which is itself derived from the earlier forms of the Devanagari.]

^^
H,

The vowels
1.

are:

Short, ((Q-jSieo.)

INTRODUCTION.

II.

m.

The consonants

as arranged

by the Tamilians

are,

No. Class, (g)

3
4
5

10
11

12 13 14
15
16 17 18

INTRODUCTION.

II.

^p [The more advanced student will find it useful to study the following arrangement of the consonants. (Comp. Pope's III Grammar,
6870.)]
In Tamil the consonants are divided into

f 6VS\)sQ(SSrLCi,'\ ) ,<

\ Strong

. ^ \isij&3
'"

class,

J
S,

strons, ^' wssTLD class], wntcn includes ^


-^

,.

3^, L-,

S, U,

[<S^/_^i-//D].

1^* One of

these cannot

end a word.

K, <

\ Soft class,
fBJ,

>

IOldso
'-

soft],
-'

which includes
<oST [ m^sjiSjuir/EiDSJr ]

J
(^,
<oSSr, f5,

LB,

Here each

letter is the
(jj,

corresponding nasal to the one above.


initial.

^^
3.
/
\

Of

these

i,

il>

only are

All except

iei

may

be final.

<5^.

Middle

class,

J
lU
,

/ r]S)ei^^'

which includes middlel, [ iL/jiSVifflJtpsfr].

IT,

(5\).

Si/,

Lp, SiT

3:^ [0/

these ii

and

only are initial: all are

final.'\

INTRODUCTION.

11.

INTRODUCTION.

II.

(c.J <5, ^, u, are pronounced hard in the beginning of a word, when they are mute, and when they are doubled; but soft in all other cases. These letters are surd at the beginning of a word, and when doubled; but sonant when they occur singly, in the middle of a word.
seisr
ij<s-ii)

an eye. (kan), (pak-kam), aside.


(ta-vam),
(sat-tam),

LDsdr (ma-ghan), a
ld^ld

mm

(as in

German Tag).

^-euih
a^^-jSiii

penance.
a sound.

^suim).
u-emsrij}

(ma-tham), a sect (th in this). ^uld (ta-bham), penance (another form of g:^ Almost like h, a slight aspiration,

^u-ULh

(pa-nam), money. (ap-pam), bread, rice-cake.


\_Compwre the Hebrew use of the Dagesh. Nordheimer,
26..]

(d.)

<3^'3'

= ch

in
(

church
ajter lL or

^3=-'3=LiD

a-cham ), yVar.
(

<?

ck).

(M-chi), possession. ^iL.- Qp-ujp-& (mu-yaR-chi), effort. {a,Ti-}u), fear thou; five. ^tQ-3i
consist of a guttural (i), a palatal (ala cerebral ( l-), a dental (^ ), and a labial ( u ) Each of these has its nasal ( la, (q, ekr, i, ld), by which it is accompanied: ^iejuie^-s^, cotton, aeh-irrdr, he saw. ^i-fi, this, ^ld-l^, an (?<, there,

(e.)

The

first five classes (iii.)

most a dental)

( '^),

arrow.
(f.)
IT

There are three r sounds.


(as nearly as dental as
tion

of the upper

teeth,

may be): Bring the tip of the tongue to the and pronounce a gentle r \_iMinJ:), tiosv/f].
of the tongue
u/rgii'\.

inser-

(palatal): .Apply the tip

to the

ridge of the palate, and pro-

nounce a rough

ld^ld,

Lp (cerebral): Apply the tip of the tongue, as far back as you can,
palate,

to the

and pronounce a rough


to

r,

in which a z

sound will mingle.


1

South, unable

articulate this letter, they use a strong


up.

In the ( 'Sit ) instead. In

the North in the same toay they use lu for

(Cora. 123.)

3^
fB

These are never

initial.

The

and
gar,

ip

are never doubled.

(g.) There are three n sounds

ih,

(sm.

(dental): Bring the tip of the tongue to the lower edge of the upper teeth and pronounce a soft n [/F<sii), <ss}i^tTm'\.
(palatal):

63r

Apply

the tip of the tongiie to the ridge of the palate


\_LD3sru:>,

and

pronounce a distinct n
<oS3T

usodr].

(cerebral):

Turn

the tip of the tongue, as


\_LDem'Lh, ^nsisr'\.

far back

as

you can and

pronounce a strong n

%^

IS

seldom (or never)

filial,

and em never

initial.

INTRODUCTION.
(h.) There are three
t

11.

sounds.
lower edge of the upper teeth \_^iTm, Qp^^Lo'].

S
I

(dental):

Tongue

to the

PP
I

(palatal):

Tongue

to the ridge

of the palate

l.QPPpi^']\_^L-LiJa~\.

(cerebral):
is

Tongue curled round as far back as possible

3^ ^
[^
thin,

never final.

single, in the

middle of a word,

is

sounded

like th in this, not like th in

and not

like d which is a very


/

common

mistake.']

(i.)

There are two

sounds.
1

so (palatal): Tongue to the ridge of the palate and pronounce a soft


&ir

[a)].

(cerebral):

Tongue curled round as far back


initial.

as possible

[isr.

8g These are never properly

CjO

^/^

is

of euphony.

er^-(rr^esr

pronounced, tidr, i. e., a d sound (en-dran), he said.

is

introduced for the sake

^^

are pronounced,

If the consonants be arranged according to the place we shall have,


,
lL,
El, ['ij],
[ff'],

where they

guttural.

^, m,
u,
eo,
<F,

dental.
en , cerebral.

essr, ip,

{Cacuminals, Unguals.']

LD, eu, labial.

p,

dr, palatal.

(^, I

should

call, palatal-dental.
it

IV, When

a vowel follows a consonant

is

attached to that conso-

nant, and forms with it what in l^uSirQLDiu = a living body].

Tamil

is

called a

Vowel-consonant

(a.)
<F

Remove
ta,

the sign

sa,

&c.

(As
it

in

(" or ) and is inherent Hebrew, Sanscrit, &c.)

in the consonant,

ka,

(b.)

^, when

follows a consonant, is changed into

/r

or ^^

(^

c?=

-&,)

The intermediate form is found in (These two forms are the same really. The latter form is only used in Malay41am, &c.) <s/r ki, </r s&, ^tr it, &c.
these three cases:
cszir

+ .^ = (COT). "iJ = - cr+


-t-

is added to a consonant, only the ^ (c.) When part of the consonant.

is

joined to the upper

= Q. s + ^ + S) = ^ = Lf.. iL +

(Here there

is

a slight variation.)

But compare Max

Miiller's note to

"Proposal for a Miss. Alph." p. sxzix.

INTRODUCTION.
(d.) e_
or
;

II.

is

changed in

joined to the under part of the consonant,

singly added, or with a loop

^.
f

^'

The changes

^
em +
u)

in the consonants are only such as are necessary.

2-

S-

= ^\. = (ip,

&c.

See the table.

(e.)

s^

is

the preceding, with an additional stroke or loop.

s
il
eiar

est

^ +
+ +

est eat

= =
=:^

<>.

(irregular).

(g.

ear

^a,

&c.
<?

and (f.) the consonant.


<oT

<5J

are changed into o and

respectively,

and prefixed

to

\_They were formerly joined, thus:

<s

form between

the long

and

the short.

+ er = S"<b, and there was no difference The same may be said of e^ and ^.]
<s

in

d+
(g.)

er

0;

er

Q<s.

becomes

<oSi

and precedes the consonant.


tp

\_This also

was formerly joined, thus:

+S

enLp."]

i +s

ems, a hand.
Sbsr,

To

all those letters

which begin with a loop

it is still

joined; thus:

&c.
<?-/r

(h.) g&,|& become 0-t and between.

respectively.

The consonant
is

standing

+ +
ffi

eg
sp

= 0/r

Win
J

old alphabets, Qsir

is 'x'^

and Qsit

^^

Compare

Qsrr

the English k).


o-rr.0<5Sfl".

(i.)

^srr become

d +
( j.)

(S^etr

(These combinations are rarely used.)


is

The number

of these vowel-consonants

18

12

= 216.

These are shewn

in the following table:

13

INTRODUCTION.

11.'

INTRODUCTION.

II.

INTRODUCTION.
(k.) In pronouncing the vowel and added na; thus:
<s

II.

letters in

Tamil

schools, they lengthen a short

is

pronounced ka-na.
si-na.

To
for

a long vowel

they add vena or yena; v, or


SIT
is

y being

inserted

euphony.
pronounced kd-vena.
kei-yena, &c.
Children should be taught to

eas

^^
(I.)

The

sooner this
&(c.

is

got rid of the better.

pronounce, ka, kd,

But

in Sanscrit, suld is
is

one; and this

added to a short sometimes used in Tamil.

letter,

and

sirato to

a long

^ ^
s
SIT

is

then a-garam.

d-garam. ka-garam.

kd-gdram, &c.

some of them

(a.) If the consonants be properly pronounced the vowels preceding will be necessarily modified, in a manner analogous to the German " umlaut."

V.

Examples.
(to be read with a native.)

^sum
cS'-O

he,

aven (not avan).

^-su/f he (politely) pronounced aver (not avar).

Oi_OT
(ffi.i_i),

i3-pm,
Qu-jpi,

(viidu).

(pon)-

a place. a scorpion.
under.

a neighbour.

Q(su-^, an opportunity.

Q^&T,
Qlq,

Q3=-UJ&), a doing.

Qea-^, another.
aO-,
leave.

an acquisition.

^^
just so

The learner must take care only to vary the sound much as is necessary to the proper pronunciation of

of the vowel,

the following

consonant.

sound of

m, essr, fr, ip, eo or &r of all but monosyllables takes the In the words ^ffsm two and ^ff^ Camp. Bopp''s Covip. Gram. 6. ^Qsrih, a diamond, the of the vowel consonants n is pronounced very short, and So also in other S. words; as si^sii) sulphur]. Vulgarly as er.
r^JU before the final
er.

OT, er,

is

(b.) Initial @, ^, (chiefly when followed are often pronounced as if preceded by often sounded yu, as in Union.
er<sc-&)iTLD,
all.

by a cerebral or
lii,

palatal),

as in English initial m,

^-sstui, kindred.
^-eartli,

&-(B,

an equivalent.
which.
is

a vessel, dish,

er-^,

er-evcsT,

which man?
its

^
__

This

sound

sometimes written both in Tamil and in

kindred dialects.

INTRODUCTION.

11.

seldom has its full sound except in the first syllable of a word. (c.) In other cases it is often sounded ei/, only difiering from er, in the slight ?/ sound in which it ends.

Compare from your


ems, a hand,
ea>u, a bag,
.

teacher's lips the different sounds of

and u-QFid-ests, a pebble.

^-eu-ikr,
<3^-eisu,

him.
.

etoLD,
icissn,

ink,

igation. a congregation.

.tt (Here > I

-i.

is it is

^ \ eT+@.)

put!

QLD-em<3^,

a table.

In the middle of a word it is often sounded almost like ^.- ^-^-su-QfiW, The rule given in the Nannul is that s has its full quantity only when it is used to express itsoion name. [Comp. Ill Grammar 15. (I.)]
all.

[In Telugu, and Malayalam u is used often where Tamil uses s; and answers to it often in Canarese. Thus:
Tel.

or

VELA

Mai. AVA Can. HALAGE

= = =

sfl^,
^^siEii,

price.

those things.

Ljss<s,

a board.']

(d.) 2- final, is always pronounced very slightly, and by the common people is often turned into J). It is almost always added to facilitate the enunciation of the final consonant.

[The Telugu and Canarese


LDiT

also use s- in a similar

manner.]
to,

is

an animal of the genus Bos = almost to lditlL. u-tf-@, in order pronounced u-Lp.d-Q. Vulgarly initial _ is sometimes pronounced as thus S-sJr, thy, becomes epsk. s^iQssr = (saLQesr, immediately.

ep:

(e.) G^srr is often written ^^ or ^<sii. Thus QiDeirmii, silence is written tDaj-snnb. This letter does not really belong to the language, and was introduced, apparently, under Sanscrit influences.
egair-eei;,

a certain poetess

^eu-eaeii.

if

(f.) Commonly, followed by i^.-

^ and

^
is

before

are sometimes pronounced

as

^&@,

having made, becomes


bliss,

^iLsQ.
as if written QtEfriLdQ.

GfEfTsQ, having locked at,

pronounced

uirdQiuih,

becomes

uitiLisQiuld.

VI.
is

A letter called ilytham, and written thus:

oo or

<ffi>i,(=the

Greek

x),

used in poetry only. -

INTRODUCTION.
irii.
letters.

II.

From

the old

Grantham alphabet
eru s,

are borrowed the following

al^ SH,

Gin)
s,

H,

(Cerebral; generally lL)

the English
<si^

(generally )

ksh,

(generally

-^

or iL)

8 m, (sometimes in the end of


a

word

in

MSS).

With

these the vowels

may be
"^

joined.
SiSDir-esfl

Qfi-SsR-6i^y a teacher.
.
.

eh-^iff^ a woman.
.

loss.
\
>
'

'

> loss.

'

an elephant.

QiDmL-s^ix),

heaven.

^-D^

=:

ffiT^

[s.

J^ti] race.

VIII. The
mm'Qis'uj

following abbreviations and sis^ns are in use:

INTRODUCTION.

II.

IX. The following lists given for the sake of practice contain none but useful, ordinary words. It will be well to commit them to memory. The pronunciation must be practised with a competent teacher. The notes may be useful to the student hereafter.
(I.)
s. s.

Words

containing
a finger nail, a large snake.

i.

m-sua,
rErr-su3,

^-sld,
s. s.

@-(cm-S>i,

Qsirdso,

murder.
a
stick,

Qsireo,
s.

-(g, an cntanglevie7it. Q^m-ffj, Christ. Qe^ir-sih, the world, [s. Loka.] m-SLD, 1 (?ew/r-< . r T U T
a yoke.
a well.
.

> a metal,

[s.

Qair-iS0Lh,pomp.
(^-eirih,

Lonam.J

Qearr-pjni
s^-efru),
k,

a tank.
the Sanscrit

chaff, stalks, ^c.

a.

s represents

k'ha, g, g'ha

and

h,

and

is

consequently surd

or sonant according to its position.


b.

The Greek

y, x, X-

is

often doubled

when

it

follows a vowel.

It is

never transmuted or

elided.
c.

The use

of

for the

Sanscrit h arises from the fact that the

Tamil

possesses no aspirate whatsoever.


d. The sound of d some German words.

in the

middle of words

is

very soft like the

final

g in

(II.)

Words with

iej.

^im-sii, pure gold.


3=fEj-sui,
a.
b.
IEJ

eriii-Qa,

where?
lion.

se/-<s,
afnij-etas,

the Ganges.
heat.

an assembly.

Qm-aih, a

never occurs in the beginning or end of a word.


followed by

LD

a becomes

im

(com.

iii.

e.)

(III.)

Words
a male.

containing

saor, ssr

or

is.

^-em,
.^-esm, .^-esS,
.jij-asssr,

.Jij-^S,

an ornament, a nail.
a dam.

an atom. ^i-eto^, an owl,


GT-<sei^,
eiT-snr,

.jijessr-tLD,

a world,

^ii-^i}>,

an end.
rice,

a ladder.

^ek-ssrih, food, boiled


.jtii-s.

why.
lift in the

that.

.M-^sssr,

an oath.
\
>

6ji-gi,

arms, ^essr-ent, near.


@eir-lij
to day.

-tsi-^LD,
!

,,.

blis

a.
b.
c.

(3sr

and

eszir

are never found in the beginning of a word.

li /E

not found at the end of a word, or of a syllable, unless followed

by^.

and

ear

are interchanged occasionally.

In poetry m after dr often dis-

appears.
d.
e.

LD

before

becomes i (com.

iii.

e).

car is

sometimes changed into

before a hard letter, (so suffers the same

change.)
/.
(SOT

sometimes becomes lL before a hard

letter.

INTRODUCTION.
(IV.)

II.

Words with .
^(c^-s^, {\u\g.) five.

tQrr-u-su), memory, memorial.


(QfT-asTLD,
iQ!r-uSi-g)i,

u^-s^,

cotton.

wisdom.
the sun,

S(qS,
Sunday.

rice water.

LD(^-s=efr, saffron.

a.
b.
c.

is

It is,

never found at the end of a word. in high Tamil, used for m, and vice versS.
it

d.

When ld comes before ^ it may be changed into ^ (com. iii. e). In common Tamil ih^ are often changed into 0. For sirdj/E^ss,
hot, is

has

grown

used

&iTiL(Si^si-gj.

(V.) Words with

^^,

pp

(tt).

death (personified).
Bt^L-L.LD,

(Qp-pi)-^p-p, faultless.
', "^ LjelU-^SLD,
.

an assembly
a dance.
limit.

>

a book.

J
he preserved.

hook
wp-gii,
LDITp-jl,

it
<Sp)-)l,

other.

having learned.
wind.
tie!

change it!
only.

S!Tp-S)l,

LDtr^-^-rjLD,

aiL-,
arrtL-
'-SIT, )

(^p-p^-<5IS>^,
<S>_

a fault (obj. case).

show!
a creator.

l1 - i

^ - 6ro^

an assembly
without.

(obj. case)

-sir,

a.
b.

l-lL

is

often written for ei^ lL in Sanscrit words.

^^

is

often written for

w^

in Sanscrit words.
\_th

Not

(VI.) Words with ^, lL (t and d), d, unless in Sanscrit words~\.


C^-a/csr, a god (Sanscrit d).
Q^<ssr,

as in the English

there.

srr-gj

honey.

uir-^LD,

afoot.

uiT-LLD, a lesson.
LDfT-,

an animal of the genus Bos.


a wo7nan.
/hn-iL-im, eager pursuit.

Lorr-^,

a.
b.
c.

^
It

becomes becomes

lL occasionally

when

it

follows a cerebral.

sometimes after a palatal.


t,

represents Sanscrit

t'h, d, d'h.

d.

lL represents Sanscrit

t,

t'h, d, d'h.

INTRODUCTION. 11.
a.
b.
c.

<F

represents the Sanscrit ch, ch'h, j, j^h,

s,

sh.

<F

The Sanscrit s is sometimes represented by ^ and lu, The Tamil possesses no sibilants purely such; but in common use = s. The vulgar constantly pronounce O^uJ chcy.

(VIII.)
)Qsr-ULD,

Words with u,
pleasure.
affliction.

di, ld (labials).

urr-Sssr,

jeir-uu), ^ urr-euLD,

sin.

uir-uih, ::}
J-(SU-Sr,

S-U-3h,

penance.

INTRODUCTION.
XII. Sanscrit words in Tamil.
s.

II.

i^3&^-ldl1i,

"1
I

7
,,

s.

ulL-Q,^
u-SmQ,

-SFii-Q^rr-ei^Ll),

joy.

CSkL-s^-LDLD,

>

bird.

^L-.-W-LDLD,

f- refinement.
j

I ua-w, J
>-,

e=i-Qsrr-ei^s-S!rizk, he j

rejoiced.

(g-@-tDifl ^.'J
-^i^iiz).

"J

iSmm,

"J

^JT6^/r,
,

I t

all

forms of
._ ^
.

i-<9^LD,

f
^>

n
mi'SFLD,

CCrtUlHtU.

5ic((7.

.jij ff s= stsT

^-

b. Kajaii, a

60/ruLD,

^ J
I I
.

.,
'

CeoiTsii,

"^
!

^e^n-uii),
^QSTLD, ),

S-QeonsLD,
_ScELD, _sOcELD,

forms of S. Loka,
world.

.,

> silence.

f
[

s.

QiDeirssTLD, TLD,

e_a)@,

Cd(5;,

FIRST LESSONS IN TAMIL.

In the first few lessons letters which are inserted for the sake of euphony are put in brackets, None but common, useful words are used. 3. The exercises should in all cases be written and then committed to memory, after being corrected, if possible, by a native teacher. Let the learner frame more exercises for himself. 4. The figures in brackets refer to preceding paragraphs. 5. Every word in each Vocabulary should be looked out in the general vocabulary at the end, and the Synonymes carefully learnt.
[1.
2.
6.

A key to

the exercises

is

subjoined.

This should be used with judgment.]

Lesson
1.

1.

Vocabulary.
SBT,

(To be committed
(^uoaffsk, a son.

to

memory.)

a man.

Q^siisir, a god.

asm&<sm, an
^suear, he.

account-

ant,

from

s<S2i3r<i@,

an account,

euird^adsr, a vicrchant.

&Qh, one,

a or an.

^-Ld, and.

semrQieir,

saiv.

eu/F^rrdr, he came.

made.

Q^fnLLirsk, he touched.

Q^u^frek, he did. uessres^lfmm, he (These are irregular past tenses. Comp.

58-70.)
2.

Nouns

in

ejr

and things without


3.
is

are generally masculine. life are neuter.

Names

of irrational animals

The

added
it

to

Lon-rr'hsr.

before

sign of the accusative (or second case), is the vowel s, which nouns in dr thus: Loesfl^eir + ^ = ldsS^^. (^Lcuraar + s = This case follows the verb in English, but conies immediately in Tamil, thus: Eurrd^sSssr [<s] a<5mQidr, I saiv the merchant.

[App.
4.

xi.]

u MUST always be
5.
it,

After the sign of the second case any one of the letters <s, <5^, ^ or doubled, thus: =gysK^ [^] Q^inLi^irdr, he touched him.

The pronoun
ffl/zE^/rsBT,

thus:
6.

is often omitted in Tamil where the English requires he came (not jijeum su/e^/tgw). is

The verb "to be"

often omitted in Tamil,

^eum

Q^eudr, he [is]

a God.
7. When two words would be joined in English by putting "and" between them, 2_/-o must in Tamil be added to both, thus: asmds^w suiT^^s^LD, an accoimtant and a merchant.
-

_^

EXERCISE

1.

LESSON

2.

single ^LD

would signify "even," "also," "both" according


(^LDirri^u) eum^trm,

to the

context,

thus:

the son also

came, or even the son

came.
8. The Tamil has no article, but 9(5 [172] which means "one''' may sometimes be used for "a" or "an." There is no Tamil equivalent for

"the."

Exercise
(To be rendered
9.

1.

into English.)

(a.)

(To be rendered
(i.)

into Tamil.)

The accountant

did.

Tiie merchant made.

god and a man.

He [is] a merchant. The man I saw the man. touched the man. and the merchant. A man and a merchant. The accountant also came. Even the son touched him. He did. He made.

He

Lesson
10.

2,
xii.]

The PRONOUNS.
or
fEirear,

[Comp. App.
li,

NoM.

thou.

^euesT, he.

^euetr, she.

I.
liiT,

1st case ::}

you.

Sing.
Ace.
or
^-d!r%isT,fhee.^ ^isadssr,
\^

him.

^a/Sstr, her.

^es)^,

it.

ersJr^sr,

me.
&-Lbss>LD,

2d case, J
Sing.

you. (regular,
I

com-

(regular 3.)

pare 3.)
you.

NoM. Plu.
Ace. Plu.

miTLD,

lErriijseir,

we.

rilEJi

msuiTs^, they.

^(oe^enseir, they.

(m. or
fBLD6eiLD,GriEJ<sds<T,US,

f.)

(n.)'
m^isiOja'SoT,

s^iEjsSsff,

you.

^eiiiT:S^,them.

them.

(m. or
11. (a.) lar
;

f.)

(n.)

As in most languages so in Tamil the pronouns are irreguthose of the 3d person however present the fewest anomalies.

[b.) iiT is what is called an honorific, or polite form, and is used as [The plurals of all the pronouns maybe used in the English "you." this way for the singular.]
ihirii) includes only exception to this is when a superior speaks of himself honorifically in the plural. Thus kings say " ?Fe." In this case /B/rii does not include those spoken to,

(c.)

The

difference

between

/s/r/i)

and

mtrijasir

is,

that

those %oho are spoken

to,

minki&ik excludes them.

The

24

EXERCISE

2.

LESSON

3.

The language affords no [mn-ii may thus be considered as a dual form. other traces of the dual, in this agreeing with both the Pali and the
Pracrit.]
12. Adjectives (or the
set

BEFORE
a
tree,

words which are so used), are undeclined, and [Comp. Less. 43.] the nouns they qualify, as in English.
^iTLU, a mother.
miruj,

13.
LDffLD,

VocAB.

Q^tu, do (the root, and also the imperative).


son. lds&t, a daughter,
t-j^iiJ,

a dog.

LDsm, a

meceo, good.

I, bad.

QuiB'Jj, great.

Qekesr, little. Ljgi or

new.

ueatpiv, old.

Qsi emu

turn, a boy.

a^^uiSiL^LiTiasr,

he called,

esisu^^ium', a physician.

^^
14-

He saw

me, (ordr^ld] aemiirm (me [he] saw).

Exercise 2.
(a.) QuifliJj inssfl^m.
fB&)&)
LDSTLD'
iiT

sjSiJ&r m&)&) ^niL.

QslLl-

ihiriL.

Qmesr

LDS&r.

(5tDUUj'2i3sr

[]

seanrQiesT'

Quifliu

(Sun^^sSsr

suk^neisr.

UQSLpiu

(smuiudw.

^STO^ [^j Q-SFUJ. (oTisj ,%'^srr [^] Q^nL-iiTGsr. [ Qasrssr [u] QuiHiu euiT^^sek, 'STesr'^ssTiijLD., a-gsrStesru^ti), ^<Sij'2esriLjth
[iLi

3?^ljl9lLl^itiost.

Inscrtcd to prevent hiatus.

Comp. App.

xi.

(b.)

A little dog. A new accountant. A great God. A good daughter.


daughter.

She

[is] a little

He

[is]

a big boy.

the mother.

He

called the great merchant.

The little boy touched The new physician called

them. them.

He saw a boy and a little He called me and thee.

dog.

Do

that.

He

touched us and

Lesson 3.
THE VERB.
15.

(afl&6^ o^/rsb

action-ivord.)

[in Gram. 75

81.]
Tamil

There are some things relating

to the conjugation of the

verbs that, at first sight, appear difficult; but, in reality, the whole system is very easy, and when once mastered will be seen to be exceedingly
simple.

(a.) Tamil verbs have only three tenses;

viz., present,

past and future.

(b.) These forms when analysed are found to consist of the verbal root, (u(Q^), the middle particle denoting time (^es^i- Sl3so), and the terminations which distinguish person and number f fifl@pj, thus:

uL^sQQptk,

is
is

the 1st person singular present tense, I read.


the 1st person singular past tense, / read.

ui^^Q^m

uif-uQum,

is

the 1st person singular future tense, / will read.

These three forms have the same root utf., signifying, "read" or "learn." They have also the same termination ejdr, signifying, "/," the sign of the 1st person singular. They differ only in the middle particle, which being added to the root, distinguishes the tense or time.
4
'

25

LESSON
(c.)

3.

(d.)
(e.)

The middle particle, or sign of the present is 8s>i or dQ^u. The middle particle, or sign of the past is ^ or ^^ or li^ or The middle particle, or sign of the future is uu or en.

^sar.

In conjugating any verb, then, the learner must ascertain, first the ROOT, and secondly, the particular middle particle which it receives.
(f.) As a general rule verbs whicli are transitive in their signiJicatio7i take dQgii in the present, ^^ in the past, and uu in the future, tvhile other verbs take Sign in the present, li^ in the past and qj in the future,

thus. uL^, ^Hearn,'" being tx*ansitive, makes

Present.

EXERCISE

3.

LESSON

4.

Exercise 3.
17. (a-)

uu^dQCc/Dek- QiMUJsQQpm'.

QiDiLQQpm',

^L^QQpear.

<oisr'2i35T

^L^ULnresr.

KeOiSO esiUtuesr LJL^ULjrT(Ssr-

QloiLulksst fsnoatud

^^(b.)

ea7"(537"

LDS(sr^Lh ^niqili.

He

perishes.

lierd grazes.

cow perishes. them (neut.).

I destroy. I feed. The cow grazes. The shepThe accountant destroyed it. The little child reads. The The little dog destroys it. The bad boy will destroy

He

gave

it.

I will give.

Lesson
[Comp. App.
18.
xii.

4.

and III Gram. 58, 70.]

<cB)^;

The 2d case [3] of us^ (a cow), is ua-iss^w, of lduiI, (a tree), ldos, of uiir (a7l ox), LDirL-es)i; of iSeirSsir (^a child), iSt^n'bstr^siUJ ; of (a river), ^peis>p; of seo (a stone), seoSso,' and of <s/r^ (an ear), siTes>^.

^^

ted?

ua(a.) us-msii, is nom. When the vowels, ^,


eu is

vowel,

inserted,

for the
is

+ eu + s, (comp, 3). Why ^, 2_, eat, sr, gb, gp. <^eir, are sake of euphony {ej may take
SleirSsn

is

the

eu

inser-

folloived hy

either

lij

or

<a/).

[Comp. App.
(b.)
the voivels,

xi. II. (II.)]

i3eir3siTes)iu,

nom.

lu

S3.

Why

is

itj

inserted?

When

^,

or s are followed by a
xi. II. (II.)]

voicel, lu is inserted

for the sake

of euphony.

[App.

(c.) inrrL-mi, is nom. io/r + s, the final s- of the noun being elided and the ^1 doubled; thus: ldhC-, lditlLlL, LDmLeai The rule is. when any noun ends in , not preceded by one short syllable, (1) the lL is doubled, (2) the 2- is elided, and (3) the termination of the case is added.

(d.)

From ^s"
LDir^tsis)^ is
:

is

formed ^psm/o, in precisely the same way, substitut-

ing

fi)

for L-.
LDULD

(e.)
case.

same thing

cast

away

S3, the m being changed into ^^, or, which is the ^ld, insert ^^s^, and add the termitiation of the

(f)

sSdSsi),

is

tnonosyllable

is

+ s. nom. a&) + The final cotrsonant of a short doubled before a vowel. [App. xi. II. (I.)]
<s))

The final e_ of all tvords not (g.) sfTemfi is nom. sit^ - 2_ + s. consisting of two short syllables, and not included in the above rules,
is

elided before a vowel.

[App.

xi.

IV.

(I.)]

EXERCISE
19.
river.

4.

LESSON

5.

VocAB.
Q^a^gu,
is

aS',

a house,

mrr, a country,

arr, a jungle.

viud.

ljov^sld or Lj^^sui, a book,


iS^rr Sanscrit;
<5sis,

[^^suuek
the heaven.

Tamil and

the former

is

^SH. a ^auuasr, tS^tr, a father more familiar], eufresnh,


uL^^^srrm-.

U)t^> the earth.

a hand.

%^

He

read a book (3).

sb Ljoo^^^ica^ book

[tj]

he read.

[Observe the order.]

Exercise 4.

He destroyed the country. I fed the cow. (a.) I saw a house. He called the good father. The I saw the mud. I will give a book. He touched the dog. I did it. I saw little boy learns the new book. The big boy saw the father and the heaven. It destroyed the jungle. The physician gave a book. mother.
20.

^rr&sr.

usi-(m<aii[i^ih

eauaj'Siosriijili

aioSsrQi<ssr.

i3^aissi<su [<s]

s^ulSlL

Lesson
DECLENSION.
21.

5.

[_Qeii^!imLn

= a changing.]

(a.)
itself.

The Tamil noun is said to have eight cases. These are, The first, or nominative, which (in the singular) is
[Less. 74.]

the noun

(b.)
native.

The

second, accusative, or objective, which adds


[Less. 75.]

to the

nomi-

[But compare 18.]


[The added

particles, signs of case, are called

^0t-/

= form.']

which adds sg, or ^<^, of which the former means "together with," and the latter "by." This is in reality two cases. [Less. 76.]
(c.)
third, or instrumental,

The

(d.)

The

fourth, or dative,
xi.]

nom.

[s- is inserted euphonically

Comp. App.
[Less. 77.]
(e.)

which adds @ = to, or <s@, or 2_i@, to the and d is doubled according to rule. If <^ be also added it gives the meaning of "for."

The The

fifth,

Issr^ to the

noun.

or ablative of motion, [Less. 78.]

which adds ^e^, ^i^QT)i^ or

(f.)
)sBr

sixth, genitive, or possessive case,

which adds &-mi-iu or


_

to the

nom.

[Less. 79.]

___

__

LESSON
(g.)

5.

The

seventh, or local ablative, which adds

^&>

or ^c-s:,fi<so to the

noun.

[Less. 80.]

(h.) The eighth or vocative, which (1) adds er to the noun; or (2) lengthens its last syllable; or (3) omits the final consonant, and lengthens the remaining vowel.

Paradigm.

[Comp. Append,
SINGULAR.
Case
(1.)

xii.]

LoeS^dr, man.

(2.) LDsS^Ssisr, a

man

(3.) LDsS\^<Q&>, by a

+ Sj. man ( + .^^ j(

i^eofl^C^, together with a man


(4.)

ep(B ).

Loe^^MX^'

^^

" ^*""

*"

^^J(

LDieJ^^^-ssfTS, for a

man

+ -<s@ +

^s )
a

(5.) LDSofl^sssfla), Ln<o<^s;<5iM<^Qh)isi,

LDsS^sS&^^gH, from
or ^ctj

man

+ ^eo
[a)

^&) + l(ir)i^.) [lit. being from], + /5 = ear.] [lit. standing from.])


or
(6.)
LDioi^,s^ieiaiiiJ
(

Sesileir^

or
or
) (

LDsS^eSeir,

of a

man,

belonging

to

man
man,

S-<oe>iiu

@dr).
wi//

(7.) Ui<siSif<sSi^^&),
iDsafl^ssfiia),

a wiaw

+ _g)i_^^a) or ^'so).

at a

in a
(

man.

(8.)

LLesrl^Qcsr,

O man!

esr.^

[Notes
2.

1.

The Tamil noun has

really but one declension.

The

signs of the cases are the

same

for all nouns;

and

in the plural (29)

they are the same as in the singular. 3. The only difficulty in declining nouns which differ from the above paradigm is in ascertaining the modifications, chiefly euphonic, which the nominative

(casus rectus) undergoes in order to prepare

it

for the reception of the in-

flexional particles.

The
4.

inflexional base (casus obliquus) being ascertained there


this inflexional

For
It is It is

5.
6.

is no difficulty. from the Nom. see 18. often used itself for the genitive or 6th case. [Comp. 248.] generally the inflexional base that is used when a noun is made the

base in cases where

it

differs

first

member
It is

of a

compound. [Comp.

131.]
all cases.

7.

It is not the

Etymological root in
ii,

8.
9.

not quite identical with the crude form in Sanscrit.


the lL
is

In nouns in

are often interchangeable in

undoubtedly not radical, im and la; or a/ (which Tamil and its kindred dialects), are used euphoni-

cally as terminations of nouns.

before the vowel of a suffix 10. This final ld gives way to the stronger (and in poetry sometimes before the consonant); before a consonant the nasal is generally retained, but assumes the forms /s, (d^, li, before , -3= and ^. [App. xi.]]

^^

29

EXEKCISE

5.

LESSON

6.

is very often inserted between the noun and the 22. Observe tliat termination of the case. This is evidently for the sake of euphony, [^gydr is sometimes used for ^air in poetry.]

^^

23. 67 may be added to most of these terminations. emphatic, but /or the most part merely euphonic.

Sometimes

it is

Exercise 5.
24. (a.) LD!j^^ts(^.
<siiiT^^S(5ufli^^&}.

(18. e.) ^nujssnsfs fT

semssspiosiiiu

Lorjih.
iSl&r'Serr

ia2jiT^^sQ(SV)(Sl-

lL i^eSI Q^

i^

(IS. C-)

Qiu

(18. b-) iB&)60 GS)ULum-

<sSlLis^6\)

ui^^^n<5sr.

sniLi^Qeo (23-J

saiLL^GO

LDjT^(oia^

SJj^^^^''

(b.) He came with Always invert the


son.

the child

(Tarn,

order).

He

called

"with the child he came." the dog from the jungle.

feed the cow in the country. By the physician's accountant's little child. He called me with the mother. The physician perished in the country. Do I saw him in the house. From the river. In heaven and earth. By this for the little daughter.

The herdsman From the

will

the child.

Lesson
25.

6.

Words

of the greatest importance.

gtj' By combining the following words, attending to para. 6, a vast number of useful sentences of two words may be formed, thus: ^eudr 6raQ&? where [25]

he?
(a.) ^Eusar,
he,

^sneir,
ersuajr,

he,

man, (ille.) man, (hie.) who, what vian ? {^qnis.)


that
this

( b.)

^Guar,
^<sn<sir,

she,

that wovian, (ilia.)

she, this

woman,

(hcec.)
(^quse.)

ereusjr,

who, which wovian,

(c.)

^si, ^Si,
er^,

that thing,
this thing.

which thing.
in that way.

(d.)^ikiQs, <Aere (illie.) ^isjQs, here, [vulg. ^G-s^-] (oTimQs, where?


(f.)

( e.J*

^uuL^, so,
jUUL^,

^i^,
^iB^,
erii^,

i/za^

(demonstrative ad-

jective pronoun).
thus, Ml this way.
this.

STUULf.,

how, in what

way?

which

'

Often pronounced by the

common

people si^ui^.

30

EXERCISE
( g.)*

6.

LESSON
(h.)

7.

^uQuiT(igsi (com. ^uQuirgi, or

^s^eS,

that house.

^uQuir),

then.

^uQutTODgj (com. ^uQurr^, ^uQurr), now.


stuQuit), when
(a, b, c.)
ear

or

^isuisS, this house.

srLjQiu!T(L^ (com. stuQuitsj, or


?

ereueS,

which house?

is

neuter.

These are declined


=sy,

the masculine termination, err the feminine, and the like LoeS^dr. Those in elide the final s-.

(a-k.) Initial
tant, things near,
xohat.

^,

er

are used respectively to point out things dis-

Ill

[^ Gram.

is

and to ask a question. Compare the English, thAt, this, used in poetry to point out things in the middle or behind.

5.]

(h.) These three letters may be prefixed to any noun, in which case, the initial letter of the noun is generally doubled.

Exercise 6.
26. (a.) ersum ssssrinm?

eiuQunQ^^

semu-nisijr^

(sriEjQa ssssr

STEiQs
etai

<s io3ars series) I

cu

^nijb?

^t^^^nebr?
[u]

^iejQs Quifliu

^i^ Lcxssfl^ehr <5irkiQa? <oTLjul^ [5ml. u QldiuQ/d^. ereufir Q^frLLu.n(Ssr?


Q^tL.

s^em^
for
?

ui^^^nm.

^uQurr
is

^Q^iejQs?
is

[<jy^ sriEjQs, 6.]

eriEjQ<ss

aii^irdj?

[This

an idiom, and

used

for,

What

have you come

What

do you want ?\

did he make it? Where [is] the merchant's son? Come her then. That [is] his house. He did so. Thus he perished with his son. When will he learn? He will learn now. The good shepherd will feed the sheep now. Which is his new house? Where is it? Who is he? Who is she? Which is that?
(b.)

How

now.

He saw

Lesson 7.
THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.
[Some
27.
(Si;(r,

useful Imperatives.]

come.

Quit, go.

^rm^r
stand,

(lit.

"taking come").
^ir, give.

Qsrremiiir (pronounced always Oairemiir). QaiTismQu[r, take away, i@<scsil, er, lift up.
(active).
Gerr, hear.
Qs^tr&iSS, say, tell.

stop (neut.)
give,

Sffii^gi, stop

QsfT,

*QuirQfgi

areola

time.

31

EXERCISE

7.

LESSON

8.

(a.) The root, or crude theme of the verb singular imperative.


(b.)

is

the simple

2nd person

By adding

s-m (or

th),

this

becomes the honorific, or

polite imper-

ative, thus: erSliD,


QffU),

Qumh, Seo^ii,

Qs(St^Lh, Q3=!r<so^LD, Osn'(BLD, tSgu^gjih, suit

come (irregular from root

euir), ^tiQ^ih

(irregular from root ^ir ), give.

adding ssir to the above, or ^-iksSir (or ikissir), to the root, it becomes the plural, which is used as a still higher /<o7?or/^"c, thus: Qun-iaseir, go ye. erQ/ijaerr, lift ye. &in-(if^ia<Bm, come ye. Qsi^tsjsSir, hear ye. Qsirtsj-ssir, give ye. ^iTQffiij6s<s!ir^ bestow ye. Qs^msdsniadSoir, say ye.
(c.)

By

Exercise
28. (a.)

7-

^lEjQs Qurr.
67.
jijiejQs

^isiQs
iSSo^.

surr.

enijQs QLDiLsQQrj'm'^
tDrriLes)!

Ssar

iSsir'BofrioiaLU

eSiLi^Qed iS&)^,
(^LDfTrr^s(^d

^.

siJiT^^s^saiUJ

[i)OT2/<5(5d5]

QsnQisjserr.

i^^ [The
stiej

Tamil

msm
Come
[is]

is

more homely than

the Sanscrit (^Lonnm.']

Q^shisst

did he do [it] ? from the mud. Bring the little child here. Take the physician's cow there. Whom did He (^aitosr) is the that man call. (Tarn, "that man whom he called"). That {^suasr) is the great physician's son. shepherd's son.
(b.)
(

Where

to the house the great ox?

= come

home).

When
Lift

Go

to the river.

it

Lesson

8.

THE PLURAL NUMBER.


[Com. Ill Gram. 69.]
29.
sff,

(a.)

The

plural

is

formed by adding

se- to

the singular.

Thus:

a house.
is

iseir, houses.
strictly the pluralising particle of

83= [am
Low-castc.~\

the neuter, or rather of the

cjr mostly change ear into /r. They but no doubt improperly add s.sir also thus LDsSi^dr, a man, plural LDsS^irsm, or sometimes simply and more correctly LDis^^^a.

(b.) Masculine nouns ending in

also very generally,

(c.)

The

cases of the plural are formed


:

by adding the same terminaxii.]

tions as in the singular, thus


g:^'

[Com. App.

[Observe here the difference between the Tamil and the Sanscrit and

Classical languages.]

32

EXERCISE

8.

LESSON

9.

There is a further division into five un&s (= imrt). These are ["(!) ^<sssruir&) [= male-parf]. This includes^ the singular masculine of rationals. (II.) Ousmuire\) [= fcmalc-parf]. Singular I. J
I

These belong only to 2_

feminine of rationals.
ueciTU!T&>

(III.)
I

[= many persons-part, 184]. [= of one


thing-part.']

1^

Plural epicene rationals.


sadrpDGsr urreo
(spsm-^ek,
'

J
isggBr~~]
I

r (IV.)
I

p3!\^

a poetic form]. Singular mas".

H.

<!
j

,,7
(V.)

culine, feminine or neuter of irrationals. "'""'^


',"/.

ususilisr

o"-

uireo

[=

o/

many

t/nngs-partj.

,T

>
|

These belong only to


o

si^'

Plural masculine, feminine or neuter of irra(

tionals.

Lesson
31.

9.

present tense of tlie simple verb. [Comp. App. xii.] have seen (Lesson 3) that there are tliree parts in any form fa.) of the present tense viz. the root, tlie middle jjarticlc denoting time, and The following is a full list of tlie ordinary the personal termination. terminations of tlie present tense.

The

We

Person.

EXERCISK
33.

9.

[A

thus

8drsii

nasal GJrmay be eupLonically inserted between the and sQmgji, but this is ra.ther pedantic.
^iSlssrsa is also

8 and

the

In high Tamil
34.

(but very rai'ely) used as the temporal


Q^a^ii

particle of the present.]

full

paradigm of the ordinary form of the present tense of

and

uLQ.:

Person.

Singular.

Plural.
Q'a=ujSQ(n/'LD,
toe do.

Q-s'luQQpm,
UL^aQQnjeir,

I
I

do.

learn.

uistdQQQrj'LD,

we

learn.

Qi<3=iuQ(yiu ,
ULQ.dS(T)/'iij,

thou docst.

thou learncst.

they do.
UL^<iQ(rr^m,
3.

m.

he learns.
he learns, (politej
!

Q3=uj8(!r^iT3i&r,

uLf.d@0'ir,
ly-)

u Lf.d 8 (y

it ,

they learn.

uLf.aisslQr^fT'Seir,

uL^sQQ^eir,

she learns.
)
.

ULSLd8/D^,
.

UL^:i8<5m'pGsr, they learn

J~.

it

learns.

(seldom used).
uuLs,Qpgi&<s<r (vulgar).

[Also ui^s8mQpssT,
poetical forms,

&c.

uL^tuirSskQ/Dsir,

&c.

For the remaining

see

App.

xii. (xii.)]

35. In very common Tamil, ul^s(^^, and even uL^ii^gj, are used for uL^&8pgj. It is necessary to understand these forms, but not to use them.

Exercise 9.

They leax-n the book in the house. (Tarn. (a.) She does it. They in the house the book read.) feed sheep in the jungle. go to the house now. The mother brings the child to the good merchant's house. The child learns. She sews. The father walks.
36.

We

We
We

They are perishing. does he learn this ? He is going home. The child walks. How does the child walk ? The boy reads the book [aloud]. They say so. You [hon.] are coming here. Write that in this book. The cows drink in the river.
learn

them.

When

Where

are they peiishing

(b.)

fB6\}&)

esiuiuesrseir Ljeh>^as^<ss)^u ui^s8(7)^ns&r.

^uQurr
Qsrr.
(ir^isfr
.

sunQ.

Ljetvsss^sm^^
semrssS)iiJD

gjeiai.

<st:eiQs

QufiQrSffsefr?

Ccom.

Qufr^irserr ?)

wit^^s^ud
stiejQs ?

<^(Lg^Q(rrj>ns(3rr.
L9m'2e(T<5S>uj

(^LDfTrrsv)i<i(^d

^su^
^mJu

emiUJ

(sS(B

^eu&r

[^]

Q s n emQ u frQ
LcnQ'S'hsrr

(ir^eff.

euns^^s^il) sssstssssiild (^UjL<s8nfiTssrr.

[^]

Q^iLdQ

35

LESSOX

10.

Lesson 10.
37.

The

personal pronouns. (See 10.)


tlie

(a.) The pronouns when declined take but in the oblique cases they change the Tamil, as in all other languages.
(h.)
1st.
[ii)

root,

same terminations as nouns, and are thus irregular in

/E/rsJr

I,

takes
it

<oT3sr

as its root in all cases of the sing, except the


/n/rii

In the plural
lEia.

takes

for the 1st,

and

ibw or 67 lo for the others.

+ i =

App.

xi. III. (1.)]

Paradigm of

the 1st personal pronoun.

[Comp. App.

xii.]

Case.
I

Singular.
iBirssr,

Plural.
lEdLD or mir/a&eir,
ISLDiSSiLCt,

sreirdssr.

sr/Kisc
<o(r IT

by me.

iBLDLDireo, sr isj 3,

<k

^1

together ivith
VIC.

EXEBCISE

10.

LESSON

1!,

Exercise 10.
3S. (a.)
GTiEissrr
SUIT. eurr.

tSl^frQi^

(18, a-)

eiear

eS.

<o76srd(^d

QsrrQ.
isreor

STSsrC^
euBi^^eO
firrek.

rsLhiSlisj^eO.
iBUDLoneO

(sresrs^ismL^uj mniss

^tkiQs.

(&)
[s^]

^L^is^neir.

^suissr ^/szd^

^uuu^

Qs^lu
Ljeh>

(oTiskQ(SV)(S

tSl&r'^serr

(BisQp^.

[31. 6.]

^-eurspieatuj

^sar ^suu(osr sSlL ^s^<3S)^ [<?] &<5sr(osr [u] (siauiUGpidf^ [d] Qsn. L^io ^(ms@(rrj'a. rELnQpeaiUJ u<3? <srTLLin.QsO QmiLSlp^. [Qldujllj^- 35.]
is tlieir good bullock? My bullock does this for us? How does he do this for us? good cow in our house. They are destroying my new house. How does he do it? I [am] a physician. This [is] my book. Read it to me. Learn it with him. He is wiping my new book. They are These are my little books. When rubbing down your big bullocks. Where is my father? Wliich of us is does our cow feed in tlie jungle? reading (aloud)? Which of you is learning? The little child [is] in the

Cb.)

[is] here.

Come He

to rae (Ttli case).


I'or

Where

does this

us.

Who

house with them.

Lesson
39.

11.

VocAB.

(ipurleil,

a munshi or native teacher, (Pevs.)

umil-,

a lesson.

Q^fffiLjili, it is

understood. sreB7-<s@^ Q^rftu^LD,


is

I understand

it

(It is intelligible

to me). Q^iBujfrffi, it
it

not intelligible. (orsi!ra>(^^Q^fflujrr^,

I don't understand

[To rae, &e]. 2_#-<?^//?, pronounce, (pr. S-'3==if^<iQQpQsr past, ^--s^-a^rR^Q^m. fut. ^-s^^iBuQum. [Com. 15.] Write out the whole of the present tense as Q^LoesiLDUJiTaj [Q^p/ienu) + ^lu^, rightly. .a^rHiuniu [_-3=!fl + ^iLiI, in 34.)
+^;Zy],
clearly.
Qeii<sik(SiLD,
it is

correctly. Qi^&tliaUiTiu [O^srRa!/

necessary/,

one must.^
I

(vulg. Q<S]^)ild).
QeuessrirTLD,
it

is

iinnecessari/,

one

j^-

Defective verbal forms.

must
(vulg. 40.

not,

need not.
\

(?(aiy(etw)ii),

or

si;ff"(Sro)L9.)

noun may generally be converted into what may be called an ADVERB by adding ^J [or ^^e] to it. In English "ly" is added in the same way, hut to an adjective. [Com. 136.] 41. To make a form answering to our infinitive mood in many respects when any verb has sQgii iti the present te?i.se change sSgu into -is; and lohen it has Qsu; add ^, uj or su to the roof. Examples will be found in Ex. 11.

Form

for yourself the (so called) infinitive

mood

of

all

the verbs in the

preceding lessons.

^^

fVe
fErrii)

mitst

read,

We to

f^jfrSda Qeu<sm(BLh.

read

it is

necessary.

~~~

37

EXEUCISE
[This infinitive
is

11.

LESSON

12.

in fact a verbal noun.

forming with

it

compound.

Thus

/eiild

surr&ds

The pronoun may be regarded as = our reading; a word may


our rightly reading.'}

intervene; thus: mrru} Q^LixsmLD'uiTuj ev/rSds

Exercise

^lUUisf- [#]

Q&^LULU QsuessTifTLD^ Qs^LDGSLDUJ fTiLi


ST(oard(^^ Q^ffliLjih.

s^s^s^rflda

QsuessrQuD-

^i^uuniLD

^<su^s(^ [^]

Q^iflajfT^.

^uQurr

(W^

sufT-

(Lpesflex^ eu q^Q (rrf> fr .

<sufTesr^<5m^LLjm L^LSlemujiijil) ustsL^^rrir.

lEasbr eiuui^ S-4^s=ff)<ss [comp. 15. f.] LDfTiLiomL^ Sgu^^ Q<siJ6ssrm. Qeyem^iJD? QeiisminLD^ Qurr! ^auuQssr. ^ems; [i^] Qs^lulu Qsiisstld. ^fjQuj ^uuis^ [<?] Qs=n&)60 Qsy&ssrL^rriM. ^.(ourd(^ gtuul^ [^] Q^tflu^LD?

spect and affection; a missionary children mothers.]

[The terms Father and Mother are constantly used by Tamilians as signs of reis always called father, and his wife and female

{b.)
cleai'ly.

You must
Speak

read rightly.

Read
rightly.

rightly.

clearly.

Do

it

You must pronounce You must do it rightly. The

He does not understand the lesson. (To little boy learns the lesson. This must not be done, f^ssi^^ q<3=iLuj him, &c.) This must be done. How must I do this? When must they do [inf. mood.] QeuemQih.) this ? He must rub down our bullocks now. The new Munshi is comThe physician understands it well. You must ing now into the house. go home. Don't read. Don't walk in the mud. The accountant does not understand that account.

'^^^>&
Lesson
43. s-sBsr, there
^<ix&o, there

12.
,

is.
.

)
,

,.
'

-,

.7

is

not.

(irregular verbal forms). '

^eoeo,

not, no.

^^^ ^EjQs ^imQs

LDjjrmsm 2_e33r, there are trees here. LDffijsm @j&)dso,


LDjjiEjssfr

there are no trees here. those are not trees.

^sasns&r
44.

^&)(dO,

between the two negatives, gjiso&o and ^&>o, is that the former denies the existence of any thing, while ^e^eo denies something that is said concerning it. gi&idsi) denies the subject trees are not .^eoed denies the predicate: those (which are there) are not trees here, (but something else).
difference
:

The

[The same distinction obtains between


(McKerrell,
p.

ILLA

and

ALLA

in

Canarese

182); between

KADU

Gram.

p.

193), and between

AYIN

and LEDU in Telugu (see Brown's and LO or AL in Hebrew. (See Nord-

heimer's Gram. 10621065.)]

38

EXERCISE

12.

LESSON

13.

Exercise 12.
45. (a-) shlLl^Qg^
LrurrEis^ir

^ssot.

^pfSlQeO

Q^^

s^em. ^rnu

There is a cow in that jungle. Tiiere is a good physician here. Put that here. You must put (Qum-.) that not a little child. must take this up (<5r(Bds). I must read with the munshi. there.
(h.)
is

He

We

must pronounce clearly. The little boy must come (ajsr) to my The mother must not walk (ieiss) in the mud. She has house. There are cows there. Wliere [are] the cows ? children ?

We

<J^^^^iJ'

Lesson

13.

(Iiiterrogatives.)

46.

^ or

When we wish to ^ at the end of an


EiiQFjQQrj^sst,

ask a question

we can

generally do so by putting

affirmative sentence.
^

he comes.

(siQf^QQr^t^?

\ (mi(ir)Q(rjQ(e^ ?

does he come? but does he come


is

^
ii

simply asks the question,

gg

often suggests that there


as in 18.
in

an alternative.

and

en

are inserted

when necessary
Tamil ^, and

, b.

[A and

are used in precisely the

same way
as the

Telugii;
gg;

in

Canarese
is

and

are both used as the

Tamil

alone

found

in Malayalim.]

we saw that er also was an interrogative letter, er and ^fr prefixed to words, are sometimes used in the same way. (or lufrir) is commonly used for "who?" erew-ajr is used for "what?" and differs from er^ which means rather, "whether of the two?" or "which among many?" istssicutld is used for ersirGsr occasionally, and is then declin47. In lesson 6,
lUfT

when

ed like a noun.
84.
is

VocAB.

uarruffdr, God. (The christian


is

word

for

God

ulsolutely;
^ireu

Q^eum
t.

a God. s=iTQeijemurreir,

used by Romanists.
t.

It is Sanscrit,

^munm.

= universal

Lord.

e^si-snirQ, believe, (pr.

(^s-sua&dQQ^eiir, I believe, past.

(^SrGurrS^Q^eir,

believed, fut.
is

i^sKsntrSuQueir, I shall believe.


shgn a-gn

The Christian
s^gasgauuiruj,

usage of this word


industriously.

not quite native,

indiislrtj.

i-f

(40.) sfTaipsirrrm, a watchman.

39

~~

EXERCISE

13.

LESSON

14.

Exercise 13.
49.
(a-)
unfTuji'^GST

eSa-su n&sQQfD6nr.

^em^

S<9?(Sijn&<s,sQ<su6m

^su&JT s6SSTas(^?
QlfT?

^^

^-(oir^(SS)iUj
^6\)'2io\)UJfT ?

^lElQs

LDJJIEJSiSfr

eSQin? ^fraQa LDiriEis&r p^&sar (oIiSl5r<S(g LDSTLD ^GdeOSUn?

^^

er<5sr<osrQ^ifl[Lii}i?

snsijpsrrij^s(^3^ Qs^neo^.

sfreu^sniirT

(21. h. 3.)

(b.)
is

When

will 3'ou read

[15/. 31. a.] Is that

my lesson ?

Where

munshi? What does the physician say? Is the watchman there? The watchman is not there. He is not the watchman. Who is the watchman? Is there a watchman ? Is tliere mud in the river? Are Are there children in my house? Are there there trees in the jungle?
the

not

little

children in the father's house.

Do'st thou believe in

God

Lesson
50. In

14.
altogetliei'.

common

convei'sation

the signs of the cases are often inter-

changed, and those of the 2nd and 6th cases sometimes omitted

In

the higher style of

Tamil

this is

very frequent.

2_iJL/<sO<s/r, give [me] the salt (not S-uss>u

^-ui-j

+
(oB:;r

).

^ sssr
0<s/r(533rL_/r.

(sssr IT

Qd5/r(SS3ria//r,

bring

mc [some]

water,

(not

s;isssr<sssriafT).

33^' ^sm(5sSfr is

commonly jjronouuced
he

^sin-essr,

and Q & ir

(B (Sii rr

becomes
Such

urrSiiiQ Qs'iL^assr,

committed

sin

(not ufreij^eis^'S^Qs^iLi^irim).

forms may

be considered as compounds.

The

sign would occasion ambiguity.

learner should consider carefully whether the omission of the casal If not he may omit it, in most cases.

From this must be excepted nouns signifying rational beings (s^tun-^'hsEr) both mas. and fern., which have the case termination in full, in common Tamil. In Poetry ellipsis is the rule. It may be stated as a rule that the sign of the Ind case sitig. of impersonal nouns (^'oo/S'Ssssr) should nut be expressed.
[Compare
tliis

with the usag-e of Indo-European languages in which neuter nouns


alike.]
ssh-

have the nominative and accusative

After nouns of number the plural sign often omitted thus,


:

also is in the

same way

He

built four houses.

(Com. 173.)

mirspt

QuujiT

euii^rrirasiT.

g^

Four persons came. (Com. Camp. Tel. Gram. 158.) Remark that no ambiguity can arise here.

EXERCISE
51.
til

14.

LESSON

15.

before

^ may become s
fS Lo

(Q \
it
J-

The nasal is changed info


the class
to

that of

lohich

the following

may

i } consonant belongs. disappear altogether.


of the transmutations of letters, their insertion
It

and must however be thoroughly understood by every student of the poetical dialect. These changes are gradually going out of use. A few only which affect the pronunciation are retained. They will all be explained as occasion requires. Compare also App. xi.
JJJ'

The whole system

their elision, is very complicated.

52.

VocAB.

^smmlriT, cold water,

[^(sm,

cool.

iSir,

luatcr).

&-ULJ, salt. uireuLn, sin.


a doer, an agent.

u (5m

ill,

money.

QsuSscssrrrrsir, a servant,

(^srrff&r,

u^gj, ten. means


a
past.

Qeu^, work,
,

[so afrexi&), a a table,

guard

or ivatch.

srrejensirrreir,

watchman.'])

sk.uiS

call.

^Q^m.
xi.]

fut.

uQum).

^l^, beat. (pres. afic^air.uhuld, a burden, umsn^, a bandy.


QiDtseis^,

53. &) before

d may become

jb:

thus, aireuso

srrrjm

srreuflstrjm.

[App.

Exercise 14.
54. (a.)
ui<^<iQ(yr/'<osr.

uniuD

ui^^^nsisr.

[15. /.] ^esarossPn (otiejQs?


srrsii/bsrrji'SGsrd
fBrriLi

Qs^uil)

^suesfliS^eO
LDrri-Liss)!-.

usssrua o-saar.
Qld(S!)S=

s^uiSlsksstg^i

UfT<Sij(^

Qs^iLuj QeiKsmLnuD-

^jiaQs Qun.

j)jL^^^fT<oir

(for

isnesiUJ.)

Sj^'i'^ [or lditl-I^ss] QeyemiiTLh.

(SSiiOj Q(sy'2sodsfTiriT
Uf.

eriaQs?

u^^uufTjuD

^(TjiiiL^ GT<SldSl(ir^iTS(srr.

uem

Qsir6ssT(dQjff'f

Qs=a6\)^.

Qeij^^dsnu-ssr ueoarijL Q'SirsmQisujKsSso'hso

lurr?

(b.) He the jungle.

is

learning a lesson in the house.

He

is

reading a book in
in the
sins.

Does he learn a lesson? Is there water want [some] * salt. (To me salt is necessary). He

house? I Bring the

money
salt.

to

me.

Read

this to

me.

Call

my

servant.

Bring ten loads of

Did he give money

to the servants?

[15./.]

Lesson
Past tense.

15.

Future tense.

55. The personal terminations of the present tense are used also for The middle particle the past and future tenses, with a slight exception. (Carefully go over again Lessons 3 and 9.) determines the tense.

The word some

is

seldom expressed

in

Tamil, unless

it

means emphatically

little.

41

~~

LESSON

15.

Write out in full the past and future tenses of all verbs you meet with; except the 3d person future singular and plural, which will be given in 72.
56. The middle particle of the present is @ii or ^. For this a few The general rules will be given, but the dictionary must be consulted. middle particles of the past and future are ascertained by the root and the present.

The
I.

following

general rules must be attended

to

@gii

of the present should have /f^ in the past, and

<su

in the future.

These are intransitive forms.


Ex.

But there

are some exceptions.

Root.

Pres

Past.

Fut.

Inf.

Obtain.

I obtain.

obtained.

I shall

obtain.

To obtain.

Thus
smite,

are conjugated the verbs ^/Sl, know.

^,

give.

s<snL, churn.

^einjD,

^(w, fall.

slB pass off

oi'

away and

a large

number

of others.

II.

future.

Roots in s- have Q^n in the present, ^ot in the past, and <3j in the These forms are common to both transitive and intransitive verbs.

Ex.

Pres.

Past.

Fut.

Inf.

^L
Submit, go
under.

submit.

I ivilL
I submitted.

submit.

To

submit.

g^* [Final
is

- before the

often elided, for the sake of euphony, thus: ^leji^

not done

when

2_

is

vowel of a following word, or of a termination is + ^sir = ^iiEiQ^k. This preceded by one short syllable: thus, u* + ^ei5r = usIll

eflcsr

not u@sir.

Comp.

Gram.

24.

The

s_

is
is

evidently not radical.

It

is

in

added euphonically Malaydlam.]


III.

to aid the enunciation.

added in the same way

dQjpi of the present, requires

^^

in Ihe past,

and

uu

in the future.

These harsher forms are mostly


exceptions to
this.

transitive [com. 160].

There are a few

Ex.

Pres

Past.

Fut.

Inf.

Bite.

bite.

I
~A2

bit.

ivill bite.

To

bite.

LESSON

lo.

Special Rules.

(I.)

Roots ending in

iQffi in the present,

(and the greater number of the few in ^j, take and foUuw gen. rule 1. in the past, and 111. in the

future.

Ex.

R.

LESSON
R.
Pres.

16.

EXERCISE
Past.

15.

]
Ent.
2.

Briny forth (of cattle.)


OcF60

LESSON
[not very

17.

common.]

semrdsesr ^sjd^cF

s^ifliundj ^ifSlwrKssr.

sn<sun:)srr

<cS(Sla'bs(nLitJa

uesBr^ea^u^tii ^siJ(eu)QeO ^smiQeuai}).

^it

@n^

^fSluu

QsLieikrQil).

^i^

^LL&ais

QsneOeoQsuessrLnu:).

(b.) The day has passed away. We must churn in the house. They perished in the jungle. God knows our sins. The accountant and the watchman will obtain those cows from him. The watchman perished with the son. The good boy knows the lesson correctly. I know it by the lesson. You must not smite the child. The bullock fell down. He fell in the mud.

Lesson
58.

17.

VOCAB.

Exceptions to the First


R.
r

General Rule.
Pres
Past.

56.

I.

Fut.
)

Inf.

Quiu
Rain.

ii,iuiuw'J'D<s!!r

)uiu(Jset!r

u tu
<s^

(^ eu issr

Q^LU
Do.
Qisiu

j^iLiW^jDeur

)<s=iU(o(S3r

uj Q eu sir

Q<3=IJJIU.

QiBiLiwQjrxssr

iiBiu^Ssesr

O/EtuQevdr

Qmiuiu.

Weave.
eiosuiHUfflisar
I.

esiSnQsesr

B>au(oai;e5r

eta

su luiu

Abuse.
ossr

(^ become [^(^-]
(

^Qesreir
[occasionally
also ^ilSGot-ot for ^SiQej^esTj
j

^Qeusir [or

be finished, completed.

[Ob. 268.]

^Ca/OT]*

II.

Quit,

Go

QuirQQpm
[Co. 258.]

(?i_//r(?<o3r(SiJr[poet.
QuiTii5lQasrecr.\

QuirQsum
<9^irQ(Siim
?/r(5(?usijr.

[or

Quits.

s^irmQpssr

Q)3= ^Q^iasr

[or

III.

Die.

]*
[or

QeuSQpdr
Burn.

QeuQisjsir

Qsus.
QlSITS.

IV.

QlSIT

QrsiTwQjDdii

Gi'^iTiBQsssr

Q IE IT Q en im
-]

Ache, suffer, pain.


rain.

LDissiW,

Q eu essr Q em lu

butter

(Oeueir, white.
aireo, leg

Qisiu, ghee).

uLisaeu

a woman's cloth, garment.

^8so, a head,

and foot.
is

* In

all

these forms, which are rather pedantic,

inserted for the sake of

euphony.

45

KXERCISE

16.

LESSON

18.

Exercise 16.
59.

(a-)

LD(SS)Lp

QuujQp^i
eresr'Sesr

iQuLuiLi^.

35.]

^/(Sro^i-

s^rfliumuf

Q<fdj(oSuio3r.
srrrr'2t5sr

LJi_(S3)a/(S35aj

[or uL^issiSu. 14.] QfBtu^rresrss) su

^<ou<sn Qeu'^eos

ssi&j

nt?(S[r .

^a

it S'Str.

^is^u

<oS)Uuj<nsr

s smr d <s dir

\Q'T;n(^^ always, in
(o<5

common
LDfrQ

talk]

(I suffer pain in

my
<sj(5sr

head.)

^isi

QurTi^(eu)?

Lj^

Qsf^^^nl

S\^^

Q<Sij'Se\)

^s
He

^;a)'8sv)?

(b.J It rains.
in the jungle.

His leg pains. She is churning for Did the house burn? Who died?

butter.

will die

When

did he die?

When will they go home (to the house)? [Is] this your leg? do they revile the watchman ? They weave cloths in the house.
[are]

you? (You

who?)

Why Who

Who

[is]

there?

Go

to the vvatchman's house.

<^^^&
Lesson 18.
60.

VOCAB.

The Second General Rule,


R.
I.

Exceptions

to 56. II.

Roots
Fut.

in &-.

Pres.

Past.

Inf.

1,

u(B
Lie
d-Miin.

'jQ^m
jG^sar

u(BuQuiasr
&-(biui^uesr

2
Clothe.

\S^i

^^
II.
3.

And

so all in _,

having

d3^

in the present.

S)C5
Be.

ssl^jDesr
only irregular in this tense

uQuesr

III. 4,

^ir [or ^0] Remove, he cleared


I

sQKQeuiasr

^IT.

regular from
IrootS/r. 56. I.

off.

5.

euetriT

[or

(auevn^'j

eu&rqF^SlQpiasr

eu&riTtBQ^ear
56.
I.

(Si)

eir

(mQ en ek
^aS/r.

Grow.
6,

liemove. put aivay.


j

56.

I.

7,

BJirip

[or

GuiTQ^']

euiripmQ^esr
56. I.

eutrapQsnsisr
j

irrip.

Prosper.
piTLp [or^/r(7^]

firrQ^QQpdr

^iTLpiBQ^ear
56.
I.

^iripQeiKzk

^ITlfi.

Be

humble.

^eum

[or

^eunp^

^siiQ^QQpm
56. I.
ir

senrLoQsuesr

Bl]ip.

Crawl.

And

so all roots in

or Cp, which

may

optionally add 2-.

46

EXERCISE

17.

LESSON

19.

EXERCISE

18.

LESSON 20.
(b.)
bullocli?

EXERCISE

19.

We

must build a new house.

Tie the cow there.

Who tied

the

Where

did he write the book?

seeks a pliysician. to the watchman.


the
little

Who made this? You must comfort your good mother.

The munshi wrote it. He Who did this? Show the house
Did she seek

do they seek here? We will write clearly to the munshi. Has the mother boil'd the rice? Did he seek the cow or did he go to sleep in the house? boy?

What

Lesson 20.
64.

VoCAB.

Regular Forms.

Examples of the Third General Rule.


Pres.

LESSON 21.
(b-)
^fTiLi
iSlen-'Se-freiDuj.s

EXERCISE
ibnib

20.

sndQ(nj'siT.

sSLLesiid

srrdQp^.

j^i

^u

GDUtLKoir

i-j^u ufTi^sm^u ufTiT^^asbr.

sessrdsesr LD<okenfJuurT(GV)?
(oT<oSrd(^
.

iSlerr'Sefrs'Sfr

<^lLi^Q&) (^GffldQQrfasefrn?

iSl^nQsij!

Lo&srGsflss

Q(QU(nmtli-

sneo^ssi^s sLSj^^nesr.
=gy^ ^ssimuufi

arreoth
id so sun-,

<silQp^
Q<fneo^.

<oiissrs(^

^'^^

jfjifl&GSiiuaanL-.

ssurrrrir sj&srsafi

Lesson 1.
66.

VoCAE.
56.
(I.)

The First Special Rule.


Pres.

Roots in

^ and ^.

LESSON 22.

EXERCISE 21.

^(SGT

Sjl-IUU^ f5LUUIT(l

-^^^^0Lesson 22.
68.

VOCAB.
56.
(II.)
lL, d.jb,

The Second Special Rule.


Roots in , @,
su-

Pres. in

Sgji.

Past,

doubled. Fut.

en.

Inf.

=gy.

[Chiefly transitive.]

1.

LESSON 23.

EXERCISE 22.
The irregularity in tlie past Compare also e^ir-Qs^^Q/sar. The regular past tenses of all
ajiriiQ^eir, ^irisQ^sir,

is

analogous to that in the verbs

Qai

and

Qisir.

(58.)

QstiisQ^eir, QisiriiQ^asT.

these verbs [56. (I.)] would be according to analogy, In eacli case the root vowel is shortened.

In the plural imperative we have ^'cs'^, euirQib (for ^ir&jin, amojib). I apprehend f is used to prevent hiatus instead of /, in order to distinguish these forms trom tlie de[Compare srcyii from sir.] This use of instead rivatives of the roots ^/raj and uira;. I must differ then from Dr. Caldwell, of di is not unknown in tlie cognate dialects. and regard au/r and ^it as the roots, which are shortened into o/ and ^; q- or being inir
if

serted euphonieally.
It

may

BJirQpsar

(for ^sir-SGpaJr,

be remarked also in confirmation of the above that colloquially jSnQpOr and euir QQpair^ are USed for ^Qj-SGpOT and eucjSG^DOT.

70. (2.)

Paradigm

of the past tense.

[Comp. App.
R.
(Siy/r/E/@,

xii.]

R. uu^, learn, read.

buij.

obtain.

Sing.
1.

Plural.

Sing.
enirirnQQesnasr

Plural.

Pers.

I learned.
2.

We

learned

I bought.
en [TtEiQ(miu

We

bought.

ajfriEjQ'ostiT.

(for

^iL),

sis

you [hon.]

learnt.

Thou

boughtest.

You bought [hon.] Ye


[
bought.

found in common Tamil.)


3.

Ye

leai-nt.

m.

r uu^^^rriT

euiriEjQie^iT

He
f.

learnt.

The;/ or he [hon.] learnt.

He

bought.
j

They or he [hon.]
I

bought.
u rriEi isl (m n' s
eir

ULp.^^rrrraefr

She

learnt.

They (m. and


learnt.

f.)

She bought.

They{m.aMf.)
bought.
eufrraQsar. f They (n.) bought.

euiriEikizer^ i

It learnt.

They

Contracted
aiirsj^p^

(n.) learnt.

It bought.

Exercise 22.
71. (a-)
iBrrsir

^i^

^eaird s<ssards(o3T

<si(5sr(nj"oisr.

ibit

^sj^Ssar

O<sx/ffi>60

Q-oiJSST

sTSBT^nrpesr.X

(STioW

us^&a&js sfTLLL^Q&) a em US.Qu a

unrrun^

<suiT^^s6afli^^&)
* f
is

(siasrssr <siin!i]Q(GU)Uj?

Q-Ulj

siin!ij<s<sSl6\)'2eoiuiT?

lu

substituted elegantly for'^r in this form only.


is

This form

seldom used, the singular taking

its place.
it

(70) is used the whole of that to which be within quotation marks. The quotation is direct. will be more fully illustrated hereafter (82).
J
OTOT

When

refers

may

be considered to
come.'"

"He

said,'I

u-ill

This

^^

LESSON 24.

Who gave you this? Don't say that lesson will go into the house servants must stop here. The son conquered the villagers. He said he must with the watchman. Who made this? Who did this? stop here (trans. "I must stop here"). Who created this? Where did he buy the rice? What did you hear in Did you see the good doctor in the house? What lesson the village? has the little boy learnt with the munshi?
(b.)

Who

comes there?

(QenmsrtiTix,).

The

We

-^<^^^^Lesson 24.
3d person neuter of the future tense (the singular and pluwhich are alike), there is an anomaly. It is formed by adding s-ii to the root of verbs whose present has ^ ( and <a^ being inserted when necessary [18]), and <s(^ld to those whose present has &&>!.
72. In the
ral of
lii

But

Seci

makes

jb(g,ii; <5b,

^@ii);

Ctferr,

(?<5Ll@ii).

Compare

their

present tenses.

Paradigm

of the future tense.

Pers.

R.

Qs^iLj.

(Pr. Q^FiuQQjDdr.)

R. u^L.

(Pr. UL^sQQpasr.)

Sing.
7l

Plural.

Sing.

Plural.

3= UJ

Q SU OS!

Q = LU Q en

rr LD

ULp-uQueur

UU^UQUITLD.

I
2.

will do.

We

will do.

I will
Thou

learn.

We
You

will learn.

Qs^iueiirruj

uL^uumu
you will
do. [h.]

Thou

wilt do.

wilt learn.

will learn, [h.]

Ye
3. ?.

toill

do.

Ye
ULp-uutresr
-

will learn.

Gi^iueufrrr

UL^UUfTIT.
'Iliey

He

will do.

Tlieij

or he [hon.]
ivill

He

will learn.

or he [hon.]

do.
IT

will learn.

Qi s= lu mi

(T

eiT

Q s= UJ en
They (m.

a s etr

U L^U U
She

IT (SIT

UL^uuiTirsen'.

She

will do.

f.) ivill do.

will learn.

They (m. and


ioill

f.)

learn.

It will do.

They

(n. ) will do.

It will learn.

They

(n.) will learn.

72.

*VocAB.

i^ir,

water.
letter,

tutTssms, the body (only used in Poet. l>ut un-

derstood).

srap^M', a

a writing.
it

.miw,ld

it

will become, serve for ^c.


is

contracted into ^iJa.


(suirgi,

For Qu!T(^ld
Qsu^Sssr, torment.

will go,

Quitw

used.

^gJ, gaming,

disputation.

_____

___

EXERCISE 23.

LESSON 25.

Exercise 23.

What shall I do? What will the child learn? The cow come now. Do you know that letter? It will happen so (Tam. The command will come to the villagers. Who it will walk so, isi-). must go to the munshi? When will the tree grow? Where can the book be (Tam. where will it be)? Will the house fall? No, it will
73. (a. J
will

stand.
child

weep

Will the village perish? for its mother?

Will that house suit you.

Will

the

(b-) Sjii^ U5/7 ermssT Qs^djuiih?

^^

eruuisf.

^(^ld?

ldjtld Qsaifl

QeO ^(TKd(^LDrT?

^a)'2sy, sniLis^-QeO ^(7^s(^lo.

un<suuD

^^wfT?

ton

^(T(^ih lunsssis-'''^

[This

is

poetical.

It is

a useful quotation, and

is

given for
Qs'rT(sk{S)ei)

variety.]

@^

QpsB^s(^
(Surr^io

^ih.

QufTLOfT?

'"'(^^iih

Sj^^ eSiun^ Quitss^ Q su ^'2esr Q s= (L ld.^'' ^,u


llj

uu^,f Qs=djuju QuiTLDfr?

us^LDfT QsLL(^LLir?

[iorr is

used for any

animal of the genus Bos.

Here us? indicates the

species.]

Lesson 25.
have now gone through the present, past (or imperfect), and 74. future tenses of the Tamil verb. have also seen how a form answering in many respects to the English infinitive mood is obtained. The

We

We

imperative
differing

mood has been given also. much from any with which
all

We

come now
is

the learner

to a form probably acquainted in any

language, but which obtains in

the South-Indian dialects.

It is a relative participial form.

How then can we express in relative pronoun. Tamil, "the shepherd who feeds the sheep," and, "the sheep which ^(Bsdsn- QldiLsQp QLoiLuum, and sitlLl^q&j graze in the jungle?" Thus, QLDiLQp ^(Bs&r. Here QldiLsQp and QldiuQjd mean "who-feeds," and "which-graze." This form, which includes the verb and the relative pronoun, is obtained by throwing away the personal terminations of the present and past tenses and adding ^. QtDiLjsQQjDm; take away ejm and add ^: you will have Qu,ujsQjd, the relative participle of the px-esent tense. So QtD'L^Q^m; take away ^em, add=5y; and QldiL^^, which is the relative participle of the past tense, is the result. The 3d person neuter of the future tense, is also used as the relative participle of the future: Qldujs^ld.
The Tamil has no
There
is

a corresponding negative form. 121. (4.)

EXERCISE 24.
[The
the

which

is

added seems

to be the

remnant

of a relative pronoun, like


it:

Greek

oq, ^, 6,

only placed after the verb instead of before

oy hSov

rlvhorA

tBiT(Ssr

s<oS!!ri. LDissn^asr.']

Example:

( QldujsQQ/dcst,
\

QLDiuSlQpes!

I feed. I graze.

QmuAQp,
GldiuSjt),

who, which or that feeds.


who, which or that grazes.

J f

^
I

who, which or that fed. I fed. Qlduj^^, who, which or that grazed. I grazed. QiDtui^, ^s^ uiSQearzir, I sent. .^^uiSsir, ^^uiSiu, who, which or sent. [Comp. 70. (2)]

QuDUJ^Q^dr,
QLDiuiQ^cir,

that

C QLD:ud(mui,

It tvill feed. It will graze.

Qmiudi^Ln, who, which or thai


Qldlljld,

loill

feed.

\ QiDUJih,

who, which or that will graze.


till

The

constructions resulting from this will appear strange

the learner

has accustomed himself to them.

This participial form is used in all respects as an adjective. Yet it has of course the same governing power as any other part of the verb, as will be seen in some of the following sentences. It qualifies nouns of any genders, case or number; but itself suffers no change.

Exercise 24.
75.
iilsn-Ssrr

(a-)

iBndn- uisf^^^ UfTLLD.

(sS'lLi^&)

^0dQp

LSerr'Bsrr

j)i(LpQ/D^.

sSili^do sjQ^QfO^'
Q^6>j(sk

<^lLi^6\)

^QpQp

LflerrSsyr.

smufleo

^0<i

LDjTiEJs&r.

^lLi

SLL.t.'2ir.

^isuirseir ST(osrdsfT<s^

^/vi^ s^&j-

Qs=uJ^ urreyiEis'^

liif

LD&smsfIss Qsu<ssari}>.

iBtTsbr

QunQp

<^il.s(^

&jrrQij6SBriiTuj[}).

mrresr (ST(Lp,Qsr(62) UfTi-.^es)^ Qpeaffei^


<su(T^ud.

unfTs-s Qeuessr

wrrek Qs^treO^ua Qurr(Lg^ &-<osri(^^ Q^rfltu

The daughter whom the (b.) The books which the boy sought (62). mother comforted (62). The daughter who comforted the mother. The The garments which the son put on trees which grew in that jungle. The son who put on garments. The rain which will fall here (58). (60). It will rain here. The leg wdiich pained me. The boy who went to the village died there (58). The cloth which he wove (58). The table which they made. Beat the dog which bites the little children. Where is the rice I saw in the house?
76. This relative participle is called in Tamil Quiufr (st^s^ld, or noundefect (QuiuiT. name, or noitn, er^^^ih, defect); because it requires a noun call it relative, because it relates to the noun to fill up the meaning.

We

that follows.
p.

[Comp. Pope's III Gram. 87.

Caldwell's

Comp. Gram,

412.]

56

LESSON 26.

Lesson 26.

The
77.

verbal participle.
is

There

is

another form which

called

eSSssT-er-F&^LJ^

or verb-defect,

requires a followiiijj verb to till up the meiuiing. It is a kind of gerund, is indeclinable and, though belonging to tiie past tense, takes
bociiu:^e it
its

time

t'roiu

the finite verb which closes


It is

tlie

sentence.
1st person singular of the

Its fonnation is easy.

formed from the

past tense.
is the most convenient way of considering tlie subject It is probable the tense is formed from tlie piirticiple, in which case iinalogy would suggest a pres. part, in S^, and a, future in j or 04, tu which the personal terminations were added, the a. being elided.]

[This

tliat

Ca.J In
Qssrssr

all

the verbs included in 56. II. throAV

away

Qsar-dr:

^t-ikiQ

makes ^iisjQ = having submitted.


this

From

Except
makes
Qs^irsuS,

Q3=aeog)i (70), whicli

having

said, as

though from a re-

gular past tense, O^/r^sSGesrsar.


(b.) In all other cases throw away uL^^si = having learnt.
ereir

and add

s..-

uuf.^Qfiissr

makes
Camp.

Tel.

[The Telugu and Canarese have a present verb. Gram. 313. McKerrel's Can. Gram. p. 86.)]

part. also.

(Corap.

Its use will


(].)

be best learnt from a few examples:

^suzsr s'oesr Qu&(msir

= He saw and

place of the finite verb, "saw."


sentence, simple or
(2.)

spoke. Here <s<SBar takes the The Tamil admits of only one Jin it e verb in a

compound.
erQ^Qs!srssr,

iBmm ^fs^u utrL^^<cin^s QslL sun&^gi I heard, read and wrote that lesson.

sskr, QslL, (SiorOipgi, and "having read."


(3.)

may

be translated "having seen," "having heard,"

lm<ssru esiuujesr

(The
The

little
little

boy

rsii^ having walked

evi^iTiSir.

came.)

boy came walking or on foot.


participle often has the force of an adverb.

gj" The verbal

Upon

the proper

appreciation of this will depend

much

of the learner's progress.

As a general rule, ichenever a subject has two or more Jinite verbs in English, render all but the last by the afl^ sr^^^u).
8

57

EXERCISE 25.
Tamil delights
these a sentence
in the accumulation of

Verbal forms.

By means
meaning

of
is

may be

indetiuitely lengthened out, while the

preserved from

all

ambiguity.

By their proper use the principal verb may be modified w^ith a precision * scarcely attainable by any other means.
(4.)
/E/rsJr

^EjQs

Quatii

eu (rF)Q sii asr

I WILL go there and come (back). ^eiim Giurr&^gis [Qu/rS, eat 64.] (^L^aQq^ek

He
The by the

IS

eating and drinking.

tense of the subordinate verbal


finite verb.

forms Qunii,

Quir9^^

is

determined

Exercise 25.
78. (a-)
^(3S)u><oS)iu

isQ,

<sr!sjs'2eir

^rnlQujih.

^i^u

uitl-^ss)^lj

ui^^^

^jrSajCo'SiJsoarQih.

snSijparjiKSsr !Bua(ip<oS)iuu Q(Sij'2eodsfrir'2sr szoa/

ULSf.^^ ci(w^0^r!?
j<ss)fl^

serriTfTf}

^L-taQu

= submissively

Qu&i^ns&r.
QurriLu*
<suit-

Q^Gffl^niL

S-S^S'ffl^^'S^ Q<frT&}6\)(pSijes!!r(9ui.
<s5)UiU6sr

sm0d(^u
]

UfTiTssQsiJioSsrQLD.
[

Q^L^esr Ljerv^sias'SGir

sjQd^'dQsnemQ

d,

ff-,^-) LJ,

always doubled after

d^

or

@ of this form.

<sTi^eSLLi^

Q6\)

Q^u^suk^niLl

eiair^&siLU

Qeu'^dsfiffir

^pih^Quni^nsik
very common.

lQs^^^uQun(GS)iTS&r].
* Cu/rio 58. II. (for QuircS) the verb. part, of Qur,

"having gone"

So ^>u 58

II. (for

^aS or ^).

The dog bit and killed the bird. (b.) They came and spoke with him. She entered the house and saw the mother. He obtained money and gave to the villagers. We must plough and plant trees. The little boy The mother sought the child weeping. lay down and slept in the jungle.

Which

was seeking

servants died in the jungle? in the house ?

Which

are the books that the boy

*I cannot refrain from quoting the following passage from an essay by Professor Schoif " on the Tartaric languages," quoted in Prof. MaxMiiller's " survey of languages." It is perfectly applicable to the construction of Tamil, mutatis mutandis. "How peculiar and truly Tartaric this wonderful concatenation of sentences and intervenlike a majestic stream sentence runs on in long periods ing of words! The terminations and suffixes are like the small vassals, depending on the powerful and high sounding gerunds; and these again govern and hold together the larger members of a period, like so many Pashas." In the profoundly learned, but unhappily unfinished, researches into the Tartar dialects of M. Abel Eemusat a similar

description

is

given.

LESSON 27.

EXERCISE 26.

Lesson 27. The


perfect and pluperfect tenses.

79. These are not given in native Tamil grammars; but forms equivalent to them are in constant use.
(1.)

The

perfect

is

formed by adding ^(f^aQQ/oesr,


of.

I am,

(60. II.) to

the verbal participle last treated

Ex. uuf^^gj ^QFidQQ/Dsir, (more generally written UL^li^Qh&QQp^sr ,) I have learnt (lit. / am, having
^iiEjQ ^(T^d3(T^dr, he has submitted (he
(2.)
is,

learnt).

having submitted).

The
-rr

pluperfect

is

formed by adding ^Qr^iQ^dr,

I ivas

(60. II.) to

the same.

f%y

>

/ had learned / had spoken

(lit. I

was, having learned). was, having spoken).

j/eC^sjt,

(lit. I

may be formed the future perfect, uL^^^(V)UQLjm, I shall 80. Thus have learned; the perfect infinitive, uL^^d^(t^ds, to have learned; and the perfect, pluperfect, future perfect of the relative and verbal participles, UL^^^Qf,dQ/D, UL^^^QF)/E^, U L^^^(I^S(^LD, UL^^^Qf)i^, who, tcMch OV thut has, had, or shall have learned, or is having learned.
also
3:;^'The perfect
is

used for the present sometimes, as in Greek.

Thus, ^ifl^

^Q^mSQr^iT, he dwells, (^rff, dwell, stop: tarry. 64.) ^/SfB^Q^d@Qpsir,

knoio.

Exercise 26.
81. (a.)

^n

(s^lLl<^Q&}

(Siii^(7^dSl(n^iTS&r?

Qpesflei^

^Ljuuf..g:

Qs^fTGOoS ^(t^i^nn.

j>jih^u esiULusk

uu^^^ um^ias'Sen

^uQunQp^

iL/DiB^0sQ(nj>esT.

(66. j

sesardtsasT uessr^(S(s^

S7sar<5@<5 Q^rrQ^^/Q^tB

^trm. iBiT&sr Qffih^(i^si^uD * un^ias'^ LDeinssfliijui' Qs)j'2is\)Ssituit stLi^uSQ^i^ (sS (sS(ipi^^. iB6\)6\)iSy(eu)UJ ^(T^.iQ(trj>dsT. (^uj for ^uSl from ^uSQ(SJ5r(osr, [.58. II. 77. a.] lit. he is, having become good = he is ^<sm^u unir^^nKsQQr^ a good man). ct/e/G Qumu ^i(T^dQ(rrfm? uj!T? seKjTirn p.<c^s(^<3= Qs'fTs\)<s61 ^0dQ(yiTs<sn-n? ^jqd^ ^eueor unnss

*The

future

is

used indefinitely for any time:

"which

at

any time

may have

committed."

jungle.

have written the lesson. You had sought the child in the The door which he had opened for the little boy. The villager who had planted the tree came. The tree which the villager had planted grew. I have forgotten and forgiven the evils he has done to me. The milk was mingled with water. The bird drank the milk mingled with water.
(b.)
I

LESSON

28.

Lesson
The

23.

use of erdr^.

82. In 70 we had the root otot speak, of which the past is erdrQpm, and consequently the verbal participle (77.) erdispi = l-aviiuj said.

This form
"that."

is

used,

of quotation marks; and


It is the
infin. erssr

when in English a direct quotation is made, instead when the quotation is indirect as equixnlent to Greek on. Translate it, when necessary, by "that."
So
(STsk

[The

occurs in poetry, and sometimes in colloquial use.

u^

(88.)

and rasr@p^-

To

these .^iy (40. 81.) and ^s,, 136, are added

when

the exact words used are not quoted.

Compare

168. 136.

a?.]

8^ "^

iTe said he would come. {


\

("I

will come.

,,

"-^

he said. J
)

believe there

( , 2_iS!OT
^

em

ermmi

( S-sm Ci Lidrmi

eSisusurr^aQQiDsk. "^

is.

Compare
I believe that which will say "God is."

^
I

en

rr

s_

arar

cJr

S /D o ^

s-

(su ff

&dQ

<S

p ek
.

believe that which says "

God

is."
\
.

-/^

erssrusmliJ:

He
83.

said what amounted

to,

"I

believe.''^

When
( erSsrgii

erskgij is

used more than once in a sentence

s-ii is

added

to

each

s_Lo

- erm^u)).

believe that

God

is

and

that he created me.

("God

is"

and "he me
Before,
Qjiosr,

created"

believe.)

apmrnQiD, Qprsisri^. After, t3m, tSsirLf, 84. VocAB. [Both (ip3r and t5ar must be regarded as nouns, signifying t5/D@, i3purr(B. They govern the 4th case "the before time," and "the after time." [251.]
QprnzsruD,

generally, and

may

themselves be partially declined.]


ui^ii, fruit,
.sekgn,

ismQifiii, well.

( rsdrgji

that which is good + ^li-i- 40.^

finished, come to an end; [64] finish, complete.


see,

Qpt^, [57] be ^J/S'r. see, behold this; ^Q^rr,


a calf.

behold that.

{.^^, ^;s^ +
to obtain

g&-]

S2m,

think.

[64.]

03" The desire

more.

[Still to acquire [one]

must which says


it

the desire.]

This idiom

is

frequently used.
^<s3rsar(^

Beware of translating

^tiuir^da

.^eaff.

~"

60

EXERCISE 27.

LESSON 29.

85. QpssT, &c. are used with the future rehitive participle; i^^, &c. are used with the past relative participle. [74.]
^iBJoir ^sm^<j=
qstQld']

QiFiLiLjLD

\_Q.3:ujQp3inj(^, Q<3^(L/isi/a-^(g.
it

87, 88.] Qpdr

{_(Lf><dr

eu.iG^dr.

I came before he did


Q)'3='ij^i3ek
it).
<siiiBQ^s<rsr.

(lit.

the before time


after he

tliat lie

will

do

It).

^eu<asr ^'stn^^ff'

I came

had dune

it

(lit.

the

after time that he did

[Comp. Lesson 71.]

Exercise 27.
86.

(b) ^j(Suns&r

e^LLeB)isaLL(Slu:i (62.)

[slLi^ Qpi^s(^m'\ Qpm<sm

\_sissr(smp']
^su^srr

fr-mp

usi-

(56. II

I.

LSoff'^Gmuju

Qu/bp

[56. (II-J]

^i^^", ^'(^i^P^ <5ii5ur^ Q-fnmteoi&sr ^n^uun eim^ (?<5/_lL_/T/f. ^ly^

Qesriosr,

^&}&}su!t?

er&sr

lSisstQioSt

suih^niJu?

^auesr

siesr^uo

^jeue^

Before the villagers plouglied, it rained. (h ) Before you sleep. Think well before you do tlii.s. His head ached (LDmLp Qiuii^^, 58). (58.) after he ate [56. (Til.)] that fruit. You read your lesson well after Where is the boy who read his lesson well? After this lie went home. Before I came should you not have wiped the table? wiiat will you do? Rub down the bandy-bullock after it has come from the jungle.

Lesson 29.
Partiripinl nnvns of very cammon use, and at the snme time very eleL^aiit, are formed from the relative partici[)les, or QuiuH ers^^ii, by add87.

ing personal
(<7 )

t(Miiiiiia.tions.
pre.*, rel.

Thus, from u^nLsQp,

part, of uemi (74) create,

aie

formed

f
1

U(smis3/Dsuesr, one (mas.) loko creates.

umtd@/DSJ3rr, one (fem.) loho creates.


us(ni<i@pg], that tohich creates, or the
creating.
ivho creates,

\_^<^ added and eu inserted.] [^syt added and su inserted.]


\_gj

'
"j

(for jjj^ ) added.]

r umidS/Dw IT, one (honorific)


LjB)i_<sS/DSu/7"<5srr,
I

[^'ir

those

who

create,

[m.

\_^fi,^<sir

added and eu inserted.] added and en insert-

Plur.

;(

and

f.]
)

ed.]

uaoisS/DsroS!/ or
I

those (neut.) ivhich


create.

[gwo; (for
asrr

^imsj ) and

crosi/

[^

uaatdSiDesi^'Sssir J

added.]

"
61

LESSON 29.
(b.)

From ueni^^,
part, are

the past

rel.

From

^estiuiScssr, p. r. p.

of =sy^tJL/,
*

formed
created,

Send.

(56. II.)
or

f uss)i^^isu(sir, one who


I

Sisisreussr

^i^uSliueuek.

&c. \_uiss>i^Q^rrm.']
u<c<sii^ssw&!

Sing.

-^

^emiuiSesrsu&r or ^^uiSiusueir.
that which created; ^^iLiiSlssr^

uaai^^SJ,
I

or

^^ui^ujgu.

[_

or the having created.

r uesiL^^^eniT, ( ueai^Q^iriT. )
Plur. { uesiis^'Siiirsi&r.

^^uiSeare^ir or ^SBnuLSiuevrr. ^epiuiSssr sun's sir or j^miuSiuaiirsev

*[aj substituted for or.

This

is

not so

common

as the regular form.]

g^' Even

in the

common

dialect u0ai^Q^ir<sir,

usiDL^Q^mT

[spssr, c^/f

for

^sum, ^sui]

are used occasionally for uemi^^Guek, uemi^^euiT.

The neuter singular besides its primary use corresponds often in meaning to the participle in "ing," used as a noun: the creating, &c.
1^^ These forms are of perpetual occurrence; accustom yourself to form them with every verbal root you meet.
88. Participial nouns with a future signification are formed by adding to the root of verbs which take sQjyj in the present, and u to tliose
8gji.

uu

which have
singular.

In this latter case

s"

may be used
call,

for

in the neut,

^leau), call,

makes ^scaLpdQQpm, I

and

Thus:
Fut.

^iss^LpuQuek.
~^

Fut.

Qs^iuQeum.

^wiLpuueu;^,

one (mas.) who will


\_Lju

call,

&c.
root,

j I
I

j^

to

is added to the which are joined the

QiFiLiueu&r.
Q3=>Leiisi ( eriasrugj* ).
Gis^iLueuir.

ter-

^si^Lpuueurr,
^iei;>LpLJUi3iiTSsir,

rainations,

^iT,

.jijifs&r, eaeu, saeii&sir, as

Qs^iuueuiTseir.
QffiLuesiQi-sisir.

^fjnLpuuizei<su-&&r

before.]
*

u after
is

ot.

The

neut, sing.

Q.s=iu(sig],

&c.

constantly used; but the remaining

forms of the future are not so common.


89. These nouns govern the are derived.

same cases

as the verbs

from which they

Thus:

erskSssr .jijeinLp^^eufr

^euir.

It

is

he that called me.

^euSssr

^iLp-uu^

lajtruji}>

^ffo^.

It is not right to heat him.

90. VocAB.
i<cOLD,

eufrasTLD,

heaven, the sky.

U!jLD<sm.L(Si>LD,
,

heaven ( un, other,

sphere).

y,>S. the earth,

^ldsssi i<50 ld

the earthly sphere

LD<cS!!r

the world.

( y^ earth, in

compounds.^

^pp,

^\pp^3sr, ^ppeusir, .sippsi,

&-C.,

from

^^,

%2

EXERCISE 28,
cease (56. I.), without; he, she or
it

LESSON 30.
without. ^s(^, a quarter of the heavens.
to

that

is

^iamp'susir (^S(m
person.

+ ^ppeudr)

one who has no where


gj'hser ,

turn

to,

a helpless

Q^iL'biiI), divinity, providence,


I.)

help

Q^ireirgii, (56. 11.)

appear,
QsuSsir,

tamp, (56.

disappear; (64.) hide.

Qp(Bl,

(56. II.) cover,

shut vp.

time, opportunity, siasu, put, place, keep.

(64.)

[In 58 a totally different word.]

Exercise 28.
^psi^isi (66.); (^pk^(ssT l9/ds(^w; Q^irmrBssr
ld

91.

iSlpii^ssr (66.)

U!iLD<ssisneOiEis<sifle\i

^(i^aQp

srras&r tSi^nQsul ^OsSsrr QiDtuaSpsiiair


(aurrew^^eo

QmiLuuissr.
(^QKsS.
^3s33r.

ssusiarTs

srrsQpSijm' snwpsnrr<3sr.
loTSuesr?

updSp^
Q^u.j<suQld

^<sm^a^
tBrrssr

QffiLueu&sr

^asppeu^if^^
+

^LLd(^-6UQ^'Sus:rSli^

[^

^ = ^] (50.)

sfi<ssy(su^

^pd
^-

seuih, LDjhpQsu'bsfr (50-) PLp L<f-<S!S)SiJ s

s^ld G)s^rTsr(c<5sr<oar.

\jaij0

+ 6u +

that gives the money to the little boy? Who struck the This (man) protects me. This is what I said? Who did this? How did he do it? Are you he that did it? Art thou he that should come (euQ^ueuir)? He who has called us [is] God, I sent 10 It aj^ipeared in the heaven and disloads of" salt; have you seen them? appeared. This is a jungle without water. This is not heavy.

(b.)

Who

is it

watchman?

Lesson 30.
The Passive
Voice,
92. The Tamil has properly no passive voice, but a compound verb may be used, which in many respects supplies its place.

infinitive

made by adding u, suffer, (56. (II.)) in all its inflections, to the mood of the verb. u(B^^ (56, II,), added in the same way, would make a causal, concerning which more will be said hereafter.
It is

[160, 161.]
Thus: 0<Ftuaj,
to do.

Q^iuiULJUt,
^Lp-dauuiLL^iresr,

to be

done.
called (I suffer calling).

^6inLpd<s,to call. ^einLpdsuu(BQQpsir,

I am

^L^ds,
Q^i,
to

to beat.
to seek.

he was beaten.
they will be sought.
is

Q^i uu suit its srr,

In some few cases the simple root of

the verb ;^used as a noun)

prefixed

u.
93.

VocAB.

QslLl, bad. [past


CisuL-Lf-iurrek, the
,.ijii), call

rel. part, of

Qis

be spoiled. 68. 74.] ^<d3=ek,

a carpenter.
offices

man who

burns the dead and performs menial


a call

in a village.

\_3h-ULj,

give, 68.].

anQ^sii,

EXERCISE 29.
a paper, letter.

LESSON 31.
ewr

a(B^.T&, a

letter.
gUisnir,

<^. esst

ld

a petition,

irepi, a petition.

^iT^I, a report or p.tition.


effsm,

a gentleman, "Mr.," a governor,

a-eufru/s

a clerk, interpreter, one who reads petitions and drafts answers.


07i.li/

land

Jit

for dry cultivation


[/esbt.

[l/sjt,
G)

inferior

Qs^iu, field'].

uarQ^iu, mmQ^iL/, paddy

land, wet-cultioation.

good.]

iff hj

u u^ gi

(56. II. 161.), cause to un-

derstand,

make known.

Exercise 29.
94.
(a-)
Q.3;LLi(omuuijissr

^iL^dsLJu(Sl&jT(st!r

("or

^t^u^eunesr.

Here

=5/^9-

a beating. j

^i-^

GLoero-f

^s^ffi^Qeo Qs^ojujuulLl-^'.

^^
s

^fS"Ssi

Qjlu^ Qmssif.
Sj^^
u)g]y

=gy^^ (cLoszDy ^j&'3SiQs^\b^^.

QsulL

L^iLin'SssT

QesT'Ssr.

g^ sn n

u
'5

<^ suQ ;S)Q eO

snnQasuutLL^.

sussr

^fTQ(5auj^

^suum (50-) (sasuSlsd


G7S3rj2/LO
isS
lSI L^,S} 6\)

QstQ^Q^'oST
t^isBrgiiua.,

^^

/fsstO.^^G'uj/t, qcssr

QffQujfT? !b<osrQ^dj
0-sbr.
^tii

L^esrQffih

ld^sSIso (stw^i ^qksS)

[})

em sssr u u (^ Q^iLQ^ek.
e_Lo^(5
rS^'^fi

io!(ig^Qp^p(^<i* <snQ
Grmrsnrfl

<5T(ourjsfli3-^eo

@a)"3so.

(sSemem-uu^^&j

fBlljLDfT?

*riie 4th case of


writes.
4-

tlie

participial
4-

noun (neuter,

siiitrular). trQfgiQrD^ (87), that

which

=z fj the writlnj, fur thu writing. ponds often to our infinitive used us a noun.
^iir

^.ir (il)

(5

This

I'onii

corres-

(b.) Tell the gentleman that Mr. Smith has 6ome.


tlie

This

C^<suit) is

The petition wliicli he wrote is in my haml. gentleman's interpreter. Have yuu dry land or irrigated? I liave both dry land and irrigated land. Tell tiie gentleman that the person who gave the petiticm is here. Ask him who wrote the Tell him tliis is not wet land, but dry land. Where was this written? By whom was that evil petition for him. done? liy wlioni is this village governed? What is the cow eating? You must snbmit. Don't bite. Was this cloth she wore woven. Has
he paid tor the garment.

^^^^&
Lesson
Foi'ms corresponding
9.5.

31.
subjunctive mood.

to the

(a.)

One

of these

is

obtained from the past tense (70*) 1st person


into .^^

singular, by changing

ecrdr

Thus: ^spiuSlQswsir. I
Qs^iLq^qs! ,

sent. ^e^LjSl(ea)0O.^ //"(I.

you, &c.) send.


you,
&;c.) do.

did.

QFiij^(rffO,

If

(Ij

Ex.

S)ffl;^<S(5 sD_(_G'Br

^^

QufTLLi_rrso i^QfjQwdsff
live if

tSliviLpuuiTisiir. \_<2urr(B.

Perhaps he may

you brand him at once.

68.]

EXERCISE 30.
(b.)

Another form, which

is

not

@&)

or J)CTr to the root of verbs sQek, to those which have aSgs.

much used, is obtained by adding whose present takes .p; and d@&}, or

Thus:

Q.g=ujuSi&3

or

Q s^

'li

uSl osr

(58. I.);

uuf-dSlio or uuf.aQssi

^Sso, ^uSlsk
96.

[58. II. Root,

or .^@-]
^/smidssv, punishment, ^essri^, punish

VocAB.

(-dQQpek.
dlSsir,

55. III.),

@, ^^aw, much,
n brand,
uuSlif, corn,

burning,

more. ^^SLOfriu, much, too


55.
I.)-

much (adv.
tS(c\)LD,

40.)
\_Se\),

spring up, be produced


land.

(SQpm.

^'Ssruua, affliction.

stand']

produce in general,

u iSl Q s' lu
it

cultivate

(-QQpem.

55.1.).

eiiLp,i(^, dispute.

it

ulj, decision.
good,

(spQfiQeijdsir,

perhaps.

[i^(V5

= one.]
case.

a-i-CsOT", at

once

[lit.

together with, allied to eg, eg,


\_f$so
.jijffi

signs of the 3d

App.

xii.]

mioeog], very well

that (is)].

Exercise 30.
97. (a.)

^ ^uui^'

Q.d'ilj^nio ^(smu.'2esrsi]Q^iX).

smsupsnn&sr

Sji-ii-i

fBL^ii^fTeo

siT&}Qi?fT(^ii).

iBfTUj

st^^^rT6\)

^es)^

^i^ssQsij<oStn($iih.

Qs^aj^rT&).

s_(oST'2iosrss<om'L-.n&}

^(S}j^d(^d
^enrjijrr

fkQ^nei^LDnuSlQ^dQp^.

CTranslate: whenever he sees.)


^iTii^rT6\) er<osrd(^ Se\)LD

uuSirQs^tu^neo.

^k^suLpd(^^

ssm'

If they plough the land corn will be (b.) If you call he will come. If it rain the produced. If afflictions come you must bear [them.] villagers will plough. If the child cries we must go. If he pronounces What lesson is he reading to the munshi? clearly I shall understand. If the gentleman will decide this dispute rightly. If you leave me thus, what shall I do? If tlie villagers stand there what will the gentleman say? If we boil rice tliey will pay the money. If the boy forget his lesson he must be beaten.

83^ [The

/Edrgjff-eo

(Sut. 343.) enumerates 12 forms to which


er<F'^Li>

it

assigns the

common name

of <sfl^

(77).

Taking the root


I.

Q)3=iu,

these are said to be

For the past:

LESSON 32.
To
13.

these the

commentator adds

for the future,

Qs=uj^iTi30 [_Q3^'Lff]

+ ^'so

(95. a. ^= B-t having done, 21].

14.
15.

G)<s=uj^s<siriso, \_Qs=lu

+ s^ +

^ + sireo = the
^-ih.

O^u^^LD. [_Q^uj^ + ^&) +

tivic of having done'] 148 = together with the doing].


.

Of these the The dISssr


" That
is

er^cFii is thus defined in Sut.


erJ^^il) in

majority are obsolete, and poetical. 342.


its

s0^

finite verb,

with

terminations indicating gender and number,

which the action and the time appear, but the is wanting to

complete the sense."


In Sut 344,
last three
it is

laid

down

must have the same nominative as the


will find it of

as a rule that " the first four of these forms, and the finite verb, the others may have

a difierent nominative."

The more advanced student [Compare III Grammar 86.]

advantage to study these Siitrams,

Lesson 32*
98.
a. <

Some
W-

of these subjunctive forms are in use as conjunctions:


V are the

subjunctives of
.

^,
.

'become,' (58. II)

[it]

become.

"

f
i

ersJrr/K'a),

^-

1
> are

subjunctives of srer, 'say,

,,_s = (70.)

.,.^ tj [you] say.

,.

(^&f>,^a^.
If it
If he
*
\ -n
^_

I are used for "if."

be so,

why

does he
mirui

speak thus?

^QjQsr a(smssek ^(snSv


be the accountant
i ernknifio,

we
"J
.
,

LKsssr^em^s Qsfr(Bds Q<aiJ<5S!sr(Bu). must give the money.

^
,

f
'

^^^

roet. srmiear,

used to expre ss a reason = for, because. then follow an i nterrogative.

They

Thus: eruuL^

ersaflffi)

if you say,

"how

.?"

ersJr graJr^ysb

if

you say, "why?"


in

w^hich they occur

These and similar forms are to be used sparingly. The sentences may often be more elegantly expressed otherv^rise:

must learn,

for
Q^iBijud;

this lesson

is

hard.
ssssrQicir.

.SjSi ereardc^ rErnQr^iu^

eruutp.
for

OTScflffD,

I know

that well,

^es)^s I saw it.


is

3^ In
junctive.

common
Thus:

talk the future with ^(CS)(Sd or

^@eo

used for the sub-

QsirQuuniLi ^(es)So = Qa/rQ^^frdc, If thou er is sometimes added to the future.


Qsrr(BuurrQaj ^(Ss^eo,
^eu(ssT Qs^iLsmrQasr

wilt give.

^Qev, If

he will do so.

66

EXERCISE 31.

LESSON 33.

Exercise 31.
99. (a-)

^lEjQs

iJ(iTjsuniJu

^(C5)6x)

(or

euk^n&i)

^i^u

uasm^ss)^

(Smsi) (pTiosr/D^ j>i^(es)&)) iBiTLo

QufTUj ^<ss)^u

u rTiTas(I(sy sm
^eo'^eo.
(onssresr?

ill.

^(CT)a),

uiFlL<sis^ Qs^inQsuiTLD.
ffjLo

(^ppuD unndQeo m-ppih = attached relatives. See Index I.) ^@)a)


to use Indexes
I.

[Poet,] {si-p

sim

lBos^s^

uSIQsO LDeSBrUlisS6\}'2GV.

i^ Tlie learner should now begin


(b.)

and

II.

What
it.

heard
the

If you slept in the house you must have did you oat? If he will pay (62) mo (dat.) If he have said this I shall go.

money I will write the petition. They came before I wrote the letter, This is evil, for because they had heard it from (by) the villagers. many will be desti'oyed by it. Shall we try it? Whose fault is this? Did your father tell you to go; if so go at once. If you cultivate will If they build Is what he said right, or is it not? it grow up at once. houses in the jungle who will know it?

^^^^&
Lesson 33.
100. (a.) Although I said =
itireir

Q<3=fr&)SiLiLD

(lit.

and I having

said).
(lit.

Although and if I say). (a.) Here &-ld =


(h.)
(h.)

I say (shall

say,

may

say)

mrasr

Qs^irdn^smJ^

and, (7)

is

added

to the verbal participle (77).

In this

e_zi) is

added

to the subjunctive

form (95).

These two forms are of perpetual


ties.

The

following are

all

and present no especial ditficul[Comp. Ill the varieties of formation.


use,

Gram.
(1.)

141. 142.]

Verb. part. (77.) with ^im = althoiujh, with the past.


77. (a.) ^^uiSiLjij), although [1] sent (and having sent). uu^^^uD, although [he] has learnt (and having learnt). 77.
(l>-)

(2.)

Subjunctive with &-im - although he may, shall, ^^uiSi(^g!iLD, although [I] send. (95. a.) utp-^^fT^m, although [he] read. ^QSjjLD 1 -^ jj^ .95_ j^ J (Poet. ^/iS^ii.) ^i^j
,

&jc.

33' Let the reader, once

for all,

impress

it

upon

his

mind

that

it

is

very

rarely the case that any Tamil form of this kind corresponds precisely to an Do not translate "but" by ^(OT)(S0 or .^(^^ld, as a matter English particle.

of

course,

of the particle,

but weigh well the meaning and force wherever you meet with it and translate accordingly.
;

KXEUCISE
101. VocAB. ^3^LD, Qm^, Qmluu(smLh, an

32.

LESSON 34.
yet.
^(CTjjs/zi),

nevertheless,

but.

^rrmisii,

tax.

instalment of land tax. eufriL/^rruessTLn, the same. LDir(^so, the produce of a field. U(^^, ^U, cut, reap (sQpgj. 56. HI.)
tax (share of government).
the people' s share
eurfl,

tax,

tribute,

sufrrrui,

a share.

(^Uf.<miirffih,

( (^Lp., people,
.9=

an inhabitant).
the government,

QLoeoeufriTLD, the proprietor's

share (Qwei), above).


(

its sir it,

the

circar.

rtrsigi,

shut

-Qpgi

62.)
sea.

s,^<sn s'fT^^,

at.So, the
^jtsSluld,

^smrr, a

shut the door (50). Quttq^ib^ (56. II.) agree. wave [not very common: ^Ssi) is the ordinary word].
Qo^^ld, destruction.

wealth.

iSimr^smLb, life.

Exercise 32.
you pay your tax? Have you reaped the produce? Before I reaped the produce I paid my instalment of tax. I have paid my dues (u^^) to Government. Is this the cultivator's share or the proprietor's share ? Although he reaped then he did not pay the tax. Although he read with the munshi he does not understand the lesson. My foot pained me, yet I came with him. The villagers came walking. Shut the door. How can you tell what the people's share is, and what the proprietor's.
102. (a.)
will
(h-) s=iTdsfT(r^d(^
(5isk(5sr

When

Qa^eii&d

QeuesarQm
cTasr'^esr
IX)

[56. (III.)]

^/Syek

Qew^uuesanh
^enff[TiBL^^eo

^&}'2eoQiu<sk(7r^iTS(S{r.
(Sij

.^emis^-Qun?

sesardsesr

ffl

sj) iu <i

lL

sQ 6m
<sii

<sjQ(5BT6sf]6\3,

LD/r@'8s

apm'
^-(tp^

^ssniLis^Qed
Qs^rreoeO
e^ Lp.
Ill

LDirrsjs^ iSLLi^^ii^rr^Lo (68. 79. 100.)

ssnirniT

(60. IV.) uuSiT Qs^tiiiu Qsijmsrih.

Qunuj
iJa

Qs=iT<nsr(^^ih
<3u(r^th.

QurT(r^iE^s^
fr

QsysmLD.

L9rrrrem!r,9=

Q^^ii) (suii^n^i})

"^ ss)

t &)

Tf

eS

uj

IB

G^."

[Poet.

ihs;.'\

^sii'2csr

^Q
[87.]

^iM

siT<ssmQurTiM.

^(Syas&r

sjhfS!(i^r5^n^is) j>jrSli^<s>JiTs&r ^e\)&).

^^^^&
Lesson 34.
103.

"can." "Might," "could."


uL^d-secirLD.

"May,"

a.
b.
c.

fBirrmr

/may
I can

learn.

rsimsr

uuf-sss

<s^(BlLh,

learn.

d.

^ih^u ^iB^u

(Si!yuLUk

ul^ssisoitld erdsTQ^dr,

he said that the boy

es)UiU<sk
is

ul^sss

3^(Bu> isrmQifek, he said that the boy

might could

learn.

learn.

(1.)

What
^ii
is

called the potential

mood

in

English

is

formed in Tamil
of

by adding

.^ld, to signify

peimission, and s^Qih, abilify, possibility.


fut.

probably a corruption of ^(^u^, the 3d pcrs. neut. (2.) (72*) become; if so, it is = will become.

68

EXERCISE 33.
(3.) 3k. LD is the

3d
it

pers. ncut. fut. of .s^, co/ne together, Jit;

and

is

used impersonally =

can

be.

(4.) ^m is added to a verbal noun (hereafter to be considered) formed by joining ^<ji; to the roots which have @s>} in the present, and i&io to those which have aSja. (The analogy of these strong and weak foi'ms is maintained throughout. Comp. 72. and the inf. mood. 41.)

Thus: Q3=iu

UL^ + aseo +
(5.)
rf,_iz) is

+ ^60 + ^LD = Os^iuiLKoOrTLD ( lu doubled for euphony), ^iX) = uujLSSisoirLD, (I &c.) may Icurn.
s<-(Bu3

(I &c.)

may

do.

QjFiuiLi

added to the infinitive mood. = (d, 3=, ji, u, are always douhled

after the inf.

mood),

O-s^uJ

md

3r^(Biili

(I &.C.) can do.

L-'i^ds

(^

(1 )

(2)

^ <g^ii) = ULf-dsd^h-Qih, &,c. (I &c.) can learn. For such sentences as may you be happy! See 140. Can is sometimes idiomatically rendered in other ways ; Can you write? ^-a!rd(^ sr(i^^ Qs^ffliLjLDrr ? [Is (the manner of) writing intelligible to you ?] Can you read? i eurr&uuiTUjfT? [will you read?] "Can" may often be rendered eleyantly by the simple future.
Yox cnnnot, must
not, Slc.

(.?)

See 117.

Exercise 35.
104. (a.)
Q(S>j'2ei)d6sniiiT

(suii^

(70) s^esi(Sud ^/DdseOfTLorr? (66) ^G!)fT


sB lL(B(sS i&)ms)!T?
(68.

i3t3!r'^s'^ jijuuL^s
is

smLu^QeO

When eS

thus doubled

it

gives emphasis

to

forsake altogether., utterly. 254.)


^^ffs^iflsss
s?l.ldit'^

inn?

^<3s(Sfr

Qus^d

sf^QiMir?

^uuuf.

^^smn

^smi^dseOfTLDfT?
ujiTjTaQ&)
iLjih

^i^d

si^ssTLDrTesr ufTi.^0D^Lj

ui^dsd

sk-QixifT?

@^

^(^Lo [^in]? (^i<^S(^d(^^


a;i.zi)

Q^rflujuu(Sld^6\)rTLDrT? (surresr^ss)^

LiLSsainii^'}) U(5S)i^^isuiT

^(SS)^u^(^ Qffdjujsak-iJD.
Possibility.
(2.) Fitness, right.

N. B.

signifies,

(1.)

the little boy shut the door of the house? Shut the door. shut the door. He can [is able to] shut the door. May they open the door? Yes (^pds&>n:LD). May I call the servants? Yes. Can the boy lift this weight? Yes. [N. B. Yes is often rendered by .^^i (or vulgarly ^ldit for c^"), =^^); but the verb should be repeated: QurraeoiTLDrr? Ans. Qufrs&ifriJD, not simply ^iJd.'\ Although the people were come, he slept in the house. Is it riglit to beat the little boy so ? (3r^LDiT? ) Although the mother comforted the little child, it wept. Can you speak with the gentleman at this time? Ought the little boy to come on foot (^walking)? May the munshi see the lesson you have written? Must the child weep for its mother? There are ten loads of iron, I think.

(b.)

May

He may

LESSON 3o.

EXERCISE 34.

Lesson 35.
Exercise 34.

A
lOo.
tion.

Story.

[Every word in this tale is in use, and every form deserves attenLet the learner go over it often, and carefully consult all the refer-

ences.]

The honey

drop

tumult

A
1

Muhammedan
<si] !T

a
QuirsJ
.50.

great
13.

in

town

to the

bazaar

having gone,
78.

21.
(3)^(5ifl [_^]

21.

Q^asT honey
50.

isj (3)U>

'^(3

Q^ak

QcStp

&i^iug:j;

which will buy the time


74.

drop-honey

below

was

spilt

70. (2.)

of

it

upon

jly

25.21.

having come 77.70.

it

alighted.

That

70.(2)
(4)

Jly, 18.

^lEjQo^i^
there-ivhich-was
74.

(^iEi(3)

^QP)i^

u&^eS
{a) lizard

iSu^^g!
70.

[<s]

Qs!TsmLgj;
took;
(2.)

having seized,
77.

^m^
25.

[ij] u&teSictniJj

[]

s,(ciniisrrrf^(cS)iiu
the

y^'Ssisr

iSls^^si [a]

QsfreisnS^';
took

That lizard
18.

bazaar-man's
.52.

cat

having seized,
77.

21.
mirt'u
(-5)

70. (2.)

^i^
25.

[tj]

y,&srei!)'Li

That

cat
18.
/Erremiu [.s]

the

gj^as^^eniiiu Muhammedan's
21.

^/^^^[l.']
having
bit

dog

QuinLiffj; it put
70.(2.)

77. 56. III.

^i^
That
25.

<s<cS>ids,irjTeir

^Lp-^^
77.

[]

dog

the

bazaar-man

having beaten,

Qsirdrjy having killed, 78.56.(111.)


QsiJiLup.

QuaiLiiTdsr.
lie put 70.(2.)

oSy/F^ []

aemissiTij^ssr [^]

gi^&am
the

[u]

QuiTL-LiT<3sr;

That
25.

bazaar-man
18.

Muhammedaii

havirig cut

down

he put;
70. (2.)

77.
Lcptsa/D [<s]
the other

cSyi^ [^]

^^a&'Sssr

That
25.

Muhammedan
18.

semi d sir/tits m' bazaar-men


29.

Qeull^ [u]
having cut down,
77.

QuirLLtrriTsm; they put;


70.(2.)
s-jb/SI

^i^

[] Those
25.

ssmissiruemir [^] bazaar-men (the) Muhammedans


29.

^^dsir
29.

eu/i^,

having come
77.
[lj]

[d]

OsfTussaritrn'sar;
took
;

^^ssir
The Muhammedans
29.

(^i^ih^Qsrremiems:
77.

having surrounded,
11.

having surrounded the taking


87.
.

70.(2.)

unk^gi
11. 64.

[]

seaissanQhsairs
for the bazaar-men
29.

Qeii(^

Quiuir
persons

s^L^(miTs^
70. (2.)

^enirat^LD

having seen,

many

caine together.

And

those

10. 8.

70

LESSON 35.

EXERCISE 34.

hand having -mingled, and these 50.77.66. 8.10.25.

a row having made, 50.77.58. I.


sirS" Ouujit, a hundred persons,

in that aide

25.
^^''

21.

^gu

QuiuiT,

@i^

a hundred perons,
UL-i^isasTLD 6T'S^<oOn'u>
the

C'^] in this side

usa^^Qeo
21.

.^irsQej,

to die indeed,

172.

58.(111.)

town

all

uiuigi, having feared


77.66.

^&)60 s^Qixrrffou ulL(B


utter confusion,

eusosiB^
50.

having suffered, a hurried removal


161.

127.
latllTIEjQuj^.
it

77.

took.

70. (2)

106. Notes on the story.

i3i^ sffosLD. Compounds are often formed in Tamil as in other languages, by merely putting the crude forms together.
(1.) LD^

This

is

simple Sanscrit.
suiriEjf^LD

Qurr^ or Qufr(i^, meaning ^ewe, is used the future relative participle (74); but is used inTranslate: "when he was buying honey." definitely for any time.
(2.) c^sar

Qurrgj, here
is

for

"when;"

eijn-iij(^ii>

Thus: ^siieir Quir^m', Q u sr (^ldQ u n gj &c. and while he was going. He went;

The words are put in apposition. (3.) gjeBpQ^<ssr, drop [of] honey. So sb(5 (^iw ^tmresi^iT, a pot [of] water. Such constructions are frequent. It is used (4.) Qsaemi^, from the root Qsrreir ((et^) [56. (III)]. This verb is frequently several times here, s-p^is, Qamoswiirirsm, &c. added to the verb. part, of another
(a.)

To

give a

middle

or
It

reflexive

signification:

<suirmjQiQisn<smtirm,

he bought (for himself).


{b.)

may

be thus added to very

many

verbs.

To

give the idea of habitual,


It is

repeated action:
the action
is

erQ^^dQairessriin^,

he continued writing.

not used

when

done once

for all.
to the

Merely primary verb


(c.)

as

an expletive, adding perhaps an idea of completeness [Comp. 259.] as here, iSn^^^sQisfrsssrss^.

&u^^si(u) QuiTL-igi. Here Qun-(B is added to the verb. part. This verb is added to another, to make its transitive character [Comp. 256.] more apparent. It adds force in some cases.
(5.)
i3ls^^sj-

(6.) 3=iTaQ(si

ex

emphatic

added

equivalent to the case absolute;


107.

= they having
a

to

the

infinitive

mood makes

it

died. a bazaar.

VocAB.

to the

story.

gsi^iam,
Q^ssr, honey,

Muhammedan. sent,
^sifl, a drop.

semidsmieir, a bazaar-man.
receive.

eumsjiQ, bug, obtain,

(-QQpm.
*

56. II.) Quir(Lp^, Quirgi, timc,vf'\i\i rel. part.


(ej
is

= when,

while.

LDpse>p, other.

Q^, under
Syi

often added).

&i^

spill

(-Qp^

62). * Qld6\),

*Both
^L-uf-Bn

Qmeo

and

(Jrnsu,

Qm'sssiiSiiir Sifl.

are nouns governing the 6th case with the termination g;*: They may govern also the 4th case.
'

'
'

LESSON 36.
Qunnu, swarm, alight upon as ^ikiQs. uSoeS, a lizard. iSl^, seize (3,QQp<ck. 56. III.). L^&sr, a cat. QeuiL, cut, cut duion (QQjDdsr. 56. II.). Qi<sii(S), many, much. Quiurr, a name, a person, people, s^smemi, a row "shindy." ud&u>, a side, STSXt hundred, u LLifsm ld a town, erisoeomli, all,
over,

above, (ex

is

often

added.)

^,

a fly.

a winged insect ( a@Qp<ssr. 56. III.). ^iei(^, there

the

whole.

66.)

.j)iSo&>s(soQeorr<sOLD, utter

(SiKsoesi^,

fear [only the past, uiui^, &c. are in use.] (sQQflm. confusion (an imitative word like hubbub, &:c.) a hurried removal through fear 8cc. used with the verb eiiiriSKQ.
u:u,*
,

Lesson 36.
The
reflexive pronoun
^irtssr.

[Appendix
108. (o.)
Case.
^/rajr
is

xii.]

thus declined:

EXERCISE 35.

LESSON 37.

That
[106. (4.)]

boy

his

lesson

learnt.

Not ^eiJ^eaiUJ.
eioiiu,

3= Wherever the meaning is his, her or its own (suus-a-um) use fRm-ena ^ek or ^ssr^ and rarely ^Qj^eaL-iu, ^<sa(efK(oS)iuj, ^^^etaiiu, &c.
,

108. * VocAB.

^Qnmsask,

each one (he,

he).

OKsoeoum,

ability.

sirsssriS

(56. III.), cause to see.

Exercise 35.
109. (a.) The bazaar-man beat his cat. The Muharamedan killed his dog. The people left their houses and emigrated. There is honey in the jungle. Is there honey in the jungle? There is no honey in the

jungle.

villagers kill the bazaar-man's

No, the Muharamedan killed it. Come when I write the letter. Come when I have written the letter. Go after you have seen the petition. He came before the clerk had read the report to the gentleman.
?

Give me a drop of water. dog

Is it right to catch flies?

Did the

srrrfQi^?

tEiresr

s<omss<ssr ^60s\), sfreupsnirm'^nisbr,

^rriJu

^asr lS&t

arrjrasr QeussgrQt}) (srisir^ (aUisQ^esr.

finikis&r eresr'^esru

unrrds QsuesarQw.

'^-&sr'^sr

<oS)<su^0i^rT^LD (58. I.^


^&j<osrsij(a5r

(^is^s'^

^i^d^u,

iSli^^^s",

s^easr

S)t Qs^ujiueOfTLDfT?

^asr ^(ssr eu6\)6\}LJ^(oS)^s sinsmiS^^rrasr.


^'Ssw (50.)

^(kis&r
[106.

Q^^ih

(oTSsr

unsQuuih

(oKssTQTf'&sr.

si<oSi^^^s

Qsnem

(4.^] <?/Q^dFLo um^i^<osr.

^STS(^<s(rQ(S(r

^Qeoir&^^nim'

-^^^^&Lesson 37.
The
110.

negative verb.

of South Indian dialects


is

nearly confined* to the family has a negative form of the verb. And this formed by adding to the root the personal termination xoiihout any
;

The Tamil has a

peculiarity
it

'particle indicative
uisf.
uisf.
4-

of time.
grsjr

Compare

aQ^ +
O
+

CTssr

= =

uuf.&QQpm, I uL^Qiueir, I do

read,

not read.

* Compare Rask's Anglo-Saxon Grammar, preface xxix. Old Scandinavian poetry afTords traces of a negative not only in verbs, but also in pronouns. Some of the Caucasian dialects also exhibit the same peculiarity.

10

73

EXERCISE 36.
[The learner may imagine, if he pleases, that the absence of any middle particle denoting time signifies that the action of the verb takes place in no time whatever; and so an absolute negative for all times is formed.]

Paradigm.
Roots UL^,
Singular.
uLp-QiLieir,
IBl,

^^ULj.
Plural.

miQeafSsr,^^uQum.
mteniTiU,

UL^QlUfTLD,

ULp-iumu,

^^uuiriu.
^^uuiresr.
^^uufreir.

3.m.

ULo.iuirm', mieiifresr,

uL^iutr&r, fEieutretr,
n. UL^iUirgi,

mL-emrgii, ^M"^'-'"'^'

LESSON 38.

EXERCISE 37.

Lesson 38.
The
negative verb ( continued)
1 13. The negative most frequently used, and, on the whole, the best, is obtained by adding )<k>dsi = not (43), to the infinitive of the verb. This form is indefinite as to time, and is the same for all numbers and persons.

lEirm,
li,
.

p
<
\

I,

thou, he, do

"^
|

lEia&i^isodso

&c.

did

^euesr,

shall or will

,,,-,,

rj

i^ot

walk.

,,

&c.

114. _g)svSo is also added to other parts of the verb, especially to the neuter participial noun (87. 88.).
lEtrsk

r Q^iuQjv^ +
[

^&)^ =
^&)8si>

Q,a=iuS/D^&)3so,

I,

thou, &c., do not do,


doing.

am

not

li

J Q<^iu^^
^1

Q<3=u^fls\)3so,

I,

thou, &c., did not do, have


7iof

done.
ivill

&c.

&;c.

Qs^Lusiigj

+ ^6\)&o =

Q<3'iLiup&)3si>,

I,

thou, &c.,

not (at

any

1^

time) do.
less elegant

This

is

more common, but

than the former.


s^n-LSs^Bmreir, a witness.
ff^rffajfriu,

115. VocAB.

o'itlLS, testimony (also a witness).


(a;/r<a(gg^eoii),

Qs^eusek, a peon.

a deposition.

s=fff,

right,

rightly,

m^p

pta, a fault,
(60. III.).

afreueo

*( urrriir) guard, toard, prison.

^lL, a

note.

<sa;esW,

attend to (56. III.).


SiLirrujili,

@^,

reason, right,

indicate, regard (56. III.). &.(^d,&!rir (q^), sit-down li^, justice. iSiuinum^eoi}>, a court, a

place of justice (em^eoLo, a place).

Qsititl- (court),

is

often used, enir^, the


i]dSe\}, a pleader.

complainant.
^syrffl/,

LSrr^isvrr^

(tSlj^, opposition), the defendant.


(this

a measure.

^tmisiieireii

measure), thus much.


hoiu

^eueusireij

(that

measure), so viuch.
*

ereueueireij

(what measure),

much? Ql^, (56.

III.) tear.

A word written thus


;

put

but

is

is to be considered as a synonym of the one after which it is either a foreign word, or a vulgar and objectionable, though common one.

Exercise 37.
116. (a.) ^smrr ffifliumiid
QsiLseSled'hso.
i

iB(^(irfius ssuesfl^^

(^jB^^
S-sr

^<^(oU(S!reij Qu,s-Q(vrj>Lu?

<sua^s(^

sr&jiSijefrGii

Qs=&)eo QeiHosarQui?
rSiurruuew

f^pp^^psns

(22)

fStumuLDrrilj^
s^rfltumLs'

^smru^dsLJuQeyaiL.

^&)^^/Qgo s^m-L&ssrTjjisar
/5z_<5(5LD.

Os^neO^) QeuesarQii).

^iejQs iQ

srrsveSlso (urrsTTeSQeo)
!Bn(5sr

QurTL^uuLLu-rrfir.

&.srd(^cf s^ntl.

&

^&)'^ujn?

J)/iejQs Qurrsu^eo'bso.

^aism ssuesfldSlm^eo'^.
i Qs^rT(S!r(osr eiJirdrsyPipeOLD

QjdSeo

r<osr'2esrd

3^ulSlL(Si<s QsiLseSeo'^eo.

* Lit. "

having indicated what, do you speak so much ?" (s^g:

is

equivalent to

regarding, concerning, about.

Comp. 230.

LESSON 39.
do the peons beat has he not written the deposition ? (b.) The gentleman will do you justice. What fault has the the witness? do these villagers not pay the instalment physician committed ? Although I have called the defend(due) ? The child does not sleep. Although the munshi read the lesson to ant's witnesses they come not. him he does not pronounce it rightly. Although his father beat him the

Why

Why

Why

little

boy does not attend

to his lessons.

Lesson
Some

39.

defective and irregular verbs.

117. According to 110, from the roots iDiriL, hook on; 3^( join; 6t<so, agree; ^@, be Jit iStMf); Quirgi, suffice; e, agree; Qtsuam, need, are made the very common forms:
Quit, go; <^<sm^ii, be possible;

Sing.

.Qiek,
LDITL -iirujuLiT,

I will not, cannot.

thou

zvilt not,

can^st not.

LDiriiiTsariT,

he will not, cannot.


she
ivill

LDmLifren,

not, cannot.

\
Plur.
LD!rL-QlITtS>,

It will not, cannot.

We

will not, cannot.

LDirLLt^iTseir,

ye, or

you

will nut, cannot.

LDmLirriTaisir,

they will not, cannot.


eTorrgi,

Jt must not
be.

"It

is

no go."

(vulg.)

"It luonH fit:' (vulg.)

It is not proper.

It

is

not

fit, right.

Quir^irgi,
It
is

QeuemifTih,
It does not
agree.
is not necessarij. (Tliis is quite irregular.

not

It

sufficient.

For

QeusssriiTeiiiTLD.

Qeumrirr

+ ^li.

110.^

118.

The

positive of s^in-gi

s^(lw; of ^eoirgj, srpi^LD

is formed regularly (3d part. neut. fut. 72.) (comp. 70.); of ^st^, ^(gii; of (^wsmrgi, <spd(^Lh;

and of
119.

QemsesriiTLD,
a.

QeuismQih.

These are

all

common.
It must not.

May
b.

this

honey be put

iji

the store-room ?

^i^i
eurr^

(^^ssitr uemtp-uSleo Quirc^LDtr?

Quits LDmLLir^.
It will not.

Will
c.

this horse

go in the bandy?

ld^a ^(^^ldit? Is the complaint which the plaintiff has presented a fitting one?

Qsir^^

^sirgi.
It
is

not a fitting one.

EXERCISE 38.

LESSON 40.

e.

To abuse is not becoming. abuse him? Q a a n- lLl^Q 60 SB(5 Loegus Qsn'<is, Qen(ssisrLDir? Should the respondent present a petition in court. QsrrQsa Q en <osm iiT ld
Is
it

a fit

tiling to

iSff^sutr^

He

need not {shovXd not, Sic),

Exercise 38.
120. (a.)

^i^u

(sauiuissr

uniua

ui^ds LDniLQif^

<simQ(!rf'm'.

Qlff^^^
^s-

LDfTLLQifTih

etimgu Q3=rr&)^Q(Vj'iTS&T.
isit

^i^d

s<ss)tdanii&sr

^smLDdB'Ssrr'^

Q3=uj^(mih^rr^uD^ .^<su^d(^

LD<ssr6m1ssQ<Sijemih.

^li

f!as^<smms (^[B^^ (116.^


'S76060/7-a)

a_i)(S(5 'STssrsar Q^tflnjix)?

&.lls(^^
<sruuLs^
is

Q^

ffli^ss)^ (S"^*)
isf-U

(127.J

Q^<sifl<sunuj<f

Q^n6\)&ods^iiT^fT?
(43.)
ai all.)

^lju
iBim

Qus^eu^
/f/tsw-

(88.) ^(^LDfT?
fffliunuLi

^gj

^rfliusoeo.

^^

^gsl

Q&neo^

(idiom

for g^fliumbs:

Qs^neo^^ which

more

correct),

9S3r^Lo(172. V2^.=^awj thing

sijBQvum (^mQrj'm.

^uurf! jjji^uuisasnh STiosrdQ)U QuiT^rr^, 6^iu.t! Qurr^th, Qun^ihl [For Qurr^n^ we often hear up(irj^ or upp u^niLu.n^ = it won't touch (suffice). Thus, sjw^s^ s^iJdu&tld (syuSpsudt^u up0>^i This is often said by the the wages woii't suffice for my (suuSgi/.
QsusasTL-tTLD,

common

people.]

(b.) The watchman said that the villagers beat him; but the witnesses did not give their deposition rightly. Why will you make a disturbance in the village? Although the defendant killed the dog you must forgive his fault. They all sat down in the court. They were seated in the place of justice when the gentleman came in. This and that agree. Tell him how the affair happened. He says that he cannot learn the lesson. The servant said he would not do that. They denied all knowledge of the atfair. The munshi said that I need not write that lesson.

Lesson 40.
Other parts of the negative verb.
121. (1.) neg. add

An

ct for

the sing.

ordinary familiar inperative. To the third sing. neut. sr + s-to for the polite form ; and sr + SL.ik&&r ;

for the plural.

From
are

fBisuirff/,

it

walks not (does not happen),

formed

mi<sun-Q^,
rEienirQ^iLjLD,

don't walk,

don't walk, sir!

rEismrQ^ujimsm, don't you walk.

EXERCISE 39.
(2.)
\^LD&)

The negative
to the
root.

One

verb, participle (27.) is formed by adding of the forms is therefore the same as

^si
tlie

or

3d

ng. neut. nes;.

110.
not Icarjiing.

above the auxiliaiy verb }(^ (sometimes Quit parts, a complete negative verb may be Thus: constructed, though the forms ai'e rather cumbrous.
(3.)

By

adding

to the
all

and other

roots),

in

its

uuLiurTLDeo

@)r/fjdScw<zir,

uLpLiuiTplQ^eklQ^esr,
iEiSiiiT^(m,

-^

) }

ne does not learn (he do not walk.


if you do not ivalk.

/i

is

not learning).

iEi(Siin'LD6Snnii^fr&),

Further examples
constantly used.

are

not

necessary,

but compounds of this

kind are

negative relative participle for all tenses, and participial nouns, tlie forms in (74. 87.), are formed by changing e- of the (or sometimes, chiefly in poetry, by simply verbal participle in ^s^ into omitting ^).
(4.)

answering to

iBie^irgj
@j(Siieir

2-

,jy

=\

/BisufT^j

UL^ojir^

iSKUiL/sar,

he

[is]

a boy

who or which walks not. who learns not (or has not learned).

iLirm sL-LfT^ (62) a?, a house which

I have

not built.

(5.)

And

thence
(
/Ei

we

obtain the following negative participial nouns:


he who does not lualk.

euiT^euear,

Singular.

%
l^

fBisuir^eu&r, she
IB i.<sj IT

who does not walk.


he (hon.) who does not loalk.
they tvho do not walk.
they which do not walk.

^^

that which does not walk.

( IE I <sv ir^ sj

IT

Plural.

-^

iEi~<suir^eiiifseir,

l^isiSuiT^smeusisir,

je0 60iT^iEii(dr,

one who has not.


II.).

121. * VocAB.
(56. II.).
(SFjiresTili,

u^ga, hurry, (56.


wisdom. =y@
Loirpg)!,

S^ii,

be dispersed, come to nothing


^gir<so,

(^irssTih,

folly, ignorance, heathenism.

thread ; a work on a science.


2_(5m/r,

the relative value

of a metal,

its fineness.

_LD

2_ifl

standard of gold. Q^ldlj, (62.) sob. with a negative.

(^tu, (57.) cease, rest.

Neither

nor,

Exercise 39.
122. (a.)

^<SS)LD

Q<9=IULUITLD60
(snstsr

^Q^k^TTeO

(aU

fT(Lpeu fTlU.

(56)UUj(oloSr,

snLLs(^u QunsnQ^l
(^tsjLsCcisfr
!

LSI^nQisu!
!

Gr&!T'2issr^

^ssiruf-Lua^Q^ih.

s^ssares)!

Qs^tLujfT^Q^rEJssirr

Qus^rrQ^iLjiEJiSSfr!
^/Si/eOT"

uisf.

UU^SS LLUL-L^IT u u u^en Q^ih? (How will the lesson come? How Qetsr ^(sa^ei) uni^ih ^sn^<3Si^ff- Qffih can he understand it?^ ufiQrf^ sarfltum Q^^-^.
lUTLDeO ^(T^ifilT&) (Qu'T(SS)S\)) UlTL-ll) (SUSJIT^'
<si

LESSON 41.
u<suasr [88.]

uiiT^eD^u

u(Sl(QiJfT(osr.

uiT6iJ(i^ G)s=iuiun^(T^, LDesrQLn!

lj^

^ujjb/o

[From

^^.

68.] ^/^(^rrasr
^6\)'2eo,

^eo

ui^luitQ^!

^rroir

Q^i-.nu

QufT&n-^s^
effort is not

mrrp^u:)

s^isarTULji})

valued).

eSlia (254.) Loasi^ujrraLJ

^ei)^, (what is got without QuLu^Qsnesan^rmii

(Idiom: without
^/S3)^

his

knowing

it-

^/SliutTmeo.)

various ways.

[Many of Try!] Q^wlS^

these sentences can


Q^ldlSI s^ilktld&j

Probably a corruption from ^yisar be rendered in

^Q^!Tm.

^^

eiesr

(b.) I had not seen him. If he will not come. Why do not the servants open the doors? If they do not open the doors when I tell them (mrresr Q.3^ir<so^ih Qurr^) what can I do ( ermesr^sm^-^ Qs^tLiaj<siiiru>) ? If the attorney does not properly represent the affair in court (Sojirujem^eo^^Qeo

sirrfluj^em^u Qus^itldSo Qum^eo) what can the plaintiff do ? This a thing which has not happened and cannot happen. Silence This is an impossible thing. What is not possible to us, is possible to Him.
s^ifliuirius

is

Lesson 41.
Some miscellaneous
123. (a.) (70. 2.)
forms.

The form uv^^Q^m, &c., is vulgarly pronounced uif Jc^OTT, and ui^p^^ is ui^s^s-gj or ui^s^a-. So ui^^gi is ul^^s-. This is not to be imitated, but in very common conversation can hardly be
quite avoided.
SJ-

This is elegantly si or ^<^#(&.)


Q^ujiLin-LDPo

Tlius QuiT3=gu or Qu!t.s= is used for QuiruSlesr^ or Qun-esr QuiruSlp^u. So ^uSlmsj, ^Gsrgi, ^uSipgji is vulg.

^^

Q^iLi'luit is occasionally used in composition where This is chiefly found in (121. (2.) would be the full form). the phrases _g)a)6/r i^l-Lit<5\), Q.s^ujiurr <^LLirreo, Quirsrr aflili_ffeu, and the like. eQiLtfrSi) = if [you] leave (68). Thus Qs=iuujrr (^lLiit&i, will mean, '^not doing, if (you) leave;" gjikeon- eSiLiiTeo = "not being, if (you) leave;'' QurrsirdlLLiiTe\) = "not going, if {you) leave." Tliey are equivalent to "unless you, &c.," "if you do not, &c."

The shortened

The
(c.)

full

forms

Q.9^ujujiTLDeo

^(i^i^sfrw, &c., are perhaps

more

elegant.

(95. a.) you if you do, This is either from the poetical form if [you] go, &c. Qi&=iUflss{reo, or from Q<FtLsifrSo sfTffO ( ffo -t- = jsd, 0-3= tu^rrn^s rrev,) where
Q'S^uj^iris)),

For

will often hear Qa^dj^iraarr

Qun-(e^ssfr

an&>

is

a poetical

word

for aireoLh, time

tvhen.

Letters are often interchanged in different parts of the Tamil country. Thus, i^ is uj in Madras, and eir in Tinevely and the south. QsfTL^, a fowl, is QsrruSl in Madras, and Ga/rsrf) in the south. and iLi are also interchanged.
(d.)
<3-

79

EXERCISE 40,

Thus
(e.)

eSujiT^, sickness, is in

the south often

e^3=rr^.

The 3d

vulgar conversation.
^irirseir is

and fem.) is strangely corrupted in very Thus, Q'S^iieun-iram becomes Q^iijeiimiiQsrr, &c. Q<3=ili Sometimes pronounced something like Q 3=111^1701 (cheythaw^a.)
plural (mas.
;

(f.) There is a common form which the lower orders sometimes use in addressing a superior that is puzzling to a beginner: for ^eo^ they say ^&)^iEjs, &c. This seems to be the honorific plural s-imseir added. This is carried to a great extent in Madras. (g.) We have in English a number of words which are apparently mere reduplications, such as hurly-burly, topsy-turvey, &c. In Tamil these In general any noun may be so repeated occur much more frequently.

(of course in the merest colloquial dialect). If the word does not begin with the reduplicated syllable generally does. Thus, <^p(^, firewood, becomes sfl^@ S^g = "firewood, &c.'' Qwem^ @s<f is "the table and its appurtenances." aLLi^eo QiLi^eo for siLuf-Sd, a cot. Qsrr^&=u3 Qih!^<s=i}> for QiaiTtQs^LD, a little. This is worth noting carefully.

i^ [This whole lesson may be talked over with a munslii or other intelligent naThese are given as a specimen. The great matter tive and such forms collected. can choose our own words and forms is to know exactly what the people say. at leisure.]

We

124. VocAB.

^mesrili, yet. Quit, go, added to instransitive words, gives the


be

idea of completeness as Quit does to transitives. 106. (5.) (Qisnp (56.1.) ^iBCp, tamil. uiresxSLS^, a language. deficient, (56. III.) diminish, lessen.

Exercise 40.
125. (a.) cgy/F^ <s^ slLiuulLl-.
i})',

iSlebrLi iit

Qunihu urnrss Qsuem


^<suit

^eOedfreBLLL-neo p^ljdqpqsiuj

(^Lo/yjsOT"

QuiTsQ<aiJ6snr(blih'

sserr

^i^ili

uesar^istn^s^

Qs^^^^rr(aSlLLifT&)(Qs=^^^mieO Qurr(eu)&).,Qs=

&^^^nQ^
^wfi
come.,
is

Qun(SU)e\))

^OJirs&r strsus^do

Qunu-uui

(68.)

Q<sij(oSBriii.
it

G'q/'Ssu Qs'iu^fr<9=<9^

S"-"^' (G)<^iu^ having done., accomplished (58. III.) the work is finished.

^uS^^

has be-

Very common

(What^ has the work become? well., is Madras cook speaks: QsnuSI Qs^i^u Quns^s^ for QsriL^ Qs=s:^Lj QuiTuSp^., the fowl is dead. Tinevely Shanan speaks; ^Q^skesr eSs'n^ eressr^u* Q^rfliurr^ (every jb pronounced with a whirr), for ^j^ srawesr <sSuurr^ erOTjj/ Q^Smrr^ (I donH know what disease this is). Qs'wsnl ^i^ Qey'^eo ^mesTth si,s(cS&)'^ujn? i Qs^iLi
form.)
the
(oiesreisrl

Q'Su'^eo ^s^s^tr?

work finished).

^Q<aij'?&)

Qsu(^

i56m(sss^iu

JBT^ao^-F Qs=^^^iTLD6\)

^0'S(^^ (Ironical). iS ^ekearih .jifi^u u ^Q^sSlp^ ersaresT?* eiesrswih c^<?<*^, Qs^ired^


(The
af-

(Tell
fair
is

me how you

got on?), smflojuy Qpi^i^s^^.^ for Qpisf-k^^

accomplished.)
*
OTvf)

becomes akrem in common talk

thus

mair^iu is i^em^S)'^-

80

LESSON 42.
If you do this evil you will perish. Don't Do you understand it on the table. I understand it a little (red. form). Tamil (^^ip Unless you go you cannot obtain it. If he does not send his servant for If you do not hear [obey] you will it the gentleman will not give it.
(b.) This

work

is

finished.

go!

You had

Put better not go. or ^tBLpuuireeoei^)?

perish.

Should the

little

boy be so disobedient?

(^t-iiairLuPo. 56. II).

Lesson 42. Words denoting universality.


126.

Some

uses of

s-ti,

and.
&-ld

(a.)

When

added

to

an interrogative form

makes an

universal.

e^io = sruQu/rQ^^ui, always. eruQufrap^, every one. ^-ili = enaimiili, ersiicir, every where. where? + S-ld = eTiBt(^u), eria(Q, in every way, ly how? + S-w = eruuL^u-jil, eruuL^, luneudr, who [Poet.] ) f = lUfreiiQ^iii C<zk changed to J, ajir^ih, every thing. luiTSJ, which J ^^jigi, so much + e-ti = ^"Sssrsiffiui, all (rather unusual).

when? + who? +

all

means.

it

all persons.

[^

(b.) 2_tD is also added to used adverbially.


Qld&)
iSekQesr

(?i>ai, i3tkQ<zsr,

mgiiuLf.

and many other words

LDgauL^
127.

(= ( (= =

over)
after)

-^

another
all.

= Qld^ld, moreover. = iSd/rQasriLiu:), besides. step) 4- e_tD = LDgauu^iijth, again.


^-ii S-ih
all.

<sr<kieoir

^asu =

^(hsr so viuch.

[Poet.]

(a.)

<5r<so'B^(r

as an adjective

is

prefixed to nouns, but requires


men.

^w

to

be

put after the noun.


er<k)OiT tDiS5fl^5/f<5(Bffiii, all

erSoeoiT
sr<so&)iT

m^fsfmLo,
is

all

women.

<^s(&T)LD, all houses,

(b.)

ersoeofTil,

((5r<scisi)rr

s-ld j

clined after the analogy of nouns in

a neuter noun = ever?/ thing. It is deli, substituting ^psn for ^^sn, and

requires the s-ii after each case.

2d Case: 3d Case:
(c.) <? is a Sanscrit
s'seo Ln<sS^iTS(Sff)iM, &c.,

er<PCCorrsupea^!LjLD, Sec.
6ra)(fV/r<S2;^G'(Tj'zi),

&c.

word =

all.

It is

all men, &c.

^aeow, and declined regularly, like t/sjii (oo^sm^u-jih aekrirrm, he saw the whole,
(d.)
so
=sy&)r

used as an adjective = sr&^ejir. used as a neuter noun, but with the addition of s-ii>. s^*
It is also

all.

many,

makes ^^^gi (sing, neut.) so much, and ^hsriu (plu. neut.) ^'^^sild = the totality, is regularly declined. These are little

used except in poetry.

EXERCISE
Ce.J
erSoioOfr,

41.

.s^sm

and

^^,

all

form nouns plural (mas. and


all people.

fern.)

Thus:
ersiieonrQ^il), (

^aaiQf)LD,

+ + S-m com. + + S-LD.)


ir
IT

87.)

r=
I

^%riiQ^Lx>, (

eu

+ ^iT +

&-LD.)
-<J
I

These are declined by inserting the signs of the cases between the words and S-Ln : er &) &) rr sn it ilj ih Fseoes^rriLjih,
,

1^

^gy&jraucto/niyii),

&c.

to

(f.) These forms are often put which they belong thus,
:

after the nominative case of the

noun

UL-iessTLD erSoeoiTLD seorkiQpS)'' (70.2.) the whole toion was agitated.


SM.rriTiT

sr (SH 0 TT QF)ili suih^ir!ra<sfT , all the villagers

came.

uL^^^enirseiT ^'SssTSu&arrnjLD si^ui^LLtiraiT, he called all ivho had learned.

Many

of the other words in 126

may

be used in the same way.

(g. ) Instead of ersoeon-Qf^Lh

and

^dosraiQ^uy, ereoQevn-Q^uj

and ^^Qsuttq^ld,

are elegantly used.

(h.J QPQ, adj. = tvhole. QpQ^mLD, = the ivhole. (lpqsii^ui, (ip(Lgffiil> = the whole. The last two are declined as the words in (e.). (ip(Lg requii'es s-ii
to

be added to the noun to which


128. VocAB.
QisfTpflesT,

it is

prefixed.
a blacksmith.

a mason.

GisiTeoeoasr,

a^eS, hire.

s^LDuefTLD,

wages.

Qeu^LorTesTisi,

a present.

3=rsQsrr<Sii,Ui,

present).

^urrrr^Lh, a fine,
ov).

s^eostii,

the world,

joy (used for a ^^mefr, which is, existing


assembly,
little,

(=wv,
-S'siau,

oiKToc.,

^(V), sacred, holy.

3=es>u, a congregation,
II.).

^(te.^

the holy
^!JiT-3=ir,

Church.

Qu/Tjb^, extol (56.

Qsn-(S^s'ih, a

a few.

^ff^eir,

a king (with or witliout^).

sitso, time (for <sit\)u>).

^(vjs

aiT^LD, at any time whatever,

^ir, be removed, 60. act,

remove (56.

III.).

Exercise 41.
129. (ft-)
learn
all

Did you see


All

all

the peons?

Why

are

all

the villagers

assembled together?

who had committed

sin feared.

You must

Why
layers

He wrote and sent a letter to all the servants. the lesson well. Where are all the brickdid all the carpenters leave their work ?

Give all the blacksmiths their hire. Have all the servants re? The boy who learns all the lessons well. The ceived their wages? The king who governs the whole world. kings who govern all the world. He never learns. I will fine you.
(b )
<eT&)e\)fT(y^ih

eui^rriTseir.
(siiki(^i>

(^Qi&)6\)fTLD
^-eirGfr

Qeuii^ QunuSp^. (58.

IV.) (124.).
Q(Su'?in\)dsrTffiT

^-eOSLD

(St<50eOfr(T^s(^is>

^0j:s'ss)U S-is)(oB)LDU Qunjb^iiu^. ereoedn Qsij'^s ^uunfiih QuniLQi^issr-

siT!riflL^^^LD

^urrrr^LD

<SiJiTiEjQ(es)iT.

Qsnppn

\jun(SiiQ^ui

sk-eSl

(50.)

euniBiQsQ'Snisminhsen',

^'i^ Qsu'^Qs^iL^

^s^s=0d(^i}i sessrdss^d

<?<56\) irfJ3=iTdsim)is>

(^i<^S(^iJD

ffns^^nm
82

Q<sii6ssr(SlLl)

(58. HI.) (108. c).

LESSON 43.
rBtrm- uun^ih ^pp uit(sSI (Ihn a ^jr^ek(nSsr^uSOrQuneo sremesafl, rsn&sr ^maa Q essr ih umrnQiLirT <5rissr'2issr 1 Qpsiounn^^ ^(T^sa^uo <sT<s5r <s(ay'8si) ^unQiun? uutTUffQisiV (This is poetical; but understood.) ^ffssr @et) eOir^ QurTQ^6\}e0mh STiosr'2ssr^ ^ebr Loihsia^ssiuuu uirn^^s Qlsn&r&rff
s_6i)<3r^(Sro^

ereoeOfTLD .^(syjii)

destitute wretch, 90').


<SiJ

(ordu ei^iiSQKih

*'

Queo^^i_(o!sT [239.] ^(T^<iQ(7r^&!r.

s'<5S)uujrr(sarr

[180.]

iBieoeonuo

QslL

Lesson 43Qualifying words.


Apposition.
130. It may be broadly stated that in Tamil there are no adjectives. then are nouns qualified ? [Compare 74.] The past relative participle of (58. II.) (74.) is ^ssr or ^8iu, (forms of ^uSlssr or ^QQ!r) =

How

"having become."

These inserted between any two nouns

will either

convert the foi'mer into something answering to an adjective, or place the two in apposition. This is common and clearly intelligible.
^(^ih, or ^LD (72*)
is

used for ^sar poetically, as ercire^LD (132.).

Thus:

eSffi^tli

^u&^eir, a heroic king [a king

who

will he a hero'].

Qtsuiliuiresr

s^lLssh., a

red jacket (Qsuulj, redness, Ssuucjfrasr red, or which


also say,
@iSiiLjLj<g=

has become red.


^[T!T3=n'(sarTQiiJ
rT!T.9=ir,

You may
erdr^U)

s^tLeiai).

^n'^gi, king David, David the king.


^ijir^ir
(in

or ^iT<^

You can say also, ^/rsS'^ common language sreirSp is used for eraJr

^im),

ox ^iri^ srasTosruuLLi

^!jir'3=!r.

131. From the above it appears that two nouns may often be .simply joined together to form a compound, after the manner of steam-ship, bi-ick-house, &c. This is constantly done in Tamil poetry, and is, doubtless, most in accordance with the genius of the language. In fact it may be laid down as a law of the language that every noun becomes an adjective by being prefixed to another noun, with or without change. [The Sanscrit Scholar may compare these forms with Tat-furusha and

Karmmad'haraya compounds.]
(a.) Sometimes this is done without any other change than the doubling of letters, as, ^uQuiriB, a spark of fire ( ^, fire, Qun/S, a Q^QFj^^mr'hmr, the outside jyial C^^Q^ astreet,^>5m'hssr,apial). spark).
(b.)
[This

When
is

the former noun ends in

ld

that letter

is

elided.

especially the case in Sanscrit compounds.]


tree

3=rr<st]

Thus: LDUsQstrmLf, a branch of a isiieCKoOesiLD, omnipotence (.s^ireuLh,

( ldijui, a

tree.

QarrLDi^, a branch).

all, eueosieaLo,

power ).

83

LESSON 43.
(c.) Various changes take place in the former word, of which the following are types: [Com. 18. c. d.]

^QFiULjJ' S'rmQS, an iron chain


srQFf^gjd, sfT&'r,

( ^qf^ldlj, iron.

s^iEtQS, a chain).

a young bullock
fish

( erQf)gJ, a bullock. airBstr, a

young male).

^pj3i iSek, ^lLOld/esto^,


ucariii

from

the river

(,MS)!t river.

iSdr, a fish).
LDiiesi^, a flock).

a flock of sheep a palmyra jungle

(.m, a sheep.

sir,
is

(u&sr, a palmyra.
of

&it a jungle).

[The nasal
serted.]

hardened into the surd; zL

and

oi gn doubled;

^ld

in-

(d.) @c^. =sy^.


LDsn^^cir,

^psa

used as signs of the sixth case,

are often used as connectives, and are thus uaSim uneo, cows milk. ^inSi^gi

man of this place.


inflectional base is used in

i^[The

compounds, Comp, 21.]

class of nouns of quality ending in emw (184) when prefixed to (e.) The following are chiefly other nouns undei'go certain euphonic changes. to be noticed
:

(1.) (2.)

Qu(rF)(smLD, greatness,

becomes Quq^, Quiff lU, QuqFjU), Quit.


Sign, @/Suj, Sgtiil:,

SigaeaLD, littleness,

becomes

&pgs, &

(3.) ^(mss)LCi, preciousness,

becomes

=gy(5. ^iffiu,

^q^ld, ^it.
u&'<x-,

(4.)

UNSOLD, freshness, becomes us?,

u&iu, us-ld,

swulc.

Examples.

QunF

QfBfe^'S-,

pride [/^(jj*, breast^.


a great benefit.

QurRiU

rB3!r<cS)LD,

QuQhili uir^, a great sinner [before d, d, ^, u].

Qufffdruu), Heavenly bliss [before a vowel].


\_Quiffiu

may
is

be regarded also as a kind of past relative participle. Compare

^^LJiSiiu 74.
QuQfjLD
a kind of future rel. part. (74) from QuqF)

C@ j

62 grow

great.']

[Of these the roots are undoubtedly Ciuri ( uit, ueo ), &p,(Seo),^iT,u^; but the Nannul, with good reason, (Sut 135, 6.) treats each of them as having become first an abstract noun, and as having been variously modified, when

g^

placed as the
of

first

member

of a

compound by
III

the rejection of eaiM, the addition

^oj

or

s_ii),

the lengthening of the root vowel, or the reduplication of the final

root consonant.

Comp. Pope's
is

Gram.

121.]
saij.

132. ior:k^iM

the

rel. part. fut.

of erdr,

(70. 1.) (74.) Lit. "[of

whom] one would


It is

sai/."

thus used, ^rr<^ erasr^Lo ^urr^^ir,


LniresuM

king David.
the defence of shame.

erek^isj siruLj,
ersjsfl

u^P
This
is

Qtusir^LD

lEirtL, plant the ladder

of piety.

rather

stiff

and pedantic.

84

LESSON 43.
133. The root s-err signifies ^^ existence, the having referred the following verbal forms:
loithin.^''

To

it

are

3d sing, for

all
> e.iS!nr ('S^<m

genders and numbers


S-STrsrr^ is

gi ) there

is.

(43.)

used

to signify

"

it

is,"

but more generally "it

is true,'"

"it is

really so."

Rel. part,

e-srrerr,

containing, possessing within itself.

[Co. 184.]
effect as ^car.

This

last

form added

to a

noun

will

have nearly the same

Thus: ^ffdsQpefrefr Q^suek

( ^0a,zLD, 7ncrcy), a merciful

God.

Sometimes
OTcJr i3 iHtu rip

s-crrsir

and ^cw
\

may
} '"'y

be used indiscriminately.
dear son.
,

loir

(mLDfrnm,

GTcsr uffiiLiLDrresr (^LDrrrjasr,

an

and

Generally, however, the difference between ^asr = "having become," a-srerr = '^having possessed," must be observed. ^[fsaQpeirew i3^ir, not ^fjasLDiTeisT. lieiTLDfTissr Qainso, not limQpmrev.

The

opposites to
to

s-sireir

and ^ssr are ^jbp, ^eoeoir^, which are


merciless.

in the

same way added

nouns

Thus ^naaLDpp =
[=gy^ cease. 68. 74.]
u<rmrLSe\)<sorr^

penniless.

[^eo =

not, 121. a

double negative.]
destitute of,
is

To Sanscrit noun, ^ot- (hina),


thus,
Lj^^uSisar
~\

added,

L^^^uSasTLDirew
t-l^^uSssTQpiciTerr

LcsS^dr, a

se7iseless

man.

or L/^^irxsarssr.

[In Tamil
QcF/rei)

Grammar

the 4th class of words consists of those called

quality words.

Comp. Pope's

III

Gram. 118

sS^
=
verb

121.

These are subdivided into Quujir


quality.

S-tff

= noun

quality,

and

sS^

S-tfl

The words included under these divisions are used respectively to qualify nouns and verbs; they may therefore be called adjectives and adverbs. They are however really nouns and participles, and it will tend greatly to aid the learner in acquiring the Tamil idiom if he steadily regard them as such.]
134. VocAB.
posite.
&gff, little.

LDgjrjLD, sweetness,

s^uli,

bitterness, meuu), newness, er^ir, opsr-sii,

ULpdsLD, custom, familiarity,


Qeiair, herb.

comfort, health,

.g^rmeu

euisoeo<3B)LD,

omnipotence.

uirismiu:>, a vessel,

mn^, four.

^riELck,

a thief, umetrili, a pit.

middle.

Qeiip^&o,

betel.

Qairi^, a creeping plant,

ueodr, or Que^'sk, strength.

EXERCISE 42.

LESSON 44.

Exercise 42.
I have come to (7th case) my meran evil thing. He is a just king. This is a reaThe accountant has brought a right account to the sonable complaint. Four accountants gave evidence in the court. Will the bazaar-man. watchman put the thieves in prison? All my familiar friends came with me to the place of justice. This is David the accountant. (3 ways). This is an affair concerning the church (^QF)<s=.^emud sn-ffftum). Anew Sweet Tamil. Are you well. This is a herb garden. vessel.
135.

(a.)

ciful father.

This This

is

a joyful day.

is

(Slsyi^rriTaefr.

s'^euevisdeOetDLDiijeirsfr lS^itsvitiL

(81.^ ^Q^dQ/ri urrfrusresr.

i^Qeo euk^nrrssfr.

&^

i3en-'2efTa^

^uui^u

Qus^eOnLon? ^eu&r iBik^


ibQ

iSp(^u}. (Proverb.J ^sfmoiok (srmQrD <sss)t-s<snrfm' euii^rresr.

<sul1

u&)s
(BsOuD.

(^S}peii<S(^d

arrffsmuD.

(^th

which is suitable (Heve ^sr ^<om; ^m-sQeoeo^ (^^ + 3ISI

^^

Qoj/bjS'^evd QsfTUf.

iBQp^psiT(Ssr

for.)
that

^ssrii^m&r^ ^^eos^^<s
which
is not.

87.)

&-eo

Lesson 44.
Idioms connected with ^Qpgi.
136. (a.)
rEiTiEiaeir
ibitji

Quiuq^ld
persons,

^s
to become,

Qiih^rrc^},
if

= If we four persons come


(b.)

[We

four
together.

come]

^s

is

used in summing up = all altogether.


(is)

That which i gave

four,

that which he gave (is) five,


it

making

altogetlier

nine.

(c.) u^^rjLDiTsu Ljissy^^gj ssjsi;, bury to a noun, converts it into an adverb.

carefully.

Here

^s

ly,

added

(140.)
iS&sr^Q^csr,

(d.)
to

.jtjisiin-

erm'Sosr

eurrJ'

Q,^rr(skm-^rrs

I thought he told me

come

[O^/rssrsM-^,
if.'}

^a,

as though

it

said.

Q^s^rrdresr^mL is also used.

^iLj

= as
a.

137.

ssm&SQsr ^Q^dQ^^rsk, an accountant


s(5S!srS'S(muSl(mdQ(Trf'i5sr,

is.

b.
c.

he

is

an accountant.

semsask

@QF)dQ(Trf(^,

is

the accountant (there)? ^soSso, he is not.

d.

s<smrss(QuSl(VjsQ(rf(eu), is he

an accountant? ^eoiso, he
(81.)

is not.

^^ ^jj
This
is

added to a noun shews

it

to be the predicate.

of thk utmost importance.

Carefully consider the above examples.

86

EXERCISE 43.
138. VoCAB.

LESSON 45,
Qtpi^:,

uiLismLD,
to,
S-<ce)iiss)LD,

a town.

QipenAjUn old man.

anoldwomanGiurr^, that
^irtDrrek.

^piEi(Q, go down

descend, alight (62.) ^Qf)(B, steal (56. II.)


possessions.

which

is

common.
care.

Qun'Qn'sir, substance, wealth.

goods, utensils, ^jji^ilild, wealth,

^eudso, a large brass vessel,


isexsu,

np^^imorr,

a seal.

u^^inh,

^iigu,five. saeiru^, nine,

place, put (^56.111.) su em rr, limit.

( ej <oSi IT s (&)Lh

4th case

S-to

imtil.) l/6w^, btiry (56. III.), s^ituu, eat (68.)

Exercise 43.
it ^(Tj ULLu.6m^^&) e^^ QipeSluSlisin- <sSlL ^(r^u^u Qurr^(sSe\) (in common) (smeu^^nKW^ [79. (2).] ^-(oS)L-(sinins2iofnJLjLh u eaBriEi <sdo(T u^ ili epQ^ ^su'^aSQ&J QuitlL, (68.) QioQeo Qp^^imiT (50.) ^lLQ, (68);'-' ib a ieis&t ieit^Quq^ud ^s

139. (a-) isn^ Quit

^0i

uf.Q(SO

^piEiQ^,

^aisj'Seir

S!//?^,

QsLl.(^thQun^ (106.) ^sm^d Qsn,


s'ttuulL^
QsmssBn^Q^ih^TTiTsisrr.

^^(SiJ(smrrd(^th

u^^uiMn

su

Lj<5Si^^^ (Srosy" srebr^ Qsn<Sls:^s^^ Qeo

fBrreir

(50.) ^ei/srr (50.) eStL


Qjrr!

if (?a)

[106. (4.)] ^iriTS'n ^sQuldituj

euQffQp^rrss^Glffnisciri^m'-

ibu^iud

iLLimfr<ssu

QunQsuam^

^QiEsiErr

(b.)
house.

Here are 5 and there

4: total 9.

the old man's house, he will give you the goods.

If he and you together go to Put it carefully in the

has great wealth which he has carefully buried in the garden. alighted? When we obtained the goods which he had carefully sent by the peon we put them into the store-room. Is this honey? No, it is bitter. Did he eat this sweet honey? Is there honey there? No. Did he speak as if the Muhammedan would come? I have not seen the old man for many days.

He

At which house has he

Lesson 45.
Optative and desiderative forms.
140.
a.

^^
li

(^iBuSlso

sStps aiei]^,
prosper.

let this

fall into the pit!

b.
c.

miripSiiiTUJiTS,

may'st thou prosper!

iit eurrups,

may you
let it

d.
e.

Qu!r&L-LD,

go!
sLLLdsiriSleiruL^
liir

mmh

srag^ ^eviiuiSs^
order

miiseijLD,

act according

to the

I have

sent you.
<sl-

(a.)
/F/rew"
li

The

defective root
.siG'SHCT",

"ought, must"

is

regularly declined, thus:

[0<F[L/iU,5]

I ought or must [do].


must
to
[do].

[O^uJius]

aiBHTiLi, thou oughtcst or

It is

added

to the infinitive of

any verb
87

form a kind of optative mood.


"

EXEKCISE 44.
(b.) ^s, like the Hebrew n [corap. Nordheimer's Hebrew Grammar, ^204 206] added to the future of any verb forms an optative mood. The neuter participial noun future is used for the 3d person future.

Q3=UjQaim,
Qs=djsuir(3sr,

toill

do. Q.^llj(Sqj(^<x,

he will do.
it

may I do! I much wish to Q^iLwin^a, may he do! I long for him

do!
to

do!

miuu^iTS, may

take place.

is

This is evidently a strong breathing merely, expressive of desire; but it It is pronouncexplained by the Grammarians as the inf. of ^@. 41.

ed AHA.
(c.)

like

=^ forms an optative mood, but


all

verb,

is

the same for

it is added to the root of a numbers and persons, and is chiefly used in

poetry.
iBfrdrQurrs, let

me

go!

iirQaL-s,

may you

hear!

It consists in the (d.) Is an unauthorized, but very common form. addition of ^lL(Bld, or ^lL, to the root, inserting sd when the present The form is abbreviated by casting away the final vowel takes dSssi.

of the root.
n^rr^
}

It is the
. .

same
.

for all
lot

numbers and persons,


Q3=djiUL-L^iT,

)
'

^susk
This
is

he

me do! tBtrm may do!

may I

do it^

said to be a corruption of i^i1.(Bld

permit, from <^l-(B.

141. VocAB.
prefix
sense.

=gy,

privitive. ^Siuiriuti, injustice, ljuw, a town, giasr or gin, a

way. LDmTds<3ir, one who walks in a way. i-j^^, prime minister. ^irirs^iPiBi}}, Icing rule. LB(Qii^, much, very. (lB(^, he ahundant [60. (III.)] past rel. part = which has ahounded.)
evil,

had.

LLtrrrssLD, a

Loi^rff,

counsellor,

lS(^^, ahundance. l8 (^piurr ear, (30.) abundant. Lf^^sFireS, a sensible person, ^ir ssih, length (pronounced dirkkam in the compounds), ^irdami-jai-, long-life (^uSsh or .Mii^'df-, age, life). ^irds^rff&, a prophet, a seer (<sfff&, one who sees).
Qutrdo, as (Qumsi), QuirQ(m).
S. sSlin, one

&^^

(56. Ill,) prosper.

[The termination

<r/reS

who

possesses, is often used.]

Exercise 44.
142. (a-) ^isi/sJr
(SjrTesr.

^uui^s^
LjJ;^<g=fr09

Os^aj^rrQioisr ^(OT)a),
^(om'^rr6\},

^l^/s^ Quitss si

Ll(^ih^

^ffssnu^sh ^-&rGrreiJ^.s s-s^

rrirs

eirn'OTj-fr.

Qsn'bso Qs'ihiun^Q^uumurTsl

(121.) ^'^^ ^fSiuniu^

^iTuesyuu

uessnsssflssr&ji^

eunaSQeO Losm

<siS(Lp<si/^

QunQeo

^^

(56^

^srrrs^Qiuih isijQ^Sij^ns-

SifStumuLirri}) (siasrp

ULLiomr^^Qei) ^mu:iiTfr.s

sdr

(oKSsrQp ^sra^ir

^nuLj^^

<oidsrQp

mi^(fi<oauj (dS)(3u^^/s

OstremQ

(SKssrprSs.

(sui^Qiu (oj(^s, eut^Qiu iB'(m,s [(Poet.), no bye paths.}

LESSON 46.

EXERCISE 45.

Pray do not say so. I beg you to do this. If (b.) Say not so. have destroyed his house may I myself perish. There is much honey in the town. Let the unjust man pei-ish! He who commits injustice will not prosper. Although I perish I will not do injustice. May I walk sensibly He is a very sensible person. Let him do as his counI
!

sellors said.

May my

affairs prosper!

It won't answer.

Hail,

king!

^^^^&
Lesson 46.
Verbal nouns in na.
adding ems to verbal roots which take Qgu in the pi'esent, and which take iQgii, a verbal noun is formed, nearly equivalent to the English verbal noun in ing.
143.
aesis to those
Q^tij
/El

By

Q^iLieins,
/5i_<sgra<s,

the doing

a deed.

the walking

a line of conduct.
;

erally they are used to

of the above are in common use as nouns but more genform an absolute case like the ablative absolute in Latin, or the gen. abs. in Greek.
144.

Some

^siim ^uuL^<^ Qff eczema uSed,


rr

while he was saying


therefoi-e.

so.

145.

^msuireo (^) = by

the becoming:

146. VocAB.

^<s!J3r2bBr,

a fial, elevated seat in front of a house. jff(cm, two.


III.).

er,

lift

up, take

up

(56.

er^SJuQun@,

take away.

a=fruu/T, food.

QuiT.3=esrLD,

food, nourishment.

^asr^ssTLDtfood, chiefly boiled rice, ^sfrsrih, food,

ivhat is received into the body.

J)juuld, rice cakes, bread.


^-eia-s,

n-QairtLuf., bread, a loaf.


III.).

&Q^<S,

the goddess of prosperity,


3=!T^LD, boiled rice.

kick

(56.

^m(m,

turn away

(56. II.).

Exercise 45.
147. (a.)
9(7^
mnsir

^i^

tsn&n

Quq^lb

(st^it

sSlL^ ^sm'SsmruSeo
ereoeOir^LD euiSjuSlQeo

(131. c.)
eonmiT

QuQs

QsiT(SiS!iTi^0SissistiSs\).

^si/iT<ss(r

QurremstSldo
'sj(ssr^

^srem

^(i^i<smns aesartfTirseir.
(Susstqiij'it.

^qd^ (siQ^^u
sieymii.

QslLGl^sst, ^^dsiLQili
is

QurrL^Qihsrf eS(s^inu Qu

&<iO<sfTesaru^(T^d(o!DsuSleo

(aUs^fTLDeo

^(mss-i
/f/tsst

^(aunsm
^rT(^s

^(sum

(sSlLij^Q&) s=n^LD 3^nLJuQes'jSiiS&)

(Q}jk^<sSLLQL(^.

(b.) While the bazaar -man came running ('^tfEu^ewsiiSsbj the thief, knowing that, came down from the tree. Give me the loaf. Give us bread. While there are rice-cakes there is enough for us. While the mother was gone to procure food the child died. While the five men were sleeping in the verandah of the house the peons came. May I go while he is learning his lesson? While all are working is it right for you
to

be idle?

LESSON 47.

exercise' 46.

Lesson 47.
Verbal nouns in ^eo, &c.
148. Verbal nouns are also formed or S.S&), ^^eo, or <s@^ffo to the root.

by adding ^o, ^00,


=gyOT,

aeo,

@^ct,

(a.) Verbs which take Qgii in the present, take

^a).

Q^uj
^Likj(a\

QffiLiueo,

Q,FiUfSeii, a doing.

^i^Ei<s&), ^i.iEj(m^eo, a submitting.

The few cases where seo or @^a) is apparently added may be thus explained: there was a root in @, now obsolete, to which =syeo or ^eo was
added: thus,
Quit (Qurr(^)
Quirseo, Qu(r^&), QuiT(^^eii.

(b.) Verbs which take s@)i in the present, take ^^&), a3.eo, a(Q^ed.
S-tfisj^
IS

S-tsn^^^eo, S-eco^d(^^e>), a kicking.


fE:^d(^^eo,
QtDtriT,

a tvalking.

149. VoCAB.
is

butter milk. Q^rrskn^, an earthenpot. ereff^, that tvAich


to relative

easy.

participles

^iH^, that which is hard, uuf., measure, manner (added = as). sT<Sii&), a command (o"/, stir up, 56. II.).

He

began

to

consider.

[He a studying became.

He
This idiom, though

fell

a thinking.

poetical, is

sometimes heard in

common

conversation.]

Exercise 46.
150. (a.) "QiDrriT 6i)rriEj(^^jb(^ (4th case

in order to)

^ih^s Qi^eS

i^lLi^Qgo QumLi^ Q^nsmisf- isiQa^s QsrremQ isi//r" <oimgii .^smiLJiSl(^rT ^'Qs^ndo&^i^eo eiGO&)n0i(^ih ersifl^; QsneoeSlin [70. (I.) for serr.
O^/rsorsjjr] uis^

Qs^iLuusO ^ifl^mb.''^
lopmgii

"(smsr Offuuednsij^

Q^amgiiui [ujfT^ +
(Poet.)

s-ti, 47. 172. 126.

[^. 87.] tun any one thing whatsoever']


<oj^^jb(^LD

^uQuiT^

Q.frrsd^Qro

s'laJs^LLjLD

Q^iFluueOfrih'

LDfTtu

^(T^sQp^.

ed together by

^^ld;

[Comp. 40. Any number of nouns may thus be unitand ^iL added to the last converts the whole into
(sisupuisf. Q^fiiiujirQ^.

an adverbial clause.] ^eussr

While he com(h.) It is easy to send the watchman to buy milk. manded I submitted. This is the king's command. It is difficult to walk The submitting to the command of the judge is easy. The having thus.

May you kick the earthen pot? Is it hard for boys to pity is easy. Is it not easy to read a book while walking? learn their lessons ?

LESSON 48.

Lesson 48.
151. (a.) Particles used instead terminations of cases.
of,

or in addition

to,

the proper

The

participial

nouns from the roots

otsbt

and
87.

are sometimes used

to

point out, and throw emphasis on


euek, &c. are also used in very

the nominative case.


talk.

^Qpemasr,

<sr&siQp

common
to

88.]

These answer in some degree


(b.) ^iT,
Lcirn-

the Greek article.

are added to nouns honorifically.

^iTiu,

a mother, but a teacher,

^-uQ^&,
LDirir is

^iriuirir, is

more

respectful.

S-uQfi&iuirir.

plural, seir

may

be added.

^suuesTLorriT,
@0<S6yrtD/r/f,

the fathers

(^auuim),

S-u ir^ ^ LD rr IT ,

the spiritual guides ((^Q^Jthe sckool-viasters (S-urr^^ ).

(c.)
of these

An

honorific form is

made
is

Q^snifir,

Thou,

God,

also by adding ^/f common.

to certain

words

(d.J s^iek, together tvith; QlLl-, near; ^emeiai, by the side of; ^^, ^smeai signifying coiinexion ( ^asnh), are used as casal terminations, ^sm-eaiuudsui, on the south side. is often redundant:

Q^m

(e.)

"Trees, beasts, ^fcP mnikism,

iSQf^sm&'siT Qp^eSujisaeiisen.
eutriijseo

ing, buying,

and

other affairs"

= Qsn-(Bdaeo =

"SellQp^wirear airiBiutt^eir.
Qp^sinnssreiiiTaSsn-d

"Call the carpenter, bricklayer, ^c."

^s^s^asr

Qsirppdir

"Food, clothes, ^c.'^

= ^'^ear

<siiav^iTir^s&r.

The words
g3"

are

formed into

a Sanscrit
1

('^^ is the Sanscrit for Qp^eo.J compound with the Tamil termination atsk.
"^

np^eSiuesxsuseir,
(tp^eoiresremisiism,

are added to nouns in the nominative


sing, or plural, to

J
m. and

'
|

{^

(w^eoiTisw'SuiTsisfr,

fern.

and are then equivalent "&c." Qp^m)," first." Qp^eSliueiaen a,<sir as if a part, noun from root Qp^sn

87 b
.

(7^^ ew /rcffT (sm q; <s sJr f (Xo^ 150

SBT

_J

emenseir, those things which have become.

Qp^&areur followed by a noun

common

to all the particulars intended to be

included

may

be used: Qp^<soiT(^

smfjiuisjseiT.

Qns;iSiuianQ3a<sfr,

case

&c. (and in the last case sfrrHiuii/ssir, 8tc.) may be in any but the particulars enumerated remain in the nominative.

(f.)

^i^sJ

is

used for ^is;^eo (7th case): sreueSL-^^ii for erism^i^^

^UD, every where.

EXERCISE 47.
152. VocAB.
sS),

LESSON 49.
Mount Meru. ^q^ldli,
II.)

^^s,
exult.

ni7ich,7norc.

Qldq^,

a straw.

udSsst

a house-wife.

atruuirpjp!, protect
sril-Uf-,

(56.

[Co. ^pgii-']

sL_a/srr,

Deity.

LoQCp, (56. I.)


fire,

the strychnos tree,

^eoeij, the silk cotton tree.

^,

^uu

(56. II.)

he burned, ^aisar, a disciple.

Exercise 47.
153. (a-)

Sj^s

s^iBQ^tTGL^^^iQetsr

^dQuutnuj^ Q^rrssmt^^
(136. dj. ^suasr

^a/'Sso

Qs^LueSiT^

^(mmosu

QLD(^sijnss= Qs^clksSit.
J)Iiej(d:3s

LD'SosreSlLDfTiT

^rrssBT
euro

QuirLDfT^^iTLD
suffiTLneo

^^i^mTsefT.
sfjuurrjh^i'sijnn.

sieii<s{nTio!sr<suiT

STSueuetr

(^/b/Dth

(sim'^/ssrs

121. [C^.)]

Trans-

late, so that it

shall not

come.

^mLDnfrssns&r s?^lLl-^^&) ldQi^(e^


^(wiB^y
<oTsfr{^.i

^!E^s
ssiLD,

QsT&)'2iooaS&)

^su(SS)fTy ^eusuiiT,
siht-^.,

Q<9^/Tsff(erj, s^it

^^esT,

<suiT(^.,

(dsi^<qijit(^,

Qs^rrsirixi

Qp^e\)rresrss)&Js2sfru

uiiSiT

Qs^iL^

snii^fT'obr.

Q.ssn'Qdsio surrrEJs&)

(used for business in


er(osr

general),

Qp^eOfrem'

smflmrhsefflso

^uu<s s^lit^-

QlLl^ sunn

Q^. ^^esr sQRp^ eimem? QLLL<Bjn.

with his wife, children, servants, &lc. This is my God, art our Father. The spiritual guides came with Come not near me. He is just in all his dealings their disciples. Come to the north side (<s>ii<sJ6S!!r<siaLu (Qsirssik> euiTims'SO Qp^eatrecr ).
(b.)

He came
Thou,

mother.

uisw).
is

What

is

the

name

of this tree (^<^)?

Near mount Meru

On the south side of the styrchnos tree is a silk cotton tree. a sea. The next house caught fire ('=gyss3raL_sg' j. The king with his counsel[Compare 233-251.] lors and others came to the town.

Lesson 49.
Negative verbal noun
154.
(or,

in ^si^ld.

negative verbal noun


pi-ecisely,

is

formed by adding ^otld to the root


ness, ty, [184. a.] to the abbreviated
:

more

by adding

emld

form of the neg. verb. part. 121.


Qg=iLiiurreinLD, the

(4)

Qs^iiujw

(Kooj.)

not doing.

isi^sufTimLD, the not walking.


@jio<soiTisiaLD,

the not existing.

(Double negative.)

UL^iuiresiLD, the not learning.


^&)(Si)freis>LD,

the not being

so.

92

EXERCISE 48.
[LD is

LESSON 50.

ticiple to

added to the present (and less frequently to the past) relative parform an affirmative noun corresponding to this: thus, Q-g^iLQenrfl (not
esiLD

Q3=iu@p) +

Q^iijSlekflWLD,
This
is little

the doing.

UL^jiss

ismld

ul^.^^6s>ld, the

having learned.
155. VocAB.
wives, a rival.

used.]

QuiT(Tjf'c6>LD,
'-'[8j

envy (Qurrgii, endure),


s^eij, call

g^sseir^p, one of several

guilt, blood-guiltiness,

out (56. II.).

rE<s!rjpi,

it is

good,

a good thing ( fse^

a flower,

s^ ). ^, flower, bloom (56. III.); also, as a noun, s^^^iuld, truth, an oath. Sii&o^, thought, ^pua, ability.

Exercise 48.
156. (a-) ^(ov'Sissrd sn(^(oS)ixnunQei QunineSLLL-rrlTs&r'
^eOiSOnemLDiun&i ^(SueSli^^p(^ euihQ^iobrujnsinLD
tBfisr^

^m'ssrih
^<5s>ld

eruQuirap^u)

Qs=iu

[rather

high], ^asr i3&r'^(SSiuu<f s=<ss&r^^ QurT(Tij><omLDuSl

luiT^

QfiLnJU

QufT(GU)eir- Lfj^^eSleo Lj^surreiaLD


is

is(^^.

&}iT<o!aLDiurr60

(because there

no) ff^^tuih uem^uisis&r-

QeuQjn s^mLQ ^&) ^evasr insmih

S\sB(5^ (mind knoioing

wilfully ) Qs=uj^^&}0i)rr<ss)LDuS(^(c&)

iSiumun^u^

(b.) Why do you envy him? How can this guilt be removed? They have submitted because they had no money. I suffer much because I have no food. Because there were no witnesses the gentleman sent the complainant away. Why did the rival wife kill the little child? I climbed the tree to look for grass. He came down from the tree because there was no grass on it. Do you think it is good not to talk? You will die from not eating bread, rice and other food.

-^^^^^Lesson 50.
Purpose, intention.
157. It
in tence,

may be

useful to the learner to compare the variety


in Tamil,

of ways
the sen-

which an English phrase may be rendered

Take

"man

eats to live."
'3eeyLpss-3--

(a.) LDisS^m
inf.

s^rruuQQQifdr. Literal, but not very clear.

The

governed by the following verb:


UL^iuirsf J' ) \ ,3=iruu(BQ(T^(^.

(b.) i^gofl^sar

-.

93

LESSON 50.
f the step that
Lit.-^ as the step that
[^ ^

"^

^=
J

in order

to,

that he

may.

to the step that

The
for him
[R.

use of

uLp., ul^ujits, uLSf.&(S) is

perfectly idiomatic.
Lit.

(c.) uxosn^issr iSeeitpss^


to live'"

^ss^irs3= 3=[rLju(BQ(nfm.

"as a thing that

is fit

that he

may.

^@,

(68.) he fitting (defective but reg.).


part,
is

Pre. ^sQs>(ssr, Rel.

^ss,

part,

noun

^^<ssi;eBr,

Sisawew, ^ssgj,

&ic.]

This use of ^ss^irs

not inelegant.

(a.)Laews&sr<

^ .^

> s^fruuWi^rmesT.-i neut.


J

sinar. pres.

and

^.

"^^r

'./

\^Oi&nLpuu^fi>arr<s('3=J

in the 4th case. Lfut. ^

The

future forms are esteemed more highly than the other.


Qufr(T^LL3= <9'fruu(BQ(v^Qsr

(e.) LDsan^sBT i3S)Lps(^th


living (rather high).

= for

the purpose of

\_QuirQFjL-

from
of.^

Qufr(f^eir

(+^.

184.

b. err

+^

=lLlL) substance = that which

has the property

(f.) LDet^^eir iSetaLpes Q<aii<smu> erajr^ necessary to live" (colloquial).

^iTUUQ(irfdsr. Lit. '^saying,

it

is

Cg-) LDeS^ek iSeaLp^^eSisir living" (somewhat stiff).


'5sui,

iSl8^^l>

3=iTLJu(BQQifar

"for

the

sake

of

cause, is used, ahsolutely, alone or with ^iLi or

^<s added

to

it,

in the sense of, "for the sake of"']

(h.) sr<s!ir@

^isto^ai/

eurrmDeo

^uul^^^

Q3'iLiQ^<st,

I did

this that no defi-

ciency might arise to

me

(eiirrn'^uL^d(^).

They

All these forms will often occur in books and common conversation. illustrate idioms with which the learner must take great pains to

familiarize himself.
158. VocAB.

S-SYrCsiT, inside.

<^L-Lih, a rapid course.

eatl.iU)L3i-^,

take to

flight, gallop off ( lSIi^, seize. 56. III.),

^sk^,

three.

fErrL^eas, a

Tamil hour =

24 minutes.
time).
(^QF)

eaQ^ LDesSQrBUiii, an English hour


^iTs^,

an hour (^irs-,

is
;

SuJiriurr^u^, a judge ( SiLifTiULD, right


^iruLj,- a decision.

(&Q^, one; unssS, bell; QfEnii, which hours are struck). .jij^u^, a ruler : a Sanscrit compound).
a gurry on LDir^^uLh, only.
uiEj(m, a part,
tSfftrn-^^ (56.

ULf., according to.

IIL),
evir^
zip.

pray

beseech.

@j(SL^tLh, pleasure, desire.

u^sk a-, cotton,


(56.
III.)

^<SLD, traffic.
(TFfS-

QpiLeai.,

a bundle.

er<sS,

a rat.

euerrir

bring

proof {H. Ruju.). &-QK3^Qsfr, (56. III.) give proof


or
2_(T5<3r,

-(T5*<si/n-<S(g,

S-QFo-LjuQ^s^,- (56.

11.) prove.

^(T^<SL^LirfE^u>,

an example.

94

EXERCISE 49.

LESSON 51.

Exercise 49.
159. (a.) cgy/F^ P-eisieDwsaius Qi^eS Qsna(^isiuis^uufrs^
^itljl^.3=

Qffuj^fTm.

S-iEJS&r (Siins(^

ui^Qiu)
LD

fiiEJs&r

Qpeouuu^Quj (properly <snn<s(^^&3^^(m Qpesr^QuiT LDn^^mh QsL-ineo Qsit<sbs<s a^^irr^'

srm^

^ffULjSF Qs^tiiQenm.

^ea^

<2Sil.(!isSiS= Qs=rTs\)&)rT^(r^d(^Lh

sfTsu (136.^

U(i^sf'

(SJ

iT^^ ss th uemesi^i^nseir.
e^(T^

U(i^<3?

^LLeais'Ssfr
(sumirs^nir

^sSls&r <3:i^ujrT^(T^d(^LhQufT0LLQ ^suirsetT


6i^iiTi^(i^ Qs^fTeo^'QQpeir.

li^'2isst<3^uu

^sar QuesoT'fn^coSiiJu ^csmip^^dQsnesnr


ersar
/73r

sij0@prSLl^^ii

LDinSlujrriT

<sSLLd(^LJ QurTt^(^.

sueoeOe^uD^situ

j)lfSl^pQurT(T^LL ^uuu;ls^ Qs^iu^rriT.

^emQeaw!

smg^a(^LLisf.s

(^u

Lj6\)^Lj

lSe/s (SjfSQssrm,

(5Tm(rrf'm.

What example have you to afford (b.) How can you prove this? evidence that this house is yours ? He went to fetch his wife. I beseech you to do me justice. He trafficks to obtain profit. He gives an example to prove his case. You must act only according to rule. Do as you please. I will give you a reason why you should learn diligently. Prove clearly before the magistrate that this house is your father's. From the absence of proof and examples the house will be taken from you and given to the merchant. The cat runs to catch the rat. Will not the rat run to escape the cat ? What is this for ? I obtained this money by his means. [242.]

Lesson
The

Si.

Causal verbs and transitive verbs in general.


following examples will render explanations and rules unThese forms are generally to be found in the dictionary. They may be divided into two classes:
160.
I.

necessary.

Forms indicating that


From

the person

causes another to perform the

action of the verb.


(a.) root ^e^tp, call (56. III. where the present takes dQjji),
to call
is

formed

^osiLpuiS, cause

(56. III.).

Here

l9 is

added and

lii

doubled.

^ij<s^<ck erek^ssr

^eoLpui3^s^d

Qs,L-i!Tir

the king sent for

me and

asked.

95

LESSON 51.
(b.)

From

root

Q<9=iij,

do

(56.

Q^iueSl, cause to do (56. III.).


(^Qh suuSsi).F Q3=tLi6Sl^5fr(sk

I. where the present has Qsu), Here aO is added to form the causal

is

formed

root.

he caused a skip
is

to be built.

(c.)

From

root

ersar,

say (82),

formed

er<^tSl (56. III.),

cause
to see.

to say,

prove;

root siT<sm, see (70.), sirsmiS

sml.

(airessr

^J

cause

show.

From
From
Here
II.

S-szOT, eat

[56. (HI.)] is
is

formed

^-isknS, feed.
teach.

aio, learn (70)


lS is

formed spiS,

added.

There are many other forms

of this kind in

common

use.

Simple

tran.sitives

formed from intransitive


I.)

roots.

(d.)
II.).

formed ihi^gi, cause to walk, lead (56. There are few of these, and chiefly from roots in and e_.
root
rEi,

From

walk (57.

is

[The root
(e.)

ibc,

has also a causal /biuiS, according to (o). (56. III.)]


ascend (56.
II.), is formed ejpg)i, cause to ascend, lift and other transitive forms aflmay be added to form

From

root er^,

(56. II.) (com.).

To

ejfiffi

a causal.

33' [In this and the following forms the causal strengthens the root by doubling the consonant, or by hardening a nasal.]
(f.)
(56.

From

root

eg, run

(56.

II.)

is

formed ge^l, cause

to

run, drive

II.)

(com.).
I.

[In Ind.
( g.)

comp.

3=ir(B,

3=mL(B

suit, giitlL. &c. &.C.]


is

From

root^sjfii, be removed (70.)


2_(T5(S5 roll [56. (III.)]

formed ^^^, remove, put away (62.)


,

S-(T^lL(B, roll over. (62.)


is

(h.)

From
From

root ^iej(^, submit (56. II.),

formed ^u.s(^, put under,

cause to submit [56. II.).


(i.)

[In Ind.

I.

comp.
is

/f/E/@, lidQ).']

Ou^g,
I.

grow, increase (62)

formed Qu(t^<s(^ (62), multiply.


&c.
is

[In Ind.
(j.)

comp.

^@, ^<s@

^SPi(^, <^M3i'S(^,

&.C.]

From

root ^Q^LDLf, turn one's self (56. II.),

formed ^q^ul], turn

another, cause to turn (56. II.).


[In. Ind.
I.

comp. Setrmt^, QeiruLj;


;

iBuldl^,

iSituli

stq^iIilj,

stq^ulj;

(^LpLDLj,

(^tpULj

Sk.LOLj,
siriLi,

Sr^U Lj

&C. &C.]
airtu&^a-, boil,

(k.)

From

root

by heat (56.
(I.)

II.).

become dry (56. I.), is formed There are very few of these forms.

make dry

Many
Index

roots

may

follow (56.

I.)

and are then intransitive; or (56.

III.)

and are then transitive.


[In
&c. &c.]
fif^
I.

(Compare

15. g.).

compare QjSir(BQ/D^, Q^tTs@psi; Qi^Qpgi, Si^dQp^,

[An

intransitive verb in the

rE<s!r,^ff&)

is

called

^m^dssr

own-action,

and a transitive verb, tSfs afl&ir, another -action. These terms are taken from the parasmai-padam and dtmane padam of the Sanscrit; but the classes of verbs are far from corresponding. Comp. Pope's III Gram. 100-106.]

96

EXERCISE 50.
161. VocAB.

LESSON 52.
(I.).

Qi, be lying down, 56.

Qi^gi,

(c.)

lay down, place in


to suffer.

a recumbent position,

suffer,

56 (H-)- i-i^^,

inflict

upon, cause

S3' [The two last mentioned verbs are added to nouns to form intransitive and transitive verbs respectively: thus, <fihQfifr<5i^i}>, joy; ^rsQ^/rei^uu,
rejoice; <nhQjS!r(aLS^LJu(B^gj
,

7nake glad.']

Qs^io

(^ ),
LD ,

go, pass (56. (III.). Q-9=S!l;is'< (56. II.) cause to go,

pay, discharge.
Qeuei&Lh,

^0,
^g=

be (60. II.).

^Qf)^^

(56.

II.), place,

cause to be.

(^Lpisa^, an infant.

-3= rfl iLi

astonishment.

3=lSuld, nearness,

ldh^, other, different.

disguise, appearance,

^^afl, make known (^jiS

<^J.

Exercise 50.
162.
(a.) ^suiosr

&^

(^ipk(siT>^<ss)UJs

QsfTem<Qui^^,

sresr

uds^^QeO

Poet.)
QpiEi

iBiresr

Qs^ndsresruts^

QslLQs

Qsnes!!n<^0ii^rT&) s^asrsQs
urr6\} sniLffs^.

ulLu.

siLQeS^^y eSlsuiTSQp^

Q3=ujisB.iQQpesr.

einpmuS

(b.)
called.

They brought

little

infant and laid

it

before me.

led the mother to the house.

Tlie gentleman caused the

The physician watchman to be

Why have you caused the merchant to be sent for ? Tui'n the bandy round. Put that man down. Lift that bundle. Put that bundle up on the bandy. Boil that conjee for the infant. Drive the bullocks. They lifted up the child upon the horse. The rats are astonished to see the cats. The cats rejoice to see the rats. Did you boil the milk? Will you lift the cotton-bales ? Don't drive the bandy.

Lesson
Verbs formed

52.

fi'om nouns.

163. Verbs are often formed from nouns of Sanscrit derivation ending by changing ^ld into J). They follow 56. Ill, These are not very common, and should be used sparingly.
in^gyii.
SlffSfT^LD, splendor.
iStrrsBtrSI,

shine.

iSi[rsrrQ^Q^<s!r,

I shine. I shone. iSgsirQuQum, I shall shine.


i3rjsiT@lsQQpeist
,

EXERCISE
164.
ffiafl,

51.

Many
praise.

nouns are also verbal


sefrl,

roots, as in

English,

exceeding joy.

rejoice (56. III.). sioSdQQ/Dsir,

rejoice, &.c.

^^,

^^,

praise

(56. III.).

gj^AQQpek, I praise.

to

165. uessr^ii, make, perform; Qs^li, do; ^, become, become, are often added to nouns of quality.

^a,

make, cause

Thus; a-^^LD,

puritij;

.s^sis; lb

u ssstg^i

Sr^^LDir, become

purify (56. II.). pure (56. II.).


{5G.
I.).

3^^^LDiTS(Q, clea7ise (56. II.).


^srirj'SoSSF,

investigation;

(^.rfrrr^ossrQs^iu, investigate

S^* [These forms may be divided


the verb one
,
J:,

into

two kinds,

in

one of which there

is

manifest ellipsis of the 2d case; in the other the noun or particle forms with

compound

idea.

The former

are explained in (50)


is

and

in

them

^,

in the beginning of the


it is.

added verb

not doubled generally. In the

[App. xi.] Thus SSsn = stability, a standing place. And, iS^-o = iS^eianjuQugji [u not doubled]. But iBSsiuu (161.) is a compound = become settled, jixed {u is doubled). They are in constant use.]
latter case

Qugfi [56. (11))

166.
(Ssir,

VocAB.
^ieisld,

6Tpu(B^gj, appoint, establish (56.

II.).

.^^,

w elephant.
0^rr,
euiriTLh.

a chariot,

sireoirm, a foot soldier (srrso, foot.

.M^, person).
manner.

woman,

pure gold.

uiT!TLD,a load, tveight.

LSrrsrrjjLD,

a week. Q^iushlJd, the dioinity, providence, fate. S-ewetrLn, the mind, the inner man.
ssir^sirLD,

falsehood, guile, (^anip, (56.


ereirg)!,

I.)

become

soft,

dissolve avmy.

.jydr^,

that day. ^ssrga, this day.

what day? when? (These three words form

their fourth case irregularly: ^<s!res>p&(S), ^ssi<ss)ps,(ff), to day, sresretnpd^LDjfor


ever.

and

ever.)

(ess\ff,

doubled generally in the last form: ermQpmesips^LD, for ever ^ij (infin. of^/f, be full, 56.1.) is used idiomatically; thus, ssot clearly, face to face; LDosr^irrf, willingly, knoiuingly; .srr^rru, clearly, disOTsarjj; is

tinctly.

Q^rri^sreii, trouble.

Exercise 51.
167.
(a.)

^sm^s QslLQ

^urrs^rr

-fiQ^nei^is^,
&-eir'2esru

^j&j'B^sr

Sivmun

^&) es)(Su^^<iQs!T6SBrifT<^' Qeum. [Here QurfltusiKosr

^<m'(SiD/D-i(^

QurfliLKSusk
e^(T^

^di^

t^<5(5

is

compound.]

surrji^^/d

(oTsarssr ?

erih^utSlirsfTinDrTas
Q<?^^^(CC)/f<sisrr.

ffr^sLDU6aar^ii<aS'iTseiT.
<5J(obrQjD<5sr(off)pd(^ih

LDsnEi(^<s5)ip!B^

Q^n^^Bi^
isufTiTsefr

^/a/sto/r^

^^Qs=lu
^eksiD/Dd

(or ^^uurrirrTeir).

Sm(Sss)ird'S(5m

serfl^Q^m'.

LESSON 53.
Al(h.) The king came with elephants, chariots and foot soldiers. though you saw it with your eyes do not speak of it to any one. He That king's foot soldiers carried burdens of gold. will perish for ever. We all rejoiced and praised the king. They purified the chariots that day for the women. If you sin wilfully how can you escape? I heard distinctly. To-day I shall have much trouble. Pray examine this well, my The gentlemen father! Will not the judge do justice to the villagers? will punish the watchman.

Lesson 53. The


168.
infinitive

mood.

The

verbal form obtained by adding


their present with
@s)i,

to the roots of

verbs

and to the remainder, has been called tJie infinitive mood, because it answers to that part of the verb in some respects. The learner must beware of supposing however that wherever the English has the infinitive mood this Tamil form can be used, or vice versa. The following examples require attention:

which form

(a.)

(S!jrj3'Gi.3={TQsr(Qrr,

he told (me)

to

come.

The English idiom and

the

Tamil correspond.

When some
(c.)

went and told the king, the king called (him).


or Q-a^ireoeoeiiLD, please to say.
(it).

iir Qi s=

fr

<s<d

(SO

(d.) Q^iuiuds^irr^, (you) must not do

^L^asuuL-Qim, I
(c.)

was beaten.
he

QaiLsu

u<SBsr&!(eB)iT,

made me hear

[a

way

of iorming

a,

caussA.

Com.

160.].

(f.)

Quit sresru Quit.

["Go"

(I) to

say go.]
told.

Go when you arc


169.
solute

The
is

and

use of the infinitive in (b) answers to the Latin ablati^-^ abvery concise and elegant; but sometimes it is not very clear.

It is essentially a poetical idiom.

^^^
(igj

IBIT0H ^uuuf-'i^ Q&^ir&XoO ^suir fsnih^rrif = rsirasr ^uul^s= Q.3=iTeo^u:>Qu(T ^euiT Qii^iriT, or mirek ^uuL^.3=Q<3=rreo^eiasuS&) ^euir eu/s^irir.

99

LESSON 53.
170. Several infinitives are used as adverbs, prepositions, or conjunctions:

without

cease).

sr&xsoau umBu

he became clean

from
together

all sin.

(eanhuuQ,
lesce).

coa-\<oiQFjUui
(omifTih

Qsu
rsJr

they unanimously said they did

not want
together
(<^qF)lS,

it.

unite).

ereveofrQKLD
QFiiSda-ff^

eg
(?<s=

thcij all

came

to-

gether.

besides, but

(s^i^, fail).
Qjr)(SU<SS>S,
j'Si>

there is no

way

besides this.

(8lL(B,
near).

draiu
(a^sssBiisuQ^

when they came


near the town.
es>suSeo,

3k.l,

with

('<Si.,

join),

ereirQ(es)(B
ersJr

a^t

my son came with

LDsmiLJa

if-

round about
except

( (^(L,

surround).

they stood round

about him.
(^i^fr, remove).

they all rejoiced

but him.

asir,

loudly, clearly

(uffd,

grow
resem-

ueo&su Qua,
i^Cu/rso
^eijLD,
I

speak loud.
that also {\s) like
this.

stroJig).

Qurreo,

as

(Quiresii,

^
I

ble).

Qp(Ba, .5*, quickly

ss
make
haste).

( np(Ba )

he spoke quickly.

<FOcF/rs(Jr(65)OT,

slowly

(probably of Old
CTjUf,

Qlci&)<oO

QLoea

do

it

slowly.

chew).

gradually

((surr,

come).

^ euljenffdsfruj
kgj QurrQp^j

the

jlower

is

gradually drying up.


he freely gave 10

spontaneously

((SusS,

be

impel- (aiimiuu

u^gi

led).

fanams.
QsrrQ^^friT,

off

(eleO(^, get out

of i^eisuQurr,

get

out

of

my

the way).

way.

The expressions

^^

Sps,
so,

^uuuf. ^qkss,
this being so,

^uul^

sssQsrrmm

That standing

that being so,

seem

to be inelegant,

though not absolutely incorrect.

Too

EXEKCISE 52.

Exercise 52.
171. (VocAB. 166.)

QufTs<sSI&)'2eo (not even half the

mud

loas removed.

<i_L_

= even).
of

Qjnh

Uc? s^fTuiSIQQiTt^uj [QsTLDU vulgarly for


56.
II.].
si<o!!TS(^

rSirmu

to he full, inf.

/^jldl/.

Qjithuei^ih

Qfiirih^sTsij

uem^)jQ(rrj'(5sr.

(QsTiitueiJii),

sometimes Qsnihuei^LD very vulg.) epQ^eu^s^ ixKsmi^ Qeumefr^^Qeo ^"^ LnuSn iiifl6\) ^"hsvcud ^Qip Qsnerr&rm s^l^s a&)^s&r &^ildl9Q60 ^-^^^
rS^^oarr iSlL^dt^LDrr?

^ssT^m
si
^jirT^
(trj>LjQun60

spjTj uifiLtoins^

QuiFi^nss^ Q3=uj^fr&)

e^L^tu (srew<s(^<9' s=ibQ^

(unless you do),

^m^

Qp^eana

<sujr <sijjr

Qmirdj

^^s/BdSl
gsbt

(jij^srfldQjD^Qurr&))

urrs=rTiEJ(^

u sm esS sQ s

i^^th

(h.) Unless you pay the money you will not be allowed to go. Una man eats he will not live. I did not obtain even that. When shall I obtain knowledge so that my ignorance shall depart, my doubts remove, and ray heart rejoice? He gave the money spontaneously to all who asked him, so that their hearts rejoiced. My servant goes and comes when I tell him. By conversation the way will seem short. [Com. 244.] You must not speak or think so. He gave much.
less

101

LESSON 54.

Lesson 54.
172. Numerals.
ARAB.
SIGN.

Cardinal nouns.

TAM.
SIGN.

ADJECTIVE FORMS.

DERIVED NOUNS.

i^simr^^ii )

^0, Sg/f [^(W


Loesn^eir, ^/r
^rf,3=(sirj.

'

Sg^SliSBT

(or

^Qfj^^
a cer-

eir ), (o^Qf,^d^,

tain person.

')ff<sa!r(B,

two (vulg.
)

Qj7es!!r(B

^iTj^ff ^Q^suiT, two persons.

r.
Qpeirgji, three

(vulg. Qp, Qp,

Qpek

'

QpeuiT,

three persons.

"i

/E/rj2/,

f5trek(^,

four.

/E/rebar/f,

four persons.

(Poet.)

sigi,

five (vulg.

(is^)

S,

Szi),

S/E^.

'

SeuiT, five persons.

^^, six
ejiW. seven

stlL

eight
....

erem, stlL.
j

i^mugi, nine

This seems to be =r one


frotn
ten.
is

Compare the
the same.

Roman numeral IX. where


the idea

\u^gj,
(2.)

ten

10

r
11
OJ
fco

.3 '^
0)

c
.i:

ussresnumisr

%^

~
C3

uQosrf

@, &c
+ o

?k -^
I

EXERCISE 53.
Cardinal nouns.
(4.)

ARAB.

f^QSS^SH

(sr(LgST>i

Q^irmeiriruSlrjih

^uSlffLD

LESSON 55.
(b.)

EXERCISE 54.

Fifty persons came.

The whole 50 persons came. This happened

hundred and twenty-seven. [175.] There are 24 narigei in one day. There are seven days in a week, and 52 weeks in a year. How many peons ai-e there in the court (37.) ? What o'clock is it? (How many bells?) They came, ten together. Give the boy 10,000 pagodas. Has the complainant one eye or two?

in the year one thousand four

He

brought 10 fanams

to the bazaar.

You may buy two

rice-cakes for a

pice.

The Hindus
Five times

say there are six sects.

Give the servant 3 Rs. 5 As.

6 P.

five.

Lesson 55.
people do not ordinarily use the decimal notation. It should be introduced into all schools. In Tamil ^^ttiD = 5815. This should, of course, be written {sii|(5i. The Arabic system of notation has been recently introduced in all government offices.
174. 175. The ordinal^ are formed from the above by adding to the cardinal forms ^io or ^'su^ (3d pers. neut. fut. and part, noun fut. of ^), (72. 88.). But (z^cirgii, one makes Qp^&}, QpsBmn-m, or Qp^eon-eugjjjirst, and in compounds, epimgii becomes gj/f (taking the adj. form), u^Q(e^rjiTLD, &c.

The Tamil

the

2d day of

the month.
(Juii.

(Lit. two-which will become.)

the fourth minister. four -which will become.)


is

176. The former is used as an adjective only; the latter adjective or an adverb. 177.

either an

Some

of these numbers are repeated in a peculiar

way

to

form

distributives one by one, &c., &c.

Thus: (^wQisnirmgi (the


^susSrrsssr
Qpui^asi\g^ (the

first

letter

only of

(s^ekgn is

taken), one by one.

(the first letter of


first

^srem,
,

),

two by two, in twos.

mek(m^

( iBd!rm)Bsr<Q), ( usueu^S^ ).

syllable of Qpssrffs shortened, Qp), by threes. SSesaui^ ^eueuir^, er<siiQeii(w, sreuQeuil.

uuu^gi
178. VocAB.
(^siapuj,
to

None

is

formed from <o&musj.

a^/iQ^SLD,

^^s/Tjih, chapter. 6Tjns(^es>n^u, more or less (sjp, to ascend, decrease). S-^Q^^ld, about, more or less. s^rrrrs^tB, on an average. doubt. (mnnL-eir, a blind man. a^ajresr. a hunchback. ^si^J'S,
urrireioeti, vision, sight.

contempt,
other.

npsi(^, a back.

fipLL&ai, a bundle,

ldjd^,

Exercise 54.
179. (a-) Q^eSd(^^Q^nG<rniiSlrr^^^

Qsrrem emfr^fh

Q(mmu^ ^nrrs^ns

S-emrifT

eiek^ QsLLinsk (obs. the two uses of


loi

(?<j(sfr.

70.).

LESSON 56.
s?(Tj
iLirrs :
<5(SS3r

(5(25i_iosr
S"-'""^

euQ^wQurT^
55(5
<s633r

^ en

'Son-

d semi sk-esTm ^s^ff&


_)

"

*eytT(^m^

untTes^susarTuQuV (182.

eiebrQi^eir.

LDfTUJu
(nj'imr.

uafrdQp^eo'^-

ujfrsij<smfnLjLD

epq^

sesnTi^aLJ uniruQuzsr''^
i?fTpu^Q^essr(ess)uSsTii)

srssr

Qpuu^^

QpsQsnuf-

Qs;sijfrs(r^Lo

Qfieufl
eSltsfr El

eufr^i^LD (^(LpiMUL^, Qsn'L^nQsfTis^


Q(SV)iT.

(^rBiLi ITS GfT

^^ LULL

fT(eu)/b

Quit 6\)

^ir&sarQifTQ^ LD!r^^^&>

(srm'usuiT <5i(i^mr <9hs:S(o<yeL^Lh

^/Dis^ QurreuniL. urfl'X-^^ ll^Q^ilj u^^rriii ^^snniJD fBrreOmh <su<f6srd^](so sing


up!

wir(r^in,

aiirririu

= come

"^

Oanu^/rair,

quite true!

(b.) In the fourth chapter. man blind of one eye. One was deformed and the other had but one eye. They must come one by one. Place these bundles by threes. The children are arranged five in a class. This is the fiftieth time I have walked round the temple. On an average he comes every fifth month. On the second day of last month. Ten witnesses, more or less, proved the complainant's statement. The fourth person had a bundle on his back. Come for your wages on the first of the month. I will pay you the money on the 20th in the

evening.

Lesson 56.
Derivative nouns.
1

80.

From

primitives are derived


use.

what are

called appellative nouns.

These are in constant

From nouns in ih they are formed by changing ud into ^gy^js? (18. e.), and adding ^sk for the sing, masculine, ^err for the sing, feminine {^^ for the sing, neuter), ^ft'^ or ^frsm for the epicene plural and ^emeu for the neuter plural. Many other uouns simply add these terminations.
Thus: Qstr^^rjLD, a
tribe;

Qsrr^^rr^^rreir, a

man of a

tribe. tribe.

Q&ir^^n^^rrm, a woman of a
Qs,[r^^ff<i^iTrr,

aar, people of a tribe.

miiT, a village;

mariiTiik, ^snarreir,

ss!i:ititit.

There are many exceptions to this, since Sanscrit follow the rules of their own language.
Thus,
Lj<okresBajUi, virtue,

g^

words introduced
is

into

Tamil

has

L^am-esflujisiifrear,

which

the Sanscrit for a

virtuous man; so urriaiLD, sin, hag u/raO, a sinner.

sulted for these forms,

/e/t

makes

fEinLL-mT, the

The Dictionary must he concountry people (Comp. 18. c),


tribes.

but also

iBiriirm, a landholder, a

head man among certain

These two are not so frequently used.

14

105

EXERCISE 55.
181.
sirijissr

(m.) and

sirift (f.)

'^
I

[S. a maker, doer.']

^srfl

(m. and

f.)

(^

[^srr,
^ireS (m.

manage
and
f.)

affairs

^.'\

Are added to nouns in their conjunct [form, (131,) to form compounds.

[S. a possessor.']

J
sl (S^eS, a debtor, si (sksn'irm, a debtor, sLdrsaifl.
^L-Qdarrireir, a sheep-man,

From<5i_s3r, adebt,\feha.ve

.M, a
i-/^^,

sheep,
sense,

^il.ssmB.

lj^^^itS, a sensible person. QpiTL-tLD, a garden, Q^trL^tssirum, a gardener.


182. VocAB.

fipLh,apart; atiZi^y ( Ang. a

man of parts), ^mib,


happy man.
s^/i^^, a race.

kind; family.

UfrdSiUth, happiness, luck, wealth.

urrsQiLSsairsisr, a

uirsQiuen^,
SFir^, caste.

a happy or blessed woman.


bjlSs'ld,
n^str,

si^L-LireB, a partner,

family.

uiTL-LiTeS\

(urr suffering), a laborious man.


suupsirair,
sailors.

ixQ^eirtreS

(ld

bewilderment), one under the influence of a demon.

(^ppwinS,

a criminal.

^'ueofTiT,

near neighbours

(^luio).

^(smn^ps,!rn<^,

a fisherman
QfiiriT,

(^emL^eo,

a hook). lB^ulj, a float used by fishermen (lS^).


old).

Qp^

elders

(q^ become

Exercise 55.
183. (a-) @(3f ^p^^fTeiorriLj!BJ
s^uL9(b) 173.

181.

(both parties).
(Sim'uniT

uirdQaJwnesr.
<5eff."

''

sieoe^ns^ <FiBfi^ujrT0u:) (siesr'hssru

unsQuj<Eu^
(Syii^rresr.

^(5ST .sk-LLifT&flsisir

^i^ QuujQixn(Sisi<3^i
^-(sor

^i^ isrnl.

i_rnT

(oT6\)&)n0iij <5i_i^

^}(T^dQ(vrj'iTs&r.

sStLL-nfflL-^^do eSffniB.

^eiKasT Q'SU(^ umLineifl


efrrrefflsisfr

(com.).

enasetr

Qaa<sS^s(^ ^QtEsm ld^


ESLLQeSlLLirriT.

S-em.
[Prov.]

Suunuurr^u^ &ed (^jhp sun Gifts'^


^'

Qeo

sdbr."

(^rreSsseOeO

^muQpis

^isbruQpiii.''^ (Poet.).

np^Q^nn

Qs^mssresr (Sunn^OD^ jfiLSlir^ih'

^(Sytosr urTd8uJS=rT&9,

^sussr

tribe.

My people. The people of my (b.) All the villagers stood near. All the people All the people of the world will be astonished. of the inhabited country and those who dwell in the wilderness ( isir, sfr ). The inhabitants of all lands praised that brave person. They are all of one caste and family. The watchman is a very hard-working man. You must inquire of the neighbours of the criminal. Many foolish people go All the sailors left the ship. The about as if possessed by a demon. fisherman sits on the bank of the river.

Toe

LESSON o7.

Lesson 57.
Derivatives (continued.)
184.

From

primitive roots used as adjectives


elegant.

many nouns

are formed,

which are both common and


(a.)

By

adding mtD

many

of these become abstract nouns of quality.


/esstsidld,

iBeo, good [or that which is good},


~\

goodness (

e\)

ld

<sstld).

.^isir,

^(sudr, .^ssr,

ggssr, s.
s.

mas. ration. [Com. 29.]


fem. ration.

(b.)

By adding
j

^err, ^sueir, J^eir,

the suffixes )^^it, ^<5^it, ^it, ^ir,

plural,
s.

m. and.
irrat. irrat.

f.

ration.

(Cora. 31.)

^1^, gj, J *^, ^0ir, ^siaeu,


I

p.

com. com.

nouns are formed.

These terminations may be added

to

any nouns.
Those given here are

g^
rES\>

Final

becomes

before these terminations.

colloquial forms.

msikes

rEeti<cOQ}eir,

a good man. a good


/
> \
,

&^,

small,

makes

S/Siusiiek, a liftlcper-

iB&)&>siierr,
/seoicOeiiiTSisir,
tE

woman,
,

son, (m.)
S/Siueueir, a little person,
Q/SISiniTiT, little (f.)

good people. good thing. good things.

Q ISO

!J rr

persons, (m.
is little.

and

f.)

iBeoeosi,
/Beoed&asusiofr,

&^ujsp, that which

S/Stuemeuaeir, those which are

little,

(n.)

(c) The
in the

above belong to the 3d person.


1st
dialect.

But such nouns

formed for the

common
foot,

and 2d persons Thus,

also.

These are not

may be much used

^i^,

makes ^i^Q'jjm, I

a servant (ejGsr being the verbal personal

term, of 1st singular. 31).

When
/ a

a person wishes to be very humble in his address, he says


<siiibQ^0st

^LSf-Qiu^ ^fEjaeSi^^ev
slave
to

for

/E/raJr,

Sec.

themselves

am

come.

Even
are

tBiTQiu<asr, I a dog, and other disgusting expressions of the same kind sometimes used.

And Q&ir,
This
is

cruel,

makes Qam^tumL, thou

a cruel person.

not used in

common
sflfc

Tamil.
to be a species of verb.

[Tamil Grammarians consider these


verb
is

An

ordinary

called Q^rBSldso

[understanding-position-verb], a verb which


.

implies an action, a time, an object, or an instrument


(^/jSuLf ^Sssr

But these forms

are called
&.c.

sign verb,

(i. e.)

they can only inferentially express time,

* Corap. this with the rule in Lat. that the

nom. and

ace. of neuter plurals

always

end

in a.

107

EXERCISE 56.
They have been
called "conjugated nouns," "verbal

appellatives,"

and

"appellative verbs". (Nannul, Sut. 321.)

They

are formed in poetry in great


for this purpose,

abundance from nominal


classes
;

roots,

which are divided,

into six

viz.,

(1.) (2.)

Nouns expressive Nouns

of

some thing possessed fOuyT-^errj:

(^smip, an earring.

of place ( ^ild): LjpLo, outside. of time (siT<sOLb): ldiT'Tld, a month.

(3.) (4.)
(.5.)

Nouns Nouns

Nouns expressive
of quality,

of

some member,

or part (&3osr): ssssr, an eye.


&-<5m<cisiLD,

outward or inward ((^smw):

fidelity.

(6.)

Nouns expressive

of something done (Q^itl^so )-. Q^rr6\}, a word.

casal signs (18), then

noun in whatever way it is prepared for the reception of the add the personal terminations as in 31. 87. [Compare also App. xii. Paradigm of verbs (xii.)] The nouns thus formed for all persons and numbers may be regularly declined. Comp. Pope's III Gram. 93.]

Rule.

Prepare

the

185. VOCAB.

From

S-(smi,

that which belongs to, are derived

s^&aiuj, a sign of the 6th case, ^-esitiuevdr,

he who possesses.
she,

[Comp.

21.]

S-s^itusueir,

&c.

S-siDiUj^,
s^eiaiiuecosi],
isisir,
\

that which, &c.


those which, &c.

^-esiiiueairs&r,

they who, &c.

sssii^^fresrsuek, &c., are also used.

[Here e_OTi
_srr

^^

is

used for ^smiiugj. For


(^-(strQeirirek )

^etsreusir,

&c. see 87. 58. 151.]


is,

(133)

^-eirtorreuisk
^-(sirioirajesT,

^-(sheir^,
S-eireireu IT ( S-ik Q en rr it )
1

= = =

he to ivhom there
she, &c.
it to
,

who

has.

which there

is,
.

which has.
^^

>=
=

they to

whom,

&:c. (ra. f.)

s^eireirmirscir,
S-is!r(Sfr<5sy(QUs!sir,

they to which, &c.


finite

[53"

The above

are regarded
2_er(syr,

by Tamilians as

verbs

but the plural


in

neuter nouns, as

2_te)i_tu,

every respect as relative

^so, Quifliu are capable also of being used participles, and are sometimes so considered.

Exercise 56.
186- (a.) urTdQiuQpssiiujeiJiTs&r
icp(T^<su(T^tJa

^eo'hso.

i^eoQeoair lurr

<sp(7^

LD&)60s

Q^lLi^

('here

^ssyiiu governs the 2d case).

QrBQtunss)n

QurfKotufTiT <surrn^<5m^(ss)iju^ ^LLirrLoeO

ibi.

to'SssrujrTelr

^eoevir^ o?

108

LESSON 58.
urri^'

GKcsrsi^

^li^s QsfTt^iU(G^Q&) ^-emineBr

Qssni^ifei^ &fSuj^e060.

QufflQiUfTiT ^eisraitT

Qurr^uu^ a iQ esr

''''

&-uS0&TG{r<3j&!r,

^uS(Qefr

The great have said so. Cruel people give trouble to the Well. of great wealth. What shall 1, a sinner, poor. All, both small and great, will be there. The inhabitants of that do? Three of his partners are great people. village are little people. He is a man of mercy. Your humble servant is
(b.)
is

There are none who are always happy.

He

man

well by your blessing!

Help your servant who


blessed
(f.).

is

but as a dog.

All

generations shall call

me

Litlle people

must be humble.

Lesson 58.
187. (a.)
sal

Many words
Some

of foreign origin are in constant use in Tamil.

of these are English.


Q^sn-iriL;

use; Court,

Thus, ^i@, sick a word of univeramm, column of a 31. S. ; LSm,fees, &c. &c.

(b.) Some have come into Tamil through the Hindi. most frequent occuri'ence in official documents.

These are of

Cc.)

Many
Some

are of Portuguese origin.

@0sb9, kitchen, &c.

(d.) &c.
(e)
.

are derived from Mahratta, Telugu, Canarese, Malayalim,

Sanscrit words can hardly be spoken of as foreign to the Tamil,


to these

[5^ [In regard

words

it

may

be remarked that they cannot be


dislike intermingling

altogether dispensed with.


foreign origin with what

However we may

we choose

to call pure Tamil, these

words of words are in

universal use and must be learnt.


of things brought into the country

Again, since many of these are names by foreigners, there can be no reason why they should not bring in the names as well as the things. It is mere pedantry to refuse to use the Hindi Gujss)^ for fable, and make the compound Qun^earu usossis (food-board). On the other hand, if there be a really good Tamil word for a thing, why should a foreign one be introduced? Why say ^q when eSiurr^, sickness, is well known. Most of these words will be found in these lessons or in Index I. and the equivalent Tamil words where any exist.]
1S8. VocAB.
Hospital.
isoiri^ir,

(As specimens.)
number,
is

LDiiSlsd,

a mile.

^lL&i, Judge.

^mu^Qrft,

lELhuir,

meuir (Arab.),

a per son.

s^uurr^^ (Sahot), shoes,

a lantern,

musquito curtains,

Quht^it, boots (Hind.), amafl (Arab.), a prisoner. Q^rvLDSiff, Tel. ^^-{^^ (domatera = musquito-veil, ^emrr.)

109

EXERCISE 57.

LESSON 59.

Exercise 57.
189. (a-) sjSijick

^ssnihi QisQQTf'm.

^eum'

iB&srp

^i^^p(^th

How many (h.) Bring my shoes. Let down the musquito curtains. miles is it to the town ? Has he laid the table ? Bring the kettle. Have they made a complaint in the court ? Has the Collector arrived ? Where is the clergyman ?
[Obs. There are peculiar ways of expressing foreign words in Tamil which must be noticed. No native would understand i = sick; but all
:

recognize

^i@].

Lesson 59.
Derivatives.
190. (a.)

148. ing ai/

verbal derivatives have been noticed in 87. 88. 143. Besides these, many nouns are formed from verbal roots by addor ui-j according to the analogy of the future: ^;Sleij, ul^ulj.

Some

Verbs which have en in the future take /; those which have lii, or uu take uLf. The nouns treated of in this lesson differ from those in 87. Those are in every sense parts 88. 148. in having no governing power. of the verb: these are nouns formed from the verbal roots.
(b.) Passive nouns are formed chiefly from roots in s- by changing sinto s. Q-xime)!, a garland (that which is strung), from O^/r, string together (Poet.)
_o:_, a garment (that which
s-!aLn,
is

put on), from 2_, put on (S-(Bul^.)

a burden (that which


in

is

carried),

from sua, carry.

g:^ Sanscrit nouns


into Tamil:

generally change

into

S when
is ffB)U.

they are brought

so Sita
is

= ^em^, Sab'ha,
to
is

a congregation,

(c.)

^LD

^dsu), wealth (what


^L-Lih, a

some verbal roots to form nouns. made or acquired), from ,^<5@, make. motion (what is moved), from ^lL, move.
added
of the root is doubled or hardened before

g^

[In

some cases the consonant

the addition of .^ld; as Q^iriLiLa from

Q^iism, &c.

There

is

however

a form Q^trtL.']

LESSON 59.
(d.) Many roots consisting of one short syllable (final s- does not really belong to the root), lengthen this in order to form nouns.
Quii, bring forth, obtain,
QuiTQF), meet, fight,

makes Qugi, that which makes, Quirir a heap, battle.


is

is

gained, or brought Jorth.

@,

give,

makes @, what
is

given as an equivalent ov pledge.

S^- [This
that

through

every

almost the only case in which the Tamil violates the principle modificiaton in inflexion and conjugation, the Root is
final e_

unchanged. Of course

does not belong to the root.]

final

Ce.J Some roots in sj,!i, , (not short monosyllables), double consonant. [Comp. 18. c. d. 131. c]
letter

the

Thus, erfw^si,

{sr(Lgi, write 62.);

uinL, a song [un,

sing. 62.);

Qp^

a line (Sffi scratch, split).


sfl

(f.)

is

added

to

some verbal

roots.

Qseir, hear, ask.

Gcserrafl,

a question, report.

Q^rreo, be defeated.

Q^msdeSl, defeat.

is added to some roots: .^^/S, a siveeper (g.) nouns then indicate the doer of the action.

(^p& oQ.

II.).

These

(h.) ^

is

added

to

some

roots.

Oa^,

ruin,

(Qs );
to

Lop^, forgeffulncss (ii>p).

(i.) s^Si is added ^sip, despise).

some

roots:

wQip^Q, ^s^.s^Si (wQip,

rejoice;

(j.) emLD is

added

to the present
Q3=uja;<ss>LD.

and past
But

relative participles.

Com.

154.

Thus, Qs'UjQskpesiLD,
is

this is

by no means common, and

strictly a verbal form.

(k.) In
164.

many

cases the root of the verb

is

also used as a noun.

Comp.

Thus
(l.)

QxsiiiL, a cut, or cut, 62;

siL, a

tie,

or

tie,

62.
to the verbal'root.

Some nouns are formed by adding


Q.FiiMLj(sir,

_sr

= existence
Greek

Thus;

poetry, (from Q&^iu, as the

nolrjaig

from

Ttoieco

to

make). QuirQ^eir, substance, (from Quitq^, come together.)


191 VocAB.
.

aisii(l,

learning (aid, learn 70. J. LSnDek, a neighbour ( i3p, other),

umetaeu, a bird

5th case

(Ljp,fly). eSessr, vain, ((^esSQeo = in vain). tSg], on, (lS^&), QtoGeo). eriii (56. I.) send (as a missile, arrow). Qs!r^eo s^lLi^
II.),

fa^tL, sweep, 56.


stroy),

a church sweeper,

Grsirdsih, intention

(QfBird(^, look

56. II). 3^L-LUi, a congregation (ai^-LL, collect).

Qa,

destruction

(Qs,

de-

uir, suffering ( u, suffer).

fear

(^^a).

walk, conduct ( ibi, walk), sQh^gi, intention (aqf^gi, think).


rB<ciat.,

^da^ih,

EXERCISE 58.

LESSON 60.

Exercise 58.
192.
gyti.
lurrdj (ci')

ei)'Sso tsSsmsflp u/DeimsiJ-ssfr


<oi ill

iB^eO eirBuunQ^l suni^ei^k

^fTt^

Qu!T!flQ&) ^LDus'^en'

^nrr sen'.

iLseur iSpih^rr&sr (STSsr^ ldQi^s^S

^n^dSlar^iT.

^^=f ^^szold

[from

^]

j>LU iresuriEj s^err^

^ntasss^^imDeO ^psQeSiLiam'' ^eat^ ^rfl^^d Qsnem sui^nesr. ^esiiGmLDiLjili


''^s^s^Qpua tBnessTQpiJD ^rSleSdoeoniTsQeo

(Su^siaLDiLiLii 65(25

'^/^ (Beoeorr^,

suih

eiesrasruuQm-

iSlfDiT

emiiu QiBrrssLD (sreunm?


<oS)iiu (oSisQuj

^rrQpil) ui^d(^ [s^rri^eii uesan^Q^! ^eu^t ^BJek Qsnemri sq^^^ QsuQp. ^^ =^(5

an^^? ^^e^un'

^eussrsum' urr ^euesrsv^st^.

(b.)

versity.

They all fought in the jungle. Do not a son is born. neglect learning. The young (Sgueuir 185.) should not kill birds. AVhat What is the meaning of this word? What is the intention of this verse ? What is the purport of the letter he is the substance of this sentence? He is a very forgetful person. So has written? This is a fatal affiiir.
I hear!

dead because

not rejoice too much in prosperity, nor grieve too much iu adNeither praise nor blame affects the Call the church sweeper. ^&)&o). The household are much delighted ( ^pi^<a]iTs^s(^

Do

^#^^3>
Lesson 60.
193.
(a.)

The

following are used as interjections. Ok!

^^,

(ffi,

SB

Can",

0?io

i^rr, here, see! SQiutr, alas! e^iu,

! ^Q^rr, Jiere, behold! ^i^ir, there, see! Hallo! oh! SeiaiuQujiT, oh ! alas ! ^Qatr, hallo!

These are used

in the beginning of a sentence.


^'&)(ooQ<S2][r

^cirQQT^? ^soeceufT?

(corrupted into ^soQeoir)?

is it

not?

Eh?

^s(mLD, I suppose, forsooth!

certainly.

(b.) ^d(g)U) is put at the end when it signifies "forsooth,'^ and after the emphatic word when it indicates certainli/.
^euisir
iES\]isi)vek

^<s(gii), he

must he reclioned a good man I suppose.


is

^Qi(^s(ff)LD

IE

Si eo sum,

he indeed

a good

man.

(This

is

not classical.)

(c.) ^m-QQj (rather high), ^sdedQeurr, ^(kieoeuir, ^&)Q<soit (vulgar), are put at the end of a sentence, or after the emphatic word = isit 7lot?

(d.) sfrem, sfr^^LD (imperative of srrem, see) are in constant use in

much
note.

the

same sense as we use the word

noio: erdsrm srr^mh!

ivell,

what

1X2

EXERCISE 59.
194. VocAB.
loss

LESSON 61.
deceit.
LD^QLoir-a^ui,

LD^, discretion.

Q ld it <3:i}), detriment ^danger,


i5c9^(g,

of sense; with Quit


srettl^, easy.
I.).

(58.), lose sense, become senseless.

mkL-a-LDih, subtilitij,
II.).
sfl&r,

nicety,

-Fpg)!,

.s=pQp, a little.

mistake [b6.

grow

up (55. ^iit!
.^ til u IT
.'

lSs,

much (generally used with


=gyif.

s_u), ilseijLh).

Q^tr^, brightness.

[ma,s.), yoii fellow.'

(f.),

my
!

good woman.
eiiirffiriij,

father

.'

uujeo, a worthlessfellow,

usir are used as

words of respect.

^itQiu

uitlL^l, grandmother. come up! well ! ^iriu and^su ^suuQesr ! ^'jS, mother ( = ^irib).

Exercise 59.
195.
SfTffluj(i^

(a.) spG's/r,
Qs^lU^ITUJ?

i^errefrniu

(21. h.

is

changed into

<^iu)!

ctsstsot

^UUl^

LD^CoLDrTS^LD

^rBQp^
<5

Qfi<Siif!S(sr^s(^u> eTerfl^6\}6\)(SQj

Q U fTSeOn LD!T? lEluUfJUJ (^lL&^UILD Cl85' 6._). ^pQp l9<3'SI(SS)&} ^^


^aysrr
lSIssi^ud QiMirs^dsnifi

uireuti) eSl'S&riijCoLD.
)

g&"J, iSiuiruuir^u^QLU.,

(182

^aiiesr ^isoQeorr

^uuu^s=

Qs^rrssrsBTSum?

^^

^nsir sntflinual
1
eiesar

''ct/e/@lo S<smjr)iQ/s

^Q^sQekp

(o<?/7^." toimuni-Lis^
c^issr,

^apQmj'dj

I a j3juui^s= Qs=LLiQ(nj'uj? (vulg. for.


(oSL-LfTiosr.

^t-rr.)

^Q^ssresr ^^sluldI ^Q^it Q^rfliuu

i turriT ^z_/r, uQ^^QQpeur.

eiesrvy
ejssr

j^uufT, ^ihQiBULo ? ^su(5ST ^emLuQujiT


etreij^ni^?

<si<5sr^3?^<sS ^/(Lp^rresr.

^, ^eusu

^Q^rr ^lasetflu-^^so <QUK^(msQ(wQff.^ eS^^sun&sr- (Observe


is

the inversion which

very idiomatic.)

Alas, I am deceived, what shall not ten o'clock? Which is the way to Tanjore? This boy is the clever fellow! So this is the learned man you mentioned. Here is a rupee for you. I will come myself. Hallo, gardener, come here. I suppose that physician was your father. Stop a bit you fellow! He's a great scamp. Alas, nothing has grown in my field.
(b.) Well,
is it

I do!

My

mother.

Lesson
Forms corresponding
196.
to the
it

61.

comparative and superlative degrees.

From 130

133
and

appears that there are no adjectives, proper/^

so called, in Tamil.

The noun used


better than that"
(1.)
a.

as an adjective does not

the degrees of comparison.

How

then can

admit of changes expressive of we express in Tamil, ^^this is

^^that is the best

of all?

"This

is

better than that."


iE60&}^.
is

.j>j^p(Q
of:

^^

The dative
good."

of that

which has

less of the quality

spoken

"To
15

that this

iT3

EXERCISE 60.
b.

^^iiua

^gi meoeo^.
is

The 5th case with


good."

e_LD

(denoting completeness):
[If

"From
this

that altogether this

This

is

to be preferred to the former.

be regarded as the 7th case in opposition to native Grammarians, the sense


all that this is

would be "In
c.

good."
mikioOgj.

.jij^Sd

( ^^Q&>)

^sj

The 5th

case; ''from that this

is

good."

(cr

should be added.)

These three are elegant.


(/.

you
e.

see,

^es>Bu urriTsQ^Lci ^gj isSoeo^ ( uirirdS^LD from iJ/r/r 56. III. although 100. (2.)) '-Although you see that, this is good."
@ISJ ihioed^ (uairss,
the infin. of u/r/r 169.):

^<omsu uirrrss
see, this is

That

while you

good.

These are

common and
S}^

quite correct, though not very elegant forms.


('sSi_ to leavej:

g. ^es>s<sSli

fB<kioiigj

"That

to leave, this is

good."

This

is

rather colloquial.

f. ^sy^^g)
all the
g.

Sj^

above.

It is

=sy^ fB&xoi)^ (^^<SE, more, not needed.)


iBioeog]

may

be prefixed to lEeixso^ in

^6S)sd arrL-L^^LD _@^

( sitlLi^^ld

from sitlL, show, 56.


is

II.

although you show)


ly a vulgar form.

''Although you show that, this

good."

This

is

decided-

(2.)
a.

"That

is

the best of all."

.jii^ sreoeorrsu^S^iii ( sre\)eo,T^^^LD ) fE&)<oO^.

The 5th case with


good."

^-ld

and a word denoting universality: "From


b.

all this is

.^^
"To

(orw(S\}ir<sup/Sjb(^Lc>

(sr&)eiifr^^d(^Lh) /seoei^^.

The 4th case with


Sanscrit

2_ii):
c.

all this is

good."

^^Qeii ^-^^LDU) (&QaL-iui).

These

two words are

and

signify "best, inost excellent."

197. VocAB.

QLodrQiD^U}, more and more


part.) Jf/ore.

(Qld&)

Qtoio

s^ih,

the first
II.

syllable shortened for the sake of euphony). 107.


(30/5^, (verb,

(Lpii^, go before, 56.

and

Qp,ifi,{m&n.) (Lpi^ Qpii^, first of all.


kingly.
_u<s=/rjii),

(Com.)

^i7n-QSiTU<3=irffiEJS<ar ( ^ffir^,

observance.

Sanscrit compounds), kinglg honours.


LD<smiEj<m ( LDiiEi(ff)). a iveight,

^<oSiL-UJsk, one

.^ + s_ = of the shepherd
(lQ(^, exceed).

in

caste.

maund.

lB&s =

u/r/f.sSjfi/u)

Exercise 60.
198. (a.)
^!jnQ^nu3=n!T!E]S(S!r
fBfT(^<i(^
iBfTeiT

^<ssrd(^

(sS0DLLuspis(^

[from day to day]

tEii^ euQ^Qro^^ih ^jw ^^sLona mL^i?^


s^eumSI., ^isf.QiLi

(SUQ^ihuL^iurTs^ (157.) ^lLi-.(^ (165.) Q.s^iL^nmOT2/<5{^

^<3S)^

eSiu

Qutfl^rresr sirrfliuu) e^&fr^ii) ^6\)'2eo.

^sui^ ^nm'

LESSON 62.
''e^^eSlesrm-Qp (esr

ih

m)

Qsu^uuns

QsrrQ^ssth'''' (Poet.)
fsesreoiLD

iSnn2_i?ot

iD6ts3r0S(^ ^rnjTLDrr(osr^

Qsu^^GSi^u

uu^aQp^^uo

^iiepQK

enfl^LD u^sisr (173.) LDemiai^ (ldiiej(^)


"^iB(ss)^ Q3=rre\} lSIss

^^sLDfrss

srTuurrp^Q<Sij<osr.

LDi^snh ^ff0'2sw." (Poet-_) ^nuSleo

Qpk^

Qsa

QutTLu Qu<3?Q/D(SiD^u U[Tfr<sQ^(^ s=rrQ/D^

^Q^ud

ibeoeo^.

(b.) You must learn more and more in the school. In the school you must get the first of all. He is the most stupid of all the shejiherds. This minister is greater than the king. It is better to work There is no wealth more precious than learning. She than to beg. is the best of all the women in the village. The mother rejoices

when her son is said to be wiser than others. than the tiger; but the tiger is more cruel. The son is better than the father. burden. This is sweeter than honey. that.

The elephant
This This
is
is

is greater the heaviest greater than

^^^^&
Lesson 62.
So, such, as.

199. (a.)

gjuui^^

Q,3=iLujeoiTLDrr?

^eiji^^LDirs,

^iiKZiee^s'JJiT'lj,

May {vfo) do thus? (103). ^aieuAtsmLDiTS, ^i^ eS^LDniL, &C. &C., might
(103).
is

be used instead of ^uuif.


(b.)
to

^uQurruuL-L-

siTfftuj^eiP^<F Qs^iLiiud &_(BLDfr?

Is

it

right

do such a thing?
(c.)

(Quit,

name,

u,

suffer.

This

common, but not

elegant.)

^ u u L^u

lLu.

LDiresrdQsirresr

sirifju^esy^d
tiling

Q<3=ujiU(Sdn-LDir

(Thus-affected
Is it right to

Tionour -destroying

may

[one] do?)

do such a dishonorable action.


[^g, agree, be like, 56. III.]

{d.\

^uuL^sQsiT^^iaiesr eresresr^^diV)? To this-likened person, to tuhat? What is such a (fellow) good for?

(e.)

^^^0
In this

ereueuefTSij

QsL-L^ssirnQi^
he
is clever,

^^Qe^
in that

^KBjeueir&j

how-much

but,

so-much

Qpl(eS)uSlQfjLJUITQ!r.

a blockhead he will be.


(
srsi]i]0ir<3ii

with

and

^entsuefre^.

if')

^^'^'-"^

eruuL^Qturr, /ilsrr^

^uuL^^^irek.
:

As

is

the father

so is the child.

This

may

be also thus expressed


iS&rdsir

^.suu^sru Qurreou

^Q^d(^w.

EXEUCISE 61.

LESSON 63.

[It can hardly be necessary to remind the learner that in rendering as into when the sentence must Tamil, he must consider its exact meaning. If as be changed. Thus

(1.)

As / was going

=
or,

/F/rsar /E/rsJr

QuiTSiasuSl&);

Qun-QpeuL^uSleo;

or,
I

/Etreir

QuaSp

CSeu3s<TtSl&);

or, /E/rdr euL^uSeo


is

iBiiB^QutrQp a^Louj^^io &c., &e.


<f//?/

(2.)

This

KB large x& that

^gje^LD ^^/(^
or, or,

_g)^

=Sij^p(g,'3=

<5^/fl/

^^ ^sa^uQuiTsciu
i^^m>iUj
^etreij

or,

^^pi^^
200. VocAB.

s'/ffiLimLf

Quff!^; (?) ufrirdSpQu/ran^ ^(25'S@^, &c., 8iC.]


having seen.
t3u^, seize

s<5m(Bi3L^, find out {b%. 111.)

(sem,

upon).

&a-, an infant.

Qshmi^Sj, infanticide

(^^^.^Jt;^^, murder, from


^Sed, ivunder (56.
I.).

the

Sanscrit),

erffi/a^^ii, every

where (for

<oTej(^lo).

Exercise 61.
201. (a
a;jss
)

Lj^^i5S)UJ3

STuuL^u ulLl- (Biumu (^LLsuD^mt^iLjm sem tSli^ds^ QsrrQuumT. (^Lpitsm^esiiui Q&nm^ Qunil.LS^'iew
s ^11 LD
r^iT

LrT<5sr-

sj isi

eim'Qij'eo

^(r^i^uisf- ^-imodld ^(ssiiuunLDeo


^(au&sr

rsrrear

^iEj(^ixi

^!E](^uD simg}iiJa ^'?eouj6\}fTQLnrT? ''''(Poel-)

stuul^lj

ULLi6ij(o(SS)? ^su'^ssru urrirds (5rssrs(^


e^ih

^^sms=

P-Gstsr.

eiuui^

^Q

(at

L^sn'hsfT

^uuu^d(^u any rate) susar sldlc^s^^Q^ Quiflajsnifluuua. iSfoi^Q^sQp^. (Such a child, com.) uemtpuu uuf.Quj f^i^u

(b.)

Did you ever

see such a boy?


in

What

is

this

dog good for?


learn
evil

The more he wanders What kind of things.

the streets, the more will he people are there in the village?

Why

did

you commit such great folly? How can I do such an evil? He has gone as he was wont. At any rate I have seized the thief. What They are talking just as they used to talk. are such boys good for? May we do such a thing? What kind of things may we do? Olio! Such an one came. is he such a fool?

Lesson 63.
202. ^s\3&)iTLD&), ^sar^, from =gya), which denies a quality; and _g)ffi)so/r Loeo, ^^jSl, from )&), -which denies existence (43.) are in constant use.
^eoeoiTLD&i, and

k>

<so it ld

&>

are neg. verb. part. 121. (2.) ^io(so!rgj, and


ct:

^eo

eoir^, are also used, generally with

^eofforrQss,

^SoeoirQ^.

lie

EXERCISE 62.
^dr/S and
Q/Desr,

^eir/SI are irreg.

verb.

part,

from the unused past teases

^dr

^dirQpm.
so
IT LD

77.

Comp.

56. (III.).

is)

so

and ^eosoiTLDeo thus involve a double negative: a negative form

of a negative verb.

DENYING the existence of that


LD(saLp

(a.) @so&)frLDeo, and ^sw-^, are both used for without, absolutely to which tliey are attached.
^jeoeoiTLDeo @ijL<5isrr

enn^ssu

u(BQ(wirse<r, the inhabitants suffer

from

the absence of rain.

tu/rQ^iTQ^ s^^^iLjih

^^/S

euQF^^.^Cj

uu-L-inm', he suffered without any aid

whatsoever.

(b.) jij&isoaLDeo,

^cir/S!,

the existence of the thing to

are used for besides, except, but, which they are attached.

affirming

^eoeoirLoio, being thus a preposition


excluding, governs the

and having the meaning of

excepting,

2d

case: ereircksrujeOiSOirLDio

besides me.

aeo^iTiom Qufffiu uirff^em^^


eu^LLjQLDir ?
euSotriuir^; if

^maQm)&>

tSsiri^ ^Lpleu^ei'eorrLDeo ^eiririE^


it

you put a heavy burden on a stone pillar,

will break,

but not bend.

added

The 2_zi) may be (c.) ^kxsotTLD&nis) and ^sk^iLiLo signify moreover. to the previous word thus: _g)^ai/a) ^eoeoirtDeo, gj^ei^w ^drjS.
luirQ^irQh
.

203. VocAB.
even.

..^^th,

any whatsoever

(lurrffj

which,

(^qF)

one., .s^ld
desire
iS.^gi,

126.)

euQfj^^ui, trouble.
QiaULh, the

evnh^^uu,

be troubled.

Qwskr,

(56. II.).

supreme (used chiefly by worshipiJers of Qeuasr).

seed

(also

e0g^,

eflgw/r.^

Exercise 62.
204. (a.)
CTssr

semsQew

jtjedeotTuoeo

QsuQp

s=rrLL& ^ik'bso.

Qsuih

besides that lohich is sown be

[Compare these two: ^ai^dr^ujir^Lh produced?

i^Zsiraigi

^-(omQirr?

Will any thing

eSi^^ssT^iijirgiLo i^dstreu^ &.(okrQia?

Will any thing grow without seed?]

^^eo&inixteo ^sstsstld

QsuQp ^-emirr?

Qs^rr0ld(^m

Qurr^iL

S-Sard

(^3= QffrT<obr<osrQ^ ^&}&)itlc>60 QiSijf6l&)'2eo.

^(ssrd(^ Qsiissm(3i(S^<osy^tsQs<3fr.

^l<ssrrB
(oiiir

(vulg.

^(SsrssfluSeo)
fBrresr

^isu^emtiu ^mufKsmnu^ih
lufrrr

.)jeisifiULSId^rTiT-

eS^esiiu

Q^rr'^eoss Qsuemr^QiD j^ieo&jaLcdo ^-iL<i(^s sniFlujin


eviB^nirseir?

erssrssr?

^^&sr'^esnusoeomD60

e^Q^

LSljTturr-g^cjfiLSissrjS

^5r<s(5<

Q sail 4(^0).
____

LESSON 64.
(b.)

This child

is

thing
learn

grow without water?


besides this
his
lessons:

Will any the only witness, there is no other. This seed will grow but not that stone.
?

Will they come without it ? He must He ti-oubles me without any cause besides that, there is another whatever. I have told you one thing which no one knows but myself. The people are suffering from the They are wandering about without any light. lack of true wisdom. Come without delay. If there should It is hard to live without sin.

Are there any

what

else?

be no water.

Lesson 64.
205. "Either this or that must be true."

b.

qaar^io

^^,

lassr^eo^^

Qldujiuitiij

@Q^s(^ld.

c.

&igj QwiL; ^eo&iinSL-L-iTiso

^gi

Qldiu (123, b.)


(2.))

^^"'&Mi'^ ^^iT(^^Lci QwLujrruSlQ^d(^Lh (100.


it

"^'^^

'/

*'

^^ '^"*

and if

be that.

Q:^ Observe
be,

the use

of the future in the above


it is.

mtist be acknowledged to
.
,

must

he,

you must confess that

ej

may

be added.

.QiDiLiLifnu

^Q^d

(a.) ^<s>]si or become


disjoined.

is

the part,

either .... or.

noun, neut. fut. of ^, that which will be, It must be repeated after each of the things

It is also used for at least:


least,

gj^irsugi QLoiuiuirtu ^Q^df^QLo,

this,

at
to

you

will
all.

grant

to be true.

And

for

"a<

all,'"

luirQF^sarreugj,

any one at
(b.)

in one (case) that

epdr^n, one = in one (case understood) this, This is not a classical form, but expresses the dilemma very exactly, and is quite intelligible.
(o^eir/S en
,

7th case of
is

true.

(c.) ^eoeo

erajr (Tyei) (^eo&)Qiz>ian-(Trf'sn),

if you say

it is

not, then.

for or.

(d.) ^ioeogj neut. part, noun of ^&>, that which is not so, is used It has some authority ; but it seems a doubtful use of the word.

u^&>, u^eCfTS, in place of. ^smiSsLDirs, without any 206. VocAB. apparent reason, suddenly, by the visitation of God. Q^dj(SsLurrs, by divine appointment. iEiT(sir, a day ; but isir^, /Eir^d(^, fEirSsmu^Pesnh ^, that, ^sstld day),
(

to-morrow.
2sBi!rd(m)

/ErrSsnuSleir

^m-(cmps(^ (Com. 166.) {^ron. fBireSeire^sQ or

furreiressr

the day after to-morrow ( ^asrgii 4th case).

_
1J3

"^

EXERCISE 63.

LESSON 65.

EXERCISE 64.

Exercise QS.

ujrT(G^^ui,

u^eOns

LuiT^esrujrTi^^ii) &-<5srd(^<i G)<sfTd@Q/Di5sr (pres.

for

0/rerr,

^&}eo^

isSl'2e\}UjrT(SS)^m

wfTisjQdQsirerr.

i^iasstr

(sn'^iu^ ^stsr

LDiTsv^

/F/ySoYTitSssr

^6sr(SS)/DdsrTei'^ sunQ^ias&r. '^^eoeorriis) sjioeo^^ rsso

Q(ssr^&)'^.

isu(T^Q<ss)pQujrr (^(Su^Q^n^Qcufr)

^&)'?eoQujn?

Either he is guilty or the (b.) Either this or that must be true. Come to-morrow, or else I will punish you. witness is speaking falsely. Bring me either a horse, or a bandy or an elephant. Give it to some one or other. Put some one in your place, or I must fine you. This, at least, you will acknowledge. They either suffer from the absence of rain, or from some other cause. I am a learned man and not a merchant.

Lesson 65.
208. "Neither this nor that
(^) ^^/^ Qld'jj not true.
^leoffi),

is

true."
is

^'^sijLD Qldijj ^eoeo, this

not true, and that

is

^gJ
(h.)

Qldiu ^&)<si), ^^(S2/ii GiLDiL ^eoec, this

is

not true, that also


a.).

is

not true.

^^maj^, ^^ireu^

Qldiuiuitili ^rrtrgi.

(Neg. of 206.

(c-) ISJ .^Sjfi/io (^(e^^nw) ^sj ^Q^LD (^(^ff^ii) QLDiLitLimLi ^imsj, 100. (2.) = and if it be this, and if it be that it is not true.

209. VocAB. ment.

LDt^^eir, saffron-yellow.

Spil>, colour.

&lL(B, a letter, docuGi^s^edeii,

(^giim(^ (56. II.)

give waij, recede.

_@if

thunder.

expenditure

(03=00 go).

Exercise 64.
210. (a.)
lEnssr

^suGs^L^^io sieur
^jih^u

<su

a (h

Q <sur^i m

^eo'^, &LL<5mid
lalpQpLD ^go&).

Qs=tijs;(ausv)ii})

^j&)ev.

QisiiuLjm ^j&)&)^

LD(i^s^<5rr

esr^

iS.fLD STioir^v Q^!T(5srpei^Lo ^6\)'2sy,

^suesr

LD<mrih

^fSl i^

Qumu Qu
^rresarQCou

Q(S)issr (5T(5sr^ Q^nssrpts^il)

^so'Ssw.

^eu^

^eueur

^sv^

t^iLjLD QufTs Qeusmu^LU^. ^sLLLh. ^^ijlS1&)'20O,

^p&)GO.,^peOeO,
ejy^ei/iz$?6i)'3sw,

<oi<Sij(SU(S(reiiQ3^eOsurT(^^th
''^^rft&l

^ffsmQiBeo'hso.

^^easr

tiT(^&)

<SiiiB(5S)ffii-\(Lp<sm.''''

[Prov.] ^iflQiLjiSI &)'?&),

(Surftems^niLD

^ysv'Ssv.

LESSON 66.
were present. This the village npr to the inhabitants. The book is neither here nor there. Neither of these is sweet. Neither He has neither lias the physician come, nor has he sent his servant. Neither of these will yield to the friends nor relations in the village. other. I cannot quite believe what either the plaintiff, or the defendant,
(b.) Neither the king nor
to neither the

any of

his counsellors

was known

watchman of

or the witnesses of the peons say.

^^^^&
Lesson 66.
211.

The word wiL means


euemiT,

extent (probably a corruption of sulLl-ld,


draw, write).

circle.)

boundary
measure.

((snemir,

wfliLti^Lo, term, limit, (Sanscrit.)

and ^sirey,

These words are used to express extent, duration, &c. and are equivalent "as far as," "until," "unto," "to," &c.
o.
@)ifB!rsir

to

u>lL(Bu>, until to-day (not

necessarily including the day spoken

of).

^(W^Lih
S-0!r(mis\)

ldlL^ld,

to this place, as

far as

this.

^'Sstldl-Qld ul^, learn as

much

as you can.

(By you-which-has-

become-the-limit learn,)
LDtL(Bls(^Lh (4th with S-ld) is also used, but
It
is

not elegant.

should follow the nominative, or the relative participle.


thus much.

^LhLDL-(Sli}>,

^ldldl-(Bld, so much.

6ti1iLdl-(Bld,

how much, are

also used.

ldl-Qiitls^qF),
euemiriLiiD,
viu \ouj IT B rS\i-Ii
,

keep within bounds.


"i
.'

b. ^iklSiTisir
'

ID lo

II

'Of

iiEfBireir

<sa<8S)iruSl^il>,

snp^SJ
ri

isi;s/r<S(aii,

up

to

the neck.

@juuLn.s=

Gis=iL8p<s>i<cSiirs(S)LD, as

long as you do this.

_ii) is

elegantly added to denote completeness (126.).


follows the nominative, or the
rel. part.

a/iSB/r

c.

emuiB^jjih^tli, till death, is elegant,


d. &eijcir
^-afrefr<oir<sjix),

urB'ui^LD should only be used in combination with a Sanscrit noun. and is a regular San. compound.
'\

'

ldu

as long as I live (e-s/r, existence, used

Y
mirek iSl<ctoLp^^(ms(^LD
isrreir
^'srffl,'/i),

absolutely, and
[iSletoLp

sir

doubled.)

56. III. live.)

enQhua ^loiTsyiii ((sijqru> eyiKD/r<S(gii), ennhQrr) suesifrai^LD, shqkld ldl-(Bld ),

until I come.

__

EXERCISE
^euevetreij, ^eueueireti,
ST<s^isJ6rr<ouirQej!iLc,
eria/ei/errs)/,

65.

LESSON

67.

thus muck, so viuch, how much.


c.

(25.)

how much

soever 100. (2.) 208.

e.

(oTsk^^p sk^L^iULDir^^JK^ Qs^irec^QQpasT,


[_LDfT^^!iL>.

(will) tell you as

much

as

can.

S. MATRAAi, the wholc extent.']

212. VocAB.
^Ssar

ijoi-L,

as

denotes measure, and


isr^fl^ssr,

^^jS&ar, so much; L8ff=3i-, lemon tree.


putation.
@j^<suiss)irs(mi}>

an adj. scanty, .^^^ndsmrm, a rash, hasty person. is only used in comp., thus: ^^^^, thus much; how muck or many (25.)!^ ^n^Lo, boiled rice, srjfi/
srSH iS ^
isj

siriL,

unripe fruit.
logic,

<s rr iL

[131. c).
or

^irsau), dis-

^irds^rrm^aiM,

.jijs^j

ap^eo

( Qp^sons,

np^pQsrrekr

= from

that to this.

Exercise 65.
213.
(a-)
<3?^[^6srLDLLLD
iSljjujrr<f

u u

fcom.j.

^^s'Sstr

tEasar

I mar.
^fflysor

QiBso'^eoajfrQ^Ln G)/7, ^iSOeoneSl LLi.n(sO ^Q^Lon^ili eu!DfTS(^Lh

QunQp

s^rr^^es)^

^Q^iii ^nLiiSliLQa Qsaemu^QK.


LDLLQd(^LD
s^nstv^iruD
Qs^fTssr(GU)(S{r.
rsfTesr

Quasd

<si_i_/70^(o3r^

Qsuessn^uj

ejeusueweii?

Qpuu^
fbrresr
lojrSI

<suiss)rrd(^LD

^irds

e^ssism/sQtu

spguaQsiressTLn&sr.

LSl^dQQpesr

<oTssr(rf/'iT-

^rriL suq^l'd ^strsifili Qu-fSnp^^frefr.

^^/bssrr<sS&)'?e\}.

^(susuetrGlsiiasrrQ&i'^eM.

Qispsap

^meSlQ^

Qs^iL^

^u

uu^,

^p6S)/D(SussirTS(s^ii>-

labour patiently and diligently. up to the chin in water. Thus much I have borne. At least take up this little burden. Be thou faithful unto death It is as large as a lime. I will wait till to-morrow. I will do what I can. From the time the learned man came until now I have been thinking about the matter. His wisdom is immeasurable. Until to day.
(b.)

As

long as

we

all live

we must

I will not yield a jot of

what

I claim.

He was

Lesson 67.
214.
crajr.

why? ermesT, whatf (LeSS.


eui^irdj?

13.)

Poet.

srmQm?
eriiiQs. ea m

a.

erj-ffljr

Why

did you come? [vulg.


in a

ir

iL

?~\

These words are sometimes used


b.

manner

that

may

perplex the learner.

^LJUL^^

Q3=L(Si]iTQm3sr?

^uuL^.^

Q<3=iuei]Q^(sk ?

Why docs Why do this?


121

he (any one) do this?

16

EXERCISE 66.
c.

^QsQenr&^ev,

)
>

r=5!/^) GTCsr,

. . ^ 6ri3OT(T)i'e\),l

.2/

, i Uom say why wherefore.


/

(Many
d.
c.
li

similar forms are in use.)


?

@jLJULp.^ Q^iuQjDQ^sirem

Why

do you do thus?

eTeBULD

soever. [This

It

is

equivalent to

may be, erek + &.ld, or a corruption of ^8^u}, in such forms as, 6r<si<siieirQ<sii_^ih
212. d.

^uSemiw.']
fsr,
^(syra/,

eremtLp)
f.

how much

soever.

What

QuirQajesrsar ? = ^qF)IB^it0 ereir(S!sr? ^Q^iQ^eirsBr ? matters it whether they remain,, or go? live or die?
is

Qufr(^e^

ereirasr ?

This
g.

common, and yet

strictly classical.

ereirQurBso ^0''S7@/-o

STesr!

Pray have mercy

^ipon

me!
ersar

Here ejm = pray


215. VocAB.
ffLD,

do, is either for ex cease.

emphatic, or from
revile
,

= why

not?
^^frav^

ssii-i,

(56.

1.)

Si^,
I.),

(56. III.)

-a^^, deceit,

science,

^ii/rtu, search into (56. I.),

.^skr draw near (56.


rush,
en

II.)

^Mi^i^ii,
LD.3^g:iT(S!r

felicity.

Qeu&rerrili,

a flood, u/riu

(56.

em u^eo

bandy.

( es>LDSSJet!ti^,

LD'^sfsareisr ),

a brother-in-law.
airdsir,

S-meij,

relationship.

S-meuir

(56. II.) cl<iim relationship,

a bullock,

^asireir, an elder

sister.

Exercise &&.
216. (a.) e^funiop
{SiB^dQp<aijrrs(ef^t}),

Qumii

Qs=[Teo^Qjr)<SiJiTS(Sf^i>.f

iB&dQeon&air (184.)

Qupp

^nujiT&nrr

<5S)(SiiQp<SiiiTB(^t}),

^mSsa^

^^^s'Setts

Qs^iLjuiQJiis(&^ix), s^nsw^jTta<s'2efr .^!TmuiT^eiJiTS(&^ii>,

LSIpiTd(^

s-usnn^
^rsii^

(GfKLD

^(^iQ^eisresr., QunQujesresr? "spiurrQ^fT

<5r&sr tso/'Ssu ?

^-etrQefr

(m<5s>pun?

&.<osrssQJ(oST (oTiolsrearQBjesiirQu)?

.:^^

s?ioSi<oijQiiin

^esBrinio

Ques.

eusssri^eo

OsuC^ot?

LDs^s^ar^ S-/Deijrr<suQ^m?

Ans. ^dsrrdstrd Qsirem.


[This
is

a specimen of a kind of riddle very

''The handy runs

why?
-?

common among

Tarailians.

The brother-in-law claims relationship

why?'"
anSsir 25.)

By means of the [Qsirem. 239.]

( bullock

(^dstrSstr

= ^/i^a

\_

elder sister ( ^i&insn. marriage with a u3d'3=iTek. App. x.)]

whom

constitutes

him
-

_ _

LESSON 68.
(b.)

EXERCISE 67.

do you do this? He will not give because he has no money. even a grain of hemp seed. Give me a little water, at least. You must examine those who claim relationship; for they seem to be deceivers. It rushes on without ceasing. Draw near to the Giver of blessedness. What is all this noise about? What matters it whether such people come or go? Please give me that money. ,

Why

He

will not give

^^^^&
Lesson 68.

Whether.
217.
(miL(B<^
b. a.

Soever. Although.
^eoSsoQiuir
ereirjpi

^(Siiei^i^^eo

u^^ ^qf^sQjdQ^it
to try

Q.3^ir^d(^LD

Qutr

Q6Fn'(SirQst!reir,

I said so

whether there was devotion in him or not. (46.)

^uuL^^

Q<FiuS/DSueir LUirQufr,
thus,

^euek smeir(^.

Whoever docs
c.

he

is

a robber.

(oTimQs ^QssiJ>

sguuLj/Eiriij

Qsam^iEiriLi ^(^ldit?

(100.)

In any place soever


d.

can a black dog

become a white dog?

S^u umhuirQ^LD
it

Qurfftu ^if-Oa/rsOT

iL^sa
it

Qeu(sssru>,

Although
e.
lurriT

be a small snake

you must strike

with a big stick.


[^<s,
(^lL(Bu>'])

^slLQld

(140)

(let

him be whom he may

= who-

soever.

218.

VocAB.

usQF) (60. III.)

speak. [Poet.]
iSesis^,

Loeoir,

a flower,

LDeorrssirio,

flowery feet.
(^efi, hide.

Q^s-gbtsS, a

head [Poet.]
[Poet.]

upon. [Poet.]

Qp8so, a corner,

(6i.) (^S^, gaming,


&-ee)rr,

(^^ir, gamble. (56.11.)

SQipirir, low persons.

(Sip.

184. j.

speak.

Q/e/S, (64.) stiffen, erect.

Exercise 67.
219. (a.)
^uSfr
<oT!EiQs

^Q^LD
Loeaar

s em 1^ em-Q u.

rr

^i^

aerj/rsro/T'df

sn^s;

^Q^LD Qsn.
S_6OT.

OT2/c5(5

iSesSioSilU^

^uSlG^im loSsot" ^uSI^ld srruuirjbfSiosrsi] ^ITLJU^ eT^QsUfT ^^QsiJ LDQKIh^. ^iSU

(sruQunQ^rr (5S)iTs sesari^ This (Observe the order.


QpeiJ(our
Qs(SsijrT<osr.

^uQunQ^
is

Q^rfluLjLc

^tsuQ^etDiUj Qs^iij^.

very idiomatic)

^Q^m QurTUjQs=rTio^Q/ri<auiTs'2efr rsijous


sfT^s^eir Qi5n5l^^<i Qsiresar,
tSI'^esr^^ireir.

^eik ^Qe^th Quessr ai_L_/r^. iLirrjnTSLLQil) @^/r


s^etarr.''^

''QQi^rTiT ^uSsv)iii) ^irip

a^uQun^

=sy<^

<sijrT'2ev^^girs(^QLDrr.,
epir

^uQun^

Qsn&)&>

ctott

Loiem^uSQsd

^lLQs(^

^i^syeSlisuii^

Qsnemi

Qsnem ^(l^^

ei^(G^QeOii^LD lSsislpujitld^

the confusion of subjects.

Qs=^.^u Qurr^sf-. (Observe The sheep died, and not the spasm).
123

LESSON 69.
uirtrirQaJir
ereir^iuiriii
sre\ie\iirib

EXERCISE 68.
^luir
!

Dost thou not see [110.4(1.]


Before
cUFr[rtr(Siurr

iTn,-

sormw
r

[:>0.]

all?

Lor J
(185. c.)

(I) spe.ik
t

is it

not

known

Before sinful

me

^^arssrih

^(^sirGoih
?

Si'^^'-^

Wilt thou not oonie

Yet

at :niy time

whatever
(251.)

the tluwery feet (131.)

my

head upon

wilt

thou not place?

(2G3.)

NOTE

(1.)

In poetry

after ek is
u>

sometimes changed into


is

(2.)
(3.)

Wlien

li)

follows

one

often elided.

Honorifics are not used in Tamil poetry generally.

elder sister any where? I will run away some hidden in some corner or other ((^icS^^Qr)sQ(n^!asr - he is having hidden). Whoever teaches well he is a Munshi. Whether he be rich or poor a liar will be despised. Can a murderer escape any where? Can you tell me whether the price is what he says or not? Although he is a young man he is a great physician. I asked him those questions to try whether he had learnt the lesson or not.
(b.J

Plave you seen


other.

my

where or

He

is

^.^^^^^
Lesson 69.
220. In 121 we saw that the negative relative participle ended in ^;s, and that the form in was chiefly used in poetry. The negative participial noun ends in ^p&- Note the following forms:

a.

ri

jiEiQs

ev/jrr

rtprnQosr, before

you came here

( <siiun'^^<s(^(ipekQssr ).

sk0

Qpap(^
b.

or <s3(W)<sii^p(Q is probably better Tamil.

fEirdr

^isjQs QuiTsir^^pt^

npSsrQizBT

(4th case of neg. partic. noun), be-

fore I went there.


c.

^eiiair ea^&sijD'JJ(e^

Q^tuiUfr^ULp-Sc^ <^(<5miu^

^iBQ(i^(3st

he wanders about

idly doing nothing


1^

(very common, but not very elegant).


to

jLJUL^<s:

Qg=iLiun^uL^ apiS^Q^ek, I ordered yon not


ereirgii

do

if.

[More elegantly ^uul<^S= Qs^ujjdah.ifr^


221. VocAB.
ber (56.
iSlioinLp,

OtF/rcorG'earOT".]

a fault.

moisture, weep (56.


III.).

I.).

s_(5@, melt (56.

<s0iP, regard, think of (56. II.). aS, yield II. &-Q^d(g. act.). tSossr, think, remem-

QufTffi

(56. III.), bear with, forgive.

Exercise 68.
222. (a.) "sG\)e\}rTu
lS&dl^iljis,

s(T^^nu

lSoslpiljiej,

s&ib^(t^Q

iS&)

124

LESSON
[Poet.
Idioms.

70.

EXERCISE 69.
2d
case

1.

The

sign of the
3. ^Q^s'ireun-iLi,

omitted

SlemLpemiuiLjLD.

2. sffL>0Ofr, itc,

for aeoeofr^.

future for imperative or optative.]

Qpd^Qasr, Q^n^sr^LD QpemQasr) Qsu'^evdsfTjiiT

euii^rrirserr.

^euear

enrrn

He goes about without fault in not thinking of it. Before I thought Before the sun set he went to sleep. of that I wept. Why does the boy go about. learning no le.ssons ?' Should any one go about doing nothing? lie is a blockhead that understands
(b.)

Pardon

my

speaking a word.

nothins:.

Lesson
*

7C(sek<ssriEi

-223.

VocAB.

aiSSTZsriEisifliLi

very black
,

s^^-s).
@gii^^).

^aassriB^si^Qiu
&eiri5!!r(s^

quite alone (^eareani ^esrl^^J.

Sl^tu,

very

little ( St<sk<s!r(^

QuasrcsTLD QuiBiu, very great (

QuskemLo QuqkJ;^ ).

g:^ These and similar forms

are in constant use.

No
is

rule

can be laid
arfjtu,

down

for their formation.

Either the adjectival form

used as

or the

QuiLiiT sr.d-^LD (76.) as, sg)i^^.


LD(sm<k),

sand.

^iuiej(^ (.56. II.) to languish.

(151.)

jjfT tsar's: ek,

a demon, ^'sos^, a butt


red.

to

be

smDu^, lust. arrLD/r^, lust, &c. aimed at. rSmii), a colour. Qudj,
green.

a devil.

Gie=eaS^Sl<su^^,
ivaist,

us^eaa^u

us=^3^,

lj^^uu^uj

new.

^6inL_, the

middle.

Exercise 69.
224.
(ft.)

&(^<sur(^
^<ss)L-.

QrSlujiTssfr

Qs^uj^
s^!s;^

wsmp

Qg^npos^p e^d(^w.
(SuiB^nek.

&(sisresr(^

&^^^

s&yrssrta

QpsQpmefTSiJ&sr

Q^djQeiJtour? ^ssresrih ^evflQuj


etrndj

^(f^i^ ^LuiaSl^^err. Qs^ss3= Qeui^eu ^li^ <s>Jiu&d u^gss^u u<f^^ iBpiMniJb ^(T^dQp^. Lj^^ULj^LU QiBiLQsnemQ (SJiB^QKdQnrj'eir.
^(i^sQ(nj'&r.
^ Jet black
QcSotSsot

Me
\_QLJUJs(m

in hue lust anrt other iliabolical demons unto ^<sossns isneniB^ Ql^iurQo^ ? uirtnjsrQin (215.) a butt why has't (thou) left ? O Godhead!"

eraJr&jT

QuiudQaesrSssr.-

Spa ambiT^

(151.

e.)

n it iai,^-a= u Qudjs
_

__

LESSON 71.
(b.)

EXERCISE 70.
and he had great broad shoulders.
has a very
?

The demon's
all

face

was

jet black

She went

alone in the desert.

He

little

dog.

A
is

very
quite

black cloud hid the sun. That green in the fields.

Must cow is

I languish alone entirely red.

The corn

Lesson
Qpear, iSdr.

71.

(See vocabulary 84.)

f
225. (1.)

Qpm,

before, in place or time. J in the formation of tSsar, after, in place or time. compounds of very
|

Both these words are used innumerable common and

Lidiomatic use.

For
(2.)

Qpm

are used also

Q-parQasr,
QposTLf,

emphatic

sometimes with ^'L and


vulgar;
Qpeirzsrir,

^;

Qp<a!rimLD, Qpeir:o!irQLi>,
(tpesresrp,
(T^ffljr(6B),

generally relating to time;


poetical.

and Qpeki^Qeo.
iSeir

(3.)

Qpeir

and

fore-time and the after-time.


(4.) tSeirQear,

form compounds thus: Here sbt becomes


poetical,

(ipjbsir<o<:)LD,

iSj^sireou), the be-

before

<s.

SmLj,

i^asrssrir

iSpuir ( uit

a state.), iSdi(^Q&),

'^P (from
(5.) (6.)

S. Prdk), are also used.

iSdrQissr is

used for moreover.


iSii^^ (56.

The verbs Qpisi and


Qpek and
lSsjt
,

II.)

are used for go before,

after; of these the verb. part. Qpih^


(7.)

and

tS/h^ are idiomatically

and come employed.


Thus,

are used in composition with

many

verbs.

QpmicS

(68.) put before.


before, protect.

QpdrsSeo^, (70.) stand


tSdre^, (68.) put
i^m<Si]iTi5j@, (62.)
iSissrupgji, (62.) imitate,

after.

follow after.

draw back.

Exercise 70.
226. (a-) ^prBQ<50
("136.)
surB^n&sr.

Li0<3i^m-

Qfimss)iih

Qucssrsrr^

iSlesr^mfTSLJ

QunQjD Qurr(Lp^
LfliS3r(S3)G'6i)

LDpQ(nj'(r^6>j(Ssr

^euirs&r

ti)(S3r(CT)(?60

^/dejQ
i3p

^(Sjits&t <suQ^Qp^p(g Qpm'Qesr.


^(r^LDiSlsij iB^aiTSGtr.

Qeonrreir Quir(56r iSljburrQ.

^(Su^s^Lj
urr.
(aU(T^ih
(5T63r

s^pjBi^ ^nemi^esr

iSliosrQissr

liiaseir (sr&)6\)iT(T^ih e^inQ^iassir

(com.j.

''QeyerrefTLD

Qp(osrQe!!r

^"Ssm-

Qupu. QeuemQu).^^
QurrSlQpesr,
i

[Prov.]

Qpasr lSsst GffuuQ

puis).

Q^iu

!BrT(osr

Qpi^u

iSk^suffeonuD.

Qpk^nQ^.

^sum" Qpm^<i(^

(susrLDmLL-rT&sr.

__

LESSON 72.
(b.) The brother went before and the sister came garden before the rain comes ; for afterwards there Afterwards I heard them say so. Compare the context and after). I knew this before. The criminal stood There were upright judges both before and the judge.

after.

Dig your
no time.

will be

(sentences before speechless before


after him.

Look

well both before and behind.

-'^^^^2>-

Lesson 72.
Quireo, Qufmo, AS.

227.

Of

Qurreo, the

are in use,

QuiTsa (56. [HI-]) resemble, be like, the root 3d neut. fut. Quirsa^, and the past rel. part. and signify like, as.

Quirio, the infin.


Quirdsrp (rarely)

In the higher dialect Pope's III Gram. 109.


(1.)
(2.)

many

other such particulars are used.

Com.

All these govern the 2d case.

But

as in other examples, the

nom. may be put

for the ace.

(3.) er

may

be added, QuirQeo, Quire^Qeu, Quit^Qld.


to the subjunctive

(4.)

Sometimes Quires, Quireo are added

in

^&)

95. a.

Thus

Qi 3= ill

!T <so

Quijiso

as if one

should do.

They

are often

added

to the verbal

noun

in s^i

Qs^ujQpgjQuireo (87.) =

like

the doing.

The forms G)<3=iijQ(7i^uQuiTQicO and Q^iu^iruQurrQe^ = as soon as (you) very common use, being pronounced in a very hurried way so They are probably, corrupas to sound like Qs^iiQifuuQ&i and Q^uj^iruuQeo. tions of Qa=tuQp Qurreo^Wke the way of doing (^ in old Tamil means, wa?/, manner). Q3=iLiLjLDrruQuiT<so, which also frequently occurs, is a correct form
(5.)

do or did, are in

( Q3=ujixjLD,

^,

Qurreo), as if (he) would do.

^miT (56. I.), totter, grow feeble. @lBl^, a luhhle. iirs(g,LB QS, parrot. <idsi), a bubble on the water, (131.) ^^u^io, a body (s^ildlj ). a0&) eypuQiupp, sfl& S-tuirk^, very valuable (suiuir, 56. I. be high). price.
228. VocAB.
i^,

precious (i^8so, ejp, to ascend.


(II.))
esril),

^Q^ssiLXj,

a gem.

Qujpi, obtain, 56. Qiupp, which has obtained. costly. Qp^ei, a pearl. jn^^ jn^^eardaeo, a jewel. (131.) euszsrm^ek, a washerman, .jijldulcostliness.
^(Wjeuiajfu/rsjir,

idr, a barber,

(mnjesidr,

a potter,

^e^eii (56. III.),


<9=

'" beat clothes

on a stone.
III.).

^lL(B (56.

II.), to

sharpen.

iSi^seo, a potter's stone.

^L-.ds&), a hone ( Loir^iff, manner, fashion.

ir'hmT

iSl^, seize (56.

__

EXERCISE 71.

LESSON 73.

Exercise 71.
229. (a.)
into

"^fTLu

^iQ^i^m

iS&r'Sisir

^mnk^np Qunen

{&)

before

p)

sTSuisSli^^Lo Sit

^Q^i^'i>

iBrriosr

fi&rrriBffa iSesrQjDssr.''^

QslL
^^;S

iisiD^Qiu Qs^rreog0!EJ Qeifl^uneO

(8effl6S)UJuQurr6\)).

eS'^^ou^Luirk^

^<5srs

seo'^u Quneou L3n-sn&^^^- ^juuu^ ^^julSlu^ Qurreo Q^n (SsrguQp^. Loppeuns^bsfTU QunsO <5T(Ssr'2esr S'SssrdsirQ^ ('for S'^sstluit

^ib^s= ffmL Q^)! S^^lujLD ep(nsrr6l6\)eOfT^ ind(^L6lL^ Qurresr/D ^-i&). Qasnuir ptpasr^j QLJriK<i(^Gh'Q<s{r ei'ssarfGmjissr ^(sasudSp S60'2eou Qurreo
sjju),

^' u)

lL I (oir ^LL(Sld,se\)'2eoLj Qurreosiiu), (^lusiKsur iSis^seo'^bsoLJ


(o(a/j2/

Qua

&)<sijLD,

Qsii^i

LD!r^ifliuns3=

Ssaru

QuiT^ih
^jrfl^.

(siSlQeysQpsirsfr
J)/

Qs=iu^ QsmssarQ smh^irfis&r&.(S3r Loi^ifl eri^^ Q^s^^^^iij Q(5aiuu^

iSlseiiLD

s 6B losfl saiu LI

QumsoQsu

^dssvfl

"!E&ie\)na <opQ^Qj(^s(^ff

Q-fiu^ S-USfTiTEJ

aiso(DLD6\)

^^sQissrpQ^. sjag^^u Qunp ^ir enpi

(b ) Is there any one like him ? As you sent me so I will send him. In colour it is like saffron, in shape like the moon. It would be hard to find a man as sensible as the shop-keeper is. In fashion that garment is like the mother's. Suddenly the mesDon't think of him as of others. sengers came to fetch him. Is a black rock equal in value to a precious stone ? Are there any counsellors as valuable as these ? Youth is like a It would be very hard to find a friend as faithful bubble on the water. as he is. So in this case also you may judge.

Lesson 73.
230. @iB^si is the adverb, part, of @,i? {^Q. IIT.) point out bi/ a sigji= having pointed out; up^ is tlie adverb, part, of upgn, lay hold of (56. II. ) = having laid hold of; Q^itlL is the adverb, part, of Q^ir \_oQ. (II.)] touch = having touched.

These are used


appears
to

for concerning, regarding, about, touching.


up<Si is correct,

@^^^

is

correct and elegant;

but not elegant; the use of Q^inL

be a mere foreign idiom.

^esi^u

upjSiii Qu@l(ec\iT,

N he spoke about that affair. y


gj(B,

^enifi^ Q6bitlL(Blj Qu&Q)It,

In very common

talk,

J)il (from

68. 263.)

is

used in the

same way
=5yn^

^lL

Qeti(^

u!T(BuL-Qim, I suffered much from

that.

Qufftso or Qiuujifjea (7th case of Quir or

QuuiT,nameJ

about.

128

EXERCISE 72.

learned

man

about the king

a loorh

cvinpoied.

QfsirdQ verb, part, of QtBfra(^, look at (56. II.)


uirrr^g] verb. part, of ufrir, see (56. III.)

having looked
seen.

at.

= having
^juui^^r

These are used

as equivalent to to in such sentences as;


f

^sn&sr
rather

QiBiTsSl
stiff.)

Q,s=rmBr(mesr.

(This
(This

is

ijeu^u unir^gj

^ljul^-3=

Qi 6= it

m (es^m
.rr.,

is

He

said thus to hivi,<

2.-

,'

^eiKssrlifipl'oO

colloquial.) n r^

^ ^uuL^^
^uuLp.^

^ Q&=ir3sr(^esr.
Gi,a=tTm(eT)m.

(Ihis

is

better

.^

than either of the preceding.)

^eu^LQear
(^

(This

is

not

very good, but common.)


elegantly and idiomatically used in
attention.

^^
Tamil

The

verb, participles are often

for particles.

This requires

much

Comp.
^t.m, a
aajTzi),

77.
fool,

231. VocAB.
a hindrance

QuiTiBs- {V&xs.) recommendation.


is

(g/j^sio,

((^/B^dQs

also used), (^s^uld, cause,

urr, part.

u/rL-(Bd(^

on account

of.

&^<oS)ld, disgrace (Sgii

etatD.

184.)

weight.

tar,

adj.
II.)

much.

^uiLDtr, idle, without reason.

.sBeSitirrsmu),

a wedding.

Qernsm (56.

desire, seek for.

Exercise 72.
232.
qr^m.
(rt.)

^<Sij'2esTLJ

urrir^^:

^safKoLDso

^uul^3= Qg^iLvunQ^

(sim

^0

^L-'2esrd ^/Sl^^ff Qunifls- Qs^LU^n&r.

^i^

Frrs^rr ^<ssr

iSlerr'Ssfrssfr

uu^uunLDeO ^L-ffeewfriu ^)(f^dQjX)<oS)^d


i

Q^!tQl- .:^Q&iiT^^(T0sr.

ff^^^^(^QeO LDa^^jnh
might be used. ^
Qsrrs^ULD =gy^
{.S^j^-s']

asm, Q&j(^ eSls^esr^ ^ijQs QuniL skssi^s (^fSl^^u Qu^sn-euniL ? uiuuuieo ^sn^. (Here s^s-^^fsm^as^rQ^^
^(Suj.^id

s'S^ajnemr^OD^s (^rSl^^a ai(SjTULLQi^<ok-

^^)'

c^ffly'2s5r

^^smLnu ut-LQi^m (^^^jjld is used here for (^fB @l1c5 strrfliLiLO Greosonuo (^i^SLDmLu QufTcii <sSIlLl^.
ufTLLQd(^
epQ^

ffl9ei)'2sv)J.

<SiJuSlpg)]u

(suqr^^^u uQ(r)^(our'

s6\)<2Sl<su)UJU

un

/Sis

.sear

an

ULLQt(ssr.

Qpsnk^n^sa^u
LDmLi^nlrsen''

ujhf9^ ^(SJs&fli^^isO

euQFjsunasQefr ^60eorTLD&}

SriJoLDn' eusr

(b.) I have inquired concerning


village a long time.
I told

it.

you before

all

He talked about the about it. What

affairs of

the

will

you talk

about to the mother ? It is said concerning this in the 3d chapter. He has some end in view in coming to you. What are the villagers saying about that matter ? He addressed the king and his counsellors concerning the affairs of the country. He has composed a poem about the king. The man is very much troubled about the means of subsistence. The teacher said to him, learn this lesson carefully.

LESSON 74.

EXERCISE

73.

Lesson 74.
233. Examples illustrating the idiomatic use of the 1st case.
SCf"

Ellipsis
first

is

the key to almost every Tamil


to the

idiom.

The
(1.)

case often stands for the other cases (50.) town (1st for 4th).
for 7th:

uLLiemQLD (193.) Quiri^m, he went

(2.) ^(ThLDiS ^(EiKzir

^iLD Quit, go

to

him again (1st

^iU>

for

(3.)

a-^ifls'etsr'zsr

srmemnJa

(132.)

^iT^m

(B^q^susst

(172.)

^^/f^tsbt,

there was a king called Su-darisanan (good-aspect).

(An example
(4.)
euQFfLD
^irSsoiLjtl)

of apposition.)
ertsarueuiTsefr ^dssr

LDfrSsOLLjih

isirmiV)

Qsu^ld ep^rr^ ^i^essrir

(127.)

u^Qu.
(Nom.
for 7th
the 4

and 2d.)
in

Those Brahmans who do not


are all chaff.

recite

Vedas

the

morning and
(136.)

in

the evening

(5.) ^(ws (50.) sem^^ih Sl/i^iu Qpd(^LD ^<sd with weeping eyes he stood, snivelling and confounded.

se^/sjQ

S,<s!rQr^Qsr,

[Here

with the nom. case

is

ellipsis of a-errsrro/sJr (133. 184.) after the

used for the 3d case in gs, or there nom.]

is

an

(6.)

^(5

/E/rsff

epof) iSfTfTLDemireir <^lLls.&)

Qf^eu q^iI: eflsv/ruL/^ii) (sS'/e/<ScF


till

(168.)

s=!rui3i^Lfrn'a(sir,

one day in a Brdh7nan's house they both ate

their ribs were

well lined.

\_LSlrrirLD(smeir is

6th case.

wit(^ is

used adverbially.]
lived prosperously, for

(7.) ^QiBsrEirefririu eurr^ii^QsiressrL^Q^/s^rriTs&r, they

many

days.

[Here there
234. VocAB.
stumble,
(Gi<si}<sir,

is

an

ellipsis ofserr.

^(Z/

= ^.]
^iffi (56. II.)
moisture.

Q^3=iTi3;rnh, a foreign country (Sans. com.),


GiiBrrekru^,

trip.

lame man.

uea<3=,

(su eir

Q eir^ im lj

white),

a well-picked hone.

Q,srrsij

(56. II.), snatch at.

Exercise 13.
235. Q^S'mh^jTix) QufT(^esr ; Qut(^i1)

Qun^

[106. (2.)]

epQ^

wnen-

^i^

Qmnessn^ ^uSpgu[123. a.] ^rrsih srQ^^^ ^saaressf/T (^is^isu QufTi^(^. fEmtja) U(as)& ^eoeon^ Qsu&r QeiT^memud QsemsSd, si^s^^iu, ueoeoems^ff^Lo [100.] u& ^irmnio.,
<ST(T^ srT&) ^L^rSI, (sSlQpii^^

S^lsQ^nSl^^OS^ J}j<SaLQjr)^.

^ir^(T^LD QfUQ^UL^LD UfTmLj(d^


is

S^tfl.

2srr
uxssnJoi

ir^ ^HLDfTUj
Qun(irj'LDed

^(f^sQp^ (-^^

redundant),
Qg=dj^

^em^u unn^^

QuQ(^<sisr.

un<sj(W^

turTSUQKih

^aQ'2ssr ^saieunir

__

LESSON

75.

EXERCISE 74.

Lesson

75.
(18.)

236. Examples illustrating the idiomatic use of the 2d case.


(1.) ^eiidosr (2.)

QLomLsmL ^i^^^ireir, he shaved him

bare.

meiLeiarrLjQufr'lj-3'

Q^irm^freir, he went to the town.

(For

sai^sg

(50.))
it

(3.)

^ea^u

mere pretence
(4.)
dstrJ:

urrs^iriEjGiseir^ ^^iU!rLDeS(W)fB^rreir,
(it, that it tvasj.

he did not know that

was

^-lUiT^'SssBr

(oVasTga

LDSuSt^eaiT'F Qd=freir/miT

^oajS^aSur

srsBrgj;

Qa=n-(sir(miT,

he calls

men "high caste;" and

other things "low caste."

grammatical division of nouns into 1. 2. irrational beings: ^oo^'Ssm (29.)). indicate rational beings: S-HJiT^hmr;
technical words for the

mppesieus (The those which

In Telugu In Malayalim e. [The sign of the 2d case in Tamil is s. nu or ni, in which the real sufRx is probably n. In ancient Canarese it is am. In modern Canarese a or annu, and in all the languages of the Indo-European family m or n are for the most part found in the accusative.
it

is

(the

The origin of the Tamil suffix s seems to be this the nasal was dropt (retained in Can. Tamil people often pronounce ^ojajr ave'), and final and lengthened into e in Mai.) became S, (as ^Sso is the Tamil for the Canarese tala.) Comp. Bopp. 149.]
:

237. VocAB.
saken,

uiTLprsj

Qesargii,

an old

ivell.

LJirip

(allied to ueaLpiu) forQfEtressr

decayed,

urrip

+ ^ld +
lit.).

8(wsii

and

elided.

(56.

III.)
.Jiji-f-,

he lame.

QC

(56. II.)

draw near.

QLDinL<mi^, baldness.

OLDtnLemi

make bald

(strike bald,

QstrtireS,

an axe.

(^tEm<s(^, crookedness.

Exercise 74238. enssrssTQinn


tilsrrSsvr

sn'bso

Q.-?rT6ssrQQ/D^(ipi^w<3Si

sji^fis^

ihs^(sm^.3=
C?ggg);<S(g

QQfBsm u sm <smfl s
^<st03=LJ

Qsr[(3!r(emSlQp(Ssr.

QsnwLj^

uiLL-neo QLL(lLDn (not Q^'^sst^?


^LD<ss)U
Qf^rrsseOiTLDiT
'^

Qs^^ld ^Q^ih

LSI(^ih^

epQ^

urrt^iwQsmjbetDjD @^6^^ ^}(7^dQpQ^(5sr^ smL.isf.(es)SST.


sfTLD&)
[BfTuSasr
<sun'?e\)s

<STiJu^su'2esr Qibit

(^ssmdQsQdseOfTLDrT?
u&)
/^2ls37
QsuGsarinu:).

^^'

sQsfT LfrrsikrQ

QunQp^.

gtsSI eucerr
ejosr'^ssr

Q^iremis ssmQi6sr.

eSlGfraQs
er<5br'2stsr

Qsneisris^Q^ii^rrasT.

^uutsf.

^ULJUjL<f Qg^rr&ieO&nrQLnn?

<5j(kis(^s(^ ^(Tj^ssbriSlsarii/a)

^&}

eontop stTUun/bp Qsuem&ii.

^j(Sij'2issr

^Q^LonQ^

eiehrgti

Qs=fT6brQ(osnoir.

@^

fBrriosr

sitQ QsuiLQfSJ QsriL-neS.


j^jemieS^^fTir-

^rrrrs=6sr s&)sdsrTfr(5S)fT3=

Qonps^

s=fr'?e\}(ssnu

(Two

accusatives.

LESSON 76.

EXERCISE 75.

Lesson 76.
Examples of the 3d
239.
case.

The
=

particles connected with the regular terminations of the


together icith;

3d case are
-i_air

Qsrrem = by means
one

of.

You
hiding

one

a whole

melon

with rice

like,

deceit

to

make

to right

(is) opposed

thvs

he reproved.

(2.)

^euek ^aQsr^^Qeo

ept^ ^SsoQiuitQl

^i^^

fftrs,^Sifi

er^^
Sir, unite

eiii

^iTim, she ran with haste


(3.)
to
ereeTLiQ^Sip^Sssr

and brought

the rice in the leaf.


Q^g^ir&a Qeuskr^LD, Sluit!

er'mQ(^Qi ^i_^

me

my
(4.)
(5.)

husband.
urrQffOir(B

Q^eir s'SOii^QF^sQpgj, there

is

honey mixed with the milk.


he embraced

^ih^u

SlefrSsiremiu
it.

LcmrQuirihaaJ:^

Qp^^m Qa!r^^n<m,

the child

and kissed

(6.) ^sj?ksr

^^QiuirLi^LDir&s QsL-(Bd Qarrm (StKiiiseifr, hear him from the

beginning
(7.)

to the end.

of one shape.

^ensSnKBJiTSi^ s^QiT muLDnruSlQhdSp uL^uireo, since these two are both [uif + .^^ (often written uL^uSl(e^eo, uL^uS(e^Qs^ ) = by the

step that, since.']

(mm, he coughed when I


(9.)

told

him

not.

Therefore,

I stabbed him.

Qi^-ir zsreorrQso Q^qesrisiilj

ufrir^^^dOsfrsm SeirQr^m, she stood looking

out of the luindow.


(10.)

^udr

enrriudQ'S^rreo^d

Qsit<ss^Ql- ^ssd^ .ji<SdQ^<!^.


this

His mouth-word by means of indeed


(11.)

I have known.
Q-Fn'dr^eir, the palace servant-

^'rrismLD'HsiT QtsuSsodarrrfl ^dTLiQ^!SL^Q(e^(Sl

maid

told her husband.

Exercise 75.

sonQeO

iSlseijih

Quq^^^s QsnQg^^ ^k^s

smLtsf-QeO ^iflk^ QsrresuT

LESSON

In gross darkuess [and]

in thick rain,

croaking frogs

like,

^Zmr

s^esaririre:

fft^s^ira^irso ^frsaih ^tli_irsu

itself which does not understand if you engage in, that which will result (is) wliat:

(163) ueJIuu Q^eiresr ?" by means of science, disijutations

l^iiT for ^iHii^ a poet. form. 270. (5.).]

unQeOnQ ssoi^

ifr

uneo

^Qch

sj'soeon^ lijrmufSpihQ^tflujiT^. ^<safi

-^^^^&Lesson 77.
Examples
242.
(I.)

of the 4th or Dative case.

The

particles connected with the 4th case are:

^s

= for
to

(vulg.)

(II.)

OTfiJrjj;;

82.

{^^<Sii^sQs<asrit

Q&irQ^Q^ost
157.

I gave saying

him.) (III.) SlS^^ldit^s, QpedLDiT&

for

the sake of.

(1.) UJIT^S(^LD UITdsSrA(^LD ^iBiUSTlLu QuiTuSi^^ ( QUIT<S'.) The elephant and the pot are equivalent (in the account): Put one against the
(2.)

other.

eraird^
to

^Q^'-'ff'

me

twenty
S-<s!!r

ua-d&eir cows
Qsdrgii
if,

^(TF^sQeisTjDssr,

there are.
el oj rr

(.3.)

Qp<siiQF)LD(a>Jii^

s Q s QST s

d IS tu u
it.

UL-L-iriTsm

three persons
(4.)

came and disputed about

each claiming

a certain

G^(5^^ ^0/ra(g tSek eumsiSl euissi etosy^^/rsrr, woman for acash bought some fish and bringing it kept
o-s, liiQ

it

(in the house).

^LDetBLodQiLD LD^<sisiu>d(^(Q
sent

s IT &Qp

i-j^Pffesr,

a son who imparls pre-

and future

bliss.

(5.)

^i^u u iLiicm^ gj d (^s


from
_3rs/r(ii/rD/niyiD

arr^suL^ ^^rr^^Qeo ^piki@(^ir,

he alighted a kutham
(6.)
[ijour

that town.
^-tzir^suUiemsiyiiTiLjLD

fBfreirs&ssr

QfE/E!r<cJr

^uSh^,

mother and your father I having seen, a long day has It is a long time since I saw your father and mother.
IS

elapsed.']

(7.)

^euiTB(st^d(^
to

tBiT'sk

Q^rreiris'r^n'sd:

Q 3=
to

ir

eo

(SO

Q en em L^m

[you

them

as having said

say which must

as

it

follows.'^
fell

You must

them from me that, ^c.

~T33

EXERCISE 76.
(8.)

Qu(Thd(^
to

ep&i
uite

QeuirnK
one

QsLDLjiiir
vessel oj' water

Qair(Blds
to (jive

0<9=rrdT(m<sir,

tach

he commanded.

(9.)

^euisir

he
they said.

"ereinSeti^ sriaQs" "where is my chihl"

ereir^Qai-Lis;n)(^
to the askiiiy,

"^lijQa^ed^,"
not here"

"(lie is)

(10.) ^si/sjr Osus/Tfiflcsr ^rreSuj^ciD^ he which had grasped the wealth

<cSi^gi<S!jrr_^a(^
to the

eiJtT[kiQsQsn'^^s,
having taken, he gave,

scholar

and

to the

thief

according

to the

law

punishment

he awarded.

(11.) <L-(B<s(^sirQ(sir ^(w,s@((rfa!r, he is within the house.

[Here
7th.

@ is

the siga of the 4th case, to which

is is

added

^-.eirQeir

a sign of the

This accumulation of inflexional particles other S. Ind. dialects.

frequent in Tamil, and in the

Thus IN-TO, wiTH-iN, &c. combine two


244. VoCAB.
gi, he, she,
it,

prepositions.]
S-z/JewLD, possession,

e_/fl,

possession;

whence

s^rfiiueuek,

(str,

to

whom

or which (it) belongs, governing a dative of the thing

possessed,

gj en isiafr, a leguminous plant,


sg,

^iretnh, time in music,

agree with
or,

( .jai^stm, to a step, ^Lf-)

uq^ulj, peas ^euffLn uq^ulj. (131. c.) <c&^^ snQF^Qp^ &c. ^L^asu^ vulg. .^u^sQi^saQ^^nLD, often (one time to a step.)
(56. III.)

Exercise 76.

Q<aij'Serrd(^ (Qsa'^dsiTuSQeo)
euetreij

^eunili U(T^ljlj
(GS)^ ld

<siiej(^iJo

^suui(oSI&)'?e\)-

erdi

Q^rT<ss)s<i(^ su n la
OTSsrSsjyr

^^^rresr

<5i(3aTS(^3=

Qs^eoei^at^ dojesar

ii).

^swear

<5i(ssr<ssr

Qs^ihajeorruD? (for 4th.)

eTa!rd(^d QanuiJo

euk^g] ^e!!rd(^ f^uui^fi

Q^ffltLjih ?

^^(5

(SKSsrear

Q^ujuj&)rri}).

Qs^nii^^

(^L-s^

elegantly

for

^iu.^^&)).

^<sij^s(^ LurrQ^ir^ ssu

^(aijrfeSl&}'^. Q(SLierfld(^ iBe\}&)Qs;eir0'iTS6iT. ^esuneuQKeiaiUJ (sijn'd(^d(^


(oT^rr

(SijrrsQun^.

^ireissrd(^il> Qurflius^essrioS)! eS'Serris;^.

__

LESSON 78.

Lesson 78.
Examples of the 5th
245.
(1.)

case.
uiT^uSl(e^Q0
with the half
aireoaSoirff^

^.i^

lifflQeo

Q<3=U6iBiauujfriLd

OF that water
'SsQpeSdQ.siremQc'Ziir.

(y) fo^t

well

washed.

[106. (4.;]
(samg)s,

^^'c^Qf)ii^ (^rriEJI^se^eo
(2.)

one of the monkeys that were in


S-csrsireSQeo

it.

urr^<3=Q3=^

(Half the

mud
7iot

You have

your feet from half cleaned your feet of the mud.


^-dr
[is]

^iSI^^ld even

QurrssSev^.
has not gone.)

(3.) ^eueSQf,(SiiiTa<oftlQ&)
'''

LfQ^eL^isir

turrir srsarjj/

Qstl.Lrfek.

Of these

two

thy

husband which?"

he asked.

He

asked some of those who came with lam how

it

was.

(4.) ^(Sisi;eif)Ca) srim^uQu/rffO ^(msQizirfisueir S-^^Loesr.

Of these
(5.)

the best is he

who resembles

whic/i ?

eun'<S!rQp(ss>piUfr.s

^eurrsurriTam
each one's

sw^uSsS^/h^
from
the

LDmhuLpili
the

sums

(In order
SUSmSS
the
Q^ffflLfLD.
is

hand

mango-fruit which came

way

plain.

[/] have found out in order the


(6.) .^iijQ(if)iffi luirrrfreiigj

way

in

which the mango-fruit passed from hand

to

hand.

suq^Q/dQuit ^-msrLir? Is any one coming from that place (^Ej(^, that place, used as a nouu, and ^QF,ih^ used as the sign of
5th case)?
(7.) aikiwuQun'(V)em^tQ Q'a=i<)<siiuQun'QF)<str\^ia (^<s6>puSle\)eorr^<suiT^ who abound in the wealth of learning, and in the wealth of earthly good.
(8.)
6rdr(oijni^^eS(T^,is^,

Those

from me =
is

eTcirssrii^(rEi^.

[Here the sign of the 7th ease


5th case.
(9.)

put between the root, and the sign of the


inc.

Lit.

= having

been in the place of

LDrj^^asn'ffQsr s=ih^L^

^/Bigi

t^L-Lp.eSnK'h^

^^lLl^s QairmsrQi

eai^

euQFjesi&ujieo

^Q^L^ek ^ism^

.j^jjSis^

LDrr^^&i @)piij@ enih^irm.

all the
]

The owner of the tree hearing the noise came running from his house, scolding way. The thief hearing him came down from the tree. [Obs. the uses of

246. VocAB.
(siiff&)

Q^eueaQiiuiriLi for Q<9=ui<oiaLDajmLi, rightly, well,

eiisreir

npeiam

the coming.

charge,

Qpeap, order), in order. spuiS, (56. III.) deliver up to. ai^ih, (^hiek^, a monkey. ^^itQ^ld (S. hita + auita, proper and improper),
evil, right

good and

and wrong,

^enmili, a livelihood.

EXERCISE 77.

LESSON 79.

Exercise 77.

Lesson 79.
Examples of the 6th
248.
(1.) fi<^

case.

hSlL^ Q^iTL-L-^g]

(sulSiuits (Stirk^irasr,

he came by

the waij

of his house garden.

f
^^^
<?

Ellipsis of the casal sign, the

nouns

sff

and Q^niLiLD

(T)
'

"^.
*

<|
'
j

r*

This has ^6^S prepared for its reception according to 18. been termed the "oblique case," or the oblique form of the 6th case. This is a very common and at the same time elegant
Corap. 131.

Inform.

You must

not come without (your J father's consent.


is

Here also there


(2.)

an ellipsis of the sign.


Giun'(asr

Comp. 50.
Loisssrem^ldr

QuirdreSosr (^ild 2_gio_/E^/yb


srsiir

^(^ixj

(^ild

2_s!Di_/E

^dsrre\}

^(^ld

When
broken

what

the vessel of gold is broken


is it?

it

is

gold.

When

the vessel of earth

is

[^dr used for the sign of the 6th case. 18. This form is too much used by Europeans. Even here perhaps Qurreki^eoirQuj (^ild would be better " a

vessel

made of gold."

130.]

(3.)

iuiTusJ er&r(Trfdr (for tuirQhioiaiiusj, or luirugj), lurr/r^ is poetical,

whose

is

it?

[The form
dialect.]

^gj

being a term, of the 6th case in the higher

(4.) rBLDQpi (for rsiM(Lp<ES)i~.uj ) our


(5.)

[vulgar].
tree.
i^tL.(B.is!Tridsr,

LDtT^^dsirrresr, the

owner of the
the particle

the house-holder.

Comp.

18.
[_LDnui

siTfjasr

^^gi

being inserted. 18.]

[36

EXERCISE

78.

LESSON 80.

em^ u^ir, the block-head


afterwards support her

loho sends his wife to her viothcr's house

and does not

is chaff.

(7.)

efl^^a/ffisw"

sp/D (70.) seoafl. 190.

The

scholar's learning.

Lit. " the learning

which the scholar has learnt."


this to use

g^"

It is

very elegant and idiomatic in cases like

an adjective

participle instead of the 6th case.


(8.) ^isii(mia(^ifliu (^<sm&)L-'SF<omisi.sefr, her qualities

and excellencies.

Q:^-rfluj is often used for the English Possess, case.


(9.)

/BaateSeo

^sss.^ ^ulS) ldiuiejQsst ldit^lS,

a pilot bewildered,

who has
euniud

lost his course, in the

middle of the sea


bone.
&<SiSeir,

in mid-ocean.]

249. VocAB.
arrffL),

srSSLDLj,

QitlLl^, a rcddy, a caste of cultivators,


.ressrLp-,

a water-course.

a disciple.

an obstinate felloiv.

Exercise 78.
250. ^emesi^iT (^i^ss ^ppisj* sGmn<s(^u
uj(i^ Q-9^ibuLsnL>eO ^sro/r

Quni^m.

^(SijiilS

snifl

Q^(SlQpos)^Quj Qurfl^ns

lEl'bssTaseorTLDrr?

^euesr

Qu(ssr^ fils^s^uS^^dQsfTsssTL-fTiJssfr.
uunuj
^isf-p^'

^i^^ ^esaresaPir
&<aLf,(5sr.

syniLdsneo

<s>j

lj

(^QKOiDfTL^ QssfTfT^

^nuj<su nnatoS)^

QsefTfT^

j)ji^

^irfrffrT(sijS(^rfluj

iDnLL&emtMiLjth ^^sfTjTQpu::.
is

j^^Q^^f^^
Gram.

LoesBssn-

*'%> Here the particle ^lo


^Ps)

inserted instead

of the sign of the 6th case:


108.

Si<^

^''

= ^ppEjaoDrr, the river's bank.


^^^^^^
Lesson 80.

[Pope's III

Examples of

the 7th, or locative ablative case.

()'^,

^'^^'^)

251. In the higher dialect there are upwards place or position that may occupy the place of Qldgo above, Sip belotv, L-jpii side, &-eir within, ^iil>place(^i^^&)) 2iXiA urrso part, ^/sssrasi QlLl, near, may also be used.

of 20 particles denoting Among these are J)a).

Qpek before,
,

Slek

after,

^'(vj^,

^q^Qs, ^Qr^Qen,

3:^ Some

of these particles are prefixed to verbs to

form compounds, which


Thus:

are in constant

and familiar use.


[Qld&)

(Comp; 225.
56. (III.)]

(7))

QLs>pQanm(&f),
place).

Q&!r<sir(^.

overcome (obtain the higher

Q^uuuf,, [Sip + UL^.

56.]

submit (sink to the lower place.)


J

37

LESSON 80.
2_ilt5jCffl;0 \_S-ek

iSlffQeuS. 64.],

enter in.

Qpekegn [_(Lpm + ^(B.


i3dsreiifTiEi(^

68.],

^Mi before: [give the priority],


draio bach: [take the place behind.]

[l9ot

+ ia;/r/s/@.

62.],

LjjDuu

{_Ljpi})

u(B. 56. (II.)], set out: [experience the outer place.]

asm, meaning place, is also used. These are all essentially nouns and remain so, however compounded. [Pope's III Gram. 63.]
(1.)

^^Sn

s(rmi UfTLnmiU
it.
fBfreoiruSlsTil)

er&>(o\)fnh

t^L^^^gi,

it

caught all the snakes that

were found in
(2.)

Qufrg7<^Q&>

>Jjjfra^Td

Qsa^^^rruk, he gave 4000 Pagodas


hand I gave.
6r<3!rQrfasr,

in

common.
(3.)

^susk
^Guek

<ciasuSleo

Q<xfr(B^Q^sir, this man's

in

(4.)

S-L^Qear gj^s>s(SjSii^^p(^u Qufriud Qs!r(BsQQp<zsr

he

immediately

to the

Muhammedan

going,

^'

give,'' said he.

[@
(5.)

of the 4th ca.se

added

to _g)i_^^so.]

^li^u Q u sssr <5m Qf)@ &> He approached the ivoman


msiffldr

Q^s-ehga

Qu&(^m,
spoke.
(3>jQhiism<suSs\),

and

(6.)

^qf^Qs

^sSisn^LOLUtTa

(Of the

When
(7.)

near he vjas coming near the


village

alone
village alone.

in the coming.)

^Lp-Qioeo ^ifStroke on stroke


(jss(s 60. I.

^L^^^rreo

mLDiS'i^Lh

/f-s^ld.
will be moved.

if you strike be moved.)

even the grinding stone

(8.)

auL^iLiniLi

^fOT-a^ireiKossresit

^Qf)S@p LSj^/rssfl Lj^^^ireSl ^(^s^^ld ^eueir <si(m QuirgjiM ^Q^sseo .^sfr^, a deceitful minister though he be clever, must
eS(ipiiQ^sir,

not be near a king.


(9.)

^enm&iTi^io

I fell at his feet.

(10.) QpEiQeS&o Qlds))

The Bambu-leaf upon Will sleep the dew-water.*


*

There

is

a story worth telling connected with these lines.

Kamban, the translator ofthe Raniayanani, and the greatest master of Tamil Rythin, passing by a tank cue eveuing, heard a cultivator as he watered his field sing the line

"On the leaf of the Bambii". The man having then completed his number of buckets of water ceased at once his work and his song. Karaban was struck with the line, and said to himself, "what can be on the tiny leaf of the banibu? Probably to-morrow morning the labourer Mill begin his work with the next line ofthe song. I must be there to hear it." Accordingly with the dawn Kamban stood on the border of the tank and was rewarded by hearing the man, as he drew his first bucket of water, chaunt the
second
line

"Sleeps the

little

drop of dew."
it.

Moral.

There

is

plenty of poetry and sentiment in the Tamil people if you can only get at

Tss

EXERCISE 79.
252. VocAB.
QpSsir,

LESSON 81.

<3^/r^ (56. III.), to assert, maintain. Q^ldlj, a brass vessel. a tender shoot. Qsmrff, an axe: Qairt-nS. inismui, odour (poet.), ereh,

rape seed,

eagjieaui, poverty.

^m(e^sj,

it

is

evil

(poet.).

^qF), prosperity.

seo (70.), learn.

Exercise 79.
253. epQ^eum u^^uuiraih ^^ldlj
LDjr)Q(Tr^0 (o^SF^^/b(^iJ (?L//ruJ<F,
(SurriwQ, ^Q^Qjesfli^^QeOeaGj^^^ Qso euQ^Gi^Eiaefr siSlih^ lSisstu suii^,

Qunih

sj<S5>^s

QsL-i^p<^,

(SurTiEjQesTiSijesr fEiresr

2_6ar

emsaSQeo

GjrriEiQ

uem'essrldQsfTGm'insar.

.jy/5^ euLpjuuns

QfuDL^ssfBeO fSssipuj

[ii

Qan<smQ(Siijr,ff=Q<3=rTioar(^dir

iBL^k^ (sui^nira&r^jresar (two vessels full, &lc).

^(ou&fli^^so

QtBiLi 6Bi(5ur

(observe

the

compound.)

(SijrTEiQ<sisr^p

uS&) Q&r&rnss ldstw


ti).
iL6\}rFl&)

QppiB(^ei Qsnirfl

OsnemQ

QeutLi^^ ^enewQiouem
2_z_s^a)
^ijSI(T^fEiseOi5
eSiff60<sm<3iis

LDismrQfih^ (ST&retfleU

STtsmQesariLjU),

^^Quneo.

6^iT ejrfld

soDfrQiDQeo Qun(GS)asr.

Qpsf^QwQeo

With-the-good-endured than poverty bad indeed, (is) with-the-ignorant-enjoyed wealth,


[_'sm

before

tii

becomes

lL,

page 11. (III.)

f.]

Lesson
Uses of the root
afl

81.

leave. [68.]

254. Many of the chief difficulties in the language are connected with the peculiar use of this and the following verbs. Each sentence is a formula.
It will be seen that where in English a preposition or adverb is required after a verb, the Tamil often adds an auxiliary verb. Thus, go

g^

away = Qurnu
(1.)

sfl.

^-!^

^Q^LDissiU
iron

OTsS

^sjrjj;

eSiLi^,
e^L-iirdr,

Yunr
(2.)

a rat

has eaten up.

^^^Q^em^^Qic^
At
that juncture

^suek
he

eaigj

came
Qun-iLi

back.
(iL-tgj.

(3.)

UQ^isi

eT^^sQsir<cmT
having
lifted up,

A
(4.)

haivk

has taken
Quiriii

aw at.
ilLLitr<ssr.

^susir

^m
his

(lL.s(^u
house
to

(5.)

He ^eaiTs^
Them

went

off.

^^ulS
he sent

eSlL-i(reir.

away.

___

LESSON 82.

He

accompanied them a

little

distance on their loay,


e^LLtireir

(6.) ^saeir

^sas^gj
affrighted
liiT

iSckgii

She
(7.)

stood

still.

50

Gia=uiu

npap^ui

elL-(Bd ,sq6Su-jL>

Ufr^^

Q'S^QrfLiS^Lh

Quits

vessel-of-water

whole, having

let out

although

(you) washed half

the

mud

even has not gone,


(8.)
(9.)

Qssir QsfTL-u^ t:^L-L-gu, the scorpion stung them (redundant).

tspckuQdr ^uSrnh Nine-thousand


esQH iBir&r

eurrirsSssr

^'E/SU

LS'Sfr&ira(^d

Qsfr(B^^eS(B,
give up.

pagodas
erioeoiril)

to this

child

(10.)

!IT^^iB

aSiir LDesiipiuiTsu QuiLi^a Qsiresari^Q^i

^Si.

(Mu).\up sireo^^eo

rain descended.
(11.)
(Lpfisili

Loemip i^iLu- Slesri^, for a whole night incessant In the morning after the rain had ceased.

evL-L^xjia QaiT(B^gi

w(BQQps!r, I will

paij

up loth principal

and

interest.

(12.) ^ireair
tears in drops.

^n

(sei it

uj ir lu

S(smmr<sis)!T

sSlLQ ^(w^sfreir, he

ivept,

shedding

(13.)

^eia^ euirEjQu uirrrsQjD^


it

Qu,t<o\)u

uss^^Qeo

qplLl-ld Qu!tl-l^qFjS
it

Qn

QfBahULSQeo QuttlL

(^lLiitost,

as though he

would take

to

look at

it,

he threw
(14.)

away

into a fire

which ivas kindled there.


^QeSLLt^rTeir,
he

C'omp. Lesson 61.

^(Siim

esxsu^^sm'isu-zsr

became

Vaishnavan (re-

dundant).
(15.)
OTcnr

QldQsc

su^^^^ot^

<siirj

<^il.LtT0sr,

He caused
(16.)
=gyji?

trouble to

come upon me.

<Sl-(BIu QumiSipsa [CJu/TcF*],

It has got loose.

(17.)
(18.)

^6S)^ sSlL
@ISJ
.jtienssr

siBffl;,

let it alone.
lditlIi

^^d<s<^LLi

this is the tree

which he brought

to

be

sawn [left

to be].

Lesson 82.
255. Uses of the root
(1.)

[62.] move, dance.


^-p<sufrL^d

Trans. ^tL. 160.

usmaiUfTefil (mL^etoiU

Qs(BdsQ<aii<sm(SiLD,

A
jjfTL-Lf.

hostile inhabitant

feigning intiynacy

(you) must

destroy.

^suSssrd Qa(Bds6i)iTLi.']
Q<srrmiTifr^L(miT,

^euSosru Ljsipi^ (QsiT<5m, ^.)


(2.)

he praised him and celebrated him.

(3.)

QsuL-eiai ^<cis>sijS&), while he ivas hunting.

(4.) ^euGST

^i&)

u!Ti&)a^io

sn e\) &) su an ,

he

is

a very clever fellow in

dancing and singing.

__

LESSON 83.
(5.)
eufrast^ojiT sr<sfi'efrir(B(Q

Q-^seiaa

euSsrriLi

eunFih ernhgissiT Quirio, li&Sei)^

What
[
/fioff

will it profit though


like bullocks that

wide world,

you for ever go round about temples from the right, in go round the press in which oil-men grind the rape seed?
usi)u>

this

SleotM

the

wide land.

eunn, go

round from the right side

(6.)
is

^UffirrB

^(BQpsi

(gOT^^ffSesTLD, the conduct of a

liccntioits

woman

a disgrace to her family


(7.)

^(BQp

LDiTil-<ciai .Mi-!f-s

ap&s

C<mj<mr(Bil

ufr(B3pLDfTLL(oSiiu uiri^d

spaa

QeuemQih, a dancing cow you must milk dancing; you must milk singing.

and a singing cow

(Yoii must adapt yourself to people's humour.)


(8.)
(9.)

Qafreorrid

(^[jEia!T(Blil>,

when
is

the stick dances, the

monkey dances.

uism^gjds,[T(BQ(nfm, he

very urgent for vioney.

(10.) ^lLild

a movement, enterprize. 190.

^susk ^/EiQs

(Surra
to

^u.ild .M^SQj-m,
there.

He

keeps trying

go

(^rna^frL-L-LDiruj, like a

monkey.

Lesson 83.
256. Uses of the root Qua, put. [68.]
(1.)
iSuii) Qua(SlQ(nf(sir, she

calumniates.

erek QldSo
(2.)

ul^

QuinLitresr, on

me

he put guilt.

^eu^eiaiiu sdasirsSstrs <sBLpp/6l^ ^ek arr^Qeo QuiriLQsQsnessnnQsr, He took off his ear-rings and put them in his own ears.
^/F^dB
8tiTffl

(3.)

amga

QuiTL-igi, that heifer has calved.

(4.)
(5.)

^LDtrs^irffLD

er(ip^uQurrL-L-!mir, he wrote off the news.

Qseoedmh s^iruurfQd Q^&:i(Sijld toppd Q<Fve>is(Sf^LD QuiTL-(Bd Q<3=ujiu QeuemQw, for all who come you yourselves must provide board and all other expenses.
ei](r^QpeijiTS(^d
itihsQefT
(6.)
ewffi

''Give

QuniL.(BsQsa(B srdr(rifdr, ^uul^Qiu istas QumLQd Q,sfr(B^<sfrenr, me your hand upon it," said he; so he gave his hand upon it.

(7.) ^(555^ cjy/E^ sS'Llifsb

QuinL<iL, gjQ^rr, 9(5 O/e/t^


into that house,

^/errsflsb

uis^

mQQp<!k, I
(8.)
171

will just

put

it'

and

be ivith you in an instant.

^if ^

s^lL L^3i(^isfrQ(srr ssretmrih QuirtiscnTLDa?

Can you make a summerset


yoti throio

the bottom of a pot?


(9.)

[Compare

also 106. 5.]

^p-SQ<so QumLitT^LD

the river, measure what

^sir/B^Qufr, you throw!


aS"

though

(money)
doors

into

(10.)

^^p(3) /E/rsuQ*

QuniL.

[vulg.],

four or

five

off.

[Perhaps for QuiriL aflil.]

LESSONS 84, 85.

Lesson 84.
257. Uses of the root t5^, be born. [QQ-^
(1.)

iBiLiirujir^u^s(^'f 3=ihQ^sili iSpigj


to

LD^(E!r<sir Sii!i4= Q.3=iT<ssr(e^m,

the judge

began
(2.)

doubt and told him

to

come to-morrow.

^siraj^peSlnKiB^ (^(T^/smrat^u i3pii^^, a voice was heard from the sky.


(zasuQeiJirnK

(3.)

Qeu^seBQisi} ^(merr

isiiirAt^u

i3pd(^Ui, every now and then

a gracious word proceeds forth.


(4.)

an agreement

SB0 ^^L-ekuLf-dstaaesiLUu tSljouLSeS^^-s Q<sir6SSFiirn's<sir, they caused to be made (double causal. iSl and efl [160. 92.] )
euiruSleSQ^is^

(5.) ^eueir

iSp&Qp
is

(suirir^en)^

ersoeoaih QuiriL, every

word

that comes out of his


(6.)
era^LDirosr

mouth

false.
Qs-djiueoaLci,

_s^irsy
it.

iStpi^neo

if the m,aster^s order be forth

coming (you) may do


(7.)
er'3=LDrr_^s(&)
to

^euck QldQso

^^s

^3^QiiT<9=Lh

Spi^gi,

the master took

a great fancy

him.

Lesson

85.

258. Uses of the roots Qun, go, and Qun-d(^. [58. 160.]
(1.)

^(a]^!ss>u.'u

.jij^s ^<oB)^

uiudsTuiiTLDp

QurraSpgii,

(His

excessive lust

not bringing benefit

went.)

His

excessive desire

was

utterly unproductive.
erecxsosTLD

(2.) cSy/E^ Loiissy^LJ

us^dseh

^ptssi

QurruSesr, all the coivs in that

herd died (went dead).


(3.) ^<Siieiiid,(m'3= FiffQuirenruL^ er&imiTLD Q<s=uj, do as seems
(4.)

good

to

him.

Qwrr^LD QuitQ(^ld, wc arc cheated.

(5.)
is

^euesr

ereirSssr

Qldits^iI)

QurraQt^dsr, he cheated

me (Qurrs(^

[56. II.]

a causal transitive verb, from Quit).

(^^irQeu^eo Qurrnpsi QuiTsQ(es^cir, he wasted his time in gaming.


(6.)

QufTssLf. iSu^^^irdir, he followed his track

(Qufrd(^,

=syif

the step

in which (he) went).


(7.)
luirQi^irdsr^a Qu!ruSlpQ(nj
it

^sb^ ld^ul^

Q3=siflAa

Qeii<ss!sr(BLh,

if any tiling

be lost

viust be acquired again.


QuirQTjSfT erffCicOmh

^eu^mioj
unjustly was
(8.)

^rSiumuLorrdju QuiruSlp^,

all his substance

lost.

erssi<iSl(fF)dQp QQiS'Sbld

Qurrsngi,

my friendship

will not cease.

142

LESSON 86.
(9.)

^i^u
to

Qu<^SrU Q u rr
something
go,
else.

lL(B ih :

QenQp Qu3=3iLj Qua-,

let

that proposition

alone: turn

[Quit means
verbs
it

leave,

be lost, depart, cease to be.

Added

to intransitive

often gives the idea of completeness:


euiTL^u QuiriSpga,
it is

faded.
destroyed.']

^SigJ
(10.) ^//B^
the rest is

QurruSlpgu,

it is

iSeoil) Quits ldjb/d mine (that land to go).

tSecih

eresr^eaiiugj

setting aside that land

(11.) ^QEL-einiu QuiTssL^A'S sflstr(g ^Q^dQ/DgJ, There is a light to scatter the darkness.

(^2.)

^isS
Shall

iBir&Qs, QuirQiDfT?

QpdQs
or

QuitQldit?

lose

my

tongue?

my

nose?

(13.)

^su'Ssa-uurrrr^gja

QarremQ!. Qs^iuQ^ek.
Q3=rresr(e^e3r,

^^(ea)Q0O

(s^Ild

QuiB^it

su

QurruSlp^ ereksn (^s^enek

"/

did

it ivkile

looking at her, and so

the vessel became too large," said the potter.

(14.)

^siim

is^'cs>T Cu/r(SB)e3r,

he has gone to sleep. also 32. 58. 124.]

[Compare

Lesson 86.
259. Uses of the root
(1.) (2.)
(3.) (4.)
Q<xrr<ar(si^,

obtain, take to one's self [56. (III.).]

i^L^^gjs QsfTsmQiek, I awoke.


uiTiT^^d
Q&ireir<oird Q.s^/rsjrgjsw',
GiBir6Bsnrr(zir,

he told

me

to beware, to voatch, look out.

QuinL(Bs

he put on (himself).
he had stored up.

tsneii^giiG Qsrf<5mL<^Qf)iB^ir<^,

(5.) (6.) (7.) (8.) (9.)

Q.3=irisoms

Qsiremtnm, they were talking (among themselves).


those heifers were in milk.
it.

^li^d

aiiriflmsir .zpi^Qsn<5kri-^(iF)ifiasr,

^^dsrQLD&d ^ea<s^QaiT6!S^ u.rrsk, he placed his desire tipon

^euSsmuQunQeo ^uiii Qisnemiirm, he assumed


^&{>^piEjQd Os/rsOT
s?i1ldit

a shape like him.

^Q^ii^rrek, he was silent, hanging down

his head.

(10.) Qsrruim Qsnemiirir, he became angry.


(11.) mirrLDemipiurrsu
(12.)
respect.

Quiu^

Q'SBmpssny.Q^/B^^,

it

was raining incessantly.

iB(^i^

<sii<5S!!rds^gjL-.QasT

QsL-(Bd Qsirmriirdr, he asked with much


^gjtsi&aniSl^LD,
until now.

(13.) ^^susir ^0n^<3= Q^s^iK^surgi np^eoQsirem From the time he said that
(

Qp^eoQsrrcsm having (that) for a beginning = from that time).

LESSONS 87, 88.


(14.) LDfTEiseonsDiUs eissaQisnism ^ikiQa uii^ir(sk, Taking in his hand the mango fruit lie came here. (15.) ^(auir i^eurraLD u<smesifl(e^iT, he married (as a mini.ster). ^suir eSiSuiTSLD uessresSHQsirsmiirir, he got married.

[Compare also

106. (4.)]

(16.) ^eusmfT'ff' QQrEsih WoSsresfldQafrsrrQQJsk,

will cultivate his friendship.

Lesson 87.
260. Uses of the root sirmr,
(1.) see.

[70.]

^iB^

(^enriEJs'Ssn-s

asm

e^Q^ ^-tekuLf.diS!as uemes^ie^iraerr, they

made

an agreement in which these particulars were included.


(2.) ^ihsaLDLUiTiT

^pQp ,jjei)

StpaugjiTjiswi (iv ^<cis>!T(Sr.n^jiS(^s <siTims\^, the

thread which the old lady spins


tleman.
(3.)

ivill

not suffice for a waist-string for the old gen-

suuldit"
(4.)

^(75 LD/ieff>^^!^^s(^Lj "QufriLt ^fSDiiu'hsrs sem, us^QsuemQii, eTec!r(rij'iTseF, they went to the flock and said to the herdsman, "wc
it

want a cow, can

be had?''

sTuuL^sssm How can I find it?

Si^uQuesr?
[see

[to semiemiQrogj and take it.]

to him.]

(5.)

^ei}mjjd(^ ^iodQjST6l^(ipLh

s ir lu d' s^^ ih

sessr iSse^ih eunK^^uuLLtmdr,

he got a cold and fever, and teas very poorly.


(6.)

SB5^ ^QJiT emsuSlei) QatT^gjd s<sm Take that in your hand and go to visit him.
ereirdssrd srr{m:)LD0

Qsn<ss!!rsiirr!

(7.)

3^

lu

^a

issr ,

he did

it

when I was not

there to see (lit.

not seeing
(8.)

me

he did it).

erek<ai^

aa^iiLD

What

is

that (an interjection.

[214.193.])!

^^^^&
Lesson 88.
261. Uses of the root
(1.)

6a/. j)/ace.
li

[64.]
tie vie

erdr'SssTs sLLLp.es}uds^

Qurr,

up and go yourself (redundant).

QutrpQiUfT eexsii^gid Qsrr<ckr iSideia.3=dQiLD Quiresrs^LDUih^LDinu Qpsii il is like the man who stored up his wealth in sacks and yet went a begging.
(2.)
(3.) ^euiTssSsird s^irutStL. GUQhihuuf.

^0

^^uiS(smGsjiLjm, send him

to cat

[pro-

bably a corruption of ^^uL/aSuyti the causal (160.)]


(4.)

lBiQ= esieu^^fr^Lb uesys lB(Q<5=

icis><aid&i)iTsiTffi,

although you allow

fire to increase don't

allow hatred

to increase.

(5.)

CTi^r QufffQffO

QsfuiJD
.JtjLS-

(oSiSiidsrrQ^, don't be

angry with

me.'

(6.) .jiieum'

<^L-d(m

<s>aeud@p^eo8s!>,

shall not tread his threshold.

__

LESSON
(7,)

89.

emu

fBir(Bili,

^LLmi0auj <oT^^ QLD^m^uSl&) essu^^ir^LD Q^njsm/DeriU'^ Q.3=/be!o/D though ijou take a woodlouse and put it on a bed it will seek the rub-

bish heap.
(8.) ^ih^dstriBuj^ioisis;
QpL^ee)eijd^n'6\}

Qeae^uuLirQ^ir? If you cover that

affair will it not


(9.)

come abroad?
<5B).suSl(S0O

^<smi^(S6i^s

is!a<&j^^fnL(Bia]fr^d(^-F sfrsmesiisstruj
it,

Qlds;^u

uiTHLDiT?

To him who bears the globe in his hand and moves

is

a chunde fruit

a great weight?
(10.) &as!j^^trs\) (mQiS, &iciafr^^fr&) QLDiril.s>i, if you preserve

if you shave
(11.)

it

it

a tuft;

baldness.

\ am

in

your power.)
for him
(lit.

^Qj^d(^

C)euL^esieii^^0dS(Tr^izir, he is lying in wait

shot he has placed for him).


(12.) .jijeuhr m(3u^^(iF)iQ(nfwr, he keeps her (improperly).

Lesson 89.
262. Idiomatic uses of root Lj, 5M^er.
[56.(11.).]

'Teir,

Harischandra, the great king, son of Trisangu who reigned over Oude. (^eiru

UL-i for ^easn


(2.)

)
Qufr(es)iTseir,

Lf/ouuL-(Bu

they set out.

with what we should call

an adverb: ujpLD.)
(3.) (4.)

Qseir^uuL-Qcein-, I heard

it.

with a noun.)
,

^saek

^^ ^ldlSssSosSQiso
and
tv as

ulL. ^-imLii^gj

his

head struck against

the grinding stone


(5.)

broken.
to it. (

=gy^^@ ^suirseir S-LQsiuLLLsTiT&m, they agreed


ix)2.-^L^

with whatis

equivalent to a preposition.)
(6.)

S ULLaQisiTm, you

shall suff'er twelve stripes.

(7.)

S-jeSa) ^suuiLiimeii

&.(oC,s<casd(^^ ^ljljld!t?
?

Can

the things which

have got into the mortar escape the pestle


(8.)
iD^aroSsar

eufrmQisiiesr^LD (Bu^uSeo

w(wisi

LDirdosruQurrio iSli^ui'

.nssr,

like a hart caught in the toils he has fallen into

the net of domestic felicity.

witli a

verbal root

iSlL^dsuuLLtinzk.

(9.) s/rsvi^

iSIlLi^^so

uihuLf.uJtrs

<EaL^(^asr,

he ran

so

that his

heels

touched his hinders.


(10.) s^U!TUj^^(mio erensomD eca<xisU'^uuu>, stratagem. ( etnsuS^&aiiu eu-s^^^Qiso uld.)
all viay

be

accomplished by

[Compare

also 92. 161.]

__

LESSON 90.

Lesson 90.
263. Uses of the root
(1.)

^,^iw.

[68.]
it

umjQL-(Bs Q s fr m

(SIT

lL(B LD , let thevi divide

among

themselves.

a part
G)sir&r(Sir

to give
of,

gives the idea

among

themselves.']

(2.) ^sjr Qu<5m'ff=ir^&auj

^LLQdQsirem

QuiT(^dsr, he

took his icife away.

^m
(3.)

LDsSssr ^LLevfB^freir, he

brought his son with him.


luith one,

[Here

^^

is

used for taking

giving the hand to one.]

QuQF)Si]Lps@LL(B<s=

Q3=rr<k>^SlpiTS<sir,

you are making a great complaint

of

it.

[Here
(4.)

^lL =

making, giving out.]


Qsimmi^QFidetaauSi&:>.
his

^(aUiT .jijuuL^ eressremLD

^l-(Bs
in

While he was thus thinking

mind.
it

[Here ^lL(B
(5.)

turning over, giving

his thoughts.]

LSsker^LL(Bu QuirQfLhuL^ Q^uj^rrm-, he made (them) turn back.


^^iiLSjswsar, he dreio back the foot that he had

QpeinssntLLafT^-du iSleirssnLL^

advanced and turned back.


(6.) (7.)

iSimi^

3k.<d'<3^60
(Sij

^tLi^frear, he

made a great row.


Qufrt^/rssir, he went in the

QiEiftL-i
iiself.

L^ em LU u

up/Slu

way

that first

presented
(8.)

(Q/bit opposite.) u,l-l^lL.(B

sB^eiaeuQpL^u

QQ3eS\uSl&) siiih^irm.

He
common.]
(9.)

shut the door,

locked

it

and came

out.

(yi-^
it

.)
up.

[Here ji^(B seems redundant or else

up: he locked

This

is

very

(^pprm
50.

(V)!5i!>pius

(^emui QldsSl- ^(75^


,
,

168.

S-mpsaQa ! ^<^i(ff)piSi]nLD
87.

unrruffQasr

.'

74.
ivhich
'.

O,

thou,

who possessest grace by

my faults diminish,
from
s-gii, be,

aiid good dispositions increase

within

me !

God, kin of my soul


increase.
fEp(^SiS!!rLh.

[CiDiJi)
gssijrii),

+ @)

S-pp(Siiir

possess.

Not very common.


relation.]

used for

S-psij,

relationship, used for S-peiiear, a

(10.) a pretext for going to him.

^sw^

(ipizkswLL(BdQsfrsm(B .^<si]rffi^^&) QuaQeuissr,

will

make

that

(11.)

.jijafrenix)

^lLl-

eSil-L^iki sisstgstld

^LeorrLDfr?

Is

it

right to steal from

a house where they have siqjplied us with food?


(12.)
6rs3Jr

LDi(ms;uSlQ(DO ep(i^

us?
coiv

a^em^tSu^^gi
has picked np
in flesh

In

my herd
(Here

Clds^ ^L-Lf.(TF,sQps^ and increased in size.

tSi^ also is used idiomatically.)

LESSONS 91, 92.

(13.)

^uuL^a
(SWffl

<siLlJSs<t

^iLi-QF,(^i}>!

[68.]

Grant mc this!

Thus gra-

ciously give coinviand.)


(14.)
rB(BiaQ, Qlbuj ^(BibjQ, eniriu
(^ip^Sl

i^Sl-1QSJ
lips,

Qiairessrinen-,

with

trembling hand, and trembling body, and stammering


wept.
[sS'/f,

she screavied aloud and

a mere imitative word.]

^^^&
Lesson
91.

264. Uses of the root ^Q^eir, grant. (62.)


(1.)

^idr<oS(mui3L-^p/b(^

er(Lgi^((^eS\ie^n-,
.'

he ascended benignant to his seat.


sir,

(2.) sf-eumS.' ersardtm sanh leo <a;/r(^

^^iswCa/essrOii),

you must grant me

a favorable reply.
(3.)

us^H'B^i^n'QsrLD

^QF)<s!rQ'3ii(sisril>

erckffi

^euiM

uesjremlies^issr,

he perform-

ed penances praying for male issue.


(4.)

QLhLDiT3=Q!r^^60

eS^^Qhi^Q^etfl (S^eBT

he arose and

seated himself on his

throne.
(5.)

Qpsisr, as

^eumS ^su/fcssrr spiSi^^QrjeSliuuL^Qiu tBii^Qsirism my Lord shall please to direct I will conduct myself.

Qua^arS'sir

strictly poetical form, Qurr^rr

The verb is Qun^Spgi but the [Here Qurr^rr SlasrQpm ^ iajQF)QQpsk. iSekQpek = Quir^QQpm, is used. Com. 33.]

Lesson 92.
265.
(1.)
(2.) (3.)

Use of the

root
ir
!sir
,

^-sbut, eat.

(56. III.)

Q (SI L-.(B em L^n s

they were cut down.


,

sar&sBeo sL-(Bmsn<siieir

she tvho ivas tied to a pillar.


eSei^ui S-Gmu/rQufT?

jijOp^LD S-<sssr@p iirr<^<eB)Q&} with the tongue that eats ambrosia?


(4.) (5.)
<m>LD

Will they

eat poison

QsmLQem

QufruSlpgji, the ink is spilled.

npL-Qmsr

@ssfltu/rC^, don''t stoop after you've hit your head.

(6.)
desires.

")i0B<5^O.B/r(o20r

^SsOLLjem ^iBQqvqst, he goes about distracted by his

[&.(skr is either

1.

There

is

(43.), or 2. having eaten

p. verb. part, of s-essr,

eat (56. (III.), or 3.


this case

it is

used for the passive and so equivalent


to the root.

to

ulL.

In

S-em

is

added

Com.

133.]

-_

LESSONS 93, 94.

Lesson 93.
266. Uses of
(1.)
tlie

root ^if, beat. (64.)


QiDinLemi ^U)-^gi^

^LD^dsTga
^L^iuiTS

QuimiTiLjua

^rr^^

(lL-Q<Eii<5mLh, shave

these three persons bare aiid send them away.


(2.)
lEiT UL^iLorgj,

a country which has not suffered, will not learn.


Gresrgn ^S.-o

(3.)

&)3!r@npsstrsL-Lh
!

rE!T^<ssrT&L-(BLh

^i^dQQrj'eir, to day!
to

to-morrow
(mssr,

saying, he causes

me

he knocks

me

about,

tu

dance attendance ( ^dsoiu, omitted.)


to (sa(msaQF)LD

wander.

^L^dQ

(4.)

^eueir i3rf'3^im@aQ/Dfip(^ npmQssr

^ftssld uesnTi^miDeo ^Lp.^

giu

Qun(B<Bi!Tm, hy his preaching he shuts the mouths of gainsay ers.


OunhLDisisLp

(5.)
rihLD, it

jijL^sQpQurrgi

(^fSjtr^;

&g)i

,gfppeo

^^ldQuh^

@erfl

does not grow cool when heavy rain falls, but when gentle showers fall.
@^ao/ra(L/<^ ^sufrrfi ^Lp.dS(Tif:^, he rides the horse.
(T5

(6.)
(7.)

s^fTPO ^L^LjQuek, ^nem s=rrio ^L^uQueisr, s-LDLOfr ldisQ ldisQ ^LQ.ss i5reir(emio .msit^, I will plough the land once, or even twice; but uselessly again and again I cannot plough it. (Here .=SijL^ probably refers to the bullocks that draw the plough.)

(8.) ^eueustre^ ^rr^ruiLD a/SltULo


tfricir,

^rrem

eufruSlQicO y^rrrreufriu

^uf.^giuQuaL-

all that rice

and curry in two mouthfuls he


QsiTsirdsir

ate up.

(9.)

^ifii s&DL-eatus

^L^^gis

Qaa<sisrQu!Tiu ^iLirriTsm, they

robbed that bazaar.

Lesson 94.
267.

Some

idiomatic uses of the relative and adverbial participles. [25.]

(1.) ^(BKssr
(2.)
li

eunnQp

(m/SluLj, the sign

of his coming.
which you are drawing water.
do you
tie

@jes)pdQp

sTJapLD, the picota toith


an'rr<omLi

(3.) (4.)

LD6tsS

<sL-Qp

erekosr?

Why

the bell?

^ejr^ ^Ls^^^

^LQ-ssiind

aiTL^i^i^m, he showed the stripes he had

suff'cred.

(5.)
(6.)

urreospi^ us-, a cow

in milk.

rsidQp Qoidsi happen any how.


(7.)

eruuLp-iLju:) ibis>(^ld,

an affair which

is

predestined will

^i^
.j)i(ssi^

aS' sil-L^esr
is

uemLb

@jGsr<ssris^

Q.3=sceoi^SoSso, the

money expended

in

building that house


(8.)

not yet paid.


^/Ssi^, the
^-(cmsrirsii,

^/SQp

knowledge of

that.

So U-smnhSlp
(9.)

the feeling of a thing.

(SDdr QJQ^Qp

Qa^,

the

day of his coming.


is

[This

quite idiomatic]

_____

LESSONS 95, 96.


(10.) ^(osrnp^eSio
It
is

^^S(^
=

Q^&)Si}frQ/D^ .Ffffmeoec.

not right that the expenditure should be greater tlian the capital.
[^sijr

which has become.


.MSuQ^eiresr?

Qppeo =

capital.']

(11.)

iSekSstraeir @jQf)tB^

What
It is a

is

the use of

their existence ?

[For ^(V)/s^P(e^&).
So, Ufr&)

gerund.]
?

QsfTLfr^ er(mss>LDsdo<rd sfruuirjb^u ueot^ S-<5mtfr


?

Is there

any

use in keeping buffaloes that yield no milli

Lesson 95.
Idiomatic uses of the root ^(g.
268.
It

[58.]

may
(1.)

of these have been illustrated fully in the foregoing lessons. be well to collect and exhibit a few of them in one lesson.
Q'S^tLiuQeusmL^iuQ^eoisoirLD .Q<3=iLi^iTuSnj^
done.
(Qa=uj^!rs=3h), all is done that

Many

was

to be

^iJ^jb^

= npL^i^gi,

is

finished, completed.

(2.) spnnsij^esjiUJ (^sssr^em^


Uismsssrffo

Qs ^uj<^l-1^, the ^^Qp^pt^ npimQesr ^eu^tQiEsr


to associate

time

is

up.

^seiiir<s=LD
it is

^sfr^^, before knowing a man's disposition

with him

unfit.

So, ^QF/daeorrsfTsy,

it

ought not

to be.
it is

[Here
Q.ff'fnsdeOffOn-LDfT?

^sir^ ^angj,
ir (ki <s^

not proper,

fit.]

Q 3=

so it ld ;

Qs^rrioeoeofran^.
one

May one say


(3.)

'?

One may say


ereir

may

not say.

0<s

.Mssr ^-LQear
it

^ism^^ ^QFUiSld
was expired.

OsfrmsfrsSeoSsi)?

Why

did

not you redeem


(4.)

as soon as the date

s,npQrj^uu

upkpnm,
\_^iL

he

fleiv like the

wind?

- ^Sl

verb. part. See. 40.]

Lesson 93.
269. Idiomatic uses of the tenses.
(1.) ^sus'tr (mLp-^d^ear^ ^petaLo ^eoeorr^eueir erekgn
.^/SiQfi'Ssr.

"She

(is)

domestic affairs' ability, one

who

is

without,"

I have

discovered.

z_ffl/svr 6r/E/@ii)

^Q^dQQiffr, God

is

every where.

(Past for present.)


(2.)
(3.)
if li

^uuL^d

Q^iLeurriLi

^(S^eo

Qe^s^^triLi, if

you do
is

so

you are dead man.

GslLl euff^isw^s QarrQ^Q^ssir, your request

granted.

149

LESSON 97.

(Present for future.)


(4.)

ioTlL

rB irhniiSi

Q &) i3l^^^& Qafr(BdQQjDesr, I


"

will find

it

out for you in

eight days.
(5.)
iBirdr

Q3=uSl^gi eunnQQjDcir

eraJr^j^sir,

will imviediately conqiier

and

rctur7i," said he.

[Cora. (snirQpsar, siy/rC^eir.]

(Future to denote custom.)


(6.) er<Ar^ss!^ ^<ssr Lcisa^iSiBtuu

urrir^^sQsiTefTefrJ' Q^fT6\}^surrsBi

he tells

me

to

mind

his herd.
Q.^rreihrQ
^/ffeuireir,

(7.)

eruQuir^iM ^^a^tuaism^u unh^gia

he

is

always

going about seeking the wonderful.


(S.)
rLpesrQ(emiTssir .jiiuUL^s^ Qs^aeo^snirirsGir ,

our ancestors said

so.

(Future for imperative.)


(9.)

@jUUL^<3^

Q.3=iU(ci]frtLj,

do this!
for the present
in

gr^ (a.) The past is used and to indicate certainty.


(b.)
(c.)

some few cases idiomatically

The present
The future The future
is

is

used for the future to indicate certainty,

used often to express a habit or any thing customary


used, as in English, politely for the iinpcrative.

(d.)

is

This

is

especially

common

in poetry.

(Com. 140.

c.)

^^^^^
Lesson 97.
Some
270.
poetical forms

and idioms.

teach the common Tamil, as spoken by all classes of the people. There are certain poetical forms which must be understood before the learner can read the two little works called ^^^(^Lf., and Qsn-dres^/u QisiiLui^dr, by the poetess Avveiyar*. These will be illustrated here. All other poetical forms and idioms must be reserved till the learner is able to read the Ilird Grammar, where he will find a full explanation of every poetical form and idiom.

The

object of this

work

is to

* The woman"

traditions current among the Tamil people, regarding the "wonderful old are very numerous. She was one day sitting in the porch of a temple with her feet stretched out straight before her not considered to be a very respectful position in the presence of a superior. The officiating priest rushed out to her with the question, " are you not ashamed to stretch o?/f your feet in the presence of the Sumi? s^inS ^(i^aSp ^ifs^ej sirai liCi

To which
I
will go

she replied
:

Qin^^rrasr, guj/r.'

s-inSi

^sjei:riS

sjo) iLLQiQQpasr

Very true sir!

if you will show

me

^ijsen^s siremnJ^^nai ^mQsQuirJjs ivhere the Sumi ^{J^ovA) is not

and

stretch out

my feet

there."

LESSON 97.
(1.) In beginning the study of Tamil poetry, the learner must remark that the signs of the cases are very commordy elided. This is called Q(sapgi<cs>LC!^ Qi^nmis ((S<siipgii(cis>u> a cased termination, Q^aeiss ellipsis. Ill

Gram.

152.).

^p(^
Virtue

Q'S^iu
to

i^Q^LDLj ('for
desire.

jaip^sm^ ).

do

uQhw^Q^
a season,
is is

uuSliT<rG)<3^iu,

cultivate in the season ( UQFfiSii^^,

from

UQi-^euih,

prepared according to 18 for the reception of the casal sign, which

omitted and er emphatic, inserted).


(2.) Letters are constantly omitted wlienever the

In the above

0<y/i/ is

for Q^iLiu.*

rhythm requires Comp. Ill Gram. 41.

it.

(3.) Participial nouns,

and appellatives (185.) are very frequently

introduced.

^^sl;^

StesTLo

(^gii, 56. II. groiv cool. int. part, noun, neut. sing. 88.), that
(is) anger.

which will (must) grow cool


sea^siLDg] (a
energetic action.

neut.

appellative for sslssud, energy), that which belongs to

(4.)

negative imperative

is

often found,

which

is

not at

all

used in

common Tamil.
snQ<sii&>

( srj hide

a;

ereo); <l&)sQseo
('aS),

^eos(m, remove); i^eirthQuea


despise), do not

( t^efTLDu, reveal);

eSQteo

leave);

@j<zQw<ki ( ^-^Q-Qy

hide, remove, &,c. &c. era) (a lengthened form of .^eo, not) is added to the root of verbs which form their present with ja; and those which form the present with dQ^i insert sd. [Ill Gram. 92.]

(5.)

The
an

root of a verb

is
is

frequently prefixed to a noun and forms


called aflSstr^O^/rsMa
faflfc verb,

with

it

a compound.
ellipsis

This

Q^irms
74).

ellipsis,

of the peculiar inflection of the verb).


Q<s:ujiLjLh

Q&'uji^l^ ^QF)ih^3= O.PIU (Q&^iu, the root used for Q<FUjQp or


[Ill

Gram.

153.]
do, to be accurate, do.)

(The work which you

What you

do, do well.

Sometimes a

letter is introduced for the sake of

euphony.

An

amusing story turns on

this

learned man presented himself before ^^Arra unmsn^ajdsr, a celebrated king, himself a poet of no mean ability, and wlien the king demanded the reason of his

coming he replied

Your majesty

a senseless

man

knowing

came.

The courtiers stood aghast. The king smiled and liberally rewarded the visitor. ^e^eoir^aiesr one who is lOltkoitt, and tllUS L/^^uSlajaiir^ajsir = OUe But why? ^evir^aieir who is senseless. But also l/^^uSi^ = in sense, and ^^qjot- = a sun a high poetical word.

LESSON 98,
C^/f-sfli-^i)

^^ihgj
to be

Qg=iT (Qs^ir,

<iu

^iii, here the

(aj

may

serve to express

a future idea.j
(

The place

approached, having known, approach,

Having
This
fBtrsfr )

first ascertained the fit place

for you

to be in,

take

7tp

your abode in

it.

is

a very

common

idiom.

Thus

entTLpiBireir

(for eurrQ^S/D

or en/rapLD

life-time.

(6.)

The

^rrtflsmiu

or particle

^^^ is used instead of a casal termination


to the

thus,
s^irekQnrj'iT

^^ir^^nn, join thyself

assembly of the worthy ( s^irmQQi^nE


[III

eatiLi,

_g)3r^^

= ^zsr^^sSi^^Qeo,

^Qf))-

Gram. 108.]
:

(7.) ^ssr is inserted before the termination of a case

thus,

enisu

QuiTnF)L-m(om3sr
wealth than,

Qldiuu
true

Quanheir
wealth (is)

ssoeS,
learning.

Hand
(sir

Here, for QufTQ^eBcar

than

wealth (21.), QufTQ^sir

^esr

+ ^esr

is

used

and

coalesce in lL).

^^^^&
Lesson 98.
271. (1.) Cautions useful in translating into Tamil.

Your perishing body


esiiiu 3=f?rjtM

is

not, ^-dr .jijL^i^QurrQro

s^ifrni,

but

^ l^

eij eir sir

S-ggr^/

or ^iSeijSaeir^rrQiu ^^eir ^irinh.

The
(2.)

adj.

pronoun comes before

its

noun.
it

Do
He

not use the passive form (u(EiJ wherever


ordered
be given to her.

occurs in English.

Thus,
(a.)
it

to

Not ^ei](smd(^ ^gJ Qafr(BdsLJUL-^

0<F/riair(B)/r,

but

^<5ii(e<^d(^

^m>^s

Qsfr(B<ss^G)^frek(e^iT.

(b.)

a-sufff&)

SiQRsu
(c.)

um^(meir,

GTOD^UJ S^^rnh Qu!i6ds= rpg^Lo .^(oio<3^ujrrs^ rS^^ aed^rm aesarii like a picture painted on a wall, not moving in the least,

she sang so that a stone even would be melted.

(Not stq^^^uulLi^. )
off'.

smliurfli^ uts^uimsetr,
)

flowers whose stalks are cut

(Not ^//?

ujuulLl
(3.)

Do
is

not think

it

necessary
^nssr.

always to find a word, for "a," "aw"

or "^Ae" in translating.
This This
a tree,

^gi

ldsjld

Not

^SJ ^Q^

LnnLDniu

is the

man I
&c."

spoke of,

fBirek Qs^rrskosr

LDesH^eir ^QJesr^rreir.

(4.) ^'ffis,

may

often be omitted, as in Greek.

The boy learns


^<ssr urriLD

his lesson,

esiuium

um^ih

uL^<i3(ir^m.

Not

.jsjii^u sauiij(3!r

UL^aQ0'sir.
to

She

is

gone

her house,

^(suew !lL(Bsc^u

Quiriu<^,LLiiT(S(r.

Not ^(^

^(smiUj e^LLd(^.

__-

LESSON 98.

(o.)

have.

Not

rEtrdr

S-<omiivisii(e^ij

^Q^dQQ/Dcir, but

iors!ir<S(^

^-skr.

"Est pro habeo, &c."


(6.)

He He

told

ereargj] i5r3!rd(^

me loho it ivas that did so, ^uul^s^ Qs^iL^euasr ^sjr^sw ^^sS^^rrsir, Not ^uuLf.d Qs^dj^euar ^.ir lormgji.
Q^nmi^ck
or
^rreir euQ^en^tr

(7.)

said he loould come, enQr^Qeuek eraJr^

sd

0<5=/riS5r(5)S3r.

Not

eunhsufreir

(ordsrffi

Qs^iresftemeir,

(8.)

new nominative
finite

ciple

and the

should not come in between the verbal partiverb that completes a sentence. Thus,
and
the

The

lawijcr stated their case

judge acquitted them, eudSSo ^(Snirs^

This

is

incorrect.

Render

it

rather thus:

aidSeo

^euiTS(emseiitiJ

a^ias^&auju

Qus^ (or Qu35n3asTLj or QuQ(msir,)

S'dJiriLia^u^,

&c.
of verbal participles
as (he final verb.

Rule.
have

Whatever number
same nominative
is

may come

in a

sentence they

all the

(9.) Idiomatic expressions

"^
lous.

tvatery grave^^

^ em

(ois rB

&)

must not be rendered literally, in general. good English; <s(3m-<m?(7^errisfr tSCij^is (gt^ is ridicu^iBi^d^ ^pd^irdr is Tamil.
to

(10.)

He
;

told

me how

act.

Not

isruuc^d' Q^g^iuiuQeuemQii
isresrgii

sresrga

QiFiTskfessfr

but

@jeira!reI^LDfrad Qs^'uiu Qeue!S!i(BLh

spiSt^^irir

or 0<fuj

ajQaiemrL^iu afl^^sw^ srasrd(^d slLiSsit ^L-irrir.

(11.) It is not always sufficient to translate the English infinitive

mood

by the Tamil

infinitive.

Thus, 6riOT&r
"It
is

srrem

eui^rrirsm, they came


is

to

see me,
<3=ifl

is

correct.

But,

not right to do so,"

not,

^juuL^d
also.

Qs^ujiud

^<k)<sd,

but

^uuu^d

The

infinitive in

English

is

noun

These cautions might be multiplied indefinitely; there is but room, however, to add one general piece of advice analyze well whatever you wish to put into Tamil. Break it up into shorter sentences if necessary. Transfuse ideas ra.ther than translate words. Never be content till the whole meaning is fully brought out in your version. Then reconsider your MS. with a view to abridgment and condensation.
:

20

1.53

LESSON 99.

Lesson 99.
272.

Hints regarding translation from English into Tamil.

Beschi well says, "soepe dicimus latina verba, non latine; et soepius europeaui linguani loquimur taniulicis vei-bis." We have often used latin words without the latin idiom, and still, more frequently do we clothe European idiom in Tamil words. The mind must be to a great extent imbued witli Tamil habits of thought before a man can speak idiomatically. When the learner has with great labour and study acquired the habit of thinking in Tamil he may hope to speak the language well; but not till then. Extensive reading and constant intercourse with natives are essentially necessary to him who would excel.

A few examples
(I.)

will serve to aid the learner in translating.

"Heaven
first,

is

that fold of the Great Shepherd into

which no enemy
by uuLD-mn

enters,

and from which no friend departs."


as to the

Bishop

Homm

And,
&)LD

words: "Heaven"

is

best rendered here

(the other sphere); for this


a state,

indicates a place, which the sense requires,


signifies.

and not

which QLomL^Lh (liberation)

Fold, Loies)^, Q^irq^suLo.


latter that in

The former means the herd or


but

flock rather; the

which they are enclosed.

Great, Qurffiu

means

this;

ldsit, urrto, SIQulLl, ^-ckssr^, LSff^rresr are all

words not inapplicable.


Shepherd, Qldijuuit, one loho feeds.

Not

sx>

iiti sir ,

name for

the caste.

Enemxj, <y^^(5 or

U(St!)seueBr

(^Qjn^, an
l/q (56.
opposed

opponent,

(sr^nrreSl,

an adversary),

Enter, ^^L-tSjQsijQ
(56. I.), draw near.

(56. III.),

II.),

^saw

(56.

I.),

creep in,

Qs^qk

Friend, SKSthS^ssr
eueir),

(^lS^^qFi

is

to

F^^Qf^;

^ein-ierrsirisiiesr

to ueiss

QfE&d@jDSum.
eSlL-CB itij(^ (56. II.).

Depart, sfltlOa?, Qurrujdl, iSrfli^Qurr, sStLQuQurr,

Then, the construction, and will run thus:


"Heaven. .no enemy
. .
.

if

exact,

will require the relative participle,

the fold.

.is.''
it;

entering,

and no friend departing


is

..of the great shepherd


Shepherd.

Otherwise, "^eawc

the fold of the great

No

enemy enters

no friend departs from it."

n iT\ ^ mi LP wt'Su QurrsiT'SSJLDiTisr


uljjsirasr

LDi<cS)S ^ii) or "=*. QLDUuuriFeiniUj <r

2.

urfLD'omteOLDrrosr^

Qurfliu

Qldiuuuq^stiiUJ

Lcikesi^.

^^&>

ues)sd

~"^
1

.54

LESSON 99.
3.
QLD(rLL.3^LJD

uuiM QLDiiiuuiflfk LDihm^iUfTLD:

^EjQs

(S^rifjUmseu

smi (j^

Qjfit

4.

QLDiTL-s^LDirasT^

(or^p(ff)

epuuSssnufrm

(oTssrQr/'ki,

Quffliu

0^rr(Lpeij^^d(^ <^uuit(^ld.
seir.

^^Qeo

Q ld lu u u Qh<om u.uj

utms&Qpenirssir

eui^Qs^rreiju:} lditlLlitit

QiB&sQpisurre&T LSltH.i^Qu/ismjLb LDirLLiiriraer.

(II.)

"He is the freeman whom the Truth makes And all are slaves besides." Cowper.
s-iuir^asrasr

free,

Words.

Freeman,

one who rests on his own foundation.

si/&)(L//rs2!r sugar,

e8<s^ ^emiiE^eueir = one who has

ohfainc.d release.

eEKBeQasuuLLLsveiir,
^aJr(OT<F!n<?^<s/rjaJr,

one who has been released.

one who lives as he likes.

Truth, ^Ji^iuii, Qldiu, S-^iwetaLD.


Slave,
.jtj ufLes) L)

a bond slave.
is

A lL essrieu ek = one who


&em/D

bound.

a captive.

CONSTRUCTION.
B>/ truth
1.

made-freeman-freeman
eS

is

all else slaves are.


LD/bQ/DedeorrrmtD

s^^^iu^^frSo

(^ s u
3,

lLl(su Q air

<sS^SoiiLirrs!!reuir;

sLL6miisuiTsek.
2.
enrffjLD

s^^^iuih ereu&sr el^3sis ^sSsarC^/r


&issypsisii<stT3sr.

.jtJSuQesr

afl^^ Qua/Dsveir;

LnmjDUJiT

3.

s^^^iLifliSfreo

Qemp

iS^'KiQasreudr,

^esp

iiimQ(e^0sr;

toppiuireurmw 8es>pu

ULLi<siin3,err^rreir.
4.
&-<oSsnsu)LD

^^afl{6my
La.'sm LD

Qipeois^iiTQhLb

w^dsi ^tmiih^suQssr iw^3so a srr n iLi ^Qrj&QQrfirsm.

^iimi/i^<s<sueir;

Lop

(III.)

Vanilas

est,

longam vilam optare,

It

is va/)iity to

desire to live long,


LDirtuism'S.

and

to

et de bona vita parura curare. care too little ahoiit living well.
eSemr,

Words.
Life,

Vanity,
rr

^isud/SLii, falsehood.

vain.

<^ em s n ffl lU ld ,

a vain thing.

^eusk, .mi^^- The former, life itself; the other, life time.

& ej s
Long,

eo tl

life

time (but not pure Tamil),


lit-LiLDrrasr,
Q/blslili,

<su rr i^ th it <sfr

happy days.

i^eiTLDfresr,

Msmi,

Qm,
= full
age.

^irdsaiiSigf, Sanscrit

long

life,

yjesar ^ttSa

Desire, <^qfiLdlj ( Qpsi,)


(

dQp^,)

Care,

<^ ( aSp^,) Qeusm (Qpgj,) seuSsduu (Qp^ .)


( fB0O6\j(Sijfi^uj

Qsirp](QpsJ,)<aUfr(^Q

Well,
in a

iBissTQrj'aj,

Qs^LD&nLDUJiTUj

OS a good

man),

meveuLSaSled,

good way.
live,

To

fBt(dQp^,)

g&(3^@

(@p^.)

~"
153

~~~

LESSON 100.

CONSTRUCTION.
About a good
long)
1.
euiTLp
/E
i2ro

life,

or,

living well

not
^

caring

long

life

(to live

to desire is vanity.
svi
fflj (iss)

uj

(S:i!^inw<m^a

(^^i^gia seuasouuifTLDisv,
omitted).
(^qf^ldljeu^

^rrssiru-jSreirioireiii^iu
"^

QsiiimrLD

(ordsTffi

(maybe

^SdQjD^
j

eisi

Qh)^ n 11 IT LD

\^^@iuusii
2.
QrB(BjBiricinrajLj

LD(TiL(oms,iu.!ri}i.

iSssiLpasQsiKskn-^, lEnkQi^iuu iSsiaLpds miru-frtDeo

^qF/UU^

LDrriLims.
3.
Lf,rr<sm

Here

ib^qt^iLilj iSexiLpds is literal

and, in Tamil, unmeaning.

^iLjs- e^Q^LDiS^ Q^euu^^u-jefreir ^'J-|3^ Lcfi/hsJ

eSQeo^

efl^^/rey/rii.

(Rather foreign.)
4.
(S3g]

mdretoLD &7:^pk^ fsiTstrmu eunipi^qrjLDurrLDeo M<omiiEn'<ciriTiLi ^u^s^ld; or liessrLfsirsfrrriu en !t ip (trld iSi iB^<es>LD iSei^jDiB^
,

enrrip

^QhLDLj

rBir&ririu euirip

(sSQFiLDurTLDeo
[/Ecirsjou)

^(T^LJugj sSpm.

i9i^mpih^ is still
.']

ambiguous

(as

is

the English

ivcll),

and

may

refer

only to material prosperity

The learner
It is

will find that this

may

be varied almost at pleasure, but the


idea.

1st expresses the

meaning.

The following verse embodies nearly the

a kuRal

veiibil.

"Are many days


doing good
is great.

great if a
^^

man

docs not virluons deeds?

One day spent

in

^pua,
does not

virtue.

@j&)m =
if.

^<so-s\)n-^u<^, one

who

is not.

Q^iu^eodr, one who

do.

ej&).

iBeoisi,

goodness.

Lesson 100.
273. Imitative words liice the followinp; are in very frequent use in Their use varies considerably in different localities. Tamil.

2_^

seiTssir

erdtrpi

Qsir^sSp^J
SQip

the rice-pot hails with a huhhling sound.

^is&.iscisreirg}i

( ^Lss.irsrdr^ )

<^(WiE^ireir, he fell

down

loith

a thump.

^QneoiSTmff! ^n''r^Q^'S(^ QprnuirsuQuirtu iSmQrjQsr, he went direct and stood


before the king.

^ks

iBfTiu euireheufrQer-dirjpi

ss;^Qp^

that dog keeps

up a howl.
a uhirl.

s^Sisni^i^s,

Q^SQpcsrgu

s^Lpp/Si^eir, he turned

round the wheel with

__

'

/o)rA.u^<t

LESSON 100.
Ssir'^ensm^s

/
,

(mgiimQ^&sr^

siTihe=3=&)

^i-^&QpsJ

the child has a strong fcvcT.

Qs,iT (oTkkgii ueoLniSimsir,

he wept aloud.
the water
is

^essrssTiT (m(^r^G)(Sireir/Sl(md8/D^,

icy cold.

^(B<s(mu

utrcksresjiLiLj

y^Sssr

unLDQickga

^-QFjiLif-eSiLi^^,

the cat

rolled

over the pile of pots with a crash.


ssmessPiT LDL-LDQimgu

eb3p^

the water runs on tviih a

jnurmuriiig sound,

^eiisir LDSiTLDQ&r&rgti Qul(es\<ssr,

he spoke very loud.


srsJrjs/

euiriudstre^Qeo

^(smessrir

&^ 8^

<^Qjd^,

the

water runs in the

channel with a gurgling sound.

rbm(BisiQu
SL.L1I)

uiLiihffi
<si)

s^(^imm, he

cried out fearing


,

and tremhling

greatly.

Q u iii

IT

LD eS i(^

Q Leirgii rE(BsQp^

the body trembles all over.


lilt^iLJU/rerr,

^1 eu icB 1^ ^ ic euiriij Qa!T(B^^rTffi) QiDire^ QidirQeomgii ^(ajsr&aiu if you let her talk she loill get up a terrible quarrel.
@&)/s^uSl<oSnFii^
the ulcer.
a^eOLLi

,sLpsQtp^}i &(W(g,9jD^, the loatcr runs freely from

QsaiS

i-5jj2;

i3Qs^mg)! LjpuuL-L-gj
,

the foivls
is

came forth

ivith a

rushing noise.

&^iLhu assQ^eir^rir^sQp^
LD<cS>u>

the body

hot with fever.

Q.FirefrQ'S^rrQisfreiir^

Quiu^gi,

the rain
,

came doivn

in torrents.

^ppm

Qun-Q}U!TQissr^

^^@ps^
(oTOirgii

the shower comes rattling down.

^isnasr eriQ.'diiriMLn s^etrs^efr

Qusfeunriafr,

he keeps

2ip

a continual chatter.

asssrsQ'assrca-^

^uuL^sQ(vjesr, he keeps up a drumming

noise.

_L_iDLJ <5i53rsOs3zr3rj3;
C)/E(55*

siriuQp^
,

the

body

is

hot ivifh fever.

uiuQioirga

^i^sSp^

the heart palpitates violently.

^(v\ijSn'pQurrQ&:>

^Qhigi uL-uQickgu

LDemtp evms^sElLLi^', the rain


iverc.

came

pattering down suddenly, other things continuing as they

uirir^^u)
rashly.
LS'ardsirB<sir

urrjifriD&)

uiuGitek^ QuSi^L-trrsir, he

seeing saw not and spjokc

se^sQeoesr^

uLf.dSl0-ir<s<s!r,

the children are reading in full chorus.

^0i_eJr ^^C)id!Tg}!
eii<mrL^&)
Q.siS3/6:fl

^Lf.(eu)em-,

the thief scampered off sharp.


the

sisQicir^ QurrSlp^,

bandy goes rattling along.


the lizard is chirping.

( QsetrerPi)

ueou&oQeu^r^ Qs^irik'^Qp^^,
the

sreo ems srecmmh QeueoQeuQeoesr^nhdQp^,


(Wffia(S)
s^L

arms and
is

legs are all crampied.

QLDfrgnQLcirQpmfSlQhsQpsij the thin biscuit


OTjj;

very crisp.

6=Qz

LDeaw

^L^sQp^,

the rain beats in violently. the whole body is ptarched up.

s^L-wQusdeomh

(Si]peiiQp<s!r^(ih<iQpsJ ,

Q^iT<sm<S}>i sps,Qip(SSTiSiQF^sQpsi,

the throat is parched.


,

S-tmLj Qair^QsirQ.^ek^ siriuQp^


(SjtiSipSM)Q0O Qi<EBiTs:jQs!TQsssrgji
Qeuisi^iT

the body is dry with fever. the bowels are violently disturbed.
is

QuirQp^,
,

QsiiffiQsDQ^Qsr^

^QR&Qpgj

the hot loater

steaming.

LESSON 100.
<^6iriTLDULpLD (^(B (^Q iesrgn

^(BQp^

the v Ham fruit rattles in its shell.

(oTuQurr^LD ^qjsst Qis[rQsirQimgii Qua-Q(Vfdr, he always speaks hastily.


erdrxsrs semiireo &(B SQieirffii (^(wQqi^sst, he alioays falls foul of

me when

he sees me.
<Siin-!ss)ipuuLpw Q)s.!Ti^QsaQLpskgji

immrs^ QufruSjh^ (Qurr^Fs^^ ),

the plantain

has gone quite bad.

^lisu UL-

(S>jLpsijQixssr^(md3flss,

that silk
,

is

very soft.

^eum
at once.

sirrffiULD srededrrLh enLpsuLp

Oa/rLp0.a/rtf
,

his affairs are all disordered.

m/E e^piV)

u snj Q

<s=

Qsr^

efrfli^Qu!rQp^

that firewood has

burnt

up

all

^rs<S3; gjssfl QuiTs?Qun'Q'3=^^ QiS'ii^Quirs^s?^ ,

that cloth has torn (being

rotten before).

^i^ssr.m sLDsQiD^gn LoessrsQp^

the sandal yields a fragrant odour.

^li^Uisauujdr (^(bl(^Qt<^^
^lis^uusaisnsn and loell woven.
s=fr^Qrresrjii
iBQSTQij'dj

is^i-f.uQu/raj(^LLLfrdr,

that boy has run


,

off'

sharp.

QLD[rs=QiLD!TQ<3=m^QffsQp^ that cloth

is

very strong

umhi-j sp(BQp^, the snake glides off with a rustling noise.


quite bewildered,
,

6r<sartf@s

Q^QOpssr^ euQ^Qp^, I am
s^LLDL^
ereirssrQLDfr

my

head whirls round.

__mjin!i^,i(^

rather fat (he wants a thrashing


siir lEi rsjf'sa

^ga^Qp&r/Snh&Qp^
is

his body is somehoiv

insolent.)

s uSl Q &i

ueoSso QrBguQfEGpmgnsL^sQQj'an', he grinds his teeth inhis sleep.

ersarear, snoLDfr

G/r-Q<s/rO<FiS3rj2; Q3=ir(k>^Q(y<Ek,

what!

He is

always whisper-

ing somewhat (buzzing in one's ear).


sreoeoirnhili QLDtrs^QLDirQs^svrga euihffj

QLDiriu^^dQsiressrialTsm, they

all

came

clustering together thickly.

^rKLSosruQutrffO ^3i^QpdTg3 eS tp d Q Qrj eir

he looks askance like a thief.


is all

S-LLDU Gi^iTgiiQ<3=fTQpcsr^nFd@psi, the body

rough.

^ajSssru upuQpsisr^ ^(i^^dQsfr(sm(B Qunfe^ir&eir, they dragged him away


violently.

erasrearQLDtrjnp^UQ-pQessrekgii rrsSlULDfTiuu Qul(^n-ss!r, they talked about some-

thing or other in a low mysterious way.


@jrresi!r(B

fEiTLBetns

ldiL.(Bl:

Q^rT(5mQi^iTQ<szTmg)i eSifrLDei)

Qu&imm

for two

hours he talked on incessantly.


sreirssrQLDiT, rLpsiM

lS^ lSq ear (oir^QKdQpsj

the face is

somehow

glistening.

QeiTissBrQairQxsmesrffi Qua-Q(n^<s!r, he talks thickly (as

one who has a cold).

^iB^s eSlp(m

*j3/=w-0/DsJrj3/ erfflujeS&iSsd,

that firewood docs not burn briskly.

uems

@]3si)saiu airruSlQ&i

Q u rr L-Iit so

iBrrs(m

el^<^Opsir^(TF)dQp^, if you put

tobacco into your

mouth your tongue


f
\

will be burnt.
) >

airSQe\} ercsrsBrQiDfT

fm(BrffiQieii.

^ ^

p'ri^swrnsj, there

/-,

is

a ringing

...m my

ears.

LESSON 100.

ejuSlg)! U,((h

LiQamgji s^uiSl

&j(m&@p^

the stomach

is

much

stvollen.
it, it is

^SB)^^

Q^itlLltSi) QiErreiTQfBfTQeiresr/SQhdQjDSJ,

if ynu touch

soft.

^li^
Qs:g)i

LDiretj

QsirpQsirQpQsrjSlnhsQpgJ
,

that flour is coarse.

QiDrr^QLDirQ^m'SnFaQpgj
in
it.

the

mud

is

thick

and makes a noise when the

foot

is

put

lEsmsseir u<siruQ<ofrearg}i iScsrevnQp^,


s^iB^L^ s<9^sQ<SF<sir/S('if)sSp^
,

the jewels glisten very brightly.

the noise is very great.


( i^.L^<sQ(n^.m ),

.^suuL-QaQsfreiJsr @j2/@C)^C3rj3; (tpL^dQ^rfeir and looks afraid.


Qidir^ ^rfliBgjQutrds-^
the house is burnt up.

he

is

caught

the fire seized that house briskly, burned brightly

and

srsk euuSl^

^@^0<5sir^
Qu
fT

srifiSlp^,
&) Q)

my
osrffii

stomach burns.

LDiTLDrT<i^Q&} ULpu)

u Q 00
fT

QsiTiL(B<sm9p^, from

the

mango

tree

the fruits are falling.

OeofTiQeOfrQiekgu ^uuL^d3(W>:ir
iSmdsrr (^!!(^Q&)<ssrgii

he beats the

drum with

a dull sound.

&fRdQp^

the child smiles cheerfully.

srmQasrffnpLD

Q en (B Q <su Q iekgu

Qusf-QfTjasr,

he

is

always speaking sharply.


he poured out the

isauseit\<^Qf)isJ ueaariasSsfu QuirsQt-jrrQ^eirjpi SFiBd^ir&sr,

money from
muddy.
^pjS'Seo
the river.
LD-os^Lp

the sacks in heaps.

^i^uuiKsn^

(oTuQufT^ta Q^fr^Qs^frQ^sirffli

^(V)d@p^,

that tvay

is

always

Qsiieir'sirLD

QLDtr(mCiLDrrQs(strii

euQF^QpsJ

the water comes

down

in

^sfTs^Qsn-mgii

QsmLCBQp^,

the rain
is

is

coming down

in buckets-full.

^siiQST

^ (m^ Q rjiBkgii
QuiTUjL

j(mdQ(ndsr, he
,

very wild.

^i^u
siTULj

iBpihQpdsr/SnhdQp^

that

powder

is

very coarse.

(3=,(^Q)a=asrg)i

Qu@lm)frs<sir,

they spoke secrets.


the bracelet is slack on the hand.

msd(^d Q&fTiQsirQLeirjSnndQp^,
Ljs=uQia^mpifldQpgi
,

2_t_zi)L/

the body

is

itching all over.


is

QiDfT^aLD eS/7^<s@ Q^rrsfrQ^aQeirek^QFidQp^, the ring


LDeoLDQsoesrgii seasrsssf/f i^L-iiwQQi^'sir,

loose on the finger.

she

is

weeping abundantly.
,

eS Q L(k> ei) IT ii) Q^ire^

QsirQwdr^ UQ^^trinu Quirdsf^

the house is all

tumb-

ling to ruin.
g^<suQ!j<so<sorrLD

S-uuu^^^j Quireo QuirQeockgii s^^(tr,Qp^,


tvith the salt air.

the vjhole wall is

crumbling away

^su&srd
hitn.

semtn-eci

Q(BQQLm^

w(Biii(^@QifiTs&i,

they all fear the sight of

.jijiiS /ESOTtS

^ssiOsekgu iBmmi Qp^i

that jewel shines very brightly.

159

LESSON 101.
when he

^sussT

ersijr&!r

B<ss!sri~fr<sv

aQsQi-^eir^

QusiSQr^iir,

sees

mc he

speaks angrily.
gi<ss>iBipp
stiff.

(Sii&9^Ln.

QLDtrjDQLDfrQ/Dssr^Q^dQjDSJ, the newly washed garment

is

^siiek mssrmoj^ ^L^Qidsr^


LD<cmLp

Ei]rr&dQ(ri^csr,

he reads jluenthj.
after
the rain the

Qutu^Slesr Ljio^

u 3^uQ3=mgii

npdsir^^nhdQ/DSJ,

fields arc green loilh grass.

Many nouns
shjpj 3^)i

are formed in this

way:
severity.

u Lf

diligence,

u^u^s^ulj, an itching sensation. ssui-j.


limbs.

(^guSgiiuu, a benumbing of the


giddiness.

^L^gjL^uLj, palpitation.

Q^S^jiuu,

Lesson 101.
274. Idiomatic sentences.
(1.)

uSuiTOj^gja
(

S(Q'Ffr^ ^'(Si^iek,

the wretch

who feared neither guilt

nor

sin.

ul^>s(^ld utT<su^^s(^LD ^j^i^^ir^ ^ei^Lesr).

(Here
(2.) ^rsjserfli^^&''

S-ld

is

omitted.)
(^ Qs^iuiu^'OrrQQsrek, I have thus

^uul^

el <si^ es^

made

my petition

to

your worship.
Q.g:iijiu&), the

doing.

^QasTtk, I have become.

(3.)

In the conclusion of a

letter,

^uul^s(^

stands for "thus writes, &c.,

the old
(4.)

form "this from your^^ (loving friend, &c.)^ajafl/rsijir

Quqesqld Quirufr^turrsd
two persons half
.

0/r_jS^iaflG'a'/rto,
e^&i

we will

give to

each

of these

Quirurr^urra =

Qsu it Q^iaus^&(^LD

uiT^nrrs.
(5.)

srssr Q-es)!smLDeaiu

juul^ujits eS^Lo^dseiiili QrsrfJL-t^tr?

Has

it

come

to this that
QfBiT,

my

goods should be so estimated?

right in the way. direct,

^,
<aiiiT^

give, he;

QiBiB

to

come

to pass,

happen.

(6.)

^itlLSs^sits

Qisirem
it

S'fFLJu(B^^(^io

^(5miSs!!rd(^eir<sirrrQ(suesr,

if the complainant prove

by luitnesscs I will be subjected

to

punishment.

[S-sJr, within, under.

.^Qenek, I shall become.']


QuQRetnLDsSsns
srrioSisri^d^fTirse'iT,

(7.)

^rkism iS^em^uSl^enL-iL!

^(TF)<saLD

thcij

shoiocd off the rareness and greatness of their learning. {_^QKimLD and QuQTjsmLD joined together and the plural termination added to the latter.]

Thus
(8.)

e-rS^&siEisGir, joys

and

sorroivs.
eflooO
.?

jihS'i @^3/risrr srsJrsnr

What

is

the price of these horses.

[An

ellipsis of the 4th case.]

^/5^<s (^^esyirs(ms(^

LESSON 101.
Q^a&>0O
[lit.

(9.)

^<ccr>,s.r

euirojeurrirLDed

LDfjilQunec

S'.mQijes!,

he stood like a tree,

unable

tu

say

it

the

mouth not coming].


Q^iTm(eFj<s!r,

(10.)

QLD^d(ff)4=
it

.s^LDLD^d^eu^u Qufrev.^

he spoke as though he

approved of

[Ci^j0<s@, outwardly'].

(11.) srrpffi ^Qa^siS^LDfTS

Qsm<^uL-Lrrn, he heard
,

it

reported.

\_&iTpffi i^Q'5=<siS^LD!riu

as a thing borne by the winds.]

(12.)

ns><mp ap&r>puj[Ts, respectively, in order.


.sj^pdsrg^ (^eir^,
uj n u rR i^ p^i LD

[Repetitions of this kind are


day.]

frequent: thus,
(13.)

^mjpi ) day by
tS^soiurr^,

Qs^eosuih

Q^Hssireo

Quirio

StpQuDeciiTUj

enQhLD, prosperity

stands not

still

with

any

one,

but like a chariot wheel turns

upside down.
(14.)

In

&^p

=5yif,
is

put

to

rout

(.56.

III.),

up&su^, put

to flight,

and

similar forms, there

a contraction:
I
i

&^p ^L^^^irdr = S^giiiMUL^ ^ujLs^jSirm, upss .jijip-^^rrdr ups,(^iJauL^ ^ l^.s, ^


(15.)

f>Q

-\kj

it

fk

J
the

uirirssu uirirds LDQm)!jLDLBiULD[nu

QeiiLf.dstasujirtIj ^(VF^d(^u},

more

one looks the more the spectacle satisfies the mind.

(The
(\Q.)

infinitive doubled. 168. LDsrr

Thus, ajjeur= by degrees.)


srdiTga
aui/ini/,

^li^
[^'Tkat

urr^stk
sinner
ed en n ?

^m(e^(^
such an one"

a.sir<sQ
to thee

npQsrQ<ssr

great
.jij 6\)

be/ore

^jSsSdQ^iir, I told,

did I not?]

told you before, did


@)eir(2)isw'

not,

who

2vas the great

sinner?

LfnESLS^sir

srtkgii

(^/SluLjd siressTLDinLinLDSo

^iss>s^^nm she feared,


,

not being able to point out the husband.

^Q!r(^ek = Such an one.


(17.) ^is^/EireirmLD

G^Qf^ensanL^^eo ^Qf)i'B^ir&)
be

^euek ermm'
what
is

uir(Buirreir?

If all

these four
(_ii)

with a

man

will

henotsvjf'erf

all.)

g^" The idiom here

English.
Q&moeiir(BlQufr(mesr,

(18.)

took the children

^li^utSai^aSsir^ ^ek isSLL@d(^ .^<sa)Lp^^d home with him.


(Observe the use of
^<5s>Lp.)

he

(19.) tu IT en Qf)Lh
L^fT<sliLirr^L,

QLD6iirT<s!r

smffaj.d&r>^<laj
all

^Qmir&ds

Q<si]ismLD,

.jti^ sro,.

Q/_/0aoi>si70ii),

must meditate great

things.

If they are

unattainable
(20.)
(
itrr

still

greatness will be the result.

Qs^frekesruL^'Suj QsL-Quosr,

will obey

you

strictly.

Qsil-Quasr,

will hear.

To hear

is

to obey, in Tamil.)
affair.

(21.) .jij^siriffiuih (for ^'/E^<s

smBiuih) that

(Here .^gj and

sirrBiuu^ are

put in apposition.)

2l

\qT~~~

LESSON 101.
(22.)

^sv^d(V) ejdsLD iSl^^^ eS^car^^L-Qar u^gis


him and he lay down
ivith grief.

Qa!r<smiiTissr, deep

distress seized

(Both

iStf, 56. I.

@p^, I am
(23.)
(

hungry.

and er, 56.


)

I.

are used idiomatically. smsrs(^u u@t 6r(Bd

.^^pawirasfT Qs^rrek^srffi: To this that which they said They said, we don't know.
sneogjatr^, the right ear.
\ \ ^

erikis(i^s(^^ Q^rFlurr^.
is:

We

dont know.)

(24.)

eued^tsms, the right hand.


w)L-siioi!)s, the left hand. " ^'
7
, /

^iffi sirgi, the left ear. ( Q-rirbgsdems, the rice hand.

^^

> V

ery

commonly

,?<!> x ds^^&eias,
J
,

the

.,

hand used

for

^
,

baser purposes.

(25.)

Qaaiwu Qu^iSqFisQpgj
[_G)

it is

grown fat,

s IT (i u

i-i

^iSia^qhsQpsi, fat

having ascended
it

is."]

sfrfBtUih

fEiiiQ^/S (suQ^Sp^, the affair is prospering.


[_rBii^ ^/Sli3iiQF)@p^, going on

ascending
for him.

comes.']

(26.)

.jijeuSotsr

.j>i<sioLpfS^^ULS(Sa!rek,

sent

Here the adverb

part.

.^snLp^gi seems to be used for the

infin.

^eaipds,

sent to call him.

So QsL-U-^uLj, send
(27.)

to

enquire

= QslL(^imul^

.jij^ulj.

@0

U-uQ^Q^^trssreifL-QesT.

[_ljC^S^^
77. (b.j

^ear
1.30.

S-iQ^sr.']

106. (2.)

[Having

taught,

was become

as soon

as.']

As soon as the Guru had finished teaching. ^eudr Quifltueueir ^Mear lS/dq, after he was grown up.

END OF THE LESSONS.

162

APPENDIX

I.

I.-SHORT SENTENCES.
(1.)
Quiriu ifehgi Gltaiueniu Oa/etigaicr ?

70.77.

18.

70. 72. 46.


'

Will falsehood stand and conquer truth


(2.)
Ritrafe^fs

^im*
117.

Os^sus/

QffiLiiu

Cq/sobtOio.

190.

190.

41.

39.

To

the income suited expenditure

make

(one) must.

[*^<s 68. 157.

/s^/^

past. rel. part.

^sQsirdr,

^4)]

(3.)

Gratitude and ingratitude.

18. e.

185.

130.

172.

74.

151.

184.

22. 251.
(3)

92.

190.

227.

QibQiej sfTGOu)
131. 233.

ESefrfEJ(^ii;

epL^iB^
74.

(4)

^losriSeoeOrr^
121.
133.

LD<ssTQpesii.tu

72.269.

6U. 185.

6p(^Siy(i5(5 [<y]
172.

QfiL^
Qs'iii^

^-USTrfih^

SitQld&}
251.

<or(ip^

[u] ulLi

loJQn^^ [u] Qufr60<3=,


227.

^uQun^
25.
193.

^nQssr ^L^o/ii.
108. (c.)

^^sO/ra),
148.

72.

269.

OT/5^ [<]
126.

sneo^^^u)

iBGoQeOfTirdCcs;
184.

^usfTir(^
50.

Qs^iueo
148.

Qei/emQil).
39.

Notes. (1.) Qs^iLi^ for 0<s^iliiuljul-[^= u>hic7i has been done or conferred. The Tamil avoids the use Or an ellipsis of (ffi^auair =: which one has conferred.
of the passive voice as much as possible.

163

SIMPLE READING LESSONS.

[apP.

I.]

(185.) (2.) Forms like ^-eaL^tneiiir, ^c, are called verbs by the Tamilians To an English Grammarian it seems and sometimes govern cases accordingly. more natural to consider s-sbz to be a preposition (belonging to), governing the objective case, and to which ^entr is added.
(3.)

saSis;

qualifies

sg0(Si;(75<s(g.
it is

so

does

LDstTQpeisL^uj.

^ajrtileoso/r^

qualifies ldqstld.

In such cases

difficult to
ldsstld.

say whether a word like <^L^m^

belongs to ^drLj or reaches over to


question.
s&LBii^ ep(msu(m<i(^

The sense must determine the


rest.

to

ones loho remain, the

(4.) ^sBTLj

{ ^eoe\)n'^ =

^eiriSeceiJir^.

App.

xi. (iv.)

Translation.

The

inscription inscribed
like the

benefit done to those posses.secl of a good disposition, like the upon black stone (Granite), [for a] long time will
inscription
destitute-of-love, rest, possessed-of-minds inscribed upon water, even then when it is done, Therefore, in every time, to the good especially, the doing

appear; the benefit done tothe


will perish.

of benefits

is

necessary.

[Comp. 229.]

(4.)

The Turkey fancying


LDuSffOfTsw^
151. (a.)

itself

a peacock.
j)iLp(^&r&r
133.

smLu^GO
18.19.21.

^(j^aQp
269.

^ssr^saiiu
108.

18.
QJiresT

e.

64.77.

169.
s;rrss)ith

10.

70.

a. elided.

Qsai^iUfTiosr^
151.

^uiLDuS6\)fTS
25.

S'2csr^^^^
64.

jsc^spiesiinj
108.
(\)

131.

108.

7.

136.

^LpQeOsOrr^
121.

&psm<s

eSlifl^^

^u^lu^
87.
(b.)

Quh^Qlo,
227.
<s(sSI<5mLULJ

^eod<s6ssr

^eodQiLiiEis^sfrd

(Epp<Siih
70. 87.

LSemipujjbp
90.

L9srs=iEjQds^
169.

^<3S)fi<ssGm

^onSiJs'Sefrd

sp/DrStun^suiSfr
77.
a.

^rrsisr

spp

LSemLpiunQuj
130.

elided 121. (4)


(St

seSemuj^
18. b.

^(Ssr'^Gsni^ij

ajb/r>si,'(e^s

soar essfl

LSrT'fiEjQdQjD^87.

77.

(1.)

For ^ffi>ss<sm^eas;iLjLD

^0isQiu^(sis)^\LjLD, the

compound and
The subject
This
is is

the pluralizing particle added to the last. III.

two words formed into Gram. 156.

Sir3=isiQs@pgj.

The

final

verb

is

Quir^w.
Tamil construction.

a good though

somewhat

difficult exercise in

[aPP.

I.]

SIMPLE KEADINO LESSONS.

(5.)

Noscitur a

sociis.

184.

131.

18.

185.

18. (e.)

131.

190.
Qs^irtsuiTiT.

Qffnsu^
88.

QuneOs
227.

appjBifiSijQsi
193.

appfSli^<su(Sis>!r

^9^S^^<f
64.

72.

sns(5S)s

Si- s n L- IS/.Q eo

QisQp
74.

iSlsasr^es)^
18. (e.)

^^Q<i(^LD^
72.

^^Quneoa

270. (5.)

spprStojn^

PLDL^n

PLpi<smnQiu

QstTsmirr^-syniT-

(6.)

Mens
185,

conscia Recti.

108.

18. (e.)

137.

87.

131.

e^Q^&jQ^iEj

sn(^^ ^L-d^QeO
121.(4.)
251.

^j(i^&
62.77.

e^efflff^d
64.

Qsaem
1U6. (4.)

^,n^<i(^LO.
72.

172.7.

108.

131.

127.

74.

App.

xii. (II.)

22. 251. 23

18. a.

185.

64.

25.

117.

(7.)
^lirs^'^ssriLjiEj

The king and

the learned

man.

^ppii ^ird

spp

i-js\}su'BssriijL>

^rmihisp
57.

18. 7.

App.

xi.

70. fSo that every fault should k'ejiove. 170.]

uirn^^ned
95.

^srs^'^etfru

uairdQ^Lh
196.

Lj&}3uQtour

^puemuiLjeiaLiU'Qjiosr

58.

^^
^JT<3=^,S(^

(oTUUlSf.
98.

loTSsfisi),

^l&j^emtuj

Q^ff^^eo

^&)&}fTLD6\)
202.
'

^(^ursi^tu

43.

6.

58.

Q^s^iBJseffleO

(sr&XoOrrua

inrffiurres)^

^&kn^fT(^Lh.
4.3.

127.

72.


SIMPLE READING LESSONS.

I.]

.l

[aPP.

II.-

SIMPLE READING LESSONS, WITH GRAMMATICAL REFERENCES.

1.

The Lord's Prayer


(SS)

<3S IT

^ ^ Q^

I UJ

Q 3" U

LD.

LIITLDeS!!rL^&)IEJSSfflsO

^Q^sQp
74. 60.

(oIIEl<S(3!r

i3^nQ<sj\
21. 18. (a.)

272. 29. (e).

IL

37.

^-UDQpeaiLUJ
37.

fBrTLDLD

U(fls?3;^u u(Si<oij^ns
161. 140. (b.)

(l)

App.xii. ll,(b.)

70. 140. (b.)

&-UjQp(5iDtUJ

Q^,^il>

unLDsmieO^^QeO Qs^tuiuu
18.
(e.)

uQp^
87.

QurreOu
227.

21.

23.

168.

92.

18.21. 23. 126.


Intro. .
ii.

92.

140.

(b)

(IV.)

166.274.(12)128.133.
GnE]6B(ei^<s(^
41.

37.

18. (e.)

166.

70.27.
rBrriijs&r

eSdrrrr^LDrriL []
40.

(^pp(^
50.51.

Qs=iuQp(auiTS(&^s(^
87.21.
erfEJS(er^d(^
37.

37.
uxssTeaf^iijm'

LD(Ssr6!!flsQp^
64
87

QurreOj
227.

ertasefr
37.

(^ppihs'bsfr
29.

27.64.65.

4.

21. 242.

251.

41.

121. (2.)

64. 21.

37.

64. 77. (b)

106. (4)

7.

7.

7.

166.

126.

184. 185.

6.

108.

(1.)

This form

is

not quite idiomatic.


Lit.
it

It is, in fact, coined,

and properly

so, for the

purpose.

would be uiBs-^^u

u^^u

uQw^ira.

[aPP.

I.]

SIMPLE READING LESSONS.

2.

The Creed.
[The law of
faith.]

<oSl<3r(SU[r3'LJ

LSlULLfTioSSnli.

131

18. (e) 7.

18. (b.) 7.

87.

130.

131.

134

133.

18. (a) 137. 87.

3.

34.

^(aU0(SS)iUJ
31. (e.)

e^Gj
172.23.

(^LDrTST(eu)uSl0dQjD

iBihQpssitiu
37. 11. (c.)

!5n^n
29.31.
(e.)

App.

xii.

137.87.

Intro.

ii.

(xi.)

18.

(a)

7.

[Farad, of Tron. App.


LDrflijjrr(^<omiUJ
21.

xii.]

131.

^t2SuS(U)Q&) 21.22.23.

aekeafi
130.

sQ^uu^^eo
18.21.

^jbuisSl^^u
77. (b.)

77. (b.)

21.107.
LDifls;^
77. (b.)

262. 50. 77. (b.)

21.

^(om/DiifessT,
26.5. 77. (b.)

^L-dsih
50.

u em sssr u u lLQ
92.

un^asfrfssGffldo

21.29.

71.

83.

175.

233.

87. 245.

App.

xii.

Note.

77. (b.) 77. (a) 264.

18. 21.

77. (a)

130.

21.

21.23.

77. (b.)

79.

83.

25.

21.

185.

7.

87.

7.

50.

41.

70. 72.

83.

40.

87.

7.

180.

29.

7.

51.

50.

77. (b.) 148. 7.

131.

7.

43.

133.

82.

siin&dQQpm.

^LDm.

SIMPLE KEADlNCi LESSONS.

[aPP.

1.]

3,

Tlie tliree fishes.

S.

18.

(e)

85.

iih

elided.] 87.

83.

=
(oKoor^LD^

airev^^i\j,

85.

pmssr^
17:i.

iS'skssfr
21).

^QiBs
40

fEirmndj

si'iTt^i^
60.

= for many days.


233. C7.)

106.(4)74.
^ismGssFfr

8.

233.(6.)

181.
(SU)'2e(r
[_&>
-t-

25.23.

Q<ssfT(i^s=LDauS0dQ/D^fT(5msujfr
137.

<Shii^

^^^

@(J5'iP
74.

[^

+ ^]

145.

w]

127. (f.)

64.

106. (4.)

R. Qsar. 70.
{Brrih

108.

29. (b.)
Q(SyioSsrLD,

78.

^wsSiUD
25.

eSltL^
254.

^dQiTLDrrsu
136.

LjpuuL
262.

^^sFl

25.

131.

148.

117.

82.

70.

34.

euQKLD

Qurr^

urriTs^^d

Q<ssfTeir(Gr^Q(ai.'mh,

sntfliuth

Qi^ifiQu)
263.

Qun^
106. (2.)

106. (2)

106. (4)

App.

xii (II.)

157.

225.

254.

108. (c.)

214.

25.

70.

157.46.

217.

168.

47. 172.

121. (2)

62.

100.

110.

148.

117.

23. 193.

254.

168

[aPP.

1.]

SIMPLE READING LESSONS.

50.

dE/TL/zjia/SOT""

^jsljulLQs'
161.

Qs^^^np
58.227.

Qunp

u/r<?/r/E/(5

ueasressfld

106.

(4.)

58.

251.

261.

251.App. xii.(II). Tortw within= in the meanwhile,

Ellipsis of sign of case.

242.

56. (11.)

'SiTuusnssr''''

(aij'?evd(^&r

^jsuulL,
ept^
169.

^uQun^

(ST(^ear

Qs^ihuueOnih
103.

251.
<oT<sk^^

^iEJ(^i})

^/E/(^ii)

^(sa^d

Qs^LDUtiSijissr

semQ,

^i^ujfr&)

70.

[Oairsj.]

u,psi

g)i-.

172.

126.

70."

145.

126.

163. 64.

4.

The merchant

resolves to engage in business again.

[sot

IS.

App.

xi.]

S. Mahila woman, Rupya

= beautifal.

132.

[S.

A^ARDDHA-

130.

172.

60.(11.)

242.(2.)

MANA

= thriving.]
^Q^'^^^-,
100.(1.)
^'oariS!!r(^

uessrm

ffLDUn^is

QeuesarQilt
39.

(oTasrQp
84.

^siss^uS

124.125.

148.268.

58.

98.

203.

88.
[Is

any thing

difficult of acquisition,

that (one)

must acquire.]
srruufrpnSesr&s)^
87.

ffuaurr^^^cssfid
[nom.
^iriiir

snuurrpp

QsuemQist

eStr^^
[aJcT/?,.]

understood. 108] 87.

165.

108.

7.

77.

22

169^

"

~~

~~

~~

SIMPLE READING LESSONS.

[aPP.

I.]

^^^^LDUira^jT^^p Q^^eoeuL^ds Q&eamSlii).


131. 196. (2.)

<5jQ<35y<s5T(rrj'eo^

snuunp(^^
121. (4.)

190. a.

98.

165. 72.

121. (4)

72.
(cSssar

j)j^U(sSl^^3=
77.

ff^un^^n^^p

Qs^eosuL^ajfT^^
121, (5)

^(^/i)
72.*

<^6sr<f

82.

and by there being

= Both beca use there

is.

87

126.

([

u)ijfl45c3"OTCosff.

242. (II).

87. 50.

148.

133.

136.

50.

88, 23. 108.

121. (5.)

[a

walking corpse. 131.]

58.
CT63rj2/

^(oSiSilS(^^LD^
145.

QLDtoSrQLD^(^

ffUDUfT^UuQ^
88. 23.

QlLHrdQiULD
6.

11. 106. (4.) a.

108.

74.

<oTp^f <jy^/D
77.

" .^(^^ajisesr, " ''s/f^sott"

<^(ok^iuD
132.

Qutuetsfr 2_(S3)l_uj
185.

[S. Tlie fellow servant.]

[S. The joy causer]

172.

87.

160.

106. (4.)

b.

234.235.

58-

5.
[This
is

The Sun-rise.
The
style is inflated

a spefimen of Sanscrit-Tamil,

and the idiom not pure.]


QjrGSsrisjs'Bsrru

'sot

^rrrrdsiTGOiEi

<sL^i^.)

^lSIjtiei

25.

The night

season of that day,


(^rfliu

172.

U(oai^0l0dQm/D
87.
79.

usQJtTioir
131.

33.

QLfis(^^ App. ix.

^<ss)<fUiSeo

iBihQsbrp
70. 33.

131..

[App.xi.III.

(III.)ffu+,ff

/Di)]

74.

151.

[ctuu4l
tli

ctul/4l.]

199. 98

^-eOsiEJs'Ssrr

^'Sso^^^,

^sarasyir

eu rr lL l^

.,

upueo
13.

QsrrQ(o!DLDs'2errd

181.

131.

Qisyrrpd
170. as

<53srrsi'^/T<s
if it

Qsi'prB
131.

QeueOnu^s^^&sjs^

^Q^dsir^^p

Q-sfr<sm

would weed out


87.

i^nKd(^LD epuup/D

UfT&)

.ffi-uLSifLDessfldJ

Q^&jfr ''^d^tosrih iSuiunsssru

no

[aPP.

1.]

SIMPLE BEADING LESSONS.

151. 185.

QunprSl<f

(^ij^k^

QufT SUIT ITS err;

isnQpm

<2S<ssin<sSjh

Qs^emgn ^suira

Quneo,

(spposip

eusmujL'hoOLLjLh

<5T(Lp

us^ems^d

(^^szDffdsSsyrti/LD

^smiLU
185.

^jT^^^eO

^(TKiom<ssr

<s=n'iT^^uj(^

Qs^iLisn^rrscf

(^iBiU(Ssr

^(currsessfl^

^,
<fS60

Qi^^^eas^uSso
uiriE^

s-^^^

^^sufruSled^

umLs^^u

urr^s<5mtTU

Quneo

^&)aiEjs6fflp

6^0^^ ^10'^^ ^(5'^


(sSfSld

dySsaT-^^ti j)j^LJULLi=^

L9iiaes3fl<s^LD

seiFluusmii^issr.

[Skandam.]

6.

As

from the

a specimen of vulgar tarail or G)3;rr.s^<5S)^, tbe following sentences ^rfl^s^^ii^a eSei)ir^LD or Play of "Harischandra," are inserted.

The verses are given with the The person who speaks is
Kasi, whose business executioner.
it

prose version.
the
to
q^itl-l^.,

QenLLt^ajirm or scavenger of
to act

was
is

burn the dead and

as public

Harischandra
Verse.
^/f
Quit
Siurr,
sresrsur f

offered for sale as a slave.

Enter Q^mLL^.
[_^(j^^ih

a species of metre.]
^<sir
isS&)

^emQi, ^iejQs
ssurr

ff^pa

Qsil-Qtm?

srrasr

srcsrosr i

Qumiu weed ^aecr sn^enrf


74.

108.
urrrfle^ib

u<si!)p'umsQesr
[rans] Int. ii.

uemsr^sm^iLjisj

Qsir(B^^!T(SO

@fi^^

22.

S!T(^U3
130,

tM^'^

isfl/i)6=

Qs^LD

&-ism'i.!TQLDir,

Q^iTffoenmJj.

72.*

269.

Prose.

6T

^fskrQi!

ej

^smQi!
/E/rsJr

^fr,

Sluit,

^iejQs

^2sn-

193.

sS^<s

<^&Qpsi

Q^itlLl^

^rrtS, lEiTck

ut^ms^s^^a
^(e^<so
98.

Qsfr(B^s;n-io

(^sQp^^<i(^
94. (note

LDesrsKsisnfT ?

^uul^
Q^s^evSaOturr,

43. 46.
cl2so

(oTii^

s^iT ?

Quit

sTdresr?
Siuir

ersJrsar,

Qa^eo^

Notes. ^<smQi or ^emee>iQuj.


si

thrown

in as a kind of interjection.
ir

= (sfl^<s(g. edSp^ eSp8ps^ (70. Root el6\), like a&i). jij SpQpff] = who is it that is selling? Tlie neut. verb is often used in such cases. :^dQp^S^s(^ = eSpSp^p(^. (157. d.) The corruption of Qp^px^ into Qp^ Q,3=eo^ = Ois^fTeo&a. ei.i(Wi is very common. A common corruption in pronunciation.

SIMPLE READING LESSONS.

[aPP.

I.]

The person who


Verse.

sells

Harischanclra replies
fSfrQssr

9i^^lditu

^enmir

Q^Q^eSet^eo
22.

^8so<Stu
50. 23.

s^^

263. (8.)

98.

^P/Dl1>

^SoiSOlTLDp
202.

Q'3=IT&)^S

QS

IT (cSST

L^L^eJ
(8.)

l8 S Si]

'

/S EST

Qp

263.

51.

Prose.

=&>'-

^uurr,
194.

^ensmir^

^irssr

wdsiaw

iwps

eutEQ^eir.

re

104.

OsiTeir(enLD

Qurreo
227.

^Q^i^'^'^

Qld^^

FisQ^ireLS.ui.

^-m^ssru

uirir^^fT&>
97.

ers!r<(^^

FiiQ^sLarruSlQr^.iQpgj.

^^<s!r

s^ir^,

eei/f,

Qurr

Q^iB^JJ.g=

Qs^ireaeo

Qsh^uld,
(srssrst^.

^uurr!
157.

Notes. Before Q^iflu


E_ii) is

is

understood
sslit

39.

understood after ^it^,


Quireo ^Q^ih^ireo

and Quit.

QsiT<sir(smLD

if there is a probabilitij of your buying.

The

Qe^L-L^ijjiTnk replies

Verse.

^rr^uSlp
251.
^^ffoir
220.

U'cmpiU(e^Qm',

^U(^
50.

endso

siruQum,
269. (c.)
^luir!

270.(5.)

^i^s

<siT&^

^Qf) lEsir^

Q^mLi^,

50.

^irek
j/E^

<K^^

(Mpu^nio
rSisoenffLoirss

Qsls
Qs
it

eu/EQ^ek

eSp(Trj'<so

m Q en

<3!r

Notes.

s=iT^uSlio

in caste, as to

my

caste.

eSpu^ireo. Root

aSJa).

70. (1.)

Sing. neut. part. noun. fut.

eSpu^.

88.

This in the

3d case

is

<^pufiiT&>

because you arc selling.

Prose.

erdr^sotiu
fBirsir

^itSQuit
sttS

ups=.3=n^.

er&r

QuQjjir
Siidso

a^irsH/TQ.

^i^A

rEsr!^^m(ms,Qp^
<^3oO

sirsQp

Q^itlLl^.

iSiiSJQ&)

u.^

^ppuijf.u3(es)Qeo
239. (2.)

Qsss

161.

269.

(6.)

[aPP.

I.]

SIMPLE READING LESSONS.

Notes,

ersjrjpgroiiu

^it^Qiuit

as regards

my

Caste.

is

thus used for

but if you ask (Com. 46.).


ujD'd'^rr^ for usap^a^s^fr^.
iBfTsk
[_is

lorrnQr^GO is

added often (98).

131.

^(i^sQp^.
loTiaQs

This

is

common =
I

the place where


live?

dwell.

^(f^d8p^

Where do you

rsn'm

@Q^'sQ/d^ ^(^^rr^ir,

live in Tanjore.']

Qsis QslLs.
03" The whole ^ffl^s^m^u <lecirrjFLD two passages only unfit for perusal.
7.
is

worth reading.

It

contains one or

verse.

The

following quatrain

is

worth knowing.

philosophers divide the subjects of composition into four ^/dlq virtue, Quir^im- possessions, ^swuld pleastire, a? Jinal classes deliverance from this mortal coil. Ill Gram. 215. AvvEi was asked for a definition of these four. She replied,
:

The Tamil

GIVING [is] viktde;

evil forsaking to accumulate [is] wealth;

ever

AFFECTIOX
'

TWO PERSONS IN MIND


'

HAVING KEPT
I

SUPPORT
5.

WHICH HAS EXPERIENCED


cSlIiQs

[is]

PLEASURE; THE SUPREME HAVING CONTEMPLATED THESE THREE


Qufleiru a?0

WHICH HAS FORSAKEN

[is]

THE EMANCIPATION OF TRUE

BLISS.

The
er (^
(S^ fr

words
ek 11
LD

not

in

common
126;

use

are

^LLt&) -

collecting

together;

ever,

a!r^&), affection;

'&-p, to subsist;

SlosNihgi for SlSsur^^;

uffesr, the

Supreme.
syllable

The omission

of final s_ is

marked by an apostrophe, and

the

first

of each metrical foot

by an accent.

For the metre see Pope's III Gram. 190.

173

LETTER FROM A COURT PLEADER.

[aPP.

II.]

APPENDIX

II.

A LETTER FROM A COURT PLEADER.


[The first line is the exact original. The 2d the corrected Read them aloud to accustom your ear to the corruptions. J
version.

Compare them

carefiillj-.

ws n m"^ ^ (^ 3^

!T

(aiin

& l^ p^^ (sap lu

(Sii

rr

s err s= Qp s ^^ s (^

(su

s S eO

uD

Lc

(^0

^s

(3^

LQ [^ 2-

u)a.6i_

OurrL-Q^eun-eQsi)
^Qirr&^GO

@@

(aU(T^iS1^^^6\)

^Sei^iLQ

LDfT3=^^i^ S_S-(d^^SJ QufTiLQ,

^^SO

<35

6SST

l^
GSST

65

^
187.

ILj

Ld

j! IB

[T SIOT

(Si (S!n'Lj^<3-'rru3

^Q iL187.

IT

g i_ ^ ^
u<s^

smrriueufrssrruuSl

saar

i_

tr uSi

ev rs3

187.

Qiapuiq^ iBLnuTsdstr

i3lpefi\siTiQ.S(mu>Qu!r^
L3jT6k)^rTLSls(^mQufT^,

fIr?(1fT6Tu)j2] ai

QmpuL^

fBwuiTsdofru

up/Slu

/b-sx^

Oiusmu

ss)

iLj

m^m@
2_0

LhtEiSiUsmpu^^^iE'S
iJo

(Gm

<ss)

l^

lu

ST<osru<oS)^u^u>y

fSLDUemrru

up^^

^rsjS(^QaiUJ

j)li3uSirrTUj^(SS)^

j)j/Sli^QsfT6mQ

Q^ffliuuuQ^s,

ii9<s^

i^^^fntSlsvfU^ LtST ^j-ir^sro^ffl

^QLiirsmrQ ^i^^sjDp
^Qsi^t^nessrQ
iei

uSleo,

L^^^aiu

Qji^

LDsrr

^unujefu^ifl
in

^lL^
ld
it

^(Sjd/t

iusurr<xsfr lTnfn&lu)j2|

ld
to

is

u /6i

ed Gi hj est S5
(sjsar

err

/iS

u ^Qsii

^(SuiTS&r

"in^GT^

iBihuiBeo

^ikis&r

tDiriflu^^eo

174

[aPP.

II.]

LETTEK FROM A COURT PLEADER.


(m

^uS

(50

Test 3^ IT

ss

ti9

sn Sso

iJJ

ssiir

l9 jd

<syo

^fnQ^ ^frfr<zsrr

ja/SSTS^fT

Q ^SUuSlsilSsOOlUiSmSlp

lEl

<S

I^SS)L-.IU

^ l9 U l9

(TT^

tU

SiD

Q3^ em mr

uu

i^ i^

essr

^s

^ ai>a9(m^(^Ln<o0fr[Ufr^(oS)puj
187.

Giifr<s

ii

i3l

qrj'

lu Ld

6^(msijfrTs;^(oO

O^tBiueuQEQid

ssst

Sj^pc^'sn'Sfrfiss

QsniriLi^eo (cSLLu<5S)<sus(sr^a(^

^eufTLj
iS(n

QsnQss
<3i-^

Qsu

s37)i

Lo &r ssr

Ld

^ uu
IT

fr

(^

p^

as

(^

(Lp

^Q

iSl

^^
ssssr

QiSU<5m(SlLD

iSKskglllhy

^ITUUfT@p^p(^
(sSiupu:ifTLi9
(sSIsuitldituj

(T/JOT"

^Qsi^iSl^^

LCi^(^(93i<3;.DSu^}]Lti (oTe^fT^u:,

op p 3s mi3 ^ a^ Q^sO
nppsnuSi^^^eo

LD^<i QsfT(SlssQ<suesaril>
Oi
'^

<sr<ssr^uD

sesarQ

(L>Q ii9(m3S(^j:fffr<sO<ofr

Oa=-osr&nuuL-L<s3yrLD eOfnurr
Qs^eBreuruLLisssrili
^iGOitiuit

^ajfrs'iSTr
^(SiJ.iTseir

Q^

^^dSl/^iTsQetr.

GiUsiJ(sSl<SLDfrii3 QloioO

15135^

Q stJsssT i^.iwss^sB (^fSl^^

a5(BJ3i(GrEai(m

OiUQp^iS (ms(^(7rj>iTS!orr

^m)^u^^

<^ssTQ<sirpiii^!oO

Qiusmetsr

175

"""

LETTER FROM A COURT PLEADER.

[aPP.

II.]

^^S Sir SUIT'S


&-^^ff(sii
r<S5

OsiJ ^ii iM
Q(svssm(SLh-

Ofus^iuQzsr

Oinpui^ OsrrpiQ
Qtopuu^
LD
15

Oa.ii
<3jlL

j)is

Qi5p<sia/DUJ^(osrLh

QaniTLL
LD

LD

eW

IT

Q LD&M

rr

3^ LD LD 15

L) IT

637

2.r(T@

SSifT

U^^i

QsiTiTL-L^eo

Qasrrpi.ioed^i^^<S5)fD luevfra^errnpssrurrs Otusw5aT O'Sitirfr ^lL^ ^GSfT ^suiTasfT Qpissrurrs erearSsarcS QsLLirrir!Ei cTi (&T^<s

(m

^ nSeSl^ ^

G\

<Sr IT <si)

(Si)

iSiJ

^u

Ln

(sar

^^

en /Si^^ld

s IB s
Sl.

(GY7)

L_/u ^i9. uiSlQrj>ius5Sin^si5iTi5sr^nSl

m^ O a

IT

err err

35

Qp

(SV fT

S ^

6V GSpl Lb

^^/Tr@fLl
gg

The
(1.)

chief diflferences to be noticed are,

for

Qisa.

(2.)

for n-

(3.)

(^p for Qp.


(5.)

(4.)

sign

(i-\<Bn<cS\) is

omitted throughout, as are

all stops, 8iC.

The mute The words are

not separated.

(6.) 2_t_aj for ^-eaiiu in the 6th case.

(7.) sressr for ersjr^.

(8.) ^iiS for .^i/,

though now obsolete,

is

really good.

In regard to Grammar.
Note
1.

^eniT

^iw

for ^'<airffi^Q&>.

This

is

poetical.

^ji^

is

used

absolutely as the sign of the 7th case.


2.

251.

^s.^Qs=

is

very vulgar.

It

was written formerly ^.so^ Q^iLiQ^ = thus

having done.
3.

It is

equivalent to ^!sm&iUfT&).

^'^

for

^5^ common
is

but vulgar.

Several Idioms are worthy of notice.


(1.)
LDBrr

^air^ero^fff

a Sanscrit form.
possesses, Sfc.

Loarr ^jjfr^LDtr&^uj

^rnrg^m^rB one who


king's ftlicitij.

great
(2.)

kingly
sr(Lo^

sem

^QF/sQ^irsSn

Lit.

having seen, you have indeed writ-

ten

~ you have

seen Jit to write.

(3.) (4.)

Gld&) for
^..J^^rreij

^ioSQldw,

hereafter.

.M-sQeusssrQu:), Lit.

an answer must become = I beg for a

replij.

r76~~

[aPP.

III.j

ANALYSIS OP A CIVIL COUP.T COMPLAINT.

Free Translation.

To the very respectable IMr. Sinitli of Tanjore, Rangasami Sastri, Court Vakiel, witli his compliments, writes as follows
and sent on 22d August, 1853, came to hand on have made myself acquainted with its contents, Wiiile I was thinking that when the new Assistant judge, appointed and arrived, should speak about the above Numbers (i. e. the cases in court) I would tell him that in the appeal case No. 378, no answer was needed, and also inform him of youf intentions regarding No. 205, the new Assistant Judge himself asked me why no answer was given in Since I knew well your opinion that no answer should the case No. 378. You wrote in a former be given,. I told him so on tlie 8th of December. letter that, in regard to the Meliir free-grant-land, the documents had How has the Madras lawyer writbeen sent to the lawyer in Madras. I beg you to write me your ten about what you are hereafter to do ? Yesterday wishes about what I am to do in court regarding that affair. the head writer asked me before the judge in court, about No. 205, relaI told liira tliat I must inform you before 1 can reply. ting to Melur. Therefore, I beg you to give me a reply immediately that I may know Salaiu. your wishes in this case. This is my desire.
the

Your 23d

letter posted

instant,

and

Rangasami
1854, January
10.

Sastri,

Vakil.

APPENDIX
[For
tlie

III.
at the

words see the Vocabulary

end of the book.]

Analysis of a complaint preferred in a

civil court.

49th year (1849) No. 114.

Divani

addlut

Cumbuconum

district

udditionuL

3^^iTiEs:n'(siin'<ssh-

SHOP'S

s^<s(m
presence

<su rr

^i

si

en

ir

(l (^ 3" Ln

Sudramin

tv their

complainants:

in the

Puvandsam

fifT&^ssfT Tulduk
""23

^(SSiL^uuisjsrreSliso
in Sadeii/anydl

^q^s(^LD (A)
who-ivill-be

^/Di^^
dead-and

Qumssr
<jone

nt

~~

ANALYSIS OP A CIVIL COURT COMPLAINT.

[APP.

Ill,]

^ em iS<s ed^ p Q
Adeikalam

<s tr saar

rr

<osi

m s^u
Om

<s err es)

eu

uSl

^^ sQ
rfl

iei

<s

Turakonduns

Sons
ir

Vuittilingam

^p O

3S

rr

633r

/_

/r

sar-a-co
("S)
;

ir

tH lu

iS

e^rr

3p

ld

it

op

g;

sn

^pQsfTGmiiTsbr
Taralwnddn

mrrrflajmiS

(1.);

Maiiuyi

erearSp who is called

LDrriflQpff^^
Marimuttii

^pQ.xirsimLrrioifr9.^fB^&/v^
^pQsiT'SmnfT(Ssr(a-);
Turakondaii
{2);

iBrfrafLSlnrrsi-.
life,

iSln^ 6VfrQ<SGrr
LSff^eutT^serr,

lh

p u u^

^i^srv^

Qmpui^

Their couditionin

mirusdurs. Defendants: in the above

^sniflso
village

^Q^s(^isi
who-tives
rr

^pih^Qunesr
dead-and-gone

s?LJL9snD3sfliU(ok'

^pQsrr&sBn^mm
Turakotidcm's
i^,

Suppramanyan
iB

O u

eaar &=

Q ^^

Q s

rr

i^

^ ew^
situation:

i5^/_ (^

^^

esr

(248J

Quem^a^
icife

sismisQstTi^: Tanukudi

^i^ew^

(^LLs<^L^^^io5rih
householder.

f5esrQs=UJ

Lj<SSrQ,fiU

(SUSmSLUjrfT

iS6\)LD

Qsidiss
to full to

Wetland,

dryland,

of these kinds

the land

Qwemu^uj
which should

<9^iEJs^uSli\)^
in the affair,

uiflLDnessnh
value

^urrtLi
rupees

sn^^
135
3^

^ (Sm
^(sm
annas

&) su
*,"
9

rr

^^

srr

LT)

p u

i^^

iSior^suir^OuiBei) O
L9rr^(SuiT^(cuifl60
defendant upon

luiu

eurr^sstr
the Plaintiff'^s

Qiopuis^
the above

G^luoju
which

ui
is

t t5l(W^<orio!jresrO(oij<ssT(7rj><oi)
the

ap ^

ffd

ir

eu

i3

ir

ev ir^

made

complaint

ichat if you

ask:

1.

The defendant's

husband

and

ourselves

brethren

because we are
eiS?

The above

^smt iU[k3irred^3=^m^(nij>p-3isQ(rrj'ijiLDQe)j
Sadeiyangul-as-long-as-the moon and sunlast
tslffd^
village {consisting

flrilD

of)

velis

SO
ir

is\)

lu

fBi

s
to

(GT^ 3i

(m

iSl

Qrj>

Q^in

ir iSl

s' rriu

^ u^

esr

in the land,

us

by hereditary right

-our-own

bei7iy

npssSo
Pin
issr

so

IT

sssT ssy)i 3;

(msrrsrrfBSinOg'tu LjesrO^Fiususm^Btunir
gLsrrsrr

(B <sO

<opissrgus(^

(b&stQs^iL
is

Lj(53rQs=uj

euemsajriiT

one-third

part

tchich

wetland

dry land cf the

kind

178

[aPP.

III.]

ANALYSIS OF A CIVIL COURT COMPLAINT.

eu

<s9

iD

il <30

^ ^ .s (m Q vu
yruund

fBi

-s

<of?l

eo

Qp ^
the

<s^

en

fr

^
aSl

Ou

(Trp

ffO

QeueSI
veils

aO Seo^^s(^LD
10
tu the

(siikiseifleo

Qp^eo

ojrr^

of us
(rrj>

fimt cumptai?iant
ssr

Qusrndo in the name

LQ(nf>3r^fr3s<s^i^S3r S
ofthemiriis,
eSl

<3

<3i'^

lu

rr

^u u

with register,

with out objection,

enjoying
ssi

^^ O

3i IT ezor

QmpuisL.Q(frj'Ln^Si'oSiQLD<oO<sii up ^
the above

continuulhj

viltaye

tite

yoveimnentul

share onhj {to the) Tunjore

Mission

clergyman

by the company

mnesBuuuD a gift

Q.3=ujuuuuLl.tsf-(m-iQp
It
is

uu^uuiriso

(oriEJS(ef^<ocoL..iu

QmpLJU^
(he above

made
siirr

because

belonging

to

our

LB(7rj>a^tSed^^3i(mQLc,'S0
lAljrrrs^

p^
sn

(sm <s

u fr^fBtufrU<S(^
un^ifltufT^d^s'
share
to the

(Qeo^^s(^uo
ground
fflrar

QiDeosufrrr^es)^
the guvernmental

minis

cleryijman

0^^}^^0<sir
Q
Q Q

leo)

fEi

s;

^(Sui^^sirenrrii^Ln
^tsSu^^irssfrniLji})

Qs=^^^sQsfT<sm (106)
having paid conVmually
iu 3>
tu
rr

iBtTiEJS&r

we both as people who have not divided their inheritance


'Si<^

3i

tn

lt>

ir

ilj

ii^

^ Q^ ^ &
while

eu

(t^

ss)

tiSI

s\)

and as having one common enjoyment {of the property)


lu
fBi

we continued

to

be

3i sffi ffO

^jiJ
the

suO^<3i^i.L (m)SiuQL,puu^.
GcFlIl-Sst
altogether best

l9p^
lSIst^

STEJ<setfl&}

s^QKsu

^Qiu
who was

QmpuL^
the above
(Stsfl

of us

dejend-

eu

(T

^u

(m

(3^

ssT

i^^^n-s^fB^ujssT
lj^^it
so7i

u3 e^

(7)j>

eii

(surr^
ant's

1-1(^1 ebr

<?/5^^ ^<skrSlLSl&)
descendant without
in the

Uffnusu
Prab'hava

husband

(^^ Q ^
(SiiQ^iii)

^
<s

<ss)

IT

Q^^aarr

\^ ^^^&iOiup,'B^QuTu9<li^i^ir<ssr QuniLeSlLLLnesr. iDrr^^^6\) ^p^^


month
3i

year

in the sitterei

died

and

ivent

away.
lu

(oil

^}i

(5

(S2F)

(El

sn

<3^<3;e

<s

ir,

lEi

<s

(Gm ld

O ^

For him

we

all

rites

having done,

and periodical ceremonies perform.ing we

continue.

II.

Tlius while

ANALYSIS OF A CIVIL COURT COMPLAINT.


u3
Ql

[aPP.

111.]

(SO

e)j

(^

Ln 3" 3i

IT

iT)!

lu

tr

sr

QLopui^LSp^eu/r^iiSlssr
tlie

it IS

a woiiian

tvlif

has an

bting

ubuve

defendant''

ulUitted subsistence

^^
(TTj)

LD^Si

tiSlejrQiuifi<oO<siJ&OtEjSLDtr
vpun
'S
G)

s^st

<s

fr^i 3i<s

rr

Q 3^ inu Eirsjia
Sembunhudi

consent
i)

Valanyhamaii
/r

'Juluk

eQ

fEO

issT

Os

Stor

tr

ear

lu ssr

sij

sst

Q
wit/i

s^

nh t^

isst

Jiumaiingan

Tenkondan
<5>-zy.

tvhu is culled

some people

(^

LD

sn

&ifba^QLnpuu:^i3lpQ'S)jir^'
coming
the above
rr

ii9 ssr

Q u

earn-

a crowd

collecting

defendant's

daughter

eQ

3^

rr ffO fT <sf^'

as) lu

-s (sQ lu

ssyr

m O

3'-

\u

^
'Str

3> tr err sit

eu sspi

<ESg=rT&)fTLLQ(ss)Uj-s

ssSluunernnJo
m<iiriugc

Miss Wide-eyes

Gs^iLi^ QsfT&r&r (104) QeuesmQua making to take to themselves vce must,


ts ir
tni 3,

LD

em

3p

'^

^^
^j

Jill

(S3)

eo

Quitl l^qeib^
vihich-we-had .put on

with the so saying


[Tj

desire

we
u:> l9!

es)

3i

(em

sar

aj osrr lu

Siir fflfy

lo

e\)

lu fB

(G-itj

es)

iLi

which-tlie-jewels

her
11^

and

besides
fT n9i

some

oj'uur

3j 1.^ lu

fEJ
fij

3S srr

(irj>

Qp^

lh

s rr

sar

Qu

^ L- uj
(^/o!
^3;

s'Setr iLj ih

^rjpQ
(Sj S37

j^^LDm'us

QarremQ
took

ir em etn Quaesrsm^d

^
en

utensds

by violence

away (258)
IT

^
&.1

ff'u)CT-(^^
in the -^1 tk

U^ 4f i?

sd

np

SO en

Q
IT

^w
^
O

rr

concerning

year
rS

in the

month of Jam, the


lu
iJ^

first

complainant
<5d

them
tj

O u

if^

ij^

jr}i

i^

3j

^S

rr

uSl

(tp

etj

SO

Quiflg^il)

fSirSLSlff^LDfiLu

(ip^so eiin^
the first

QuiBso
upon
rr ji'/

vpon
^1

(and) icithout cause


i<^.

complainant
CS) 3^

LL

p u ^

iSlirQsiiirQu^tJiUtTeveQ

<s <s ir

Quapuisf. iSljT^l&jrr^Luth
the above defendant

unsueS.i^^ih (in the) Pucanasum

^ir^ssa
Ti'diik,
i3l

LD

etV

^^

Qp

ij^-

eo

'3=

tu

-x

iT

essr

/_

(nj

s^

3i 3i

it

tnagisterial

department
IT

made
l9 3"
IT iSl

for

the complaint

Q pu
i_n

LO-

Qu

e9

Si^. j>{^

pQ

ei] rr

^1

3i

&^

Ou

i^ em

3" lu

IT

Qmpuu^
(he above

QurrsS'isrv
police

^iS-fii
officer

LSsT^eun^a(^
to the

^-QuLLetDSiuiriL
partial

defendant

[aPP.

III.]

ANALYSIS OF A CIVIL COURT COMPLAINT.

(l9

(m

ru

^'j

3:

(t

ssar

rtp 35

'S^

au

it

ai'sm lu

Qi^gSliUfTii9
recuncdtd

0ufr<s
yo

being

the Jirst

cunipluinunt

to

Q<9^ireO'sQiipuiS3iiriQ3^\u3i^^
Qs^ireO'^
haviiiy told

^
^

eo

s^ in

^ ^: lu

ew

3}

it

dsn

SiTUuiB^ili
trouble

Q3tus:^^(SU)6d
because he yuce

&S0
some
ti3

LD^^Lusn.t^iJs'hoir
arbitratois

es)

61J

^
p

s^

33

If

6SJI

i9

no

&j

IT

^}]

<ss)

iiJ

^/^

tS 3?

liaouiy appoiuttd,

of the dejtiidant

the nje-time

SV

SS)

Il9

Sn

otr

&!

1^

LTi

3^ 3i

.S 3i

IT

3,

L[)

pU

U^ !

'0^ 3,

^SO

us lony as

fur the

sub;-,istence

the

above

in the

yruund
LD

f5S!iTQ\3^iS<S()QsU(sQ
ibmQfuSli\) in the wet ground
QsueSl vei
G'^

^S S

10^

LD (63)

lEJ

STT

<sSl

(^

p Q ^S
uie
to

^
'^

Ssold
land
15 3i

iBnisjserr
toe

tsS(Si@p

&S1 ^1 Q^ear^LO

leave tU
IT

^
^1

Jim

^
in

iiV olT

3i

Q U

,'Lp

'a^

IT

<o!ST

3J1

3'-

iU

LD

(o\)

cgyiSZD^

J3j(SlJS(T

^^^1
inortyaye

L/.'5^L0

Qp^<&in(3ST^
tS'c,

(^3tU LU ITLD&)
not viahuig
cSi^

and

that
Si]

she
IS,
IT

covenant

SSI

esT 3^

siyi

O 3
hij

szor

3i

/r

<oii

ld

3= 'u

^
1

its

produce

means if

subsistence
3'-

making

sv(yE3i;p0^saJ^iS)^pijiiTi5yTLCi Q
suQ^Qp Q^ek^LD
IS to

lu

3^

3;

3 snr

^iTLDiT(cUTm

QffiL^

continue so

determinution

QsiremL-. which they made


l9
f>\>

l9

3> IT IT LD

3p

(5)9

Up

lEI

3, SsfT 3S

3i SSiT

<5)J

fEI

3;

(^^

lSIjsitiii})

-^IS'

'sSl oil If iBJ

s'^eiT

semQ
Q.
(oU

LSIe\)ioijiijs

enQKL^Lo

accordiny
LU

to

these particuhi i s enumerating,

in the Pilavauga year

IT

3i

L^ U?^ UD^
LDIT^LD

Sl_

^(-9

ffO

l9l

3 Si

Si

(G3)

lEl
IS IT lEJ

3i

(GTE

ih

LOniTSL^

ST

Q^^liSls\)

l3n^'SUn^S(^
to the

S (^ LD

muryari month, 17 th day

defendant

we

^
sQ

SU

SfT

Sijsnetr

IE] <S (Q^ .S (m fniEJS!^d(^uj and she to us

lU

Lti

<3^

tJ:,

ty^

3i Stn 3i 3i GfT iSl T)

iQ

s_i_63r uu^dt5s>3<sseir
covenants
3; 3i 3i SSiT

iSpuiSI
having

3J

^1
to

3i

1J337"

^
(nj>

(5S)

GLCipUloQlLCi^m)
to

caused Q;

be produced
iSl

having seen that

the

above

Q p 1^
^3l-LU

QY^

^ ^ 1^

Si

,^

Lti

(Sij

ih

lSl3IT^d(^
complaint

^3n&

!BITLD3(SijLD

(m 3i 3i u u t^ 1^ (ms (m Qs 17 S S U LJ lL l^Q^S Qp^


has been given.

magisterial

a deed of reconciliation

181

ANALYSIS OF A CIVIL COURT COMPLAINT.

[aPP.

III.]

tfn

- eu
III.

qrf

(GO)

Ln

IT

(ss)

su

eii

rr (ei

QOs
took

ir

<sasT

l_

O u

fr

eQ

s^p,

iii><sii^

^rrirQ
T/iat deed

fEiTLDnosxaiJ

ennmiQi Qsnemi
who
ezrar

QunsS.siv
the police

(if

reconciliation
<s
ir

^i^a^irQiuioSTSiST
officer

^^

m) Q

eii

tu

ir

&

(SiJ

iss)

ub

what

from

motives'^

ivho-is-a-womuin-to-whom

3^<s<sirf51ujfrmr
s^ssfTtfltumssr
a-subsistance-is-allowed

i3lp^6ijrr^<s3
iSlrj-^
to the

la

pu
above

isi.

iQ &d

^^

eii

eun^si^
defendant

QiDpuisf.
in the

f6\)^^&)
land

(SO

^ em
third

esm)

<s

<sin

u.
to

<s .s

sii

essr ui.

lu

Q u

rr

00

tF,60

epesT^

8<ss)ids Qsueisarija-UJ^
fall must

Qurreo
as if

one

^(osil^Lnfra9^(^jiJ<s(^
unjustly
to the

^p^Oiua^^QLuputq^
a report
liaviny written,
hi the above

chief aiithoriti/

\x)

Q
10

sv

<sSl

fQ eo

^^
<ss)

sti fTri SO sj
ih>eo

smr smi

,s

(^
is

err err

i^

iiSl

eo

iDQ(3iJ&9
velis

(Seo^^eO
of land
Si
<oO

e^eur^di^etren'
third which

^i^uSp
below

one

<s issar

^
fB

^ i3p^syT^siJ3^uu(B^^LDUin_
the

specijied (259)

land
<su

defendant
srr

to

put in possesion of
<3=

&^

^^

J-

sn

^jru S(^p.sfrii3^<oJ
QjiB^(r^sQp^rruj
is

gv

u u
put
isi

s^

(m-

^
of

a-^^jsi/ an order

^jisijetr

<oiJ3=uu^^esr^
the having
in possession
ir

come as if
u^

she

i^frtLi3;u0u<o3rjijLD Q
is

p u

isj^

Qif

(SS)

2_i_(Sjr7

an

injustice that that (and)


ss)

the above

document

of reconciliation
Ptp so in

i^

s Ssrr <s sssr

ap ^<sO'SVfr^^(^if)si)svrr<S(m
Qp^ed&jrr^
^(^ifleo
the

UL^S6S).ss'2Efrs

sssar
looking

6urrd(^Qp6[)il>

and agreement
(S^

at the first plaintiff in

head cutcherri/ evidence


dossr

(B

^^^p

(^03^L[i(oS)L[)iutru9(sQs^rrp
Qs^LD<mLDUjnuj
rightly

3^ in

Qs!T(Bs:-^^p(^ffto his

eSls^nff'^sssr

Qs^iL^

having given

examination makivg

(^friuiMfresr&^<S^j-sijOc9^iutufriMeQ(m<S(^(7rj>iTSStr s^sv^
iSuufTuuLDnssr

a just

P-^^nsi^ answer
iQ

Q
eU
IT

s^ lu in

rTLD<S)90<iS(vr^ it set.
they a? e.

^-<sli^

not

making
(TF

IV.
(S3)
/E7

LT)

p U

IS^

(3>p,

^}i Lb

<S

(CTH O)

Qmpuis^
The above
-

iSji^eun^
defendujit's

li(t^i^u3

iBn!as(^ix>

husband

and

ourselves

[aPP. in.]

ANALYSIS OF A CIVIL COURT COMPLAINT.

(sSlu(^^^frstrrrintxii5fr6Tr^6i]'S3>iru9ioOQL[>puis^
who
not divided their property
<s
(Gfh
<35

being those

and

to this

day

to the

above

fS SO

sm LD

np ^eoeiJT^Ou(Trf>eoil(Trf>3r
in the first

affairs

Plantiff's

name
(S3)
ixi

tltemirds
3^ <s
rr

iSrfKuu^is^eSlj'Oujp^ise^Oisv Q
^(muu^i^eSir
besides being

en

/Si

ilj

ld

sj/bsssrQsu
before

^su(^Lhs^<isnff)iijUD

being-a-woman-ivho-has-a-subsistence-allowed-her

en

isTK

^QUD Qubpui^(Q<sd^^:S(a^u,{utrQ^ir(r^
and
the

to

her

above

land e^

anysoever

g^LnufB^L^eOffdrr ld^ LnOu:^Oe<dQ>^iuui^


connection
there not being

u. lh

u uf^<ses)S

us written above

an agreement having

arisen (256)

in that ivay.

In

the magisterial

department

a deed

lem LD

IT (all

is^

l9

(7^ <s

a9 &i

iBnLonei^iii

iSlpi^(y^<i<ss)SiiS&)

QiuiEJSGweii^s^^^eQQ^fB^ &js^si^60 ensism ^0/^^


in

of reconciliation

having arisen

our

care which

was

fl(Si>^es)^i9p^sijfr^eiJ3^uuQ^^
Seo^em^u
land
/Si
isSI

&^

^^
eo eo

a- sij

<!p

lu lu

i3iT^siin^
the

eus'LJU^^
to give

^3:^n(oi\

QffuJLU
to

defendant

possession

of permission
tr

make
in

esfl

iLj

^^ <sfrp em ^
authorities
(all

fr <erR .s

(^

^ ^<sirp lQ
authority

^^ (g)^
rr

to the

Revenue

by being none;
fEi

^
.jy

u u
thus

L^

eiJ3=uu^^esr^
F LJ

e^

(Lp

(^

^ u u

iq

im

J)jLJUlSf-

U Q^^ loUr^
to

e^QpiEJ (^^

the having

caused

take possession

^ij U fTiLjiD a breach of order and

( I'Sl )

<?

loO (30 IT

^^ (es)S^

lu t^

p ^ ev ^ L-j^ <oi^M^ ub
rr

(S3) fEi a>

(em im

Sl^
it

Q'f(sO&)n^^(^g^th,

iSji^iaiirT^
the defendant' s

LKV^L^ih
husband

iBTiEJS(m,i}>

being ivhat cannot take effect

and

ourselves

^(sSlu(m^^irOerresru^p(^
^(sSu^^iT<seir
people whose property
is

QL0ipui^(irj>^(e3)iMrr
QmihuL^
^)rrn^t5mjDrT
deed
the above

ej(SsrLi^p(^
not divided to the fact

(f

of reconciliation
erfljrjj

&-L^Li>UL<^'SS!n:S np ^ei>fre!n^Q6sr,SLCi(7Fgi-s<s
&^i(oirui<^ses)s
Qp^(oOiTQ!r

^jQ(^!rsLD
other

(i^si-is(S(r

s (^ p ^Q^dQp
by their

and agreement

and many

pro(fs

ANALYSIS OF A CIVIL COURT COMPLAINT.

[aPP. HI.]

l^.

lU

fT

^11

LCi

i3\

no

^S'l

SV

IT

^iSU

3^

U U

L^ l^ QR

<3i

(^

IT

LH

pU

ISj-

heiiKj;

the drj'cndaiit
(SSiT

which-has-taken-pussexsion

of the ubuce

[W)sd

67)

e^

3'>

(^

err srr

SO ^s

is\)

s^

LnuiQ.s&n'SUisi.
accvrdiny
to the

oiie thiid-beiiiy

land

agreement
eSl

^
eu

su

(63)

LD3=s;^,ssir<s
for iubxistance

Gil

srr

^gy

she

which enjayhig

CS 6XJ SlOt

iq^

iu

euirQeutosarL^uj

S^ QsxjeQ.'QsOLcQurrsiiMpp'BlsO im ^ QsusSI ioVui Quns ('25SJ wpp ib'ieOm


J
of a
ai
veli

must continue

land
<s <s

besides the rest


(oil

<

if

the land

lu

lEJ

<s

(STR

s (^

isiD

(ossr

u^ lu

(sst

(s^ fSl s^

to us

to foil
IT

that

it

must

concerning

l9

su

i3rr^si:n^
thcdefondant

^Q Qu^rSleQi^i^QT^^ Q3'\utU'Sd(TQi^u^. Quifl&) (230j ^i^u iSirn^ Qs'djujsd (268^ ^Q(SS)Ld.


upon
this

complaint

we have

made.

Translation.

To

the presence of the additional Sudr

Ameen,

in the

Combaconum

District Court of Divani Adalut.

Complainants.

Defendant.
the late Subra-

The sons of the late Adeikalam Tanukodi, widow of TureykondAn of Sadeiyangal, in the raanyan Tureykondan, Pavanasam Tdluk. village.
| j

of the aforesaid

1.

Vaittilingam

Tureykondan, Tureykondan,
Mirasdars.
alias

Condition in

life:

householder.

2.

Murimuttu

Mariayi-

Condition in

life:

In the matter of lands Nanjei and Punjei, which are claimed. 135 Rupees, 9 Annas.

Value,

brothers phiiiititls and the defendant's husband bein^ I. We the and one third of the village of Sadeijangal, which consists of thirty velis held as absoUite 2iro[)crty, being ours by hereditary right; and we enjoying it, the miras being entered, without any dispute, in the name of the tirst plaintitF; and, because the governmental share of the village of this our miras ground was made over to the Tanjore Mission, we continuing to pay to the Clergyman of Tanjore the above governmental

184

"

[app. hi.]

analysis of a civil court complaint.

is enjoyed in common, most worthy brother, the above defendant's husband, died without male issue, in the month of Q^^mrr, in the year Prabhava. We performed his funeral rites and continue to celebrate the periodical ceremonies (in commemoration of him). II. Things being so, 1-iamalingara Tenkondan, of the village of Sembankudi, in the Valangaman Taluk, with the consent of the defendant, collected a crowd and took away by violence defendant's daughter Wide-eyes, with the intention of marrying her, she having on the They also took away other jewels with which we had invested her.

share; and,

we

as brethren

whose inheritance

in that division, continuing to enjoy it:

our

things belonging to us.

Concerning this, in the month of June 1847, in reference to the complaint which the 1st plaintiff made against them, and to the complaint also, which, without any cause, the present defendant made against the 1st plaintiff in the magistrate's department, in the Pavanasam Taluk, the above police officers, leaning to the defendant's side, used violence to induce the plaintiff to compromise the complaint. Arbitrators were therefore appointed and in the month of Miirgari, in the Pilavanga year, deeds were signed by the defendant and the 1st plaintiff respectively, in which it was specified that we should deliver up to the defendant for her subsistence | of a veli of land, which she should not have power to mortgage or otherwise alienate, but enjoy the proceeds thereof herself. Thus in the magistrate's court an act of compromise was signed and
delivered.

The police officer who received this deed from us, actuated by we not what motives, wrote a report to head quarters to the effect that 3 of the land should be given to the present defendant to whom subsistence was assigned, in consequence of which J of the land, as specified below, was put into the possession of the defendant. The representations of the plaintiff supported by the above deed of compromise, that such an order had come, and that it was unjust so to put her in possession, were not examined and a just reply given.
III.

know

IV. The pi-esent defendant's husband and ourselves being brothers who had not divided their property and the miras of the above property being still in the name of the 1st plaintiff; and the defendant being
;

one to whom already subsistence was allowed ; and she having no connection with the land whatever ; and, since, a deed of compromise to this effect having been given in the magistrate's office, the revenue authorities had no right to put the defendant in possession of land which was in our charge ; and their having so put her in charge being a breach of order, and void in law ; the defendant's husband and ourselves being also persons who had not divided our inheritance, as is evident from the above cited deed of compromise and many other proofs we have made this complaint in order to i-ecover the above land, except the ^ of a veli allowed for the defendant's subsistence according to the terms of the deed of compi'omise aforesaid.
:

[The

specifi.cation of the parcels of

land follows.]

24

185

A LETTER AND ITS ANSWER.


Notes on the above.

[aPP. IV.]

Observe that there is an ellipsis of the signs of the cases and of intermediate particles wherever this is possible. (2.) ^euirseir (written and pronounced ^ar/rsrr commonly) is honorific, and is in constant use. (3.) <3=Qp
1.

s^^d(^ =
(4.)

io the

good face

polite form, invariably used in similar cases.

^(5<5@^( '"^0 or which will be, for ^q^sQ/d or ^Q^i^: this qualifies the name esj sj^ ^eSisj ld. (5.) The names of the individuals and their castes are given. The final th of the name is omitted. (6.) Qs'djiuuuiLi for Q6=iL^,
a

common

idiom.

(7.) a^Qsir^'iireir for s^Qsir^airaisfr, a

common

abbreviation.
original

(8.)

The corruptions

in general will be understood


(9.)

by comparing the

Observe the use of 2_:_(SBr for ^ as a sign of the 3d case. (10.) Qa=iLuj&)rrQ(^LD, a strange, but common form for Q<s=ij Q^irm, Gi&=iuiki, the doing (274.) (2.) ^Q(^ld, we have become. (11.) There are parts of the above which are not to be strictly parsed it is the composition
with the corrected copy.
:

of illiterate

men.

g^^^^^
APPENDIX
Letter

IV.

from a younger
all

brother to the elder.

The auspicious
iSlsrs^earesrirfTissr

good dispositions

possessitig,

the

infinite

Laxshmi's

presence possessing,

^m'sar^fresr who gives rice


support,

utBunedsirnssr and supports,


the strength

^mL^<osr(vu<smrr
dependents

^^fflds

QJS\}6i)<SlJITfT!!r

LDSIT (DLD(TK^JTfffT(5Sr

lBp(^(^)<SOlEJW(T^^
is

who possesses power


good
qualities,

to

who has

of mount Meru, ivho

adorned with

who is a sea of knowledge,


to the divine lotus feet

the

most honorable,

of the

elder

brother

Ia

slave,

Bramhanuthan
eight members,

with much

devotion

and

affection,

making prostrations with

<sfrir(^Qffiu^

ernp^dOstresnri
which has written

,ff^iTsi^irnasQ^6!5srt(aiJ^^'
the

srd^eor

and with five,

most humble address:

That

is

to say,

and now

the current

Purattusi

month

the 5th

day

until

Ia

slave,

and your

slave's

infant

offspring

atid the father -i7i-law

Viraputtra Pilley

with his wife

and

children

and Narayana

Pilley

of the west

street,
(6)

and
There

the

rest,

who are

desired

inuS^^jraeirem'tsu^ih
friends, all

Qt^Lom
(^Lorrrfesr

sj'^i^^^

^rriEJS(&^il)

^essresSuunn
the elder sister-

(are in) health.

yourselves

^(SiJiTS(Sf^m
in-laxa

&
and

(7)

sem^us^fTLSIut^il)

&^(omns=mliiiih
the

the long-lived son

Kannusdmi

and

long-lived

Tureysdmi,

[apP. IV.]

A LETTER AND ITS ANSWER,

and

the

long-lived lady

and Sornani

and

the

infant in arms,

atid other

in that place

who are

friends

all

in

bodily

health

that

they

are

the

news

to write

and send

I pray
Purrattasi

you

to

give

permission;

and now
ujGS)iui3uu

yourselves

month

the

15th day

Quj(W^
which (you) wrote

s^rr&
the
letter

<nuiB^

<SijnQs;^u
reading

urrrr^^
and
looking at

and

sent

coming

all

the things

I
^(S>-&>

have ascertained

I
snuSfi^^6\>
i7i

to

yourselves

LjjTiJ-L^nQ
in the

t^

QiuQg^tiJ
which wrote

Q-aesw^ii
to

month of Purrattasi

8ih day

the letter

the

long-lived

Kannusumi
<suuj^<ss
1 1

who

teas affianced

Kurandeyd

Pilley's

daughter

Kamadchi

is

years

old.

3=rT^sd(^rSluL^ ^&}'2e\} There is no horoscope;


uniT<om<siiii^(es)^ih

wpps

(S^esBriEJsQefr&JsoiTil)

all other qualities

QsetreSuSlf^^U) as far as I hear


no fault.

!5i^Q5)LDiunsQsu

uSl^sQ/D^ lurrQ^rr^
There
is

or see

are quite good.

Moreover, for long-lived Tureisdmi who was proposed demanded

.M.g2i(IP'S^^m9(sir'2etr

lds&t
daughter
is

LSI(^ii^

QeotLs^etssrQperrerr^
excellent
qualities.

Arumugattd

Pilley's

endowed with very

(Her) age

(is) 9.

To

the eye

of full age she appears;

all

B<ssr<SDLDUunuSlnKsQp^
is

^(OT)a)
but

oiLLifTOj^
they

ei&ST^
say she

Qs=n&)^Q(iT^iTserr
is

good about her;

the

8th.

That indeed

to

my
on the subject

mind

is

doubtful.

Therefore

your idea
6BrrffliJJtl>

having known

thereupon

any

thing

iQsi^inuu^^
to

QujfT3='^esrujni}S(f^aQQp(Ssr

^oDsuuneo
therefore

whatsoever

arrange firmly

I am

intending;

^lE^s s^!r
this letter

sismiSi^LQ'Ssr when you have seen

^iejs(&^(SS)1uj

^eSluLSfT/rtuQpih
idea

your

to

me

that

it

may

be understood
siLi'^isir
gracio^isly

having written

to

me a

slave

1-1^01 Qujiosrgu which is the proper way

^^

uStLiQ^etr

Q en (sssn^iju^
it

to

command

is

necessary.

Such

is

my petition
187

A LETTER AND

ITS

ANSWER.

[aPP. IV.]

NOTES.
a real letter. The extravagant respect shown by the younger amusing. The spelling has not been altered. All the abbreviations have been explained before and the learner will easily master it.

This

is

to the elder is

The writer is inquiring about wives for his two nephews. He has found two; but the one affianced already has no horoscope, which all children should have. The other is the 8th child, and that is unlucky.

He

waits for the

commands
is

of his brother,

1.

Q^emieu^
^uumjili
(QfSRaf-

Sans. Dandavat, prostrate.


2.
3.

used for a very humble petition. It It is connected with ^<5ssnLD.


now.

may

be from the

for

^uQuirw^ua, and
and

(^Lpikesi^ssir

i^isfr^(^L-Lf. are, lit.

cliiken-infants

and child-

whelps.
4.

They

are familiar expressions.


LDfTLDssT,

LDiTLDiT,

Voc. of

a father -iu-luw

here used for the nom.


often inserted

5.

iBi(^i^Qpmm

for ^(^^L-Qpeiretr;

lu is

where

it

is

not

required.
6.
QiSSALDih,

here

is

an ellipsis of ^uSlQf^eQQifn'seir.

7.

for @!i(s^&eS, a Sans,

word signifying

long-lived.

It is

used only by a

senior speaking kindly of a junior.


8.

2_^^iria/

[for S-^^ueif]

Qs^tuiuQeiiemL^uj^.
to

It

is

necessary

(for you)

to give permission, 9.

= I pray

you kindly

do

it.

^^iQ^esr, " I have noted


Here
is

the contents."

10. S'^ff,
11.
is

an ellipsis of

^^ ~ besides
is

this,

moreover.

Qeu^^LD

[for Csuisr3riil (^(mresuruuLD


is

the

ending of a letter:

This

necessary, This

my

petition.

Wrong
(gsur/ECW^ for QfLpiiiaafi,

spelling.

an infant.

es>LD^^m

for LDjb^Li, the other,

LDuS^prrireir for LS^prrirseir, friends.


uSsL^i^freir for ^(Si^iiTserr,

people desired, or beloved.

QuuL-LirQ for

LiiTL-irT, the

month equivalent

to Sept.

Oct.

S!s^iuuu(B^^ for t9J^,s=UJuu(Bd^, render certain.


Qeoi^emQpefreirgi for
^6CL-3=<S!!!!r(Ui<sir(sirffi

is

of good

qualities.

^^uiSamuil)

for ^iSuiSlrrrriuui

intention.

188

[aPP. Y.]

a letter and

its ANSWEPv.

APPENDIX
Tlie ansioer to the

V.

former

letter

from

the elder brother to the younger.

To

the long-lived

younger

brother

Bramitunuthan

of

God
of wealth

hi/

the

grace

all

good things

and

eight kinds-

possessions, honor, estate

and carriage,

learning

and sense

more and more

to

increase

may
(SusarTuSl&)

it

be!

and and our

7iow

this

current

Purattasi month

S.(De7<si_
"21th

iBtrQpLD

s^QpffrrjjQpii)
icife

iSlsk'Siorr

(^ lL t^s (^ th

day

until

we

and children

wpg)] and

other
a_<5sr

a?id other relatives

in this place (ai-e) in health.

In that place

thou

s^QpfffTUQpih
thy luife

Q(^LDnrT<ssr

and

and
and

the long-lived

LDS!rQ^(5u^ih son Mahadevan and

&(^LDnn'^^
the

long-lived daughter

Amarapathi

other

our

relatives

and friends
you must

of

all

their

health

vjten

write;

and

710W thou, in the Purattasi

monthwhich has written

the letter

has come

to

hand.

'

its

substance

we have

noted.

But
short or

the girl

engaged for

my

eldest so7i

u-hethcr

she

is

tall,

Q&)LL,g:sssr(LpsfrefrQ^ssri/i})

QsOtls^GmLSIeOGoQ^esr^ih
or plain,

s^uQusw^ld
black
episBr^ih

handsome

QsuuGlksst^lo
or red,

s^asr

sQ^rr&LiSi^QeO
by thy
letter

t5LDS(^

Q^

rfl iu

eS eOfeo

^eSu
Again

we

nothing

&-(osr^j(siDLLU ^sssressf]
thy elder
sister-in-law says,

QsO^si^ism'LDrrsexjih

learn.

(she must be) handsome,


QLDfTSTfTssijLD

(^LLemiQiussr^uD
neither
too

QfBLLGniQiuesr^
nor too
tall,

LSleoeorrweo

short

of a middle

stature,

and

fit

for

domestic

life.

^&}6i)mD60 ^cGrruj(5S)ULU^<i(^s
Besides

QslLi QusmQurfleO
ivhicli is

iSliftiLii^rrioir
in favour, indeed.

for

the

younger son

engaged the girl {I am)

But as

to

her being the eighth


ioi6\)G0iT(r^ili

many
65(5 as one
icord

worthy

people

eSs^nrBsQsGsr

Qjldtl^

QunQeo Q<SLiQpQu(sm^nek
say
another girl

I impdred

of.

They

all

189

A LETTER AND

ITS

ANSWER.

[aPP. V.]

must be looked

out.

To our

house wife

Sji^^u QuemQuifleO
upon that
yirl

iSlrflujih^rrssr
is favor.

@^

sfTrfluj^^(^Q0)
that account

^(SiJ(^LD
she also

On
inform she

as

is

thinking about

to

you

to

tells

me.

Therefore,

^(SsresTQpua
still

^ib^u Qusmr
that girl's

eSLLt-fTsmiTLLju:)
relatives, SfC,

j>jdsili

uds^^^ih

iB(^(Trj>uj
ivell

round about

to

examine.

Thereupon

the eighth indeed

certainly

to thee

if

it

be ascertained afterwards

to thee

in

any

foreign strange

house whatever

agreeing

asking

to

determine wherever

it is

necessary,

so

determine.

Moreover

the pledging

Betel

before

doing

letter

writing

if you send"

then

thy elder
<ssi^

^emressflssiuj
sister-in-law

^^ULSeSdQQpsar
I send,
the auspicious

QiDsOsuQ^Qp
besides in the coming

mn^^^ed

Tei month

to

perform

ceremony

the

day and lucky time

to

appoint

I will

ivrite

and

send,

afterwards

for that

the needful

things

all

in Hiat place

make

diligence

to

procure.

Besides

to

be done

all other

needful things

except your

own

satisfaction

in

any

matter

my

consent you need

not wait for;

in that place

which happen the affairs

to

me

that Jiiay be

known

from
and

time to time

without any forgetfulness

you must write

send.

It

is

necessary.

Long-lived one

to

the elders

my
one''
to

respects

to

present

to the

younger

"

My long-lived

present.

It is necessary;

Gur unci than

is

our help

[aPP. VI.]

A DEED OF MORTGAGE.

APPENDIX

VI.
as a pledge.
]

Bond assigning a house-ground


[

Equivalent to a long lease.

3ruu

LDSsr^irsQiu&jrr'Siom-

3"

s p ^ ub
tr

^CTffTffuDflVi <s

<S

ttf

<s

Prosperity giving of the uSSra Sulivuhana


S^aicferrrS-a.

in the year

1743
(sQ cp fr

of

the Kaliyiiga
IT

a9^ Q tneo^^ Q s^ en
In the above,
SSi 3=

sorr tS (ssrp

(^^

LL

[^

4922.
iDSiT

in the current

Visha

year

in the

month masi
iSl GfT

Q ^ ^ ^ (^
day,

t5'Sir^^eQ(TFS(^LD
of Tanjei
ivho is

IT (sQ

^
(^^

IQth

in the city
<^ir

Druvida
<5sr

Pilley's

(SiJ

^^p
(^

ST

rr

Ln

l9

err ostr

u^^p
son

q2?

''^

''^

grand son
l3I err Ssrr <s

to

Eramba

Pilley's

Pdmannu
>s tr 6sl

Q Lnpui^
Qldjdul^
in the above

^m. iB <S

(TR 3^

(^

tji

rr ir

u emi^^
uemis^^rr
Pandit

ii)srr3sYr<5(5
Pilley,

^e<r[fleSl(f^s(^tJD

ufTifssrremflu

town who

is

Parkkuni
i3l

^eufTSefT
^62JiTS&r
their

(^LLinreJST
(^LDfTffesr

!r rr 3^ !Ei 3i rr

u essr i^^ p ^ lc
uemu^^ir
his

Q eueou u
Qeueouun
Velappu
essr

rr

STfTs^iEisnir

^miSl

son

Rusangkar

Pandit (\)

younger brother
l>

uemri^^p QsrreSliu^suufrs; (^mrra S^^mrir


uemis^^n
Pandit (2)

is^^ p

QsneSre^uutT
Govindappd's

(^LDirjifr

^^nirnLD
Sitiirdm

UGomu^^iT
Pandit (3)

son

f^

fEJ

<s err

&-

err (Gte

^^

/t

qf

lo

lti

dssr

^/_q

3^

rr

3" ear

Qp /S!
ivriting

we

and our
uSi

relatives

a house-ground pledge
iQ

bond

(m^^uis^
as we have given

rBSi^QerrfEi s^^me^niUJ ^eii3=p


this

lB as ^i lu tn rr 3i

day

our

need
Sosr <s

being the reason,

LCi

np t es)<siiSleo^i.^(SRe)j3^3^iji
QSiSuSlb'd

(sSl

up

Lr>

Q
:

ld

e))

ptliQpemiuu
in their
IT rr 3^ toff

s\i(S<ssi<sii^^

LD'2esrd(^

eSurnh:
the specification

Qldgo
In west

hand
uSi

as a pledge committed

of the house,
ei>

eo

Qis^p

^ (^

^(iy^3^

^^

Q ^ emQpQei)<s^3'fr3s
in the south side

King

street

in ivest

lane,

Kanjd

A DEED OF MORTGAGE.

[aPP. VI.]

Kara
LCids3T

PerumaVs

house
<S (SR

tlieij

a pledge
fT loST
LC)

taking which have


SoST <Z

S (3^^
house

Q^ p

Q UJ EJ <S (STK <S


ours

(^

LD

^
/r

ffi

35 <S fTIT

to the

south,

ivhich is

to the

house

of the messenger su

^lUiuir^fTiD^'djiufBisp (^LniTfrut I lUfEi'Srrrr ^LULUIEJSniT (^LDfTJTIT U lL <SS) L lU lEJ S ^LUITS^fTLSI


IT IT

(^w
them

(55

(g

(SU IT <S (6r^

S (g
<S

Eijasumi
(g)/E7<55Srr
isfTiKiaeir

EyangkCu's

son

Patteijangkur

to

^ L- (^ (^ Q ^^
a pledge

tl9 Q^S (^ ^u.(^QsfT(Sl^^ ^Q^dSlp

LD SoST 65

(^

LD GV

(^

LD'2sr<i(^Lb
to the

<suid(^,
north,

we

lohich have given

house

(sasu^^iuili
to the

(^LDrrrrsmuf-

LD'2issr

d (^ ih

^(j^QsiJiEisd^
to

^i(^
pledged
rr

physician

Kumurandis

house

Tiruvengaiis
tb
rr ir

LD Bssr s (3^ LB
La'hssrsi^LD

LB p (^ Qldp(^
west,

QajrTL^is^S'SfrLr
Q^mLL^ssfTU
to the

lu

exrr

lEfririTujesnT

house
l9l GIT dolT

troughman

Narayana
LB dsST 65
ld'Scst

-5(5

(SS) IB] 'S SfT

(i)sff3sYr@
Pilley

fBTTiEJs&T

^ [(^QsttQ^^
which have
(S3)
[El

I (^ (^

^^

u9

(T^ S (^ p ^({^^(SP

(^

/57

d (^ ej
fT
<o:yT

we

pledged

to the house
(oU

Q
Q

LB 3i (3\

^
^s

3i

li9

!B

Ql 'S ^ OoO

(^

GfT

L L ID
loithin

@LDd(^
east;

^liiBfKosr

Qseofisodr^&r
boundaries

>JLLL-.LDrm6r
encircled

thus (136), these four


3; (GYK

UJ

IB]

^
is

IT

io3T

SS IT

sB

LB SsST

Q ^ p S
Q^jb(^

(^

611

SS

(m

(oTiEisefT^iTssr

our which

sfToSm^esr; the empty house;


Lp <S

UL^d(^

{measuring) from south to north

Q
Q

3=

LB (&!'^)
9i yard;

(^

LB

<S

(^

OLBSdQcUQ^SrrUL^
including the ivest wall

font
LB
IT

east

to

west

3" LB

Sin

jl 3i <S SXTT

U.

Q 3^ LB
.ss^ld

Jl|lD'^

3p

<S

(^

[p

(m

ss'ld(st,)
9 yards,

LonrSldsimTL- (")
square yards

(=s>/@P) 85h {and also)

^P(^
east of this

QLpd(^,
an unoccupied

(3k<5SrQ<Sp(3^eUl.'S(mQ3^ LBS'p Stp>S(^GlLBp<S(^


ground from south
to

north 4i yards,
<s3sr
I

from east
Ln IJD^D

to tvest

3^

til

(2.6UJ

LB

ir

jl

ks

Q 3^

^'^a9'osrLBQ-'S(^
the total

2^ yards

square yards

IO5

thus, both together,


""

I92

~~

[aPP. VI.]

A DEED OP MORTGAGE.

3k.

(S

ei>

<F

LD ffinlD 6)^D
sq.

<S

(^

3^

3i(^

LO

Lj

l^

3!i-fi&)

S'fUD

(Si,@^^:i<i(^)
yards
IT

SS=l})

(s) S(^ LD^LJL^


each estimated at

UCSSTlJ)

yards 95f
ffnSU'^l

^
thus

<S

Q U
Pan

SSr

flViUDa.

(4

a.^
2j.

llSl

&J

ih

^^

lU

[EJ

S^fanams

32,

fanams

This

and more

which was given

fayiams
S2D

altogether

Pon

32

fanams

3|

u9

fS

^
<g^

in SoSr

lU
(SS)suSleo

^i(^
a pledge

This house-yromid
SS)
6iJ

into their

hand
(T^

3r

en

IT

fEl

est

^ ^
Q
ir

3?

r5<SBir^^'S(^<3^

having placed that which (we have^ received: in the ioivn of Tirusu,

s^iBiutrssrQeOfreij
ffifliurrssr

saafl

ezOT

Qu

isssr

Q ev

err

erfl

Qu

ir

ssr

Qs^eorreuessfl
current,

rightly

^jjemQuearnQsuGireffl in double fanams of silver,


IT

Qunssr
Pon
IT

(TritDa.

S33r LD

^^
3f

i&StfJ

uSllB^QpUU^^ Q
^li^
these
tr rr

Sm Q Q U

<o^

(/&2_)
32,
(ossr (tp Gssr

usmih
fanams

(iih^^glj-)

Qpuusi^rj(sm
thirty

Qunm
Pon

two
(tsin

ss) tr k)i iLi lu

^ sm
<s

^ s

<s ir so <x (SO

(sssr (SSsr

(m ftp

La

rs <s

sS rm (T^

su cm lb SV Q^
both

and

three a7id

a half and one eighth (f a

fanam
isf.

we

(7rj>

<s <s Ln

u ^^
SsO LD

Q <s em i u
fT

ii9

'\d

(SO

u esyr ^ ^ s
there
is

(^

ready money
6ii

because have received,


dstST

no

interest

L^ t^ u3 s^
the

<s(m(SiJfrL^S!y><stiSl&i

dso. uSi

m^

LL Sssr .si^si

due on

money,

nor rent for the house.

This house s

Q<sQsiJ(r^<oi^LD@\})a9iB^'sQ<sQ^sm'u^eu(T^i!^^
date
(^is)

for years 50

this

date

fifty

years
rr

^ ^ (m
^
rr

err

GfT

u em

/e7

(^

^^
_

tc

Sm

Q <F

ear (63)

s\)

^d(^m(D<sir
withi?i,

UioSBTisj

Q<sit

_
the site to leave
uSI

Gls=iTesT(e^&)
if (we) say.

9>-ving the

money
(S3)

LD

Sssr in Bosr

eP i^ ^ m

Q^

Si]

eo Sso

Q<s(bleiJ<S(3jerrQeir
Within
this

they

the site to leave

need

date

193

A DEED OF MORTGAGE.
Lo

[aPP. VJ.]

dm

(sQi

QuQurrQQr^LD u
QunQ^Qfj-LD
we
go,

<ss3r iej

(m

Q G

lb eir

(m

eo

iD'2evreS!LL(SLj
"the site leaving

uesariEj
the

0<5/7ii)

(5Tiosr(vr^&)

money give" if Q/ou) say

(ossr

fEi

(^Q<ss^Q^sv)ioi]uSli5i)dso
to

Q
Q

<s

^
U

(osr

u^

the

money

give

need

is

none.

For

the term

offifty

<oU

Q^

(Sip,

Qp

Ifi

LD

dm

60) lU

IT

Lt

GSST

CTJ/

sQ

^^

iS

years

this site

they

possessing

to enjoy

Q <s

fT srr

sfT

eu ld

uSl

m^ s

Q <s Q
Within

<siJ<S(^'SirQ6irii9i?^ixi

dm

u9 eO

let

them.

this

date

on this

site

IT

in

LD 3= 3r

<S

l<f-

(S2F)

^
LB Si

LB

LB

IT

iq.

l^

ISj-

@^

Lt>

they

tiled (

roof) though they build, or an upper house


loUST

thd' they build, or

a terraced house

QsLtS^LB<f3rSSL^l^ (S3)^
though they build,
3=^ tr

pQ

<SV

L-

L<^

'SiSlU^(S3)0](^

well though they dig

and

build up,

(SO

S ^ ^ S(^Q-3=fE]<S(S0Q>3^LBLL(7rj>lE}<S 60^ Q U
brick {and)

IT

WS

for a channel

red stones

putting though

L l^

(SS)

^1

LB

u9^SGfr<3SL.Q(^p^<S(^^frLBQuJ6!fr
these
to the building

^
(^
to

(they) build

of

they

whatever

(olJ

<o3ST SSSpl

<S

I t^ (C3)^ LB

^ LB

Qp I S

(oSSr S

(m

lij-

Q<SO(al^

LJioSBr(osSs

iSiLl^f^^th
they build

^U3Qp(SS)tUU
their

S (oSST S (^ U U l^S (^
account according
<oO

expense

making
<35

G^

^^

Q s em Q
rr

Qs'Siifr(o!n'(S)JL.(D(S!sr

n-p>

fj

li

ezrar

lb

(op^^s

Qsrr(5sur(l

Qs
the date

.sj^(otsr(aHtQissr

Qp^pU(oSt!nJa
the original

agreeing

when

it is

expired,

money
lb 3^
<3h

QU

IT ISS7

fTVilDa. (/^S-)

U sm

LB

fJVi

6)^p

^ ^ LQ
with
this,

esr

d?

ir

lb

Qurrdr
Pon

ussarii)

/b>6)^j:'

^^^i^Q(Ssr

^irih
they

tus^sf-

o2
lS^(o!rrLJ

fanams 3f
(Sm

the tiled

LBfTLSf-Sl

Qp

IE}

1^

IS^ (oST

LB

dm <S

(^(3iJ(TE(o^fr<3^(oOLB
(aU(V^<3i^rr(alJ(7^(B^lh(.^)

W!TU^SLLlS^SnJ(^iSTQp!SJ

a lL l^(o!Sr Lo'2l5Sr S (^

or terraced house ivhich built the money also for the house built

__

year by year

[aPP. VI.]

A DEED OP MORTGAGE.

u Qp^ u ^ ^ u sm np
rr

^Q

a^

^ S3 -Sj

szrar

dsm
then

c35

(g

<5=

<3=

sti^O)

for repairs expended money also joining

lohich shall he current

LKssBTunTini

QsnQ^^^d
gilding

sLLQdQsfTULjiQesr
with the built-roof

w'^ssr
the site

money

iSt^QsQ<sir(srrQioU @)
LB'tLQdQsir&r we will
LD Bssr

,s<siJLCiQ<s(B(oiifrm'<Siju-(ois!!r
eijib

Qsurrwfrs
redeem.
sssr fa

QaQsuiresreijiQioisr

Whe7i the date


in Bssr

is

expired

s (msfTisfru
belonging

(^

Q ^^

LS6frfriMio^uQuT(e^G\)
not being redeeming if (it) go

to the site

money giving

the site

Li

dm s

(^ uSl^

Q su Q ss) p
Quia
sale

iu<3^fr^iosrubrrs<si.^is^s Q^ir ssmQ


^rr<fissnDrTs<i

Lo'2iosrd(^

^i^Qsu
this itself

sL-i^sQsnsm
holding

for the

site

deed as

i-j^^pu(aij^^/D
Lj^^ir
sons

ufrpLBU<ss)trtu!raS
urTiri})U<safTUjrTUJ

im Sssr 03) lu
in'Bssrisisuj^
the site

Queir^^ir
and grandsons

from generation

to

generation

^ Q Ub ^
IT

mST

OT2/

U<S^^sQsiT(31T(oir S<Sl-^Qiol]irQYj><SSiJLb
let

they only

possessing

and enjoying

them

he,

uSiB^ LD'2i5srd(g
to this site

(aiJi^K0aL-iij(i^

s^rreOs^^u
and an

Quits

Jor a way

to

go

exit for the channel

(^d^uD

<ouL^

a way

(aSLL<iQ<^niSQQrj'ihleaving we give.

^ii^LD2ssrd(^
Concerning
this site

iufrQiSfrnK.s&fr^Ll<si)SoO'Sefr^<oTriosrQ^friosr/6J
turrQ^iTQ^

so

seir^u>

^eo'Sso.
is not.

<s(sirsv)i6{rear

Q^ntssrrSlt^&i
should arise

any

dispute whatever there

If any

dispute

tEi

<s

(o(r

^smi

Qu

Q^
of

-MP

[sniEJSsk

^am^QuiBQeo
three persons

uj/t.t

(2? <^ Qfi Qp(osr(osfl<^0>Q^iii


''^

^^

'^

I5

we

some one standing forward


liSl

^ir^^'S(^Q<S(3)Q(y]j>lM
Qsrr<iQQ(rfj>uD.
will settle
it.

IB

^UU

i^

Lb LL

3^

3i-

^iB^uuisf. Tims

^imld^^^
agreeing

A DEED OP MORTGAGE.
ISS) IB]

[aPP. VI.]

GIT

np

S3S)I

QU

(f^ Ld

QlSipUl^iUirQ^S(^ ^i_(3j
to the

wc

thiee

persons

above

a pledye-

rLp/l(bT(LD^sQ'S!r^Q^!rLn.
QPjB
bond

(SJnn^s
have written

QsirQ^Q^nih,
and given.

(Signed)

nirffiasnlr

usmuf-^ir s'ldld^
Pandit,
consent.

(^0.)

Rasangar

QeueouufT usobti^^it
Velappd
Pandit,

S'ldld^consent.

Sitdruni

Pandit,

consent.

Witnesses.
fBfrirrrujessr
irrT<sij

j)/rSl(pSij<m. (10)

Nardyana

Row,

I know.

Qsnuireos^mil jjjfSIQsui^. Gopdlasdmi, I know.


Qs>jfasirrs^&}
iSleir'Sisir

^rQQsum.
I know.
Qs^lLl^.
money bazaar Rengiyachetti.

Vencaddsala

PHley,

uesBTihuiTiTesxsy aiT<x-ss(SS)i QsrisiQcu

The money

sight (by

me

urns seen)

of

the

Qsn^emiffaLDLSeir'^etr j)jrQQsu&sr. J know. Gothanda Rdma Pilley,

This document was written by me, Sundaran school master,^ at full length.

NOTES.
(1) aui^^rflLDeir is Sanscrit,

s^uih, prosperity,

m^(BLDm=^prosperous.
all

It is

usual to prefix some


Q.3=mei)iTiBi^p,

words indicating good fortune to

documents.

(2)

within relatives

for

(3) ^-(sir(mipQr^fW)Lii fs-srr, ^-^Qj^ir, S-ld = and,) our whole family circle. (4.) Osfr(B^^UL(L = what we
Q3=&)}}Qp.
is as

have delivered as our act


case,

follows.
130.)

(5.) (6.)

sr/ija<sfr^ira!r

our (ercasefr^ 6th


within,

.^esr p. rel. part, of

S-mui

(&.<sir

uifall)

inclusive.

(7.) Loir^ssiskn s-s^ld

square yards,

lit.

yards arising from inter2_ii>

change,

i.

infinitive gives the

Q.from multiplying the two preceding together. (8.) meaning of "let.'" It is often used with
!

added

to ^n

.^ff-

Thus,

up

^ sQs!rmQ<sii iTLDirseiiLD, let us receive


a reduplication of eunh^i}),
<si

(9.) su^si^/ra/^si^ii) is
it

qf^sl^ld

as though

were

a](T^<SL^

an incorrect form, + ^euQ^ei^LD = eiJQfjeL^ir


(10.) <fldld^

by

rules of Sanscrit combination

year

6?/ j/ear.

and

^^Gsuissr are added to the names of parties signing as principals or witnesses


respectively.

__

[aPP. VII.]

DIVISIONS OF TIME.

APPENDIX

VII.

This

is

inserted rather as a curiosity than for any practical purpose.


A. D. is

The English

now used

very generally.

I.

Divisions of Time.

The
1.
tSljjutaj

cycle.

2.
3.

dlwsj

1807- 8 1808-

s-iQeo
iSlffLDir^^^

4. 5.
6.

18091810181118121813-

iSffQ^iT/bu^^
^/E/SiT-r

7.

&(ips
ueii
LLjSU

8.
9.

1814-

181518161817-

10.

^rr^
Qeu(^^freSiLi

11. _@<5^*/r 12.

1818-

13. iSsLDIT^
14.
15. 16. 17.

1819182018211822182318241825-

eSdSffw
sfl*

Ss^jjufT^
s^utrmi

18. ^iTffem
19.

uiriT^^u
sfl(L/

20.

1826
1827-

21. ffQRsii^^
22. FQ^eu^rrrfl 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

18281829-

1830-

1831
1832-

1833
1834-

28. 29.

1835

30.
31.

DIVISIONS OF TIME.

[aPP. VII.]

II.

The Months.

The year begins with


1.

S^^emir
eiasuarrS

April

2.

3. .^ssfi
4.

^if
^eussB
LiffL-tir&

5.
6.

7.

SUU&

May. June July Aug. Aug. Nov.


May
Sept.
Oct.
Oct.

8.

sirfr^^icSis

....

June.
July.

9. Lorrn-sL^

10. (S^
11. LDirSi 12.
i_'/E/@(Sofl

Sept.

....

Dec. Jan. Jan. Feb. Feb. March. March


Nov.
Dec.

April.

III.
su/TiTU) in Sans.

The Week.
in

day of the Week,

Tamil used

for a

Week

also.

1.

^mlg)s ....

.....

(QiruSnjgiid QipeaLD.

The sun
2.

^Eiseir

....

^liisL- QipioiaLD.

The moon
3.
Q<3=u(suiriu

Q^eiieiiiriud

Qipeou

Mars.
4.

Lf^ek Mercury.
eStLlfTipU)

...

Lj^nk QipeaLD.
eSoJiTLpd QipetoLD.

5.

Jupiter.
6.

Qeu&reiH

QsiKSfreBi Qip<^LD,

Venus.
7.

s=em

....

<3=isSd 8ipisaLD.

Saturn.
)(oe>LD,

day

of the

week.

^3,

eu/nrLci^

er.

For these the Sanscrit forms are sometimes used


1.

^^^^
LDIEISffO
(-//E^

(SuiriTii).

5. 6.

@(5
sfdSjj

eairsLD.
eurriTiM.

2. Q3=inD
3. 4.

suimw.
eUfTflU},
(sairrruD.

7. uirk^

eaiTffLD.

IV. Minor Divisions.


US6\3, day. ^uir, night.
tBir&r

= 24

hours.

60 miTL^eias or
minutes.

rtrriB

one

mrreir.

!bitl^<5&&

or tamil hour

is

thus 24

198

[aPP. VIII.]

FRACTION.
one
lErrL^esis.

60 Sisrri^ make

A
From From

<3^irLDU3

or watch

3 hours.
s^rrtnili.

6 to 9 p. m.

Qpfl&)!r<i^

9 to midnight.

^ffsmirriQ s^inoua.
s^itldui.

From 12 to
From 3

3 a. m.

= QpmQi^iQ

to 6 A. M.
is

/^/rso/rgj <firLciLD.

Midnight
or
&-QTfLDlll.

id(3J='rrrLDth:

the middle of the

s^irinili.

Noon

is

APPENDIX
Fractions.

VIII.

The Tamil system


fractions

of fractions

is

very defective.

It can only express


5.

whose denominator

consists of

no other factors than 2 or

The following
I.

table contains the


. '

Elements of Tamil fractions.


Half
rri

1 Qpi^m or eu^ _ 320 Two of which make ^enifrasin

of

/ra)

^<sr)rrdsir&)

or

Then
Which
Three
is

siremB

{- ldit

Lorrsireim,

or

the half of

airessH or

g=

aS'.ff.zi,

or ijg

^'^

And
airemti
J

^eiamnir ^eaird I of this, or


or >3Hrd

make

QpisiresiB, or

air&siB

O ~

_i

"90

N. B.

The

=: -'^

denominator of these
a..

Two

siremB

make

^eiainiiir,

or

<s^

contains only multiples of


III.

In schools a fraction
SifiQpi^ffl

is

used

Which

is

half of

ldit,

or

u=

-J^j

called,
1 02",

^-Ijj

X sio^

Two of which make ^a<smwn-, s = tV = Three uorr make Qpek^nLDrr or


;
(js)
.

_i _

An
of

4^0 ^u^lB is a quantity 101 which make one Qipapi^iB =


is

or

Two ^rrmrLoir make .3D = 1


N. B.

wfrdr(Qtxrr,

T,oT5".2^^. A question

8^

thus asked and

In

answered.

all these

the

denomiof 5

nator

contains

only multiples

Divide 41 among 5 persons.

and
II.

2.
sireo or
(sy

;| J

s enL
^ao/r, or
or
6)

Two
~~

of which

make

5 ^fwies

Answer, rnrpugj /^jjycwa; 8 ore 40 remainder


:

.s; 1 /

1 2

Three

sfr&)

make (ip&an&>

^
199

5 ii?nes 5

wo remainder.

Ans

81.

THE

[aPP.

X.]

TABLE OF RELATIONSHIP,

APPENDIX

X.

Table of Relationship.
I.

Parental.
,

(I.)

^suuek, father:
Qufflin

iS^iT,

Q^iTUudi

^(SJ/rdr,

(II.)

^suum,
^(jj/tct-,

Qurftiu

Qnjpuum, Smesr

^liium, Qufftiu ^(^iresr; &i^aj ^suudi, fathers elder and junior brothers.
{^Lorri^S.)
^LOLDrrek, Jier Jiusbaiid.

(III.) .jti^em^, father s sister.

LD^-Ftreir,

their children.

II.
(I.) ^nijj,

Maternal.

mother: ^"3,

^LDLotr, ^iLi^Sl, ^iIlditiL^I^. s elder sisters:

(II.)

Qu/ffiu ^iTiu,
sister,
LofTLDesr,

mother

QurB<u^uSl. ^jSaj^mij, mother s

younger
(III.)

&<^a!r^uSl.

mother's brother; ^irijLDmDdr,


(^<si!>ld&=@,)

.^sem^, lditlS, his tvife.


emLD^gjetsrek,

esiw^gjioS,

their children.

III.
LDfTLDsk,

By

Marriage.
,

father-in-law.

<3=LDui^aSir parents of the

husband or

wife,

LDaiSl,

mother-ill-law.

Qsn-agi^, wife's elder


sister's

sister,

.^^fiirasr,

husband's elder brother, and elder

husband.

Qsir(LpfB<seir,

husband's

brotjier.

rBtTjS^,

husband's sister:

(/bit^^(^it,

^^^irJ'S.)

e^uuL^iuirsir,

husband's

brother's wife.
LDQKLDSiQsr,
tt

son-iu-laiv

s^aeodr, ( g=seouu!TL^) one

who has married

one's

wife's sister.

One wife

calls another wife

of the same husband ^d.s0fr^^.

IV.
(^lju3=9i.) uail-Ceir, mother s father ^rr^^fT, ^tr^^esT, father's father ^ldldituS, mother's uitu-L^, father's mother. used also for father's father. Qp u u mLiesr great grand-father. ^uuiruSl, father's mother. mother.
:

Quffcsr,

Qu^pl, grand children.

s^smLDiussr,
sister.

an elder brother sest essr ek ^(smesS, ld^isS, an elder brother's


,

^ssnen
ivife.

( ^aee>s<9=@ )

an elder

sldS, younger brother,


LDirmnrfosr

^liieisa, ^siaesysJ^Sl,

a younger sister.
^)?e<nu (^uf-iuirea,

smu

or

LDg)i^iTiij,

step-mother.

second wife.

np^fi

(mL^'UiTssr, first wife.

__

SYNOPSIS OF CHANGES OF TAMIL LliTTEKS.

[aI'P. XI.]

APPENDIX XL
,S^//(>j),siii

ojthe combinutiuns and cliangcs of Tamil


well the table in page 2. Introd:

letters.

[Compare and study

Also comp. Pope's III Gram.

19-42, for a complete view of the subject.] It

may

be useful to the student lo have before him a table of the

principal clianges in

Tamil

spelling,

though these rules are not

strictly

observed in

all cases.

It is desirable to write, as far as possible, as well


u,sing

educated people speak, not

unnecessary changes; but retaining those

which are euphonic and natural.


All
thiit is

essential is included

under

llic

following six heads:

I.

Coiiibinatiun iv!t//out cJiuinje.

The

final consona.it

of a

word

often combines simply with the initial

vowel of the following.

SedLD+^(^sQpgi = iBeOiSQF^aQp^
[^^
It is in

there

is

ground.

general better, however, to separate the words.

II. Insertion

of

letters.

[Tills

is

called

'^^rrssrps^

- appearing, since a new

letter

a[)j]ears.]

Fundamental principles
(I.)

Tavo V(jwp:ls cannot coaie together.

s. =r, ^, u ARE DOUBLED AFTER A VOWEL, WHEN THE LATTER (ioVEUXS THE FORMER; BUT NOT WHEN THE PRECEUINO WOliO SLMl'LY <2L"ALli'IES THE LATTER, OR WHEN THERE IS AN ELLII'SIS.
(II.)

VVOKl)

[aPP. XI.]

SYNOPSIS OP CHANGES OF
a vowel at the end of a
^ii

TA.MII.

LKTTERS,
in the

CIT.)

When

word meets a vowel

begin[18.]
also

ning of a following word

or

en is

inserted to avoid the hiatus.

[The same
uses n.]
1.

letters are

used

in all the

cognate languages.

Telugu

^,
ST

s, take
iLi

'Jj

(as

most homogeneous.)

2. 3.

takes either

or en.
eu

The other vowels take


^gsfl

only.
is yet.

SLssjjT

^eS'J-jssar, there

^+

sriftu-jw =^Qiutfl'iL}>,

the fire will burn.

eaas + s emaeuiuj, a hand. ( ohj.) ^Si + 67 = ^^Qsu, that indeed. ^n-^Q'Ssr + ^euasr = .jtifj-a^Qesriueiiaa

he

is

indeed a king,

(III.)

When

=gy,

_g),

&~ or

ot,

demonstrative or interrogative,
is

are

prefixed to words, the following consonant

doubled.

^+
@j OT
4-

LDSmls;<cir

= ^wLoem^eir,
isrdieueas ?

that inan.

+ e? =
sugjs^

j(SueS(Bl, this

house.

What way
^,

(IV.)

After a vowel,

initial a, ^,

are doubled, the sonant being

thus changed into a surd.


LDjb/D

@li;S

+ smBntM = lappa s/rrBiULo, the other + s^^^Lci @ii^-3^ ^^^LD, this sound.

affair.

To

this there are regular classes of exceptions.


^eii(ev) QsBir(B^/Sireir,

a.
b.
c.

did he give?

(after

an interrogative
!

letter.)

^(?m(mn
Q<s^iLieia^

QsfTil),

elder brother, give! (after a vocative case.)

^ldiS, thou didst,

younger brother

(after a finite verb.)

d.
e.

eai^err q^seo/t,
jil'B

a horse that ran.

(after a relative participle.)

/.
g.

^^
(
\

snec, the post of a picota : (after a verbal root used as an adj.) QuiHs^, that is great: (after a pronoun.)
QufT,

m<siiQ(e<!)(B

go with
J
,

him:

)
>

STi^gi ^(m,

my head:

(after a case of a noun.)

.,

^^^ There are many anomalies here, especially when one (or both) of the words is Sanscrit. In general, whenever the latter in any way governs the former, and there is no ellipsis, the s, <?^, ^j, u must be doubled, thus throwing the force of the compound on the governing word.
(V.)

After

iLi,

IT,

Cp,

a following

<s,

<?^,

or

will, for the

most

part,

be doubled.
Oiurnu +
03=isosui}>

Quiriud' 0<fctisi;ld, false prosperity.

liiT

+ (Ql9i^

Sir,s(^L8iSl,

a bubble on the water.

__

SYNOPSIS OF CHANGES OF TAMIL LETTERS.


(VI.)
lables.
GiLD'jj

[aPP. XI.]

(g,

LD,

li

are often doubled after

lii

or

at the

end of monosyl-

(QiTasru)

QLr)iLi(^(QiT earth,

true wisdom.

III.

Transmutation of Letters.
is

[This

called

^S^So =

turning. ~\

Fundamental

principle:

Consonants which meet must be of the same class and organ.


[I.)

Final

changed into ih before <s = STEissirr (37.), our Final ld is changed into (sj before -f. uirsuLD + Qi Q S"S!r = u[T<3J(i^Q3=ujQ^m,
ld

is

"^

OTii)

s-sir

That is, LD is changed into the nasal of


J:-the

.g^ iLi

class to

which

/ have
Final

sinned.

thefollowing conso-

LD is changed into i before ^. nant belongs. uemLD + ^i^rrek = ussarm^/i^ireir, he gave money j
.

[Compare introduction, page


(II.)
sBJr

3.]

and
2_sr
-f-

eJr

before ,

s^,

u and ^

are often changed into

l-.

iSffQeuS^^ireir
Q^trgiiiM

S-LLiSffQeu&d^rrdr, he entered in.

iBirm

4-

mtrCSiiT^Lo, every day.

[Here the
(III.)

of the following

word

is lost.]

sijr

and

a)

before ,
spiTL^

#^,

u and ^

are aften changed into

jb.

OLiiT(Ssr

+ Qunm' + ss =

QuiTjb<s=n'L^,

a golden vessel.

Qufrpn:!^, a golden plate.

[Here
s<so

is

also changed.]

siiii

+ +

e^L-ua
^emrr

= spsr^L^LD, = s ijb/S sb)

a stone building.
a

it ,

wave of the

sea.

[Here the

is

also

changed into^.]
car

(IV.)

eo

and

sir

before

ih

are changed into


letters, or

and mr respectively,

and i

itself is

changed into the same

disappears altogether.

fE&)

.^(i^eir

+ ^<30 = /EisJrOTjffffi), a good composition. + fBiT^m = ^(^m^^ck. Lord of grace.


err

(V.)

eo

and

before

ld

are changed into

sir

and em respectively.

= essTLD^, a mountain of stone. Qpek + Qpi^ = QpwQ-pis)-, a crown of thorns.


ssb + LD^

204

[aPP. XI.]

SYNOPSIS OF CHANGES OF TAMIL LETTERS.


after
esV

(VI.)

/E

and

car

is

sometimes changed into those

letters

respectively.

smir
sesr

+ liiT = s&ssresi^iT, tears. + iBffOLD = ^ ear ISOLD, his


(sir

good.
is

[And sometimes, one

of the double letters

omitted.]

IV.
[This
is

Omission of Letters.
called Qs(BjS<m

destruction.'^

Fundamental

principle:

Tamil sentences must glide on gently without interruption.

Rules.
(I.)

A final
is

2_ (in all

words except dissyllables whose


^sitlo (^short-nature-^),

first

vowel

is

short)

called (^p/Biueo

and

is

lost

before a

following vowel.
Lorr

But u Yet I3J


(II.)

+ + +

e-eaiir 2_(S33r
sreJrajr

= LorrQem [18. 5 g. 56], a = U3^!S^(5ssr there is a eow. = ^jO^^biiesr, what is this?


,

bullock

is there.

Final

"> is

often dropped before


LDiTffSLD

ii>

or

li.

s!r<ci)LD

iBiTLDLh

."B&xsogi

= s LD lEiTLDiBso&i^
fT ffo

fTjpi ill

the time will change.


,

[poET.]

the

name

is

good.

V.

Sanscrit compounds.

The

following are the most

common

Sanscrit changes.

(l.)^4^^

( s^r; ~^

.M-rtj

s=nna=s, movealle

and immoveable.
a temple of God.

^+^
(II.)

"^
I

Qssu + ^eoiULh =
sg
(e^rrasr

Q^sufreOiUUi,

_ or ser

+ S-uQ^s^ld =

^!TQ(eff^uQ3i<3'LD,

spiritual

instructions.

cm
K

)"!/+ I =^

isii

or

isi>

C <?^/fa;

+
_j_

er < 1

^^

^msurjosr = ^
. .

^irQeueheurrek,
.
.

Lord of

all.

@jSLS,iLD

luQ^ei^iLD. according

to

one

desire.

205

SYNOPSIS OF

CHANGES OF TAMIL LETTERS.

[aPP. XI.]

VI.
(I.)

Miscellaneous changes.

There are certain anomalous

changes

which words undergo

when compounded.
u^ssr

^SL) +

+ SIT = uesriEjarr, a palmyra forest. es) = ^siaizms, the palm of the hand.

(II.)

Letters are omitted.


^QKSifisiriofrLD,

is

written ^nKeijeinJ).
is

^(SixoOrr^enesr,

xvrittcn

^e^eo/rdr or ^eorrdr.

[This takes place chiefly in Poetry].

206

FOKMS WHICH STEENGTHEN THE KOOT


IN INFLECTION.
I.

0)

lTom> CasOk
c

(233)

(C) VI. S. A bullock.

VIS.
g-P.
y^

VIII.
I

C'i)

rmr.

UDIlub.

.<^

irec.

^era/sir,

<^'^si, cgCT-emo)

^1 w,=1^ &c. added, (151)

a- is elided Final a. is elided "^ changed doubled. flS) and /s doubled. (18) (18)

into<*j*.

II.

Accnsativei
the object. (3. 21)

(236) >^

(7)

.^p<3S>p,

wn^<3Si^,

+ s;
III.

Abl. of Connexion. (23L/r a). BY MEANS OF: + ^a). (II.) TOGETHER WITH: + giQ. {lQl_n.
(I)
(21

IV.

Dative. TO or FOR. +
^ar added

(242)
or a.*,

si(^.
'Sdsns.
(21
eo.
eo.
.

=for.

it>n^^ss!js.

Comp. Hind. Ko.

v. Abl. ofRemotion. (245^^^' i^eil^fB^. (e) FROM. + g)a, +


iQ-B-^

or

(Ssjr^.

(21)

pg.6sflssrii-

^prSeS&sTgv.

ff

VI. Gen.
OF.
(21)

or Possessive.(248^OT2;aoi_(ij.
^dr (/) ^s,^gi,,^.
Z^5Sr.
(I)
rrs>.

mp^^eaiUJ.
^prS<m.

\ldit,

a.iBi_iu,

(0

LOS.

Poet.

YLL Abl. of liocation, (2.5 1^^;^;^ ^piSio. AT, IN, WITH. + ^A> or g)i_;5Peo /^ n (/i) {2ii^6i-^^eo:^ p{SestiL-^^<so VIII. Vocative. (2iur ^Qp! + CT or final syll. lengthened.
.

r,

'

'

osQl

(a)

ssssrsaeir

noun. plu.
cases

ID/rQacir,

7th, (f) ^asr.

makes nom. pk iz=p A)or sai^sirr (a inserted), (c) loo-Q, ,^^ make ^gisar tO Wh must not be confounded with the 1 st form of the This is sometimes more common in poetry than in prose, but in many
in poetry, ees^sr&e^d^sehr.

euphony absolutely require th case


i

(i) In poetry

^^ct-

is

sometime inserted between the i real root is to be sought in the oblique cases, (idb-cxL, "iven are ^^g:^'^, hiS head, and ^oranascr, his hands, ^pp, toir^fi) as in the classical Ian (m) For the cases in which sucjed^to 9Q eessrasQ&Q. (o) ej may be added to any termination in eu. This is chieflines inserted: sGaaae^t-p^eSia^si- (q) ^i-ps> is some:

times used for

S)i_;s^a)

207

APPENDIX

XII.

PAEADIGMS.
(I.)

SYNOPSIS OF THE TAMIL NOUN.

(21.)

rLU RA
PERSON.
[.

L.

3d. PKi{so>.
F.

'

3d.

rtusoN, nelt.

UEFLEXlVi:.

Nom.
II.

Ci-r.

rOEj)

^eut. (b)

(@sffl;arar, 67roQja(jt.)

(108)

iiccu
OET.)
\^<SlJ&X)fT.

The theme i

md
III.

^iss'Serr.

chaniied
A'bl,o)^S-iEJseirfr6v.

{sjp^ inserted

)_
^LDuyneO.

^si)p(nj>&).
(II) TOGETl

Sf'
)

^'eup/6l(e^sv.
^l5S>SUsQeiTfT(S.

^6iipi3Q(^.
a_/B<5(e5<5@,
-<s)

IV, rhe

Uati
shortei

TO or Fof
takes

^(Supjlp(^.

^
&.tsjaeffl&).

y.

Abl. Oj
from:

^ eu n s

efrl 60

^eiasijseffleo &c.

Final ctmonos}'

^supjl&> &c.

wiSleo &c. ^(BseiBeo he.

.lEJseir.

VI.

Gen.

OP" E.: simple shortp* ILU. often

^ SupfSI^ S)LUJ.

?) VII.

Abl.
AT, IN,

^(Suifleo.

^sufrseifleo.

^QjprSI&}.

\^lEJSefFl&).

fli^^eO.

l"

in English. (11. b.)

(</) ^giaetr,

(c)^(rEsa: (f)) ^B,f is used politely or as an honorific. the regular plural, is sometimes used, hut is rather antiquated.

rLU R A
PERSON.
Eiair

L.
3d. I'EUSOX, KEL"X.
>".

3d. PEUSO.N.
P.

UEFLEXIVE.
^irEisJrr.

Nom.
II.

ci-r.

( I'oEj)

^'
(c)

^^t. {b)
id)

(108)

iiccul

a-/E7aSsTr

md
III.

The theme i OET.)


chanfred

\^SiJeD/T.

XsiP^ inserted

A'hl,oi\}^P_iEisetrrTsv. jijeunsenneO.

ri)BY JIE.AJ
(II) TOGETI

^su nnso.
^SiJiTsQefrnQ.

S^SiipoTj-eo.

^enprSlfS^<S\J.

jgiasQsfrn.

^enprSQi^.
^LDS(^.
\^<S!jprSp(^.
SESi-Lo)

IV. at: TO or ro rhe shortei takes ^.

y.

Abl.
FROjr:

Final

^^&Si^.

^eusfleo &c.

^mxaiisefReO &c. ^Sup/SldO &C.

^liiSleO

&c
&c.

^rsiserfleo

ct-

monosy

VI.

Gen

fEJSefT.

OF- a. simple shortp L-LU. often TFjStSiL-UJ.

^eniTseir.

^'QuprB^&Siiuu.

^)
VII.

Abl.
AT, IN,

^LDiSleo.

i"

in English. (11. b.)

(h) ^eof is used politely or as an honorific.


is

(_c)^irEaA

{(i)

^gia^, the regular plural,

sometimes used, hut

is

rather antiquated.

ex

o ^

(is

CO

3
fcfe

INDEX

I.

TAIVilL-EIMCLISH.
[Nearly
all

the words in this

list

are in ordinary use.

Great care must be taken to ascertain


it.

the exact idea of each

word from

a Native (if possible) before using


is

The references are


is

to paragraphs of the lessons trated.

where either the word

found, or some kindred form

illus-

This Index and Inde.x II are intended mutually to illustrate one another. Words in brackets occur in books chiefly, or are not to be used without careful examination.]

^s&nl), breadth.

.^<S60<s

il.si_,
]

^
S. ^siEi
\

narrowness, [co. ssiLemi


25,
sfTinh

115, 141.
pride,
is

(^liisirrrLh),

g)^* ^&o ^seja3il.(SDt too narrow.


I

This cloth

egotism.
^a>iki
I

^s
(=iy/B

e^doO,

the market price of pad-

ems

iao, S-etreir/Ei&us).

dy

the

palm

of the hand.

^s,^

70.

^/recfltusfl&.

become wide
:

separate

from.
su/rmir? Will 1/ou put it in the palm of your hand, and lick the back of the

[<jy<55(SLD.]

^<st^, .jystp, a moat

ld^Sso^ (^i^i

hand ?

^a&sS, the
S. =y
I

interior, co.

\_LjpenB.']

^jsp^

62.

extend

put away.

sexfTL^^,

immense.

[=gysJ2/.]

160.

S.

^<x^^, a tree: Coronilla grandiflora. ^s^^iULD, urgency, necessity, .jysi/ QiLiLD. A grammar, said to be by the Muni Agastya.
pride, presumption
:

^sdigii QufT, [^seo.]

go away from. 258.


front foot ropes

H.
S.

.-gya/r^L,

a horse's

before.

S. ^<5/Effla^,

_^j];

srr&)LD,
I

an unpropitious

time.

LDfTLJLj, SITSUlli.

[^
S.

privative.]

^su
I

L.'-58. be obtained, caught.

^ \Q^LD,
sant, [a

anything

unfit,

unplea193.

161, 244,

262.

^su\u(B^gu
taken.

I^sld, u.]
161. cause
to be
S.

+ hita.]

^QsiT,

^su
I

esiu,

ladle,

(^usmu.
handle.

Vulg.)

[^^ + 6iu.]
siTiiiLi, its
it

^QsTffLD, intensity, vehemence. ^Qairir ^u& eSufji Q^irjeir, a severe ascetic is a great rogue. ^ssLD, a side {vfiihudail.)
^aes).s3=Sl.

^BU(Zs>us
^!^s!Tisfh

Though
S.

Qufr^^fh ^aussiu ^sfiirssirdf. go .50 miles a ladle {is worth


[s.

Tel.

only) half a cash.

^SLD,

impudence
;

aham^I];
S.

App. X. ^daesip, necessity: C^etneu. ^ssfTor. an elder sister. 215, 216. App. X.
heathen
:

the mind a house, [not common.] ^SSJ Q)su(Wr(b] Q^iLieuir ^Qi5S!S3 QsITi^, Many myriads are destroyed by pride

S. ^laSaj/reofl, a

.^^(^{ej/rsofl.

dSffLDLD, iniquity.
I

[^+ Quldld.']
village,

S. ^dSrrrrijLD,

brahman

or

S.^ffij/r^,

a dictionary,

[s.

^sn +
213

school.

S.^sScsn, fire.(O^CT-Stp,s@. App. ix.)

^'oo^. that, for


^roo^&s!r, a class

^^.
of

S.

^/

*^^ii,

impurity:

^a-
<s=^.
:

[^/

nouns, inclu-

priv.]
j:>jLjLj,,

ding

all irrational beings,


.

[com.

suddenness
a

e_uj IT ^'Soosr

236.]

H. .^'

LDiTssr Srft,

canopy QldpslLl^.
the
sacrifice

H. ^EjsiBs'Sa, a jacket. ^isisuL^, ^liiaeuLp., a stirrup.


S.

S. [^*i2Dii),

ahorse.
of a

^eii
digit.
s.

Qld^im,

^Eisti, body, member- sign,


[^s/<s
I

horse.]

setsSflLD,
:

arithmetic,

AR.

^(^ir,

huzur,
:

presence,

head-

ANKA+GANITAM
S. ^isjS, a robe,

<Ora@.]

quarters

&-(^iT.

^sjQsifl

[^'/saii.]

64,

receive,

embrace,

^sta^, a syllable, (produced by one movement;) rumination.


^sdi'T

assent to.

\_^?ijrEjQeiTijLD.']

57. move, (neut.) 271.


(act.) 15. g.

64.
[cud.

S.

107 ^EJ(^, ^ij(^^LD, a goad (for an elephant.)

move,

H. ^.E/igiuW^/r^, a tliimble. ^im(misi>LD, an inch; the thumb. ^s;3'<s, there: ^!ei(^,^siisSilo.25.


S.

^Ba3=\Qun- {^Qpgi), chew the ^ems^ Q/, motion. [_^&s3=. 190.]


^,d^LD,
fear:
uujld.

Reverence:
192.

euef^dsBiM.
S. .jijds-,

(^q*.)
;

[^

3=s^LD, weakness.]

^^iiT, low people: S'tpiTScEerr. ml^iLimL^, neglect, contempt. [^ +


<s^lL /_.]

an axle a type, stamp. SSL-, land prepared for rice


cultivation.

^sSleneoiT^

Gsr

^L^irgj^

CCir

with-

^<^^,
S.

fatigue, ennui,
<s=(B^.

[for ^uirpl;^

out

an axle cannot run.

suddenness:

^^ihLSQini.9!iij srifi^giaiti),

the doing things

^da-a s^iLc, a printing office. ^dsr LDL-.1LD, an Acheen Poney.


I

without looking ivell at the consequences. (TitleofaChap. in Hito.)

S. ^oki^ffLD, S.

a letter

(otqm^sj.

^si^_, eight: enL.


the

[a

+ SAM + PRA + IKSHA +


not-together-before-look-do.
]

KRI

S. ^si^iiTi-EJSili,
[=^'si^i
1-

eight
.

members.
prop.)

.JIjlEJSli)']

S. ^j^/fif? a//roE@, a voice of

an invisible

S. ^ew^LDirsrru),

(^^eto^LDesru),

being. [^,

^^(3

-FiTiff,

eiJird(Vj.']

^^- ^^ fatigued, faint.

[^

S.

^m^tS

setting.

64.

set, (as

the sun.)

S. ^em^euiTrrLD, foundation, basis.

AR. ^^-a),

the

original

document;
S. ^(cj<F6S, reverence
:

princijial

sum.
next, neighbouring.
sloth
:

eui^esnh.

P. ^'^s=&), post, public


fiurriso.

conveyance

.jij3^ev,{.jiiuj&),)

[ment.

S. ^<^LDi^tJ},

idleness,

Qff^rrLo

S. .jtf^'S^cnLD,

blackness

magic oint:

uso.
S. [^1

^i^Qdetos,
a very

reverential fear

uiu

a^iMueuLD,
I

improbable

affair.]

^(OT*,
scurf.
:

five (a
S.

corruption of s,i^.

^s^gu,

a scab,

Comp.
^r^,-*
S.
=gy
I

PANCHA.)
fear
:

S. .^^,:3rLD,

iood

^esrssru:), s_(S?3ra!/-

62.
a

uiuuu.
[=gy

S.

^rr^^-Uih,

something

irrepa-

(ejjg/ran-ii),

ignorance.
:

priv.]

rable, incurable.

.j>jir^,
QSTLD.

pawn, pledge

^sdildit

E.
S.

.^'9(si,i_ffs!nr,

EDg. Assistant.
:

H. ^^iT,
.j^'
I

or .:^&iT, ready, present.

^/i_<sii), (1.) enclosing;


:

(2.)

mo-

^ffesnTLD,

indigestion

ldie^ld.

desty, self-restraint eSesnuLb. (3.)

S.^|@,

impurity.

[^'. priv.]

an enclosure.

214

^L_a@

62. put

down,
[s.

or under,

^DZ_

57.

attain

to,

obtain.

64.

enclose.
^L-iii3,So,

160.

ad'has.J the whole contents;


f.

shut up, mortgage.


a

^eoiids&iia

(^(Tjsfl,

(often ^esjis
(

contract.
=gyi_E/(g-

sedtriE/ <S(W)aQ),

a sparrow,

= the

62.

submit,

go

in,
f.

or

bird that takes refuge.)

under. 56, 78, 125, 160.


^L^Ejairu urr(hLjs(^ ^ijiTS=sm

^SBjLstick

ss&}LD, a refuge

s^rressnh.

gpsiSsu^^L,

For a
is

rebelliuus snake,

a bambu

king.

^ecoL-UULD, a pouch
190.]

3U. [^mii.
rain.

S. <jyi_ii),

^iQf)

obstinacy
60.

Sli^eun-^LD.

^(sai
I

LDiomLp,

grow
with

incessant

thick, spread.

\_^

SiOi_.l

240.

LDfjiiiseir

^Lrtii^
trees.

arr,
.

a jungle thick

^<oiniLDiT^w, pledge, mortgage of


real property, [s.
^(Stai
I

^IL^IT^^,
iTs^,

.J>IL-IT,^S,

^L^ITLj,

^L-

vid'hamanam.]
word.

thickness.
:

QLOfTL^,

a qualifying

[.jysTOZ

S.

^L_a9, a wood
=syi-/r

<s/r.

manner,
all.

.jijoaiajfrefLh, sign,

194.
^s>L-(Sij,

^itr^,

unseemly, 121.
loill

[^.]
he
.

token: (^^uLf. [^esu ]

^ET^

^G!>i_a/irs,

^U-ir^gl Qs'Xi^aiasr ui^rr^^uSleumir,

who
3,

.^LLi_(ajIki3r,

does evil deeds

in that manner. index, register: ^rreS^ir.

suffer.

^lLl^, delay:
^LLtotni,

^itlds^ld.

4,

24.
a suburb,

^C-, ^iLl^ld,
[^if +
;

140.

^L^^\Qff^,
^ii^,
^'UL,

Co^//?].

wood-louse.

261;

194. a foot
;

leech

the sole of a shoe.

the base

a stroke.

^(zs^, an anna: sS^ld


.jijtssS,
^sysiisfl

^uitu.
adorn

184, 243, 251,


^1-^.3=
1

256,

261,

262,

^L^
^i^L
52,

64.
aoLD,

iwSgii, the

*su, foot steps. [267. abdomen.


beat, strike
;

an ornament

^eiiiijsfrjjLD.

57. put on ornaments,


[^essFl.']

one's self.
^ssnflei^

drive

in.

a squirrel:

^ssSpi^&rdsir.

92, 236, 266.

^6g}i, an atom. a scufRe.

^iL^LSlL^,3=(smreff)i,

^j^m(^
272.
184.

62.

draw near
;

8lL.

^jLo.
I

slave

slavery,

^2omr, a dam, dike


Will,
tlieflood

bed, couch.

(II.)

184.
that has burst the

^Lp.
^Lf.
cjy

u SpsJ,
64,

Qiudr,

dam

return, though you


fflio.

weep

be
to

beaten.
;

92.

draw near

belonging
273.
one

You must

build the

dam

be/ore

to.

the flood comes.

.j)js(^,
^ffi

aheap,

pile,
pilt in layers,

^i^sssrd

a.<Slsairs: sroa;,

^35wr

slL, an anient.
57. be extinguished
:

^eS/E
239.
&l-lsls

over another.

^(g
^

SJ Quit

62. pile up, place in regu-

64.

(1.)

embrace:

lar order.
to.

Qsrreir.

(2.)

extinguish, ^sfl.
^(Ss2!r(?SOTiS3r,)

^/^^, belonging to, near

[^.]

\_^esm(FSbTsm, (vulg.

an

^^^,
^ui-j,
cook.]

usury.
a

eunuch.]
;

hearth

s^Sso.

[^,

^lemessrasr,

elder brother. [App. x]


[eaffiS^U'sm,

voc. ^essfQessr.

^m>i, incubation a kind of cake. ^eiaisn64. sit on eggs.

.ji/mirm^dsuSgii,

^Gm(sm)

a waist-cord

66. look

upwards

^bssr

^Bi_
I

Q&iTiSl,

a sitting hen.

(eUFj/BSyLJp-IT.

[vulg

.^iS2Jjr(S5^/f.]

215

INDEX
^(SOT,eOT)a@, uvula.
^ezar(sro)6=^S,
[=gy<Rjijr

I.

+ /5ff<s(g.]
look

^^^iTQsr, a cousin; husband's elder


brother, App. x. ^^isne=&, a husband's
sister

App.
I

^essr

IBIS'S)

ih^

u!Tit

x.

64.

up-

App.x.
:

wards. [^(5337-^.] ^<s^imu)<sSiu rriT, teacher:


^i5ssr<^, wife of au elder
Lo^eofl.

^^^iTff=&,
S-Sii/rs;^.

proof, evidence
a-.

-(tj

^^^rriLQ, J
S.

^QKsiSiifT/i^Lh.

brother:

^^^, murder:
SUT)^^ and

App.

X.
:

^emiih, the universe


SfTLD

^sssriQsa
261.

^^^uih^LD, AR. ^^^, impediment; boundary.


S.

0/7&. (written also, s^^.) (2.) a fig tree. exceeding: ^mi^Lo.


248.
;

[App.
^(S3sr
iEj(^.

iSekriLJa.']

^^^,
to
:

inserted,
fear,

62.

draw near
\_^<sssre<!>L

0/5(5

AR. .jy^, hindrance

(addu.)

215.

151, 251.
there
eui^,

^(ossr&si

^<53sres)L

uSeo.

Qatrci^^ib ^S^ih ^^^euSsu ^6uga, he sta?ids at nothing.

near at hand.
lorsiBrs^s
mirGJSabreniiijib

S. .j!i^e!n^ = [l.) for ^eta^. (vulg.) (2.)

a father's

sister;

mother-in-law

are ivays
^ir

death on every side. ^esbrani, on one side; 171 a come?:


to

S.

^^LDLD, lowest, [sans, superlative.]


^^SLD, destruction
:

App. x. ^/B, before words which begin with a vowel = =y privitive.


[co. ^^^rrffir.']

^evui,
:

Qs.

^. ^^BiB^LD, S. ^fBiT^^LD,

infinites,

[^/j

= ^/e^lc.]
circum-

^^lL(B" 62. reprimand seisru^. ^^ir&)^^, adalut, justice, a court


of justice.
[great.

an unfortunate
[=iy/5.]

stance

S. ^fEir^rreii, disrespect:

^wld^ulj.

^p,

a sans, prefix

= much, very
96,97,152.

^^sLD,
authority
:

S.^iEiT^, (1.) without beginning. (2.) a widow, a poor woman, [one without a
/E/r^esr.]

^^sfTffiM, (1.) a chapter, 178. (2.)

^^s&ld.

S. ^SiuiTiuih,
Q<ss(B.

injustice:

^i^ui, li^d

^^.sirrruu^^fjuD, a power of attorney, [u^^jii).]


^'^airrreh^ir, persons having authority
:

141.

S.

^^,

a sans. prefix=together, again:


sijepi.

written also

[ STD^ /f

= e_ em i_

11/ si;

/f.]
:

S. ^^.ni^edLD, favour, success:

^^b^

^Sl3=iULD,
lUlh,

wonder. 269

^^^ffl

eoih,

&^^.

Lj^SnLD.

^. ^gtjsi-iQffsm,

^^a=uSi

64.

wonder.
:

163.
S.

afl^/E^/rerf?.] \_^^^, a guest ^^<^LLD, ^^L-iLD, luck, fortune.

favor; divine mercy: Qqh&au, SQff'^sm. ^^QuiTsuD, enjoyment, possession;

^^u^,
^^rr
I

a ruler: ^Ssixsueir a shaking,

158.

S.
S.

6^9,

trembling.
190.
/E/sy@.

(=^'^0.)
=sy^(5
Lju9

^^LD^, permission: ^^ld^, ^-^^ ^G/Eszi, many ^QeursLo. ^Q/BsiT, many people.
:

it,

^0. tremble,

quake

^iB^,

that,

25.

^^/rsA),

^,^,

an earthquake, 148. that, 10, 25. a termination


6th case.
10.

S. [_^ih^sdr, a blind

S. ^>i^afTfTU3,

man: (g^isir.] darkness: ^s"", _g)0

of the

^w^,

S.

^00^

57.

swell

fiS'/E/f^,
:

s_lJl/.

il. ^ih^sss<omLD, a faculty of the mind; internal power [the-withinfaculty.]


=fflr/Ea5sro^,

^dsii). ^em^uLj, a swelling perfume. ^^^iT, attar of Roses 25,212. ^^^Sosr, {^ +ds^.)
;

S.

position, rank:

iSsdeir.LD.

l^j.i^isimnT,

brahmans;

holy men.]
233.

^^^sV,

a father. [Co

^/^so)^.]

[^ii, ^em.']

216

INDEX
S. ^li^uLjffLD,

I,

haram, inner apartment;

.j)j

u u QTi-^^
"*'=5yCy +

eaifl

quiver.

^^ldlj
x.

.^siiaft.]
:

S. ^iB^LD, the end; Qpu^sif, 239, beauty: S. ^rB^ffisjsLD,

^sji-iuGsr,

father

^^uuek. App.

what

is

hidden: (Lo&o/Dd
uQfftijsLa,

^uuit! Father!

suulLi^, opposed to

or com. QejeSujffiijsu).)
S. Ijijii^ffih, space, extent: QeueS.']

Heb. ab 194, ^uufTuSl, father's mother, [^uueir, ^uS.] App._ x.


S. l^uSliuiiiasanh,
S. ^uiSiiU!T3^LD,

bathing with
:

oil.]

^msia, there

193.

practice

npiupSl, ui^

^jih^, evening.

^rh^'^Q^ULh, even-

ssLD, uuSjbQ.
E.
.jijiSeo,

ing prayer,

^i^^i^,

morning

and evening.
S.

^u

^iI/L/

Eng. appeal. App.

ii.
:

62. clap on, cause to adhere

or

^su, a particle in

comp.
jijULjpLD, beyond: ^uufrffO.

denoting diminution,
loss.

inferiority,

{^+lj

S.

^usrft
I

64. deprive, rob:


a

Pld) 25,244.

u^.
:

^uQuir(i^, ^uQuiT_^,
H. ^usurrLf,
miscellaneous
62.

then,. 25.

[S. ^i-/

<5ffjii>,

malevolent action

heads in

^iEj(^. opp. to ^-usrnjLD.']

S.

^u
^ju

several accounts.

SiT^^, infamy: ul^ulj.


s^irrnh,

^ldlL

reprimand

^^lL.

S.

incivility,

rudeness.
eu^sS.
\_&)dl.

^LDffih, the

stern of a ship.
:

S. [_^u^rrifl, a

bad
ill

woman:

^LDffldems, quietness

255.]
S.

^uQs'tULh,

success, defeat: Quituj.


:

Q^n

^LDQ^

60.

'S^irrh^w.
:

become calm, repose


quiet,

S. S.

^u^<sw,
^uiuLD,
e-sor

untruth:

asylum, refuge
^uiuth
etasTga

^eaid
I
hcwcjied

^LDtr^^
still;

62. calm,

make
160.

engage,

^LDeS\, tumult

oimQ^sir,

to thee /or refuge.

AR.

^iLDSo,

seoaw. government; an
:

office,

meaning.) fine 128,244. S. ^lurrrr^, one guilty of a fault. 180 S. [_^u lay/r^ii), scandal, reproach.] ^uiremii-h, false accusation worthS. ^urriTjSLD,

a fault

(rad.

LDeOjSnir,

a native collector of re-

venue.

AR. ^LDire^, under

a colleetor's
trust.

man-

agement, security,
Port. ^LDiTQF), a cable.
S. ^LDmsurrQ,

lessness.
S. jijuiriULD, danger,
S.

new moon.
:

jeopardy

QLDfnFLo.
:

H. ^l8(c^&, work done by compulsion

^SlQei^sLD, unction, ui iiEjaL-1.iso,

ordination

^LD(Q&, aL-iaiu mmL^LUih.


S. ^ilSit^u),

ambrosia

^lQ^^w,

^
62.

[S. ^tS/Biucsrih,
S. ^Sl/BiJJssfi,

gesture.
64.

indicate

by
:

.j^SCp,

57.

and ^iBCpfs^^
62.

S.

[65(5^^. App. ii. ^iSlutSrrrrujLb, opinion; sentiments


gesture.]

sink down,....

^iSCp^Si
under.

271.

cause to sink, put

AR.
S. S.

opium. [y^freuLD, an extraordinary matter. ^QutLem^, desire ^(od^, aS^iJ


^i3(stS\,

AR.

ULD.

^uuS'Sl ^uum,

father.

App.

x.
:

down: ^QIB^, ^(ipd(^


^QpiEi(^
62. 62.
,

^tScir, ^LS(e^,

sink,

an inferior officer. be pressed

^l8^.
down
:

press

.ji/trp

^uuLD,

bread,

rice-cakes.

146

&-QjTfTLLLf..

[Comp. ^UULD.^
^syiijLj.] ...25.

S.

.^uuLfL, so, [vulg.

160. iBwd^ d^i ^(tp^LD, ^lSIit^ld, ^iBip^Lh, ambrosia, [s. AMRITA.]

21'

^mLD 57.
quiet

agree, be engaged, be

^u
I

tasLo,

a tree

ficus religiosa.

64.

cause
;

to

agree

en-

^ffQ^^, a sojourner
^ITLD,

gage

provide

quiet.

file,
ffireif.']

.jyjai,!

unQ^&.
(62),
file,

[^gisz-D<5=^sJr,^5iOLD<^*, a minister of
state: Loi^ffl.']

[pron.

{_uitldlj.
:

^uenih, a noise
.

s^^^ld; a serpent

^&!)LDjB0O, ^SSiLD^, ^SenLDBil, ^<SISLD^


a=eo,

l^jisij,

a serpent.
^ueij.

From
In poet,

s^rruuih,
^air.']

quietness, agreement,

148,

^jTSULD,

190.
^gyti),

^iKsm, a

fortification.

a termination of nouns. 163,190.

^a(sm
I
,

LD&jr,

a palace.

AR. ^uiurTinh,

a heap of grain,

&c.:

^SKssr, Siva.

^ifl, a sheaf,

Yi.^LDurTfB, a howdah.

^rfl

^LDLj, an arrow: urrem'th.


^LDusOLS), a public place where affairs are discussed.
^snpuSlAi ^1^, ^ihuai^^ai ^(Si.

bundle

Vishnu.
off.

57.

cutoff; be cut

64.

gnaw

sift

itch.

^rflssirnesr,

a king's

messenger.
.

^fB@l, rice

(not boiled.).
{^fft.)

62, 63.

Con-

sider the matter in private

before you

venture

to

move

it

in public.
ajgimir ?

^'47, ^rBuLj, itching

149, 247.
:

^sjna/.

stitoifiQue^a-

^ihuaiih

Will the

words of the poor reach the council chamber ? ^ldu2lL(3ld, so far. [ldlL 25, 211.]
S. ^LnLDemsTLn,

He who
^fflsurrev,

itches loill scratch himself.

a sickle. a

[=y//? +<si//rGrr.]

^rfleuireiTlLD^omsr,

cutting

instru-

nakedness: ^iMLDiTi^&l, App. X.


^ldlo/TcfS, mother; aunt
ther's side.

iSirisufTsssrLD.

ment,
.^(75,

stool

and knife.
^ffliu,

^QF)LD,

^iT,

costly,

by

the

mo-

^LDiMiTuS,

App. X. grand-mother by the mother's side. App. x. [^iiianu). ^LDLDirrsir, a lady mother ^ldldit,
;
:

=^(5

^2 ^^ ^Q^ssetfl
fied.

precious.

[Ill

Gram. 121.]
[^(5.]
151.

scarce.

=5^(5, .j<iQF,Qs, ^(iffQ&)


64.

shudder, be horri[
:

S-^LULD.']

^LDLDirdr, father

mother's brother,
[Co. ^iiswizi.]

^ QF)Q(em^ujLD, sun-vising
^(fh
I

[^rmissjr

uncle,

App.

x.

^ildlS, a grinding stone.. .251,262.

<smLD,

costliness, rarity

value.

^iheMLn, a lady; raotlier


of Sivan
^iLKsoirir,
^a=(oO/TiT,
;

the wife

184, 228, 229.


sroio.

[^O
child
is

small-pox, 259. near neighbours, .... 182.


^(B^^euiTs&ir,
:

The value of the

known

Sprr.
^<s=(SD.

^iii<k),
'^.

neighbourhood
passage:

^ussTtM,

the

southern

who bore it. ^(miii-j, a bud OLD/r<S(geJr, Qlditl-. 64. abominate ^(medQK ^QsrirS. ^(wafl, a mountain streamlet.
to her

and northern course

of the sun.

^(W)(3ff)-

{Qp^),
:

be

gracious

to,

AR. ^uek,
S.

(1.) actual

net, clear, the

264
^Qhesr,

jSUJeifueisr,^!!,

QnF)SSiUSh-iT.

whole. (2.) BrahraA. QiuasQiuuD, unworthiness.


I

grace

Q^emu.,

.257, 263.

[^.

priv.]

^iiiutT,
S. ^irrd(^^

Sir

Siufr

0l9, an invisible being. .jij ^imir, [0, p.'] half: urr^. App. ^mrrd^siresfl, (i)) ^i-^. App.
I

viii.

S. ^ff^eur,

sealing-wax. a king ^nrrs^m,


:

^lema
^iiirs=rr.
.jy(S/r

I I

viii.

64.

grind, (and 57.)

(s^irem,

waist-string

^essr

^ffs-,

kingly dominion a king. ^a3=n-i^, govern. [^(55.]


;

(esu)ssu3^. vulg.

^<saiT(s^iT<sssr.

262.

^ma
218

LD[r,

(6P()

-^^.

App.

viii.

INDEX
S.

I.

^QniT^sLD,

^QrrfT&iLiLD,
;

disgust.

S.

^er^fTrnh, incarnation: LDesrl^/reu^fr


ffLD.

S. ^/r^^ii),

meaning

wealth; a half:

S. ^leu

^, distress: euQFj^^th.
:

AH. ^jfrsfrrr, a messenger. AR. ^jiT^, a petition, report,


S. ^sOE/s/rijiz),
S.

^en ,^sa, defamation


urzi. 93.
S. ^tsu LDnesTLD,

Qstreir.

disgrace;

neglect:

ornament: ^stmfl. [^ediijQ(T^^iT, ornamented persons.]


disorder, confusion.
62.

S. S.

^euLD, vain
^euivevLD, a

eSeasr,

eSnE^rr.

^isouLj ^eoiML]
^eniL
wash
:

^ediEj Qsnreou),

member:

S-gnuu.

trouble,

importune

^eueair, beans.

^eufr, (1.) he,

(politely for ^ei/siir.)

62.
62.

babble. 160.

(2.)
;

they (generally^ea; /f<E err. )29.


ii.

dash about, as waves

^suirsar, they, 29. App.

l^Sso.']

^eueo, parched
distinct.

rice.

AR.

^sorruS^fT, separate,

AR.

^eued^iriir,

Havildir.
25.

^^eii&), business: Q^rreS.


^Sso, a wave

^siieir,

she

^dod

^ema 265,266. 57. wander be tossed about.


; ;

^enesrenek,

each one

108.*
25.

^eueir, he

200. i^Sso.-]
64,

^eS
afflict.

57.

^doOssi^

disturb,

rotten
[^gy^,
S.

ii.

be quenched
64.
;

become

quench
,

boil.

64. vex, weary,

l^

^sSu^^ifaeh
divided

those
their

who have
inheritance.

not

^&dsh

62.

rinse.

App.
wanderings.
a termi-

^^d^cFsb,

vexation,

S. ^(^uiSffiTiViJi

^iSuiSlffrrujili,

opi-

[^^.]
^jjjeo,

nion, App.

ii.

not. 43. (heb. al.)

^eSrR, indigo.

nation of nouns. 148.


Port.
^eoLDfTff,

^eSl^
S.

60.,

be loosed, untied.
LDQF^igi.

64.

loose, untie.

[almario] an almira;

^eSi^^LD,
^<oS)<aj,

medicine

clothes-press.

^ec^u> us^LD, [^&D = night.]


^a)ev},
it is

day and

those, n. plu. of

night,

^^.
giants

[App.

xii]
[^ffl/(SJ3r/f,

the Titans,

not,

^Si^&^sQeOfredsLD,

43,44, 208. hubbub: ^Loeifj,


205.

^*
25. 25.

ufr.']

^eueaerreif,

107.
^6\)eci^,
^ecie\)ffO,

^eueSiLD,

^Lp(^, beauty

s^syii^jil.

sorrow, grief:

gjskuLo.

&) &} eu /T ?

^L^57.,
?

&) eo

Q (Sv rr

perish. 15, 16,254, 271.

^SoQeorr

193.

^eoeoQeu, ^eos\>, not


^&)eciiT^,
^eveoiTLoeo,
^SveorresiLD,
S. ^tsusfT^s^U},
S. ^<su

at all.

Q<.
64.

destroy. (See under .ysDa!/.)

^L^ff'.sFrrL-^Ltuu},

vexation.

202.

[^//^.] [^'l^.]

^L^LcLj, waste, destruction,


^L^sj/, destruction
:

200.

Oa^.

[^tS.]

154,156.
means, opportunity.

271.

\Sir^^
ii.

= ^uQiT^^,
occasion,

^Q)

60.,

weep, cry, 61, 233, 263,


putrify. [^/^.]
filth.

infamy.
necessity.

[s.

S. ^<aj'3=nu>,

App.

'^&
=^(^

62.,
i@,

ASRU.'']

S. ^euSliuLD, necessity. S. ^(Sieioea^, agony,

^Q^^
219

dirt,

[^(^^@.]
:

62., press

down ^Qpd(^.
^/rtp.]

death-symptoms.

[Co. roots

^^

and

160.

28

INDEX
^agisi
^lesiip

I.

62.,

sink

down

into.

^<ssr<s\),
^esre^i

fire.
^(Sl

64.,

call. 88, 92.


|

QiDQg^Quirai,

like

WUX

in

|^=

^eiDLfi^gisQsiiremQQuir,

take Willi
call.

'

the fire.

one. ^^ifi^^^^i-l, end fur one.

^scmLpuiS,

64.,

cause to

160.

^ S

^'(CT)^9,

immemorial

^/e/t^.

^^
rSsjem!

<K^(SULo,
I

refreshment, kindness,
attend to; observe;

^eir

success: ^.^sk^edLD.
66.;

measure.

Q?/i9
I

64.,

attain to. l^^^nrrLh.']

Though you .squander your property, keep an account.

sjepi

^emh,
_jysrf?

^^ueS 64.,
I

ufflJii),

experience.

experience; enjoy or
iii.

a salt-pan

&-uu<sitld.
[,^srr.]

suffer.

App.
87.

[^^CTi/ufflJO).
ii.

163.]

^sireij, a

m&Ti^
m/rj,
mfrtj<5=
I

measure, 115,211.
bestow.
62. take

64.,

up by the handful.
68, 170.

^^uLj 62., send, 87, 95, 248, 254.


(s.

^^LJi3tu,

App.

ANU.)
a balance in an account;

^^uuL^,
.jsje^!
I

Q<?^lL, too close dealing.

[,-y

affairs in general.

fl + ^ptD.

Qj=L-(B, dealing.]
virtue, virtuous deeds:

LD^, consent, approbation

3=i}>

^(5

LD^.

wm. 270. [ From


laid

App.

iii.

^0,

ivhat

is

decided,

^^

a3/r3rto,
I

inference,

suspicion:
[<5/f.

^jl

know, ^^|s(s,, ^,
57,

down.^

3=Qp<3=lULh.

269.
^'Sssr,

notice. \_^^/S.'\ 143.


ueesr^is, confess.

^^ssTjS^LD, ^SssTeuQFLh, ^Sssr


126.
@lQrESLD.

QEHrTQFiLD,

^rSl
I

npsLD, acquaintance.

^mi-i, love:
190, 267.
172.
the nntooing
.'

^/^I,',
^S>i,

knowledge,

^iirup0aairu LSesrup0Q^! Follow not

^gs

^ssrrS, ^dTjSuSffO,
.jijeisTgu,

[^'a).

202.

91.

68., cease;

be determined. 90,

.jijssrsmpdi^,

^ekemp^^ssrih,
(.jii<s\)

64. cut; reap; saw. 101.

then, that day. 25, 166, 207. ^Qsrga,


it is

^^^eS,

a widow, {^gs, ^ireS.)

not

.jijeceo.

-t-,^-)

^S>i\ ^, completeness, {^gn.)

^skQQf},
^sSrssTii),

[^a)]
food
5

193.
rice.

^rasui Ljeo^, a kind


^gu^iuirii, once for

of grass.

boiled

146, 151,
^wSIiliim.

all.

263. a swan,
172. 190.
^-asTissil'ULD,

[hamsa.]
:

^ga u^,
I

foreign, other

^^tJL/, harvest,
^gij
I

.^ime^Qiun'eirissrlajLh,

union, fellow-

sfl^,

final

decision,

{^gn,

ship: asQiULD.
.jijcirdssr,

a mother: co. ^lieaLD.


for

^emp,

a room; 244, 190. l^gii.'] a grave.

^ikQ(^, by Brahmans

^mQQj'.

s&)ioi)(B!!)/o,

^an^aS', a closet, inner-room. ^(smp 57., smite, strike.

^,

46, 58, 193,

&Sss)(SiiuSlio
[

^sap,
]

crucify.

0sr,

Hvena.

In

pronounced sanserif comp.

^Q^
=

Christian usage.

.^
Q,frrp
.

+^,

ox

^ + ^.
136,233, 242.
206,

S.

^puih, mean,

small, little:

^a,
^asKiiSsLD,

UU). [S. ALPA.]


S.

^pLj^w,

a miracle:

l/^sjolo.

^pp,
^pgn,
H.
,jyar(C5)^,

68, 74,90. 68, 77.

^ss^Qs=. App. ii. ^siSL'ULD, mockery:


g^LD.

rSissi^.

urflsir

a pine-apple.

^siKBlii

140, 217, 266.

220"

INDEX
S.

1.

^sLDiM, a sacred work

Qsa^iraLDiD.

S ^s= a^ ifl lu LD astonishment


,

wonder161.

^s(T^ =
^s/r^,
S.

^siTfi,

121,

268. 268.

ful thing
^d^<s=/r,

125.
123.
:

^sitlSuld, malice.
^3;mLiLD, ^air6=Lh,
257.
air,

^ra^, ^e=a^,
sky; ether,
^ovstb^S,

S.

estate, riches

Qis=n^gi.

^efp^ urrem^, goods

123.

S. ^sirjTLD, (1.) food. 146.; (2.)

long^.

o^-(^^.)become; be accomplished;
serve
for. 58,

103, 130, 136, 165,


S.

^(Qir, ^(sj/rdr, a father. ^(E^, App. X. ^tLD, a kind of measure.


^iUDUjiLn,

268.

pomp

QeuL^dsas.
2.5.5.

^QpeuQsr, ^Q<k),
^Qu-i,

151.
98.

^iSo, dancing.

[^.]
of July.

^^L, the month

App.

vii.

^Sjfi/ii, 100, (2.) 101, 208, 217.

^0,

a sheep,
cattle.

181.

130.
72, *73.

m(B LDiT,

Q<?^LDi>^^, a red sheep.

^O'^.
^esi&iuiT<k!. therefore,

145.

^ 62.,

Qeueiretrrr,

a goat.

dance, move.

218, 255.

^dsLD,
190.)
S. ^sSl'hsr,

increase,

wealth.

(^@,

^S)i, a garment.
QpQrftoinL,

a clotli for little girls. a petticoat.

^3,(^

punishment command. 62., make. 63, 165.


;

un SUIT'S!) I,
ornaments.

^<cs>iUJiTun<cssriEss.<^,

clothes

and

^s"'.
S. ^imsirsfLo,

1S3.
for

^siasmnh.
as long as the
in

^lLS,

lordship, possession, [^eir.']

S. ^^li^ffirirdsL}),

and moon. (Used


ments.)
S. ^-s-ift

sun law docu-

^iT'^irLLQ, kingly rule.


.srrestflajirLS,

estate.
;

64. observe,

celebrate.

\^^

^L-L-u>, a motion (190) way, manner. This word


in
udsT^^

[.:^-]
is

3=!r!IU>.'\

used comp. with many others = like.


SQfOS)^ ^Lltiij/ruj,
l.l/ie CI

AR.
S.

^-fn-, appearance, being present

p>(/,

or

an

II

xs.

^msTLD, a seat
[s.

the seat

lSl-ld.
lust.

^iL
<^l1

18.

S. ^3'ir\uir6'ii, the

allurements of
lust-cord.]

ASA-p.\s.\M,

^L-
jillL

I I

<sSOTi_,
62.,

a sheep-pen.
to dance.

move, cause

A. ^3'inS, an individual, office, holder


of a place.
3. ^<FirffLh,
[S.

[^,
^L-emi,
year,

160.]
LDfiem^,
(adj.

131.

observance, customary

rite.

form of ^eissr, a
QpeuirLLeaiiufreir,

.icHARAM.]

annual.)

S. ^s^irrff, a carpenter,

workman.
.

a "three-year old.

"

S. ^3=fTrflajn-, a priest, spiritual teacher. S.

^S 64.,
<ss>s-.)

^lLq^uld, an

objection.
for

desire, lust

after,

{^g,

^lLQ 3= u<jssr
ULD.
.

incorrect,

^lLQ^

272. (III.)
present. (Hazir.)

AR. ^&rr,

S. ^^ireurr^LD,

blessing, benediction.

^lLQs'iS App.
^i^eser,

ii.

64., object,

argue against.

^&iTeu^,

^s-uu^^ffl
(Eng.)
S. ^sia.a',

^auu^^rfi,
lust:

bless.

64, 163.
hospital.

^sBsfl, a nail.

188.

uu,

desire,

^s^em^, 258.
259,265,

an oath <3^p^iL!ld. ^smr, a male masculine. ^emiGuiT, the Lord, master,


:

ruler,

68. desire

244. [^(25-]

22T

INDEX
^<sm(B, a long time
;

I.

a year

sxiqF)

AR.^i^sD, a superintendant.
^sniD, a term, of neg. nouns .154. ^&nLD, a tortoise a^^iruDLn. ^d,, 72,*103, 104, 176.
. . .
:

^PQ^sm,
^isisrss)!, a

a century.
:

master of slaves
respect

^<sm

.MlluL^ajIT
S. S.

^SLDULp-UJiriT,

\_^SLD,

^^ueij, support

^^rfj

s^sitiuld.

uLf.']

a caste of people

who

per-

64., support.

[^^JQ/.]

S.^^iriULD, gain: eoiruLc.


S. ^siTiJLD,

formed menial Knd palaces.

offices in

temples

a support, a voucher

<^^

^LDLjimiiLiiTissr,

^QpemLLUfrdr

^s

S.^^,
S.

the beginning;

&c.

151,239.

ahouseholder, master of the house, husband.


(wemiUJiresr,

S. ^^airrT(SS!!rLD,

first-cause.

[^^.]
eutrrrLD,

^LDuenL

ojirew, ^Qp<5SiLUJ!rsir

= m^
a

^^d&LD, pre-eminence.
^^^^ssr, Sunday. ^^^^lULo,
a sun.

npeniiurrar,

the

mistress of

S.

.^^^^

house. [_^sLD house.]

^lULD, tax,
hospitality:

customs

ai-isj&LD.

S. S.

^^^.
(government
ujjir^

^^esTii, dependance,
property.) See
ear ill,

sfsuir^esrili,

^tussfTff&r, a tax-gatherer. .Sj^^gs stAs&p ULl(g ^um^ianai S-esur i-n'i Is there atiy tax on rubbish?

Q^euirSesnh.
121.

AR.
S.

^'jjirefT,

woman
;

servant, [ayah.]
;

^Si,

a neg. termination

.MiLiir<3=il>,

weariness

annoyance.
relation;

^^^irisfT,

mother. App. x.
212, 213.

^(iS,

mother

female

S. ^^^rrdsrrrjeii

respectful address to a
S.

woman. 19 5.
141,
<suuj.

S.^^^irth, haste;

rashness .... 212.


]

^it5*, ^u^3?, age, life-time,


272. (III.)
[s.

^^g]d(^,
S.

to [one's

house,

[a corS.

ayus.]

ruption of =^'^^@.] ^^^LDLD, ^^^LDir, ^^LDIT,


^liesi^, an owl.

^uS^^LD, ^uj^^LD, ^uj^^Ln,


trument, means, preparation.
^uSlfftl),

ins-

SOul.

S. ^fBii^LD, felicity,

215, 216.

a thousand, (&;)
mnsirss^ ^^u^firesbrisiatr.
littles

^aSum

172. 1000

^Ksn^
S.

&^gi, S3=<sruQuiHg!.
it

The owl

is

limes

J 62 J. "Many

make a

small, but

^ud^,

makes a great noise. calamity, necessity.


uiraiib

mic/ile.

^uS^ii,
^jSdr, ..^uSmiLD. ^uSlp^,

100, 245.
95, 98.

^u^gja^u
knows no law.
E.^f-fcj^/f, the

gjeuZeu.

JVeceSSttT/

242, 268.

^ufjemuD, a jewel. English word officer. 'P.^usrrffl, a tax on liquors and drugs, intoxicating [ = belonging to a
S.

S.^LLj^LD,^uj^u>, .^uSl^LD, awcapon; instrument: &(y^s8. ^iLjerr, a.ge; ^uSsf, ^iLjs-. [s.ayus.]

^>L,

maker

of intoxicating liquors.]

^uum,
^uLj,
a

^lu

a hopper, rice-cake. (eomp.

^iTfrdj

81, 137, 268.


57.
select,

exa-

mine.
aitrasr.

wedge

Qp'Ssn;.

He

icho dues not

leisurely

exam-

^LD(DS3rd(^, the castor-oil plant.


&pQijLD(si!srs(^,

ine, deserves to die.


it

the

variety of

^iudSl, App. X.
^iLids?

from which the medicinal


extracted.

oil is

123,268.
166.
is

.^L^LD, a letter, (intro. VI.)


121. 104.

^LD60,
^LJ^T,

neg.

term

^n,

fully,

l^ir.']

^ijLiT?
S. \_^rTLD, S.

Who

that fellow?
:

195.
ldf^so.']

T. .^lSs^ld,

means, property,
,

given

a garland, necklace
:

product.

^uLDULD, commencement ^sudaih.

222

INDEX
^rfLc>i3

I.

64., begin: 0^/ri_/B(g. 163.

^gii, (1.) a river


six,

18, 19, 250. (2.)

S. ^fffT^'Sssr, worship, acts of religious

17,2.;

(3.)

away, method,
for

service.

[from
search into, 215. l^ir,

^g)i as Quirrr from QuitqF)

^amu 57.,

and thus used sometime


/Dii).]

^
0ne

^!jfrLa=l, study.

[^/7-ffiZ/.]
:

[_iuld.

^prS^so e^cystreo,

Qff&)f^c\i

^(t^shg^,

S. ^QfjiTsQiULo, health

asLD, ^<sijdQ

foot in the river, and one foot mire ( dilemma.)

in the

^fr, (l.j who, 47., (2.) an honorific 151. termination,


LfsSujaQfT.'

.M&!

62.,

grow

cool:

^eazsf),.

270. 250.

^ppiEJSf:<!)ir,

Mr. Tiger!
:

^/f 60., be full iB<so->p, SffLDLi. ^rrLJUiB~{dQp^), shout, huzza, ^&)LDriLD, banyan tree.
S. ^aJiZJii)
<'.&),

[^/b/oa), ability,
.Mjhffii

endurance.]
;

62.,

cool

comfort

bear.

64.

(=g5^-)

160:
satisfy the appetite.

uS .^,pg3i,
^pjS^^

(^Sdul/ld),

a temj)le

Qsir

Qfipffii,

console. [See also

255.
for

stTuurrpgti.']

^^,

a press

extracting juice.
is

^0sr, 130,135,151,211,268,271,(27.)
^BT^(CT)a),

therefore.

\_^Qsr^

4-

The iluppei Jluwer


village

siigur

to

the

where there

is

no sugar-cane

^OT-+ ^a).]
^(2ijii),

58,

87, 22, 21.


.M'sareKisij,

press.

^air_^, ^eaieiiiT -ansir,


counsel, advice
;

151.

^Q eo n

F^sar ,

con-

100,101,205,208.
not at least

sultation.
S.

^Q<soiT@

Have
think, take counsel.
l^Q&)ir.3=d5s.']

64.,

(you) proverb i

heard that
98, 100.
ibit3^ld.

163, 241.

109.

^i^sd,
.^csrlLDn-^u:),

^&),

sign of 3d. case, 21.; (2.) sign of subj. mood, 95.; (3.) a
(1.)

S. =^s9 {psQiTicS), destruction:

the

month

of June.

banyan
^eussS,

tree.

[^aJLo/jii.]

^Qesrek,

58.

August,

the

5th

Hindu

^&3r,

luaSsw,

an

elejihant

s^th,
166.

mouth. App.

vii.

[srR.-]

^a/^,

175, 205, 208, 267.

^u:srs(gw s-sabr

^ojQsQ.

Even an
ISO.

elephant

may

suffer.

^ismsoa^, scandal, bad report.

^dn,

a term, of mas. nouns.

^en&o, desire
^fflj/rsBT,

^ss><b=. [^su/r.]

.jifcsj-^iT,

Eng.

a7iswcr.

p.

143: 2_^

^aO,

spirit

he will become. [^. 72.] air steam, 263. [Co.


;
;

S. ^Qisj^LD,

a ghost.
;

^,
:

25, 115,

pronounced ^s^.
despise
190.
178, 190.

^LpLD, depth
<^rfl,

craft

[Co. ^/r^.]

^*i^'

[ CO.,

^LpiTL^, the deep. [=^t^

the deep.]

181.
56. (111.) rule; exercise, 262.
S.

)-sLp\-s'&,

contempt,
distress:
is

^isL-,

^u^^.
:

e 'S)&' handle, manage. sir, a person a termination of


;

^rsjQ^LD, what

pleasant

^si\^.
25.
/E/eOTii).]

^lEjQs, here,
^lEJEieSTLD,

nouns. 166. 180. [^(SYp.] ^e)r Oa:/rOT(3, make One slave, 259. siruD IT s rr <5izr LD an establishment of
,

^s=S>

thus.

[25.

^+
:

62.,

strive,

contend.

servants, peons, &c.

^iw
jB,

sirLLi^

aSj-sD,

fore-finger.

AR. ^^iTLj, an account .ssiwsQ. AR. ^-firrTfr, a contract, monopoly. ^SluLf, spasm. [^0. draw.]
S. S)<^

see ^ii-{Qpgi-)

64., desire

^.

[&)-^e'^'^-']

223

_g)acy,

^stn^
S. S. S.

harmony:
57., agree,

ititsld.

harmonize

_g)an/_|u^, an impediment
64.,
^sai\'sSirrLD<sv-,
(EK)L_,

^emi.

incessantly.
^il-t-, from

[^

cause to agree.

sS.]

^-^^SLD,

flattery:

npsm^^.
pleasure, de158.

^i^Qi-sir,

^lL,

^
har-

^ jsiooc,
sire,

desire: ^sma^.

230, 263.

^&^iLD [^lLl-ld),
^ei^i Q^eusm^s,
I

^emrdsil), concord, union SsQiuld.


^<sssrEi(^

62.,
:

consent,
^eiT'S=.
Q^s^rr.

act

S.

one's

guardian
F..

moniously
^Jfcjsr,

[^^sar.]

divinity.
_g),si,!_ar,

a pair

a friend, pi. ^Q^iir&ir.

^isssrirr&v,

TLug. endorse
is

189.
[hita.]

H. ^ew^liff, ironing of clothes. ^(qS\, green ginger. [Co. *@.]

S. _g;^LD,

what

pleasant,

fit.

^^.itQ^ld
_g)^, this,
25.

246, 247-

^i_i@,

rudeness.

C^' ]
left

App.

xii [corap. this

_g)L_^6ffl<s,

^iEJsaa, the

hand.

and
take

that with

)ifi

and ^ji^,

^L-d^eo, ^ics^,
_g)_LD, place
;

21, 151, 251.

room; person. (Gram.)


euQFj^^ii.
of

244, 251, 270.


^iiT, trouble
:

away the final s and t and ith, ath.'] invert them [idov.) ^Q^rr! behold 193. (comp. Greek
:

^L-ga, ^ipeo, scandal, cause

^^^Sssr ^li^, this,

25,212.
25.
!

stumble: jD^, thunder ^LQ. pound.


^iSii
62., trip,

stumbling.

^i^T,
^saga. 62.

here, see

93.

S- l^i^Ji\3=rre:>ui, juggling.]

210, 290.
;

S. ^.i^ffih,

^i^ffliULD,
:

an

organ of
[-A-PP-

57.,

fall

to

pieces

go

to
S.

sense

QurrjS.
;

i^-

ruin

64.,

S. ^i^ffesr,

^LS-opLpsstM, a thunder-clap.

Indra a king. (Qipsi^.) ^/E^, a Hindu. The Indus. [sind'hu.]

^L^ajuuiM,

a kind of resembling vermicelli.

rice

cake,

^uuL^, thus
now.

^em^ls^LDiTiLi, 25, 199.

^uueiftlt (for ^LjQurTQ^Lo),

and

S.^
^(B

68., give,

190,263. [s.da.]
as a sign.)

c^jSluQuiuiT, a jDrimitive noun.

^uQuiTQfi^,

novi"

^fsSmiTLD,. .25.
25.

(a

name given

^uQurr, now,
^smtD, eye-lid ^esiLoQaiTLL

^(B^iaessr,

^(BdsLo,

straitness,

SemtD.
62.,

wink.
25,211. App. viii.

adversity.
_g)<s(g, claws; narrowness.

S. ^Lh(5e>F, ^lSss^^f, torture, affliction.

^<S(g

^LDLDL-i}>, thus far.


^LOii/, a minute quantity
@)LL>
I

62.,

pinch

carry on the

hips (as a child.)


icS>LD,

this

world

^euet'so&LD.
184.]

^(BuLj, the loins _@soi ^LOLy, impudence S^^. [srez ^mi, middle waist; a weight =
:

_g)ii.

242. [25.

^lui^ffUi,
S. ^lULDissr,

machine

(^^^stld.

Yaman,
ix.

god of

death.

[@.]
^aoiff=\^eir,
(snz

223, 224.
the second son.
[jg)

App.

and

^uS

70., be possible, can: u..

S. Jan.']

[Co.
in the

er2/.]
;

^!mi~i9,ds:),

what stands
iS.ix>.

mid-

^lueo, nature
gjiueoi-i,

a section.

dle.

15. b.

190. b.]
197, 259,

nature. {^tu<k.)

^sai^'um,

a herdsman.

S. ^'unSssr, mirSssr,

an elephant.
wel-

272, [/. ^ss.-ia^&J] QsiT(^(ssr.


lj^^ A herfJ.'>mu7is sense is in the nape of his neck.
^smL-iijgj/scgiJ
tSiifliiSQeo.

S. ^Qiurr.s\Q<^LDLh, prosperity,
fare.

^ffs^LD, mercy.

[j)J'e;@.]

224

INDEX
J
[56.(1.)]' beg: LS)<Fa<s= 67. 62., have mercy; relent,

I.

S. i!j!rujm^ifl,

fffTLueiv^rfl,

[S.

raja-

ir(E/(5)

sHRi.]
p.

respectable,
p.

honourable, 230.

softeu.
n-3=LD,
^rr,3^Sssr,

\_^irgii.

10.

144, 230.
a king a horseman. [;reve7iue. the

(1.)

mercury;
:

(2.)

juice:

S.

taste

a-es>e^.

^nnium, 172. AR. ^urrsu^^eir,


E.

ffl

d! esfl ,

ffldlS,

Eng.
:

word,
172.

Ssisr

@jriL-3=^6i!sr,

deliverance.
a saviour
:

S. ^fflei^,

a rishi, hermit

QpesH.

)jL-g:seir,

^rrL-<3=<siT,

lSlLuit, ^rrosi^aeir.
)iilL@, ^rrshfl
)ffL-L^

[78.

^&
^^
121.

60., be. [Co. s .VRiTA.] 61,79,

64., save, deliver.

64.,

double,

{^nsm.)

^(iT)lL,
184.]

darkness.

[^(5'sw"

^
[^
[^

'^rriLeiaiLJLSefrSsir,

a twin.
i-jem.

"^jjeinsnh,

ulcer:

^qtjlL

258.
62.,

[e^-]

become dark.
dark.

)j6mLsuD, treachery,

{^nmsr .)
146, 172. 172.

^(T^LLuf-uQuiraSp^. It Iias

^nmr, two,
)aemQiinQf,, one or two
i)ir^ii),

^(w^(ossr(SuiT,

become
aaSiuiremrihj

btcome dark.

0syr.

258.
^siiULD, heart:

a chariot

G^/f.

S. ^QT)^ujuo,

Qm(^s-.

\j!J^iSLD,

blood.
a

S.
:

_g)0^, season; puberty.


^(Jygl
t^irii^

i)/7^^s3rii),

gem

Loemfl.
:

9,

228.

the

2(1

and

^IfTLDLSiULD,

contentment
,SL<sk.
:

real marriaye.
ld<s^!jldl8

S. @j(mi^!jiTL--3=Lb,
[<5<s/r 6V)ld.

red berries used as


profound disscviblcr. cause to be, 161.
172. 100. 172.
the

lULD.
ljrT<su(^,
\)air,

beads by devotees.
loan:
^OT^^f/n-La^uy.Sxjr,^

^aeq, night

gjUfr^^fff,

^urr
short

^Qh;i^

62., place,

))ja!/s<s

[@j!imsee>s),

jacket worn by girls.


^rjusLD, a tune
:

^Qj^Sirsa,

usm.
the

^(f^i^m,
sup-

S.Jj)i7ff@, one
posed
to

of

serpents

^u^,
^QfiUiSlL-LD, place of residence
(adj.) 131.

cause eclipses.

seat. [^(5.] s-JljffiTcB^3=ek, ffiTSs<^<3=ssr, a giant, demon. S.Jljjfrrs=<srresrl, royal city, seat of @Qf,uL^, (1.) iron,

[^

government.

iiz^.]; (2.) a being (J).) 264.


^QfjLDeo, a cough.

s-J^nir-a^ji^eiiLD, kingly dignity, [xi. s.j^SiT-3= eS^, king-street. [sS'^.] App.


S.J^uas^m, a king. [^irff-s^/T".] S.J^rrir^ffsLD, kingly rule, any thing
kingly,
141.

[^G^.]

AR.

iQh'3'T^, a remittance.

^(Vj(Lp

62.,

cough, 239.
131, 254.
^ifls(^tnir r

^Qhihi-j, iron,
^(T^ibstDus ssc^piuasur

AR

(^Utl

^Ef^^t ^'^'^> JtS, agreement. ^jrrS fEfTLDir, a letter of resignation


.

udiite
;

ants eat iron?

^(Yjsrr,

darkness.

[^J/,

2_syr.]

a deed of reconciliation.
^ffir Q^iTus^iTffLD,

197.
^uirs^Sliu

@(!5&

^6

(III.)>

become dark [^

^ijn'LL&ujLD,
LD,

^nrr^iuiji,

0eff.] ^(75<5B3ri_<aS',a

kingdom.
an army

@)Q!ju>u,

^fftTLLu^miM, a spinning wheel.


^ffir^^euil),
;

171.

dark house. Qrnhu, GifTiTLDU, much, [Qu. from Soldu = to be


line

comp.
}ffir.

u
S.

filled.]

esii, ua'SsfTtULD.

^Qij&is, a
eofnh.~]

Qsir,
leaf,

eurfl,

SpSo.
[

^nir^QiB, night
^LnTiu<3=LD,

^JS!/,

254.

^G/7@, gold

tinsel:

Qp

secretary-ship.

INDEX

I.

INDEX

1.

INDEX
s_L_/Eis^, fellowship, i^-i

I.

[e_L_ia}.]

S. S-^ojLD, sun-rise
S-^ei)

_i_sio, possessioas, 138. [s_:_.]


^_L^LD

^-iQsr, in

comp.
228.

S-^gM

wL^ujfoaneoLD,

62. assist; serve; be useful.


62. shake.

^L_ii)Ly, a
2_L_&i>, a

body, 228
:

S. S-^fT^ssri}), abuse, S. S-^irjKoimru),

body

sFifffLD

contempt. an example.
:

2_i_OT
2_i_(?s!ir,

151,239,262.
immediately. 251,271.(27.)
257.
68. agree with,
. . .

S. s^^rrrfi}}, liberality

^ajtriotri}).

^-^

64. rise, {^^ilild.)

s^u.dTUL^d&s)s, a covenant, [s-l-sjt,


/uqL. ]

S. [si-^jii),

^.ieku 2. 64.

2_^0

.262.

clothe.

s-cB^
196.

blood: ^rj^^LD.'\
60. fall
off,

as leaves

from
146.

a tree.
64. kick,

&.uLj, clothes, (s.. 190.)


^-(ElwLj, a

S. s^a^LDth,

the best

excellent. 145,

guana.

2_gB)z_, clothes,
s_(ga)_

[a-.] 185, 190.

57. be broken.

S. s-^^ffsii,

answer

command. App.

ii.

64. break.

s-^^ffiM, an answer.
^-^jSiTiTil,,

248, 262.
s-emiui-j, a channel

an answer.
officer,

formed by the breaking of a bank, or dam. [si_.]

S. S-^^Quj/rsLD, service, office.


S.

s-^^Qiurrsm^m, an
S-^^ffLD, a

servant.

190.
possession, S-imLo.
[

^-esiietaLD,

&-

S.

beam. s-^Q^3=iJD, more or


estimate.

less,

178. an

mi-. 184.] ^wi-uj,


e-Si3i_
I

21, 185, 186, 248.

S.

2-u,

.a

sans, prefix,

signifying near,

au/rsJr,

Z-lLsitq^

a scimitar.
sit

over, secondary
;

60.

down

for

-(crj

S. &-usrTffLD, a benefit, favour

e_^sS.

S. &-u<s^rrrrLh, observance, respect. 197.


S. n^L-SlfrQu&
esiip,
s_(S33r(75

64.

enter: (2_err)

S. S.

S-uQ^s^ih, instruction

Qufr^&sr.

272.
60. feel, understand. 267.
feeling, perception. 267.

^-uQ^, an

S. 2_ij(?^a

instructor, catechist.

64.

teach,

instruct:

^-<5miTff=S,
^_(smiT<sij,

_sOT

feeling. [s-<smir. 190.]


(111.) take food, chiefly

S. ^-u^^ffsuih,

affliction

^eiruth.

56.

a. ^-uQdJiTsu), use, assistance: 2_^<sfl.

rice, or liquids,

265.

S. S-uQuj/tQ, one

who

is

of use.

&.0WI Qff!rpgis(^ ^TBTsnam uessr^npQ^j


be 7iot treacherous to those toho feed i/ou.
2_s3;iri_/r@

S. S-ueurr^Fw, fasting:
S. ^-uiT^, affliction.

t^Q^s^ii^.

62.

become.

[_iS53r

S. S-uiTiULD,

stratagem

means

^i

^(g.] 2_iS33ri_/7'<S(g, {Qjv^). cause to become. [ S-ismQ + ^s@. ]


H.
2_<533rif ,

(1.)

a draft,

bill

of

ex-

change, hoondy. (2.) food (ssssr.)


(3.)

Can as much be accomplished by bravery as by cunning ?


Qiew?

money
,

collected.
is,

S. ^-Quemss^,

partiality,
[s.

connivance.

^sabr, there
S-ssarswi
S-SOTsaufl,
2_(S33rstB,

43, 133, 265, 271.

a ball.
e_i5!!!ifi,

a tick.
truth.
[2_sJr

App. iii. ^UL/, salt,

UPEKSHA.]
50, 52.

s-ULSiiLu.aja!>ir 2_OTci7OT-a/io (SSsor.

Remember

reality,

eiaw.

184.]

272. (II.)

as long as you you salt.


2_iJL/

live those

who have given

2_^, a
S-^LDLj

lip

^tp.
:

62.

swell, be puffed up:

62. rebuke

^^lL.
S-uuefTiM, a salt-pan
:

S. ^-jSiu^QfB, the eastern hill.

^btld.

228

INDEX
s_U3s@, to you,
^-l8, husk, chaff.
&.lS,
S-iBip,
10, 37.

1.

^
j

a_(5<oir,e_(75&, a
S. S-(t^ULo>,

wheel, s^isuih.
:

[_Q(jir

57. spit, send forth, emit,


yield.

figure

S-Qfjevih.

H. S-^urriLi, ^urroj, a rupee.


for

P. S-enLDs^eufTiT,
office,
_iz), [

a candidate

an

S-<ss)rr,

(1.)

an explanation, verbal
(2.)

volunteer.
]

[ummaid = hope.]
10, 37.

commentary.
gold,
e_so)i7CT,
s-ewfl-

standard

of

pron.

122.
a touch-stone.
[

S-LD,

denoting
lULD.

and, also,

1,7,100.
. .

universality,

.126.
lditsS

2_s/r.]

62. (1.)

speak, utter, 218,

H. ^LD Jsrfl,ssffi, grant of land


S-iviT

219. (2.) toy, assay gold.


^-QirrrsaLD, QfTirdsth, ready

money.
146.

^-lUQ^

60. be high. 228.

H. &.QrTmLLp.,

QfTfTL-^L,

bread,

s-OJiT^^ssr,

a class of nouns,

S. 2-(?/7/rLD, disease

180.

incluS. ^-QffirLDiM, hair:


lduSit.
[fl'hmr.']

ding
236.

all rational

beings,

S. -<su<ELD,

the world ... .128.


[S.

^ai@,
262.

^-UJiT^gi
suiuireii,

62. elevate

{^-iLiir,

160.)

QeOlTSlli.
2_su<K(SOT,

LOKA.]

S-iuir^Q, height, elevation.

190.
2_iiS/r,

2-60(75,
life,

breath, a vowel: ^euek

-(S/f^^

64. breathe, live, sigh.

^-ffua,

strength, [^.j.

s-aeo, a mortar,
a_/fl,

262.

walk, take a walk. Tel. S-^ustau, supplies furnished to


a_(SO/ria/

^-eoiT^^

a pestle

^^'

become dry.
160.
(a.

62. dry.

62. walk,

and

n.)

62.

skin,

hide,
:

belonging to
off.

an

a great personage on his route.

adjective
S-ffl

S-ift-ff^Q^/ns)).

2-^, a rice-pot

a furnace,.

273.

57.

peel

(act.

andn.)
243.

s-SsoQpL^, cover for the rice-pot.

flay, strip off,


2-/fl(2LD,

64.

you Stop the mouth of the village with the cover of the rice -pot?
S. S.
S.

^ffitu,
a.(75, [s-Q^Lj,

243.
s-Q^suu),) form, figure.

^-QemTSUi, s^QeonG)jr)U), a metal.


^-0<soiT<3=ili,
[ e_OT,ji!/r/-D,

gaiety.
-<s,ji!r<siI>,

2_(T5(g_62. melt (n.) 221, 222, 271. -(T5ffi@ 62. melt (act.) 160.

an owl.]

S. S-isuLDiresruj, n-en&s>LD,

a comparison,

&.0da;LD,
ation.

tenderness,
[2-(75(^.]

commiser-

parable.
s^siiiT,

LDQSr ^-QRd,ZLCl,

salt

S-ULf.

compassion.
^-QF)

62.

s^GiiiT iSeOLD,

brackish

soil

smir.

be strong, violent.
:

S-vrr^^, a schoolmaster.

S. S-(t), taste

s-<5S)<su.

H.

^-(Tj*, (5*,

S-Q^iL
si-.]

proof, 158. [ruju.]

atrpui^. &-ip@, ^ of a measure whirl round. s-Lp&). 70. 2_Lpje/


:

62. roll over (act.) i^-Q^

-tiffl/,

273.

^-Q-p

60.

tillage. [2-(^^.]

plough.

2_0(Sj)3r(S5)i_, anything

round. [s-^syt.]

^.(TjL/,

form

termination of a case.

plough share. ^-(wi^, S-(em/B^, an eatable seed.


S-(zpu<3iai, a

S-QF)UUL^, an article, piece,


^.rt^suLo,

(^0.)

s^emtp

64.

toil.

^0ey

form.
62. pierce
;

S-eiTLD,

166.

[ _(syr. ]

draw out from


vii.

S-OTEusir, a spy. (S-eirey.)

184.

a sheath or scabbard.
n-Q^LDih,

midday. App.
:

corintnj is not destroi/ed ivithout


S-sireij,

a spy.

2_0iSM, through

aacO^si;.

a secret. [S-cr.

229

INDEX
S-cfrgji
2_6rl?,

I.

62. babble.
a chisel.

&-^Qp
down:
s_il./r0.

62. snarl.

s-isap, sour
sit

milk used

for curdling

S-(SfhasirQ^
g_(Sffi

60.

a sheath, scabbard, case.

60. be worm-eaten.

^-eiapi^ (uecfl,
^-(snp uS l-lL ,

ixxsmip.')

frost,

snow.
[2_

e_^, mire.
_(syr,

a dwelling place.

S-ekQeir,

existence

inner

emp

+ ^t-ii.

21 Q, (5.)]

within,

among.
:

68, 69, 133, 211,


is

S-ps^nsiD, 2-<F<Fffszi), fortitude,


tal vigour, alacrity.

men-

251. [This word


in composition

much used
S.

see under ^-lL

and^-OT]
^-imuu,
s_s^<syr,

274. (6.)

^-ewLJUt, inclusively: S-lLui


agree: sl-lLu

262.

^-pu^fl, birth, conception. 64. be born. '-put s^ppmir, he who possesses. 263.
,

[2_^.]
&-pnnir,
^-.p<^<3sr(ip<mpnjnk,
:

128, 133, 135.


the

&.pQp

S-eirefriEjeiaa,

palm

of the

hand:

eiapajtriT

relatives.

2_OT.

10, 37. [s.

^.eirmuL^, actually, in reality, 157.


S-eireini, the
S-etreireudr,

S. 2_GJrE:rr^, the highest, best.

un272.

mind, the inner man. a rich one (one to whom


184.
as long as (it) exists.

NATA.]
psrr

there is); ^-err,


S-(sfr<atreireijLh,

ssaQ

211.

64. draw inferences judge uj^S. from circumstances mmssLh, energy: ldsbt (srap^S. 270.
;
:

s-m&rfrm, a snipe. ^Q^meifl. s_ar<s8, an onion


:

S.

Su^eftlL-ifTiT, s^(sir(etfip(nfiT, partners,

asrr*

2^Q, a needle, [suchi.] 62. grow rancid.

associates:

[s-syt,

s-^.]

aar, between: asrCi.


esr;(7ja;,

&.&r(^s(^(sirQeir^ inwardly.
2_Yr(5r5M^,
^-piEi(S)

ssllL
sssiem,

inward idea: '&-Lsqf)^si.


[-/D/E/(g.

62. sleep.

2!E^

^-pi&LD, sleep,

e^pwn
2-/Dffii/j

190.]

through.

62. nourish, feed.


:

food
62.

(s-saar.)

blow.

62. claim
[^/Dffl/,

kindred, 215,

H.

msL^rr, a purple, or

brown

colour.

216, 255. 255, 263.

c^.]

aar^gw^, filthiness.

relationship, friendship, 215,

muLD^^LD, strammonium. eenioata, dumbness.


msnem ld'iu diT
,

_^, net work,

&c.,

hung from
possess,

the

ssLsmLo^S, a

dumb

per-

roof as a general receptable.

son.
eerrsroi^ssabri

_^

[Qp^),
[

SigjuGo/reu, like the duTflO

be,
is

abide

man's dream
msLfftTfr,

(which perishes.)
[ aer/f.

one of the most important roots in the language, on account of its combinations,
263.

This

esuQF)

villagers.

]....60,

180.

60. creep, crawl, spread over.

sE0iS5afl, a

tank

common

to a

whole

though
2_j3j<s(g

it

is

not in
is

common

use

village,
sar/f, aec/r,

[ aatff, a-sszir.]

as a verb. It

^-g)i^, stability.

S-S)i^SJ

allied to

^(5-]

a village,

60, ISO.

62. scold.

See msiQ^.
sssLiBiuii),

(2_^.)
service
:

62. terrify.

u<ssli^esiL-, Q^(su

S-jpiuLj,

member;
:

part of any

SLD.
eer^p

thing; a term

^iijsLl>,^(siiujeuLD.
:

62.

gush forth
:

be steeped.

H.

S-ffjiDfrSso,

a handkerchief

Gso^*.

ssLgasfTtLi, pickles

(sscgn, situj.)

230

INDEX
s<Lp)i,

I.

a spring: (ear^, 190.)

erejor, (1.)

number

^(oddsLD.(2.)
172.
8 spans

S. mnenTLD, privation.
ssLekffii

count, (imp.) (3.) eight,


<orem'3'!T(S5isr

62. lean; stick in.


the Stick given

^-ilolj,

body

long.
emL-iSpgi,
oil

me

to

lean

breaks

my

sr^okra-euu^, arithmetical tables.


GTisssrei^LD,

pate.
:

S0!:s3r^G'<5/r&L),

astaff

[upgniQair .1

thought, idea

fSSssrui-i.

263.
erehetaflsems,
er,
:

number;

conside-

25, 115,

ration; reverence:
sr<sm^}i

ld^ul^.
think.

(orss<so,

6r@, steel 6roo@, ^-(i^sQ). accumulation of earth, sand,


&c.

62. count

ejidassSuQusf,
er<sssr,^!fffi,

Think before you speak.


172.
oil
:

6rcss<^.F<sz-D, at

random. srs(^. 62. contract, draw


GTiEjs^sw,
GTiEiaeir,
<5riij(^Lb,

(oTskrQKsmiu,
in.

^uSleOLD.

[eriassr,

QfBlU.)

200.
10, 37, 38.

erismugt,
6r<3mLDiiEU(^,

172.
eiglit-fold:

our,

stlLu

every where,

126.
25.
S. er^iT
<^<sajjr

(oTiEjQs,

where

S.

sr<3=LDn--zir, srs^Lon-asreir,
eiai

master:

s.

YATHA,

as.
;

er<^<Frfi

^essrisnQsr.
64.

S. (oT^irfrs^LD, upriglitness

sincerity

warn.
i5r^<3:ffls(cs).s,

erJd^/flL/L/,

warning,

er^iriT^^aiir^

Qeoirs eSQair^,
is
:

One
.

wllO

speaks the truth,


er^a^/rstfl,

every one's enemy.


r^//?,
. .

caution. 90.

adversary

.272.

[ 6r<?^d=/i),

defect;

posterity.]

[not
emSiih,

common.]
ers=io,
wliat
is

One must prevent coming obstaoijposition. (^^sroi

left

on the plate,
defiled.

cles.
sr^ffiioiaL-,

any thing nasty and


has eaten, {seodso.)

eT3=l60Sii^, the leaf from

which one

er^iT,

sr^iT

opposite. 134, 244, [er^Cj.]


:

er

60.

lift

up; carry; assume;


!

rsj ?
isre3T,

64. oppose which ?

SQijrr^, {sr^tft.)

take, get. 27, 60, 146, 239 .^^s(^.

2d

case, sing of

<orffJ.

[Ajip.

i5r3;giuQuiT

Take away!

146.

xi'i.]

[Intrans. in a pec. manner, see

S.er^^csTuo, means, intention, effort.

er^^dm, how many?

25, 212.

eru, be taken away,


<5Til~t,

92-

loT^^, fraud:

off,

at a distance,

[sr^.]
152.

er^^

<Sii(Qs=^m,
:

@^.
25.

62. cheat

W(q9\.

GTL-L^,
tree,

the

strychnos nux-vomica
frtuir^irir

(oT^^m, a deceiver: sulci.


(oTiB^?

which?
machine: (a^^/r/j.
father
:

CTLliy.

UQp^Q^Gir'Ssr ?

(121)
it

aiir

(psO^sBTOT ?
ett'i

What

S. sriB^ffLD, a

fruits ?

good WJtat good

is is

it

if the if the

enss>^,

my

erek ^ib<sb>^.
25.

avaricious prosper ?

GTuuL^, how?
loTuuL^iLjU),

eru.,
(oTlL

172.
62. reach.

by all means, ....126. <oruGiurTQg!, when ? 25.


<oTuGiu!T(tSiLD,

CTsjTs erLLL-irgi.

enLi^uurTiT
to see.

64. stand on

I connot comprehend

it.

always
.?

126.
211.
?
. .
.

tip toe

how far erwLDir^Srrtj}, how much


(5TU)ldlLu>,

.21

231

eriDissr

eruj

^lULCKsk,

Pluto.

App.
:

ix.

ersSigi,
LD,

what

is

easy

^eo@,
:

a-eou

57. send, as a missile


:

Q^/l.

^Ca)*,

149, 247.
;

(erer.)

errfl,

fire

^, Qieq^ul^, ^m&),
burn
QslL
;

^a

ereiffeiaLD,

poverty

meanness

^if)^

577.
OT/fl

57.

ache.

[Co. GTetaLp.^Lp. gieir.]


:

64. burn,

consume

^^sofl.

ereftliu,

poor,

[ersyr.

184.

g)S5>sA

CTJr i/a% erfiiun^ir?

Will

eteSlajQp&jgan^asirLLi^^eir,

he put on an
(ersir.)

not this report be great grief to


<sriB<s^<s=eOj

me

imploring face.
ereSiLKsuirasir,

anger, indignation.
:

poor people,
rape seed

STQF,,

manure
IT

s^rjm.
:

184.
131, 255.
131.
erek,
srsyrjsTj,
;

6r0^, bullock, ox GTQh^^ds 3o<r


erq^&^LD,

<s/r&ir.

any thing
252. 255.

trifling,
6ref(ef^

buffalo

eTQF)<oiaLDLD!T(B.

62, despise:

(otstt.)

267.
ereS, a rat
crzSl 2?ir

srjS,

158,254.
<:^)^io,

ST/SI

a throw, cast
57. throw, cast:
eSsi?,

164.

^et^ai^

Ga/eabr^Wj

ergjiiMLj,

an ant,
mmirs seu
(^^fiiLjin,

though

it

be but a rat-hole,

one wants

eigtibij

A Stone

IS

hole to one's self.

hollowed out by the crawling of ants.


tree. 213,

sr^i^3'<oSi3=,

lemon
:

212
212.

eresr,
eri5sns\},

70, 82,168,171.
srGaflssr,

eT^L8.3='3^iEisinu^

a lemon,

98.
10, 37, 38.

GT^wL-j, a bone
ereoe<!)<s,

^mp.

249, 250.
162.
126.

OTSBT,

a boundary,

[greo^.]

sr&)<sdrr

ereL)iso/r0ii, ereoQisorrQFfLD,

eraJr 70. say, call by a name. 151. erms, 70. This form of the infin. of erissr is used poet, for when
(he) said.

OT^cuffii,
sre\)3so,

all,

107, 126, 196.


:

boundary

ereoems, ^<so!t

ermu^,
88,
ereiriS

ersrus)(su^

srekusum', 82,

dsir.
ereueir,

grsusjr,

who, which woman? who, which man?


in

25.

151.
64. prove
;

(cause to say.)

25.

[ srajr.

160.]

ers^su'sfrs^,

25, 199.

[_sreBrQufreir
sra!r(7i^&)

erekusiiear.

88.]
98.

sreu dl^ih,
sS^/-D.)

what way, how? (ot+


25.

(orsiiei]uSl0Lh,
(ST ei] G)

126. (or ^-2_uSff +-ii).)


er<siiQeu(LQ

for ever
(orekgn,

su L-(B

177.
172.

and ever, 126, 166, 70,82, 166,242.


ermQjDasr

<orQ,

erQ

ersjr^ii)

isresrempdi^LD,

60. arise:
GTS)}.']

erQLhi-j,

QsuLhuj.

[Co.
67-(7^^

264.

er<ssr<si!r,

what?

somet.

er<s!r(^

and

62. write,....63, (P. 143.)


ereBTeanh,

271.
(oTOQSi^moeS,

47, 116.

an iron gi + ^&sil.]
a letter,

pen: {^srag^

ereimsrQLDir,

something or other.
132.
for ever,.. 126,166.
(51

sr<M^ih,

erQ^^gj,

72*73,

6rs3r(5!o/D<s(gii,

er<TLDi-j

er(tpui-f

62. be stirred

up

stir up. {er(i.)

160.

ex,

eTQ 'SUIT ill,

the

nom.
[

case, subject of
ot(i^

an emphatic particle ejsQurrsLD, one crop.


unity
:

23, 108.

a sentence.

From

+ (a/ /?!/ =
]

er<E<sj2si;LD,

^ssSotid,

<^p

place. Co. ORiGo

from orior.

232

INDEX
S. sT'SLDj

1.

one
Cs^toii,

erpsissrQeu,

erpsQeu, before, early


]

S. ejs Qiurrs

common

enjoy-

QpdrQssr, [irregular form.

ment
S.

of

any thing.
go, proceed,
[s. ETi = he

eip
(

be
era),
ig!

suitable;

accept,

70.

er@

62.

p. erpQpssr.
ejp^iDir'i

ffi.G!7-i(g

goes.]
ejdsih, longing desire, disappoint-

Is this befitting

you.

erpu = ejps.

ment.
eiiEj^
err*,
6j<^<3F,

the

eipu
62.

68.

undertake,
[greo.

become

pine, languish. ... 62.

established,

161.]

62. use abusive language.

abuse:

<sii<cS)-3=.

CT, leaf, page of a book.


E. ^lL,
p.
CTfoTsf),

eiearaairm ovfjUL-i^cysScyir. He has undertaken for me, ejpu^Si 62. establish, [gr^' 161.]

Eng.
[s.

head,

principal,

6Tpun-(B, agreement, covenant

slL

145.
ladder,

(Buurr, n-i^<siruL^s<oiaa.
shreni.]
^irr.
195,

ejppLD, a picota

flow

of the tide.

ejsmirr,
ej-^, (1.)
(2.)

vulg

erssr

267. [67-^.]

which, what? er^, lun^.


[s.

[Several

compounds
]

are

formed

with this noun.


a cause,

hetu. 244.]

^djsQp^.

64, deceive:

gu^Q,
lS(^^.

er

eipss

lift up; put into (a 62. bandy, a ship, &c.) 160. [ eij^. ]

eimrmw, abundance
ejift,

247.

a large tank, lake


]t

sldlditiu.

ejp^a

Qsfrsir(stK

(Sp^.)
\_eTpsii
:

receive,

accept.
CT<%).
is

\_^ii@ps^.'\

259.

difficult to

restrain
to let

the

erpguLD^, export.
GTssTLD,

cd^.I

waters of a tank, but easy


loose.
eiir,

them

a drinking vessel

uir^Pffw.
:

eTsareuiTiLieBr,
[

a simpleton

[^ej'esrui,

plough,
]

Co. Qldl^, &<souiceiU,

boar.] ^<sB3=3=<si!TiLim.
6T6p\ LD,

QS!TQ.

214.

Po. CTSOii,

an

auction

s.

carda"

eo-cir,

why?

98,214.

mon
crjfi?

ejesiflQ.

56.

[III.] agree, be fitting.

117,
ejSo,
if.

118.

l^iuio.-]
272,(111.)

[poet.]
ej&j^sc, a

S. ^a-eufBiutsi,
LULD,

s.[Si, S/b] wealth

172.
:

0<FDa;ii), ^jafl

6jisw(50,

command,
:

instig-

^aop.
138,172.

ation,
!/

149.
stir

S(^-, S/E^, five,

62.

up, instigate

^^essr 149.
172.

^Q,
Q-gMip, a
erejr.]

poor ignorant man. [Comp.

172. ^tQSi'&j sisT&i aihugj, ^ihugj, ^eiru^, ....172. doubt: s=ihQ^aLD, SiLjpe^j ^lULD, alms: iSt.^etas', (Poet.)
SiLiek,

111.
.'

^p<s(^empiu, more or

less, ....178.

Siurr! Sir! 111. a father, StutrQeii


SSemiUfh^,
^esiiLiQiuiT,

SjpuQiUrop,
6T(TrfiEJ3;ff>i8,
ejffii

228.
last,

177.

[vulg.]
increase.

193.
193.

62.

ascend,

[Co.
]

^Qtuir!
SQjir,

rQ,

Eng. RISE, Lat.


is

orior.

172.

[This root

often used in comp.

AR.

SG(Si;^,

SCsu*,

substitute, instead
;

thus, iEtisQ^s)i-'\

of

equivalent property

return,

^p&,

suitably:

ereb.

170.]

recompense.

233

INDEX

I.

(spuuirifi,

a funeral elegy

e^ds,
eg

a nomi-

64.

agree, 117, 118, 119, 243.

nal connection.
(^LJiSi

altogether, 57. be broken


:

170.
Qp/S, S-asiu.,

64.

deliver up to

prove.

epi^

246.
(spuLf,

64. break.
<sa(Bestli,

modesty: ^i&sld; narrowness ; closeness, ^(Bssld.

62. consent, (sbul/.) (^ULf (S^uLjdQsiT 64. deliver. [cguL/

likeness,....

,190.

sg.]

ep(Bd(^

62,

oppress, straighten:

from ^.]
259.
(^iLiLnrffLD,

<sOa/7-sJr(sr5

receive,

(odiEj(^,

62.

be

straightened,

order, beauty

foppery;
172.

obedient, submit: ^i_/m@.


S. (cbiLisui,
tc^L-tsai,
<^LLi.ih,

inspection of troops.
c&(75,

epL-eaL,

a camel.
dirt.

cobwebs,

^(5 s'lh^, a meal a day


I

fast
is

when only

one

eaten.

a conical heap left in dig;

gB(5|.5^/reb,

one furrow, once plough-

ging a tank

a wager.

ed.

[ 3=!T(k. ]

epL-i^ek, tank-digger.
(o^lL.,

B(25^^,

(fem.)

one, or

a certain

(^LL(Bih,

140.

woman

172,242.

sgil, union; contagious. [^lL.]

^lL

62. adhere
:

allow.
(^eirpl.

t^Q^uuL, together, 170. c^QfjUu 68. 170, coalesce. [^(5,

(cpsssTLf.,

alone

^sofl,

u,

161.]
viii.

(^<ssisrL^aarrn(^,

(odsm,

a bachelor.

62. run for shelter, lean


[qu. sbt^.
]

<^(!f,\LDir, 50 (u) App. (^Q^LSlds, together,

against,
^(5S!F(SBg^,

(^q^lS
117.

170.

64.

unite,

170.

(spQTfisiBLD,

oneness, unity: ^sQuild.


172.

epgjdr^,

shelter

(S^gndQiuo, ld

172, 184.
(o^qr^siissr,

<^^d(^ ^/E/@
ih^,

62. cause to recede.

^0
199.

(?iaj?etr,
I

sometimes,
172.
:

perhaps

209. give way, recede,


:

Q<soQiife(r.

agreeing, consistent

^&a<3^

^Cj, one only 172, [+67.] ^sS, sound s'^^iss, (^(ss)3=.


:

iLesrOfiir^^ iB^^ireir,
5iTeto<F,

a hosom friend.

^eS Qps
I

help

2_^sffl.

[<^^^+
iii.

Qins^eo, an outer gate, (where all the noise is.) ^{^eS, anything thin.
I

(speu

<s]

rrgj

117.

(^d^, mortgage
[

^i_@. App.
agree,

(S^wQ<s]!TQF),

172,242.

PROP.

(^pjlSI. ]
IT

(c^euQeurrdrgu,

<^^^ d Q s

m (&h

106, 243.
64.

epiP

57. fail 170.

..172.
64.

remove

(^^^uunir, compare, <^uu, like as. [^. ]

collate,

finish.

(^uui^ili, agreement, [^+ zj/5^/i)] i^uuih, agreement, signature 6s>a


:

(1I1.)_
iBsniL,

62.

flow,

leak

go on,

behave, conduct one's self. .272.


(cpandsu), manners,

good manners

i^uudss!,

a comparison

S-sustntc.

[^(y@-]
:

190.

[9.]
(^uuffsij, association, reconciliation

epQd(Q, aleak: (^(Lg&<k, [^(i^@.] <spQEi <sp(LgiEi(^, order, good order

mediocrity

^Qeos-.

234

INDEX

INDEX
AH.
&'S=iT(^, g>/7'(SB).

I.

a treasury:

Quit

sirreii

62. fasten with nails:

aQ
AR.
[_

57. ooze

weep

221,222.
village
in

suf-

57. be

angry with; reprove:


259.

s&ei],

oozing. [<e0.]
a
iirincipal

S3?uir,

sL^i^

QsirefT(et^.

64. bite.

district.

su^g;-,
,

asperity.

(<5.)
hard-

& 3? LD

fT

so LD

nastiness. vulg.]
:

S. siSL'sau),

severity, difhjulty,
98.

sssis^,

cement
<ScS^,

uisas=.

ness.

S. <s<5^0,

a party:

uiLs^m,
boddice.

Q^a^fr

s(B, s(Biu>, sL-i, [in

comp.] vehement, severe. [Co. sl^, Qsitl^lu,


Qisrr.

.^*, a band, tape


fBtrirr.']

Co.

a
:

64.

be pungent

angry,

AR.

a<fQ^fft, a revenue or police office.

s.

64.

= s.
170.

273.

sJ'eiO'F,

a belt, girdle

^es^u&as^si-.

ss,
.55
I

sQ!S7M,

quickly

i^mfr

[Co.

<S<^*, Q,LDITU/E^ .']

euiTiU.

S. sSL^rriLiLD,
S.

a decoction.
:

aOfJL/, austerity,

[s.]

s&^iiM, pain

eiiQf^^^Lci,

Q<siis,6ssr.

s(^, mustard. [<s.]


<s(g
<s

S. en)^,

labour, affliction:

LSlrruJir.3=LD.

62. hasten.

[isflis/r,^(a;/fl.]
]

S.a0d=/r,

bang;

any

thing

intoxi-

a ssjr,

ear-ring,

[-s/r^cszsjfl.

cating.

sssit1j, gall-nut.
;

a(Q9t, conjee, rice water

starch.

suLj, acute
liirsaQuLj,

pain.

StS. sisLD, a bracelet,

140.
siassssTLo.

[Co.

Strangury. omSpjgsaaQluLf, CoUc.

ems isjdsn eu^iULo.^ 66. pass over, SI

;i^i_.

ssisi,

a bazaar

the end

ssmiS.
[lathe.

transgress:
160.
:

107.

saeisr,

Lnrpi.

ssmi
snSfiiJa,

57.

churn; turn

with a

62. (causal,)

ssmislsesar, the corner of the eye.

P. <si_^/r0, ^/r9, a letter


siuuiresiir,
stesiLD,

semi \&, the end, [st@^,


the last.
seD^ileuiTiLi,

sQiit&

;)

an iron crowbar. [93. si sir, Qpisnp. [ duty


:

the corner of the mouth.

184.]
[

S. sQiiTriu>, s(BijLc, cruelty,

severity

SL&0, sea.
siaso,

Co. ^ri/3^^jLs.]

101.

Qsirss)LD.
sL-i2str,

Bengal gram.
140.
the Deity, 170. \_si, com.

command

S-^^jay. 68,
68, 69, 263.

sieu^^,
<sz_si/srr,

[^z_.]

__ J), vouchsafe
placed breadthwise.
lITLULD.
)

GOD. ] [ Either
i_to:o

E.srrOTQ//f

= si_!i^ e-cV = umorragnoir or = the Being in wliom


;

slLiituld, force, compulsion; bricks


(Co.
QielL

obligations centre.
si(e^si9,

] [

a debtor.

s^csr. 181.]
181.
of

siLtpL,

a lump, aboil.
[_s

siesr, a debt

sL-L^sQisiT, give iu marriage.

Si IT,

SI ITU,
&;c.

tlie

male

goats,

lL. 106.]
sL-Lp.sQsireir(sm.

sheep,

annex;

take un-

S. sinm^LD, a favorable look

Q(7r,uir
.

justly.
slLl^isci,

SL

ITL

3=Ln,

<S!jBr

Q ;6ISV)

LD

a cot, bed.

sirnff,

a heifer

siireuL^
JTL^.

Qtiriff

259,
:

slLl^So QlLl^sv,
;
;

123.

64.

thresh corn

Qurr

266.

as an slL, a bond, tie bundle adj. any thing tied, or made up.

236

&lL(B

62.

tie,

tie

on;

build, 63,

a door:

\_,suitilx,.'\

66,

67,

201, 267, 272.

101, 263.
Qsirut-i.']
;

sLL(Bd\QsrruLj, roof. [See.


sL-enii,

s^gii
S.

62. croak, cry out,

.240.

a block, piece

of timber

s^,

[ s.

A GOING.

a path

state of

deficiency in length, or breadth;


met. a blockhead.

existence, heaven, place of refuge,


strength.

sesurdadr, an accountant.
180. GANAKA.]
S.
<a<sazir<s@,

[_s

essr d

rs^.

AR. sQlQ,
s^U'r,

the head

Riiyat.
;

an ear of corn

a ray

spoke

an account,

[gana.]
;

of a wheel.
S.

S. sessTih,

^easrw, an instant
;

a multi.

sew^, a
244.

tale

fable. (In

comp. s^ir.)
LD(^S=ffl

tude
\_

a disease of children

a'husr.

semisiissr,

setmrsurrtu,
se!sifl.a=Li,

a pass

husband: LjQF(aLSiei!r.'] between hills,

a^fr

LD(^,3^fH,
]

[ S.

BUNCH.

proper weight, value, &c.


:

s^irlSl/E^rrLDesisfl, [s.

chintamani =

S. sesSl^LD, the science of comj)utation


[

jewel yielding every kind of


delight.
]

GANITAM.

SiS!!3r<S(g.

L?^

^ssjisfl^ii),
I

algebra.
S.

ajp, a knife.

^rts
s^^,
ffi&BT,

sesfl^LD, arithmetic.

a^^ift

64. cut

with a pair of shears,

a joint, knuckle. a certain disease of children


;

or scissors.
;

s^PrffdCsfreo, a pair of scissors.

an arrow

a time.

ssm, (1.) an eye; young plant. (2.)


[for
s(ssrgji

aperture;
a place,

s^^ 62. bray


S. ^fB^LD, S.

s^isrfl, brinjal.

make

a noise. 273.

251.

vulg.]

an odour: suir^&sr, LosmLD. ai^ssLD, sulphur: Qsi^&LD.


<5/Fgro^,

ssBur-STemfliUfTir,

a Bishop;

overseer.

a rag, patch

iSppeo.
<su(6J<9^^3r,

<xmi,sem(B, &c
S. s<smiLD,

260.
;

S.

auiLn,

au,

deceit

Qldit

a piece
;

a quarter of the
S. auuf., a deceiver.

world
'LD,

the throat. S-ut-idsemi


[cloth.

a piece of salt meat.

s<mriiTiEiQ,
S. &'smL^

woman's

coloured

64. reprove; punish. 239.

[Co. ^2./F^Q,s/rsrr.]

suLD, phlegm OsiTismLp. AR. SUIT, news Q^a^iL^. [i_'/rz_ii) = ^ia/.] H. suiT^^, a capon.
:

somL^, a6mLf.,oB>s, for men.


L^<SLD.

neck ornament
rigor: s<swr

H. auiT^iTiT, take care

H. surrLj,
S.

a dish of roast meat.


:

s<oisn-^uLj, materiality;
\_a<smL^.'\

S. surrffOLD, a skull

fiSsiQajtr.

sQuir^th, a dove
" a pigeon. "

met. a silly fellow,

&<ossr,

ball

of

thread;

sugar

candy.
aeisr i3l^, 64 ....200,260.
actual produce, [s/r

sQurr^,

['-/C7-] a blind person.


:

AUULD-, tribute

)s<^/d.

asm

Qp^So,
I

suueo,
182.

a ship: LDffdseOLD, Q^iremsfl

em.']

s<smQi<s!r,
SIT'SSS! .)

saw.

(irreg.

p.

t.

suuearr. a brass vessel


uues^rr,

see

Qan
;

1.70.
clearly.
[

3>(sm;w^!i,

aeajr

+ ^/f.

suiSl,

Ang. a copper.^ coarsely ground grain


;

.s<sm(emL^,

&<mrQm^
care for.

a mirror, glass.
62. inspect, look after.

pully

gravel.

suLf,

a forked

branch of a

tree:

QstTUL-j,

seuaQaiJLDLj.

237

INDEX
SLDW, (1) acleft in the ground caused by draught. (2) the waist. (Hind.) iD(flj UI7S0 eScL-trai Quircj, like pouring
milk into a cleft of the ecu-th.
S.

I.

sfB, charcoal, [an elephant; witness.]


&if)ff:&),

blackness; black
,

soil.

s!fls=&)sn
&(if),

cotton soil.
:

the

embryo
SQF,,
I

sqfjUuld.
the

P. sLDaek, an arch

si/^ai/.

LD(e^,fLL

yolk

of

an

slSs-, a shirt. [^Yr. chemise.']


&Qjj(Q, the betel-nut tree
HLD.
S.
:

eggQsiKossr
I

un&(S)LD

sQf),

the white of an egg.

&nf),
;

sQhLD,

s,fftuj, siTiT, s!i,

black,

SLDULD, a pole: av^LDUw

nodding.

[incomp.]

III.

Gram. 121.
:

S.

sLDU^siLD, a farm.

S. sLDUesrui,
USSTLD.

nodding

slduld, Siussld
the border

0g 62.
nth.

.S(T5<sijo,

darkness, obscurity [<s(5-] become black, scorched.


ldulj, Loi^ir

siiiSl, a wire, a stripe in

&Q^s,s(ki, cloudiness

of a cloth.
S.

SLDumiM, sthiSeB, a blanket bly. [ H. KAMMAL. ]


aLDi3<sfluQu3'&, nonsense.

cumS.

<S(T5@, the edge of a knife, &-c.

S. s^Sbsr, tenderness,
FQSriM.

sQ^im, Garuda, the sacred kite. compassion siB


:

S. &LD1S1JLD,

depth

^LpiD.
a

E. .ssiliQusSujmr, Eng. covipany. haziness hoarseness &u)LDS\),


;

mpsQ^'ism,
;

the

holy
]

Eucharist.

kind of ear-ring.
P. sldlB, deficiency

sQr^
inferiority.
;

Christian usage.

62. think, regard. 221, 222.

aihQp
sujgji,

62. be hoarse become overspread with clouds.

sQf)^^, opinion, idea, thought, meaning, wish,


s,QF)LjL^,

[s^^.]

3,QF)UULD, adj. forms of <s(5

&Sgii,

rope.

[Pronounced

vulg. aia/^.]
[ [

.131. 'W' S. s(ff)LDLh,s(T^LDfr^, deed, action, (Esp.

corap. ^yra). ^eiaLp. e^jiLo.]

66. hide: ^j NOT COM.]

funeral

rites, &tc.)

spe, Lcetap. 270.

sQ^LDLj, sugar cane.


sQh'siiiT,

dried salt fish: ^il>es>u.

sjraiii, a

water-pot.

s(f^(SUTUL-i5B>L-,

cinnamon. [0a//r

siTL^,

a bear,

&!j(B, a

hard knot in wood.


a

srj(Bnp!Tire(r, rough.
sBrremru),

UUISISl. ] ^ilj^ld. ^(TKafl, an instrument [Comp. P. ^tsmiT, a bank, shore.


:

summerset

gambol

karan]
stsaiT ei)i,

in

means
atrssnrs ^uiJ(SS)i\i mrousnh,

256.
Ij

62. be saved

ascend

Qurr(B, throw a summerset.


l/OU JCLll

your spring death ensues.

[Kill or

cure.]
sff'SaSsr,

a knot, joint, or piece cut off;

a kind of edible root.


sirreisrisLD, a little
srresnTL^, a

help rescue bank. up away. smn- anything.) melt


eipga
62. save,
;

the bank.

the

57. (n.) melt, pass


(

271.

64.

chunam box.

S. airs^Sl

act.

64.

roar

Qsirs^.

spoon.

<siT'S=^Soisr,

roaring.

sffuuik, scurf, eruptions on children.


S. srjLD,

H.

<s/r<^*,

change, expense.

S. sir^^issT,
:

sQh^^im,
confusion.
foetus,

&!r^3iiT, a doer.

hand

ssis.

H.
true,

siTurfl,

suLDLj, hard, untilled ground.

S..SITUUU},

the

womb:

.sqf,.

AR.

<sj/r/f,

certainly;

exact;

an agreement.

Com. QsiTuum^rfl, a pregnant woman.

238

INDEX
S. srruLj^ijLD,

1.

camphor.
:

<55eii|ffl9,

learning.
<?;/r&,
I

S. sfreuLD, pride

sireS

(61.)
]

Q^(Tfi<a(g. [_Q s it en ld .']

seo

afli^^

a college,

place of

be proud.
;

learning.

seosu),
[

a tumult

rebellion, 105.

seu^LD, armour, mail


to a

application

seo.

wound

luting.
i_/.]

s<oi>d<sLD,

confusion,

[sot.]

[a.

sen, any thing forked. [Co.


Bisu6m, ssntsssr, a sling,
seuiT, a

KALAK.]
aeu
s<sos(^

seoffi/gj

[OT.
]

(aewsmi^.)
a<Sii

66.

62.

mingle, 239. confound,


62.

forked branch: sulj,


.

mix

up.

aeviT-57
aeu&:),
ssusfTLD,

plunder, lust after, usurp.


a
:

care,

be

confounded,

244,272.(111.) mouthful elephant's


;

bewildered, mixed up.


S. (SO^ii),

160,233.

fodder
S. senssTLD,

seunitD.
:

a pot, vessel a plough

censer.

seousau,
yoke.
\)LD, a

without

the

s.<suiosr\

attention

snr-^ffj.

64. attend to,

115.

H. ^eiiir^^, seniTUj^^, drill (soldiers.)


vessel: a measufe of grain =
[err.]
S. <5sfl,

12 marcals.
.seOLDuaij),
.aeoausroz,

aafl

verse of poetry.
57.

be intent upon a thing


^s=<3=ui.

a miscellany, mixture, the

cluster together,
a)9<?^<5?,

57.
:

mouth

of

broken

chatty put over a mortar to keep


the

s,<^i^

a putrid smell
57.

be overturned.

64.

paddy

in

when pounding.
:

overturn.

seoiT^,

disturbance
the

s&)eo&>,

sS
;

H.

dsffl/ssjif),

the gate of a fort.

AR.
H. aeo/ruS,
S. <seS,

seijeo,

silvering of a mirror

se^jsttl,

agreement, [k'houl.] one hundred leaves of betel.


concern
q. v.
:

the lining of copper vessels.

S6s>su, business,

O^irtSien,

misfortune

^u^^.
ssuei],
aLpffjH

seSiLjsii, the kali-yug, or iron age.


(sS/E/<5et),

affS/E/Q, s^iki(^, a sluice,


:

for

Qissireii.

aqueduct
S. s,i^iurr&!snli,

ld/sq,.

&Lppg)i

70.

slip off,

come
off,

off.

62. 160.

put

take

off,

a wedding, joy.

231.

256.
ssLfe^, a paddy-field
:

H.

.ssSlSsS,
assisuLD,

confusion.
a small slab
&Z.C.

suiueo,

fE(e^

for grinding

drugs,
S. s&o,

si^, a stick
:

a buck

sdsiLDfrm
:

.'^ of the

<si^

moon's
ing

diameter
(s^frasru).

^^;
:

learn-

narrow backwater. or away, suffer from diarrhoea. 56. 64, purge

57. pass

off,

<s^

sdoO

out,

abolish.
lie

57.

be dispersed

Q^gs.

sioj^s^ aiiiSiga sL^iSipgi, ing from diarrhoea-

is suffer-

64. disperse.
sSsoiULD,

SQ, an impaling stake; an eagle


;

a pitcher

(^(Bes^ev.

small
(U)<s/reB!!fl,

earthen vessel.
<seb,
siiTiii2/,

a short, fat man.


ass.
:

a stone
dig up

comp.

also

apQp^,
OTjfi;

sapea^, an
a(Lpe!j

70, 191.

sap^S^, the neck

62.

with a stick,

seia ild, iSL-ga.

62.

wash,

SiC:
s<Mdsi>,

Q^miT<mr

s(w

i^ir,

water
:

in

leaves used as plates.

been washed
miLp, a

245,254. which rice has sipssS^ ^ekr&s^ir.


[

girsQ aaai^Q^dsr,

I have aided this worth-

s&s>Lp& si^^^ins^, a rope-dancer.

less fellow in his extremity.

bamboo, sn.^^ ^.~\

239

INDEX
S.

I.

s sir lii a LD a a (Q i^ u LD
,

spot, fault

Loir's^,

semm.

S. ss^reOT, .seJrsonsto^,

sekeiSujiTmi

.srr

a granary.
floor,

a virgin,
a field.

damsel.

[kanya,

S. sstTLD, thresliiiig

KANYAKA.]
6Sfr

H.

soirrr,
5srreij,

barren ground.
theft,

smeun,
a lascar.

steal.

255.

H.

srrsLo,

crow

sfT-iarriLj.

ffeiriTsi-dsiiTijdsT,

sifl,

asift

joy
57. rejoice.
verdigris.
:

siTsueS, balls
164.
crows.

of

rice

offered

to

[ljsS.]
93.
:

aeitluiLi,
6i3s<r,

P. sirSsBtM, snuS^ili,
;

faintness

^ 57,

^luireij

weed.
off;

arrssniu

crow

sFSih,

strip;

pull

weed
[out.
<s/r

,sfrdsfruju Qurreir, tinsel.

61. faint.
asir(w^,

64.

preserve, defend; wait.

sstr,

theft; toddy.

siTiEKoi^is,

heat: ^^L-i<cm tl>

ssireirui,

guile; falsehood,
a thief;
lasr
.

166.

AR.
AR.

s[Ta=rr,

own, personal.
tenants of a higher

\_sik'.~\ a m en seirsfl, Euphorbium or milk hedge, 64. milk ap 255,259,267.

scireimir,

<sir<s=iTeLiiTssLD,

class.

/r*, cash,
AfT^L,

242.

&/S,

curry,

meat
),

^lL(B.xsjS.

vinegar.
a quail.
a jungle, 19, 24.
[

H.

s^

G'haddi
a stain,

an hour.
<s(5.'J

s(r<5is^i,

sgiiuLj, blackness, 13, 217.[Co.


sissip,

SIT,
S.

Comp.

[^(vj.]

KASHTAM.

&(S!ipiU!rssr,

a white ant: Qs=eo.

shan(B, a burning ground.


sitlLS, vision.
sirLLuf.^LD,
,sfTL

ap-~7Q.
S.

191,253. [(^.] spudssr, a command; an invention.


learn,

\_aiTsm.2

[kalpana.] ^pi3 -- 64. command


invent.
[_spu'&xr.'\

196.

62.

show.

\_&iT(cssr.

160.]

compose, 220,264.
70.

62, 267.
airL-Lp-d
sfT/sm-u),

0ff, 64. betray.


(used in the

&pLj, chastity.

horse gram,

spp,
S. a!r,

learnt,
little,

ep<^,p, a

a handful.

where 0/rsJr(sr5, conveys an indecent meaning.


south,
sirexfl,
(

much,

(^ssstld.)

231.

x.^-jth;

hereditary right.
193.

S. ssarii),

weight, honour,

231.

App.
&a(sssr

viii.

sesru)

QuiTQ^i^LU, honorable, worfire

srrem, .sa^^nuo,

thy.
\_a3!r&),
^Bssreij,
:

70.

arT(5ssn^

^sSigsfl.]
S.

see; suffice,

.260.

64.

cause to see,
[.s/reajr.]

show.

a dream: ^(OT), Qs^auuesrili, s^uQunsM, like a dream. asS\, fruit 259.

160, 180.*
[<s/r^ffl3r,

an oppressor.]

siT^LD, a

kddam,

10 miles.

.[.-fesflz-Lt-esr,

s'hsr

younger brother.] 64. neigh; hem, hawk.


a

aa^Jt an ear:

<su,siriT

Qie=<^.

64

enlarge and

sasTga, a calf, a
[

young

plant, 14, 256.

perforate the ear.


aiT^^rrR

Comp. QLltf,

LDjl.

60. arr^^sOsireir, wait


[ /r. ]

sasTQsrimarfl'U

223, 224.
223, 224.
:

for.

259.

sekeitriijs^^a;,
adrsnTLD, a

airuurrp^, 62.
152, 267.
siTut-j,

protect.

[sfftJL/.]

cheek

sQuire^u^.
into

With
<saJr(OT)3r,

^,

break

a house,

custody

bracelets

a cord

263.

tied

a brazier.

round groom.

the

arm

of a bride-

240

INDEX
P. aiTLDnir, a room, chamber.
S.atTLDt}j,
sfTLDirdsi,

1.

AR.
[kama.]
271.

lust,

223, 224.

s/rsua),
s^sfrffosr.

a watch; custody: a

uaair.

watchman. 48, 52, 53,

jaundice.

115. Q'^SL'seir.
appointed a person as a walch went away. srreS'i, red ochre.
aireneufriu, a kiln:
(^Sstr.

siTLDLj, a stalk
siTLULs, a

and

wound.
sirQ^LD,
93.
fruit.

P.

.sEfruS^LD,

a paper,

letter:

a(B^a&.
.srriij,
siriLisasfi

unripe
57.

arrsfriTm,

mushroom.
131.

&mL

SiLpsj(sseir,

vegetable food

S.

saeB, Durga. wife of Siva.

become dry, hot

(g. kai)

&F^,
siTga

64
fruit.

160.

62.

young bullock, grow stale, rancid.

make
[ a/raJ

dry,

or hot;

yield

sfT^S-iEl
F.an-giiuiTffii,

57.

hawk and

spit.

15. g. ]
[ /nZ.'. ]

authority;

business;
or silver;

s,iTiU3=3=ei),

fever.

260, 273.

superintendance.
aire)jD,

srTUJ3's-^&2. boil, dry up. 160.

a collar of gold,

AR.

.E/ru5^/r,

custom, rule

\_LDn-Qp(so,']

mustiness, mould.

e^LDSSLD.
siTiLuL-j,

callous excrescences.

aupgn, wind, [aff^u-f^] s.n3si<k, mirage, vapour from excessive heat.

saujui-j&sir-Ij-Qi.
S. smjeannh,
sirrnh,

grow
ecr^

callous.

a cause

267.

Q
H. Qea^,

pungency.
s-iTiB,

Qm^uuemiL,

an instalment
101.

S. siTirm,

52, 181.

of tax,
S. Q<si^(smua7<^ui, the half of the

S. sfTiftiULD, thing,

matter: ^its^.
sirrfliijew^dr.

month

S. siTifltu\aiT!T<ssr, agent:
S.
<s rr^emfl tu LD sfTiosarr,
,

when
:

the

moon

is

dark.
161.

tenderness

H. fisL&L&QL^, a
srfls^esTLD.

plaster.

Sl

raisiri.

66, lie, be

sfTiT,

a kind of paddy.

QQQ
establish-

down,
quake

64,

trouble,
]

an

H.

&iTiT<ian-(S^, a

workshop,

imitative word.
P. QL-ikj(^, a

[ iii-

ment.
S. atrr^^eiDS, the

month

of

Nov. Dec.

Qtfl^
161.
Qirrrff,

"go-down,"
62. cause to lie

store room,

down. 160.
256.
the state of

App.

vii.

a heifer,

P. siriTunffl, a superintendant.
S. siTicoQ.a5,p,ULD, subsistence, living.
f

(oz_,

a fold, or pen;

lying down.
Q'Smi

KALA
time
..

KSHEPA

<
I

passing. J S. BireoQiD, in the morning


esr.

}
:

App.

3i.

64,

happen;

fall into,

be

11.

obtained.

QeucvQ&r
a right to that. QlLl^, 151, 170, 251.

244.

[S^.]

S. arre^ih,

time

QrBffiJD.

@lLi_ld, dross.
166.

s/rsij/refr,

a foot-soldier,

&iT^, morning,
aireo, (1.) (oj) a quarter.

QlLl^,
233.

an instrument of torture by

App.

compression.
viii.

(2.) a leg, foot. 58, 166, 262. (3.)

@lL(B

time: sit&old

128.

be obtained: 62. draw near ^lSS, ^<sik. 170, 237.


;
,

siren L^, a pole for carrying burdens,

Q<smii, a well: Oi^uld.


has a frog in a well
to

which are suspended from


ends.

its

two

What

do with

politics ?

241

(QLfT,

(^Lfrdsi&),

bay,

gulf,

^^miT, a horse
(a^^miT QpsLo,

Ill, 266.

harbour.
S.@if-,

an

embankment
receptacle

of

house;

inhabitant, dwelling,

wood.
(5^/f,

101, 255. [s. KuTi.]

@tf er^
@if.

an

earthen

for

62. take

er^jj/

up one's abode.
settle others in

grain.

[Com. @^(5.]
273.
;

62.

^ (5^
H. @c5^(gw<s, a contract
rent.

@if

an abode.
64. drink. 32.
a hut. [{^ji^.
]

@^^,

i^Lp.<c(a<SF,

a point

a stab, thrust.
;

62.

prick

peck

stab
[

beat

(^L^^^sarw,

dwelling,
affairs.
iii.

occupation,

rice,

pick the teeth.

Com. Qair
E_j5a|m,

household
269. App.

[@qL + ^cBrii).]
Slp^dSihqih
usvgflffi

(^L^ium

a drunkard:

[@i^]

<S^^

even
the

Osi'

little

straw vuiy serve

to

pick

teeth with.
(^Lf-eurrrrih

101.
of hair on the

(^m^sLD, a hindrance
231.

(^ih^saQs.

(S)lB, the tuft

back

of the

S. @ii)(_/ii),

H.

(QL-Uf-,

head 261. family: [S. kutamba.] a whelp, young of an animal.


cuff.
fist.

@/5^
on

62.

sit

on the legs

walk

tip-toe.

(^(Surjdr, the

Hindu Pluto. (enL-d


:

(^lL, a buffet,

@.
small. (2.) a

Api3. ix.)

62.

strike with the


(1.) (adj.)

(^uu&), heap
(^uLfg)!

@zJ.isii_,

(^i^vueo.
fall

68.

on the

face.

[@

small tank. (3.) a dwarf. (4.) a handkerchief.


S. @iS33r<S(g,
euSstrsij

^ai?3jTs (gULjp^ ^tkefii^eisr, he

knocked

crookedness:

Qsaemeo,
237.
dis-

him down.

^ueau,

refuse,

dung:

Ci^^<5s>jS.

(^sssruu
S. (gszTOtfl.
euLD.

68.

change one's
161.

P. (^Loem^iT, a writer,
[p.

Gomashta, agent.

position, repent.

[(gsazrii.]

GUMASHTA.

disposition; quality;
a person

shurr

(^ldlL

]
:

62.

nauseate, loathe

^
ld,s

263, 268. [Co. ^ue\). ^iswld.]


of good quali-

(fF,ds6lfl.

S. (gsasrsuffsir,
ties.

S. (^LDfft,

a virgin

daughter

Cape
:

[(gSJISTzi).]

Comorin.
it

S. (^essrekirE^eir

(Syeasr eii

sk

S. (^LDtrifj, (^LDfTffd^,
sir,

a daughter

S. (^(Gss)&)imQQfi^ir,
ties.

adorned with quali[@iSBr, ^eD/E/S^^/f. ]


a piece of lead,
the posteriors:

Lf^^rB.
a son
:

S. (^LDirueir,
a-^esT,
(^lIl^,

LDs<ssr,

Li^^ijenr,

(^^aa,(B),

&c. put

etaLD/E^Gir
:

1,9.

into the ears to


[{gsaarifL,

widen them.

^q^ulS
any thing

(^(Lpsu

bubble
62.

@Qfsifl

228.

sound

as

thunder;

L-LD.

(vulg.)]
a
ball, bullet,

murmur.
(^LDu&), heap; (vulg.) a crowd: a^
(ffjLDiS

(^em,
round.

(^<cms='3=L-L^,
(gararswi
,

a round pan.
sirdssr.
:

263. reverence, worship.


a pot

an ox

(^LDiS
^eOiijQsrr

.sflLl^,

with

fire

to

(ff)^ir^eiai,
eOLn.

disorder

warm
(^LnLj,

the hands.
:

@^/risi),

[Com. @^/E//Ta);]
leap.

the

@^ 64.

heel: LipiiiaiT&).

crowd s^ ear d 3k.il. ild. become smoked. (^lLlS, a play in which girls clap their hands and move in a circle.
(^LDLj

62.

31

243

INDEX
(^LOQp

I.

62.

wash gently with the


:

'

64.

stammer:

@isrr^,

a.

hands.
S.

efrii

263.
a pit
:

(^lueum =
@a5ffi), the

0<FfflJ25r

Qenefrinsk. 228.

(gi^, (1.)

ueirefTUD.

^2.)

the

Indian cuckoo.
:

square of any thing.


iLjib,

(^arEj(^,
Q/ffLDLj, a

monkey ld/e^. 246, 255. dam channel from a river.


;

little

pits

ure soon filled

with

(gja),

sound,

voice

s^^^ld,

water.
(^siuLp

S. @(25> (SjQF)SSffirLDiTiT, spiritual guides.

57.

64.

grow tender; eais. 166. mix, rub into paste wag.


;

GURU.] @0L_0ir, a blind man QuiriLseji uj(asr, sQufT^, ^i^sasr, s<5mQ)^


[
:

[@^.]
(WisYTzi),

[i_.
:

a tank

^l^itslo,

ej/fi,

@lL

(gerrafl,
(m'sirgji

a wasp.
62.

iftiuir^eum

178.
;

@(75,

blindness

what

is

blind

Q u (nL.(ci!> L
(^Q^LLitTLLiLh, blindness
:

(gsrff

@srf)0
(^qF).
(gSlfl/f,

stammer:
bathe:

(^tpgn.

64.

QfiQ(g)

75.

60.

grow cold
cold
:

266.
Sj^^&TLD,
Ih

(Q<sBh<3=\,

@(5/il,
S.
[

blind

131.

srflff-.]

g0^,

blood: ^ff;S^LD.'\
upesxsu,

@5!5
(ffj(erfjUicmu

273.
(Lp&ij),

@C5r^.^' ^ tender shoot.


(^(^aS, a little bird
S. (^QaiT^LD,
(ff^eoLD,
:

ul-&.
s=rr^,

(msirsirdr

{^),

a bloated
a dwarf
;

face.

(^iLeai
he

rancorous hate.
;

tribe

family

caste

(jototSotA Qiaireda

cfi!<"^

urrisSl(rrjasr,

employs a

^SSTLD

255.
a slave: ^L^<cS>LD,Lj(Lgs<sn&.

dwarf to

uncertain the depth

of the

river.

AR. AR.

(S)'SOrrLc,

(g^z-Lsii_,

snoring.

187.]

(g)<ooneo,

the red

powder used
walk

at the

^/D3F, a kind of verse.


(S)g3J(^LJULLeeii,

[HI Giam.

holi festival.

@j0(g

62.

shake;

with

Q^ay
@^,

tinsel paper.

62. be sad.

affected gestures.
(gsfi/sO^sJrjj;
rsissis

C(5^ + ^'sS-]

&,c

64. shake the

(QfSuLj, a sign, indication, note.

sides with laughter.


(s0S'sj(^

267.

62. shake the sides, &c.

(g^, the
(^3so

pit

of the
:

stomach

@^ Qs&r, consult a fortune-teller. @^ 64. indicate, regard.


(3^(S^^
115, 230.

bunch, of

fruit,

Qaa^^.

57,

be disturbed, dissolved,
sSso.

@^,

(^jBoj, (g0iLD, (^pgii,(^(Q, short,


[

effaced
64.

small, deficient.
efface
:

In comp.]

damage,

s8si).

(^i^

/E(oB>s,

a smile.
is

V.

(ff)<k)eo!Tiu,

a cap, or bonnet.

@^@,

what
57.

across.
[e/.
]

@aSl

57.

be joined,

closed.
;

64.

(^guessfl,

a marcal,

heap up, accumulate contract. (^Lprhaa^, aninfant: &3i-, urre^stEk.


161.

f^ecnnj

(^LpuLf

[@tp = tender.]
62.

be diminished, wanting. (@^.) 124, 263.


64. diminish, lesson. 124, 178.

thicken, confuse:

<s

Q,snjD, (^an/Dei;, deficiency. 157, 190,

245.
(^LpthLj, broth

(^LpLDLj

62. grow thick,


flute
:

loam.

(^PpLD,

a fault

^uiSfiiM, [5:/.]
182.

confused:
(^Lp<k).

99, 115.
(^ppisiiiTefi,

a criminal

^Lpeo, pipe,

sr^

(^p<S, the

stump

of a tree.

244

INDEX
^^ffiiuSliT
(gjCofl

I.

half dead.

Little

life. ]

Sy-ZE^iTisS,

57. stoop,

bow down,

265.
p.

an iron crow-bar for digging wells, &c.: sLuunm)!r.

(gOT"^

iOKBjfl,

seeds of the Abrus

a^^uSI,

70.

call, give a

whoop

being red with a small black spot:


[vulg.
0lSa3rLDB3!!fl. ]
:

^imLp, 52, 93. I a^uLf + ^.'] si^LDLj, s^uLj 62. close as a fiower

(^drgu, a hill
(^iirgii

QffI, ld2so,

(^mpui.

join,

close

160.

62.

diminish: (^eap.

>_0
to

60. used with certain nouns


:

denote intensity
a^^QiF,,

thus,

[ cs^/r.]

i_<9;,_,

Oh!

alas!

193.
:

/&-fi!/

remember.
love (60. III.)
Sn.<ss>ir.

Sn_<ssis,
L

a large kind of owl

Qs(nL.

^asTLj
Sr^eaa,

Sr^QT),

/rssr

a thatched roof: Qld^


a^ifjaj,

H.

s^-s^fT,

a goglet,

water-vessel.
dazzled,

H.

<sh_/f,

ff^rri^,
s.

sharp,
]
:

acute

3^3^

62.

be ashamed,
set

[heb. kur.
,_/f,

k'hur.
prick

ticklish,

on edge.
:

edge,

point,

SQf)&(&),

a,_^^LD,

shame
a

QsulL&ld.
noise

[ <s.*. [

j^ esn.
S^ITLDLD

190.]
i.<^.s=(ji),

^enLD.
a

] sh.iT

row

^<ocaiT3=s=0O,

a^iTstnLD,

sharpness:

184.
/EinLsi^eS.

(vulg.)
^i_, with

[.s..]

263.

3;^eS,

hire;

workman;
[

170,239.

128.
.g^iay

s^iLD, a hall,
ffLh,

apartment:

^trLpe^fr

[155.
62. call out,

coo

s^si-

^Qirifi.
,117.
a tent
:

a,^ipnLDL-U).,

a slang term for a cow-

3k.: fr^
cBi__/r/rii),

ardly,
ah.<P^ifi,

good-for-nothing fellow.
defective, cut short,
Ou)/rLL(gwi_.
]

Qlijit.

maimed,
[

ai^i^uj, s^L^rsar

211,

213.

rotten

(gLLani,

&^(B, a cage
a^(Bl

s^ekr.
;

s^eDLpdQifT, a pelican.
be pos-iP. pap- [@tptit7.] a^m-LD, refuse stalks of grass
^ffls)^;
si^ffii,

62.

come together
103,

sible,
.ffi^Oii

103, 117, 170.


104, 118.

O.F

bits of strand
:

[@ujdlj.]

s^lLild, a congregation,

assembly.
191.
sk-gn

[^il.]
3n.LLin-efi,

a part

uiij(^.
]

62. proclaim. [Gr.: Xjyf-i^l.

[a^.] si^L-L^, one who sweeps: QuQffdQ. QsiTuSp s^lLltl. a church sweeper. 191. [^lL.]
a partner,

182.

3i^<mp,

marriage garments. Sn^ppio, death: LDuessTLo.


fate.]
ffuesrajr.
<Si_sb9,

\_3i^ff!

5n.il
lect

S.

(m.) a huncli-back,
a

.178.

62.

gather together,
OL/0<s(g.

col[a^_.

S.

(f.)

hunch-back.

sweep:

S.<Sv.s3r,

(1.)

hump
Q<s.

euSstre^.

(2.)

160.]

kind of earthen vessel.


i^iUfTurrrnh, partnership

a^uLQ

in

business.
<s>-lL^si/,

friendship,
[a_)a!/-]

association

^^ Qs is often
Qsi^s-

sdQujLh,
Is^.-]
^^/r, cold.

used for s.
:

62. supplicate

Qsuam
uililo.
:

sk.sm', a large basket; cage, nest:

LDa!r(y
QsLp., fame, terror:

Qa
:

Sird^,
15.

68.

perish,

be ruined
g.

3r^^^, a dance
sh^^^iT
stage.

rsmsili.
act on the

64.

destroy: ^ifi.
0<sa!/,

254.

62. dance,

Qa,

a date, time fixed:

eu&BT, eufriu^ir

268.

245

QsL
93.

bad, spoiled, 13, 14, 68, 74,


GusoeJr.^ffjii).
:

emjB ^(Bt^. 56. (III.)

handle, practise,
the hands in

(oS3<ssi_.
:

62.

cross

0<silif., strong, thick


G)s5LLLf.dsrrjj<s3r,

reverence.
(sassh^iB

a clever fellow

62. be successful

0^^.
70,

s^n'LDfriT^Sliueir

199.
68.

<s,s@Q;/r,

come

to

hand
accept.

QsL-Qisk, from Oa QsblS, a den: (^(sta<s. QaLnu, a ruby QaLhi-i<s<seii.


Q.3sil)i-i

eff)a<sQstreir(sm,

receive,

56

(HI.)
eir><s<3='9=!T^^,

an invoice.

62.

make

a great uproar:

QsisS

AR. (StD^, a emsuupgu

prisoner.
62. seize.
:

64. win.

easuLSqz., a handful
sm<5iJL/, bitterness
:

lSl^.

QseSui-j, triumph.

a'3=uLj.

(oe>,SLDQuem,
S.

widow:

eW^gwia;.

[_\u\g. BiliLD(emL-L^, Qpessremi.^

QaiSLD, a shield

u/ff^aa^.

ecosLDLDrru}, rafter.
es)aix>LDirgii,

{_!TLh.

G, destruction, 190, 191'. [0<s.] QslLQ^^. 70. [R. Cirerr.] hear, ask. Have [you] not QaLLL^ecdsOiurr?
heard
.^

retribution:

tSrr^iLjuarr

<5!oasii/r@,

support afforded by the


heaven.
cackle.

hand.
S. enaeoiT^LD, Sivan's
sjoaa/cFzi),

[contract, for QblLi^So

dsiiurr?

114.]

QslLQiost, QsslL. 70. [(?.ssrr.]

Qsi
]

a well;

mine. [Ssznr^,

Qsird&ffi

actual possession.
64. shout
;

QsiTsQ, a clasp: ^jdlLl^.


QaiTS(^, a heron.
Qsirs-SLD, Qafr^euii, [prop. Qstriu
s=sLh'\

S.

Qs^,
QsQR

one of the serpents supposed


\_siB.

to cause eclipses.

62. cackle:

Qs&aS,

Qsrrd

folds of a

woman's gar-

(?<55sS,

aspersion, calumny, ridicule:

ment.
Qffi/r*(g,
Qa/r<9P,

a mosquito, gnat

S. QseueOLD,

only;

simple;

weak.
Q^fT3^g)},

any thing given over and


barbarous speech, a vulga[ s.

[Hind. HAFiF.] QsL>&irr(^, a kind of [ com. Qsei^Qf). ]


Caeff, hear
;

above: S3fS(^.
<a;//-@

or grain.

0<BffJffl<?=,

rism.

ask.

(See,

Gl1S/d^.)
;

Q&!T(s^^LD, a little, few.

kinchana
lie

27, 70, 190.


Cssrrsfl, a

= some-what. ]
:

question

(sfl(eB)

a rumour,

0/r(g*^^G6y
lives

^6i/!rtou6OT^B);S(i763r,

knowledge. 190, 262.


Q,sev-<s^,

upon a

freight.
6^)35

Q&a{Q3h
QstTL^,

little:

62. fondle

sS^uj/r.
clothes'line.

creeper

134.

sro<s,

(1.) a

hand:

sau).

256, 259,
uu.(r^th,

270. (2.) a termination of 143. [The compounds nouns,


262,

creepers spread over the neiyh-

boiiring trees only.

formed with this word are many and in constant use. ]


CiD/r?

OsfTL^dsrreo, a betel garden, a flag:

QsiTL^ium, Qair^Liurrdj
QsiTL^gi), the

184.

Is a mirror needed to see even


is in

jaw.
Qis,iTLh,

what
en^s

your hand?
a<F.

Qsrr,

QstTL^oj,

cruel.

64. be bitter:

[Comp.s.]
246

184.

INDEX
6-4. give, Qsir ,;Sir,^

I.

afford, yield

OsffL/L/erR
blisters.

64.

gargle

rise

in

16,

27,60,267.

0<s/r<S(g,

the sting of a scorpion,

QisfTULj, a

claw of a crab, &c. Q.z[riEjes>s, the fore-arm bent. Qsn-(BuuSssr, giving in marriage
[

branch of a tree ornament.


a.<y5:(rtofl

an ear
it

QsiruLSQai gjcjffiS/D^,

IS

on the topmost houyh.

Co.

Qs

IT eir en

&sr. ]
[

Q s u Lf eir LD
!T

pustule, blister.
a branch
:

QsfTLDLi,
Q,siTemL-, a gift.'

(1.)

QarrSl. '190.
geoa,

Qsituli,
instru(4.) a

S&.
ment.

QarrLLiireiaa, Qsir/.'.i

a shed

131. (2.) horn;


(3.)

wind

The

figure O.

QsiTL-iiriTili,

porch

elephant's

kind of earring. QsiTiLi 58. pluck


QsfriLisf-

stable.

off,

snip

off.

62. plait,

double in folds.

QsiTL-irreS, a

yawn.

Qarr, ^afl.

Qsrriijijjrr,
Qsfrffji!,

guava

tree.

Qs

IT L-tj^iu LD

company

of carrying

Qs/rjfi/fi!/,

a king's audience

bullocks.
QamLL^tussfriKSBr, QamL-L^iuirfk,
a carrier.
QsitlL.l^'s^,

chamber: Qsir^ LD<smL-ULh. QsrrSso, murder: uil, ^^^, eueen^.


Q/r<jnj2/

cow house

LD!TL-a

56.

(III.)

kill:

eues)^.

[Comp.

the radicals.]

QsitlL

QsBrrSd^, hack-yard; house-garden:


62.

empty

out, spill. 265.

LjpdsetaL,
O/7-(ff0(S0aJr,

(LpppLD
:

244.
siv^LDirm:

sting as a scorpion

254.
aS/eifa;.

a blacksmith

QafTL-emL-, a nut, seed:

aLDLDtT'Sfr(m.

QsfrLLim!da^&, the shell of a


cocoa-nut
QsfTL^
:

QijlL&di

64.

separate

stones,

&c.

from
106, (4.)

rice.

Qisiremi^
QuDLuJ^s-

QsiTsssrin-^-&2. praise, celebrate:

iQatreBsr,^.'] 255.
239, 241.

QsiTQ^, adj. (1.) fat; fertile. S. (2.) a plough share.

Q3ifT(mr
[

QsiTQg

64.

become

fat.

This
in

is

pronounced vulgarly QlL


cases.]
(^(ss!!r(SisS,

QsfTQih^dsr,

husband's
sister.

brother.

many

QsfremeBi,
bearer:
Q3,rr<5S!srQu!r,

App. X. QsiTQi^, wife's


of fire.

tale-

Qarreir

Qs^ireo^Qmsvm
27.
!

QaiT(Lgi^, a slender twig

App. x. tongue
;

take away!
bring

Qa!Temsn!T,
0n"(S33ri5B)t_,

0<s/re!rari_ff,

27,
[50.

QsiTQU[-l,iai; insolence. [0/r(i^.]

QsfT^

tuft of hair.

Qs!T(&^d^
Q-sfrefmrna,
[

62. entice,
:

hook
sr

in.
.

64. boil, bubble up,

273.
:

an ojiinion

em (sm ld

0<sff<5;S<s(rzii,

bulwark, bastion

Ca/r

OcS/rsyr]

QaireaeiJOow,

Qarr^^,
Gian-^Sj
off

bunch:

@&.
;

taking in [Co. 0/rLJi.ifc.]


fire

marriage

62. dig up, or into


;

pick

QsfT&reB, a
L-SSiL

brand

Q&aeirefl^s

with the beak

peck.

H.

Qsir^^siiir<s\}, the chief of the police

Qairareflaiirtuu lSs-w^^

ignis fatuus.
[

in a town.

QsiTm(^, horse gram.


rage, be tempestuous.
is
is

This word
a/rssarzi)

0<sn-i^efl6i.

Q<sirw^

not used in the south:

62. gnaw, nibble.


;

used.]

QatruueioiT, a co^^er vessel

boiler;

Os/rsyrjSYj

56. (III.)

take, get, ac-

a cocoanut without the shell.

quire, buy. 106. 259.

247

INDEX
Qsireirdsir, [1.)

I.

booty; robbery:
[OsffSfrfBTj. ]
:

(^
a

QstrsJ, the dry refuse after the juice

aa/o.

266.

(2.)

has been

plague, pestilence
uj<d''3=e\).

Qatr^Sstrdsn
iB(^^.

QsT^

expressed

s^dema,
;

62.

arrange the hair

eat

(3.)

much:

miucingly.
Q<i!T^LDee)u, wheat.

H. QsrrpiiT, a small whip.


Qs!T/Sl

64. nibble, nip

oflf

ears of

Qsrr^^rjLD, a tribe

(gswii.

180.

paddy.
Cisirppssr,
(0.s/7-^j2/,
(SO,

Qsn/saiL, a wolf
a

ep(^iij,

gg/E/ruJ.

bricklayer,
;

128.

QsrruLD, anger
QsiTiS,

244,259.
180.

his business

from Qan
^'.)

a trowel,

[obs.]

an angry person
tower, steeple.

64. be angry. \_QsiruLD.']

QsrresTQij'dr,

he killed.

Q&ni-jffLD, a

Qsirmgii QuiTL-L-fTsk, he killed. 56.


(III.)
QsiT&srdssr, (1.) a little

QsfTLDLLt^,

Q&irnpL-L^,
a waist-cloth

class of

77,106.

traders.
Cs/TLDSiOTzii,
:

cup of leaves

seijs^esrLD.

O^iresr^.

(2.)

stammering, speak-

Q 3,

IT

LD

IT

eXI ,

one
:

given to senseless,
Qu<5m^.
123.
Q^euireoiLiU}.

ing with hesitation.

foolish talk
CsffiiS,

vulg. for QarrL^

^^dQuQus^,
ly-

speak

indistinct-

QsrruSeo,
[

Qarr

church

)&).']
;

191.

Q<Sfr
QsTTffLD,
[

horror, fright

excess.

Cff,

king

cow.

QsrrrFI,

Q^fT
Ca/r

273.
64. string pearls, &.c.
[(?</r/7-.]

GsiTiT
[

muhammedan tomb.
64.
string pearls, &c. on,

HEB.
:

AND ARAB,
Qair.

the

Same.
kinds

S. QsirifT QsiTu^
QsiTLiTikiQ,

172.

string

[a^ja.
:

masquerade
Qamrft,

C-s/rsirar

Qsaea^ir, grasses of various

l/

imQ.'

[252.

QsrriTLL, the Eng.


Ga/r/fano/,

QsaiaS,
S.

an axe.

237,

word Court. 115. a string of any thing,


[

QstTL^, ten millions, 172; any thing new; a corner. [Cs/r.]


(?ff, a line
;

beads, &c.
,

Cs/r/f. 190. ]
;

Q&ire^LD,

ornament

form

beauty;
uproar,
[lifssr.

horn

branch.
[

pomp.
Qsrr
.

QsireaidsireoLD, hot season.


esii. ]

Q&ir<oO!TS'Si)LD,

confusion,

bustle

^Sso^QiDfrppLD.
flying
fish
:

QsirL-iirdsi),

grotesque

gestures,

QsireorrlLSm,

antics

QsrriresS.

Q&iT^

upeasu
;

62.

divide out

into beds

QsiTL-L-!r<^,

an owl.
:

bend.
;

CaffLl,g!Di_, a fort

^Q^ssLD

halo

Q&TTei),

a stick

i^, ^^f

round the sun or the measure = (a..) s<cOld.


QsfTSSsnkjQ, a buffoon.
S.

moon

QsiT'^&) = QsiruSi(so.
QsTTQeujpi s(i<cSi^, a mule.
[

An

ass

QsnemLD, an angle
QsrnsS,
sack of gunny:

Qsmg..
Q&iresBiuio, a
(5,

on which a king rides. ] Qsaemsu, Qsiriremeu, a string


things:
C<s/ri^,
{Qssir, QsiriT.)

of

Qsiretsflisiyis,,

Qair^i

3=it&(^,

OffLl.
:

62. be bent,

or crooked

Ca/TtszDtp,

afowl 123,244. phlegm; timidity: suld,


<3'e<T\.

S!r3=LCi, 3=1^,

Qsir'hser,

any thing crooked or awry QsmsmiD. Q s ir'hssru Q u 3= s irregular talk.


,

(?<56/reiirii),

a ball or globe

^jlL,

s.

Qhtossr ss> I

Q s IT SIT iTgj]

confusion;

^ir^Lx^irgii.

248

C<s/r
Q^sirerr,

QSITL

123.
Qs^ireo,

s=(^'ssnM,

an omen
]

(SlS^^iIi.

vulg.

QstnL

mischievous
0<?/riso\)co.

3=<S113jTLD.

tale-bearing: Gs/tlL
QsiTfSasinsi,
[

S. ^QsTT^ifl, a=Qa!T^rfGST S. 3=dai^Li,

sister, brother.
:

desire:

GsL/ssarSsw.s.

mockery, derision

urB
[273.

QsiT^.

QaiTu

SfT^LD.
desire,

62.

wish

aflj-^LoL/,

S. ^d'Sinh, a S.

wheel, discus, [chakram.]

iSckr

272,(111.)
(3<SSfr

[see

<s<a/.
:

Fss&r^^, one of several wives. 3^d@(LpsQ, steel to strike a light


with.
'S=dQ'^uj(sk,

S.

Qssfr^^euLh, deceit
Qsofreij

Qtoa^s^LD,

sudK

shoe-maker.
or hoard

62,

snatch at:
a small

seueij. 62,

T. g^dQaarr,
of grain.

^^Qsarr, a store

234, 23, 5, 242.


QcSsyrerR, (1.)

kind of lizard

<3=d<sms,

the dry cane after the juice


:

ij^eS. (2.)
betel.
<3m^

hundred leaves of
S.

has been expressed

Qsir^.
a> it ifl iu ld
,

see , ^.]

S.

A^emLD, a moment.

^Ejs^, occurrence, eil IT^ S LD n 'Oyr LD

affair:

111.

S. a^iijsL^U),

6FEjaLLtij),

straightened
:

circumstances, trouble
S. ^, or ^<s, a sans,
prefix,

^saiL
:

meaning
S. FiEJSLD,

with, together, (saha.)


S. ^S3=LD,

a meeting,

assembly

.s^lL

[=BORN wiTH.]natural,
:

lLD.

easy,
S.
<3=iijsift

habitual
S. SFs^,

euiri^aesis.
Q'^gji, sJSsa,

64.

destroy:
will,

Gairio^.

mud

^Sar.
if

S. s'lEJspuu},

determination,

VOW:
er^^ib
thrtiw
^',^eu/r/f^tt2cfl etiur^Lb urrsrir^^

iSlffSldSSssT.

yuU

S. ^imsiTULD,

a stone into the mud it won't splash your neighbour's garment only.

destruction

fE!ra=u>,

Sit

Qpecui.
S. s^iEjQ

S.

#:<sii),

the world,

[jagat.

64.

doubt,

reverence.
(^<e<slo.

[#^

]
:

faurnp.,
urrLf., a

a school-fellow

a^&eou

lEjetaa. ]

brother-in-law.
126.

S. s^rEiQrjsbb,
S. 9=Ej3rriTiE^,

epitome

S. S=SS\)LD
S. '9=<sLLD,

the passage

of the

sun
131.

a bandy, cart:

en esur l^so

from one sign


,

to another.

S. s^iEiQS

a chain

^&lLl^Q&), [ in a lump.
S. a^seOQRLo
3=sio\)an,

3=a(B.

on an average,
126.
,FaSoO.

S. 3=rsjSaL,,

psalm,

hymn

(S^iTsaru

uitlL.
;

S. 3=iijQfr^isewLD,

a setting
:

forth,

ac-

^s>&)uuaL^,

App.

x.

knowledgment
S. 3=iEj(^,

^/Sldeas.

<5=<5syff<sjj,

European cloth

of various

a conch.

kinds: U(3Jr(SB)^^.
S. s^&surrs^LD, association:

S. a='kiQa^LD,

an

understanding

be-

uw&sld, &
ei](jf,(SL^Lh,

tween
S. ^lEiems,

parties.

QiESLD, Q -3= IT s lea a


S.
.3= <s IT

doubt: 6FiEQ^<SLh;
a hare Qpiueo.

honor:

u^ LD

an era, a year:
help
;

SeSTLB.

^imr
S. a=arTiULD,
:

S.
<op^^!T&a<9',

[ fs'LJo,

^^stmr;

S. [^IC-Fsulsro/E/risarLD, bathing with the

cheapness
S. s^Q, a

weSsij.
:

clothes on.]
Q^iri^
QuiTgn,
S.
'3=d<3=ff<si^,

3=Q

female companion
64.
suft'er,

quarrel

<?^i^<Fw/r, &= 'sm eia i


:

endure:

<y^#, crowd of people, bustle

a=i

249

INDEX
S. <r(^|cF^

I.

64. sojourn, converse. 163.

S. 3'^ffLD, ability, cleverness

a square

S. F(Q'3=ir!iLD,

dwelling,

converse

cohabitation.
S. 3=(^<3=sOLi, fluctuation, trouble
:

S. ^s^iT, four (in


aOiU/r

comp.)

an assembly

S. s'^fT'KJsu), a
[

complete army
]
:

chess.

Four members.
the

S. s=(^&eS,

a panacea
life.

medicine
as
\_etai

to
S. s^^iTsir,

an able person
;

^ldits:^^'.
of

lengthen
S. a=iiki(^,

[Used

a title in

ffesi^, flesh

soft

part

the

compliment.]
a

loaf, 263.
S. 3=^

[Co. ^wis-.'\
:

ceremony

sitldiIi,

(Sei^

good in compounds

rsed,

!b<so

S.[_^tLD,

body:]
:

s_i_zi)Ly;

inert

0, mJD, Fp.

matter
S. 3=uf-^,

s^L-u^irk^^m.
s'l^,

S. -a^^^LD,

(1.)
:

voice
(3.)

egsw.^.

(2.)

<3=^,
eresr.

suddenness

seven
&c.

ejQ^.

hire

of carts.

^L^iT

<s^(B^^LD,

controversy, competition,
:

<F^^

eiiiTL<5&s,
[

sgeS.

d^tj^. ]

64. utter a sound.

quarrel
S.
3=<ss>i.,

QuitlLl^.

S. -3^^^, (1-) energy, strength: ^rrrreaS.


(2.)

a long plait of hair.

vomiting
truth:
:

euini^.

a=L-@l,

^lL&, examination.]

S. .a^si^ajLD,
(II.)

QldiL; 155,
SsLDirccmiM.

272.

^L-Lui, (1.) a frame; (2.) regulation: <s^(Lgm(w,, Slum^Sssr. (3.)

an oath

S. 'F^^iTiM,

copy
9= L-.tiT

for scholars.
iSt eirdsir
,

(1.) a place where food and lodging are given: ^itqjl^.


(2.)

u>

monitor; s^lLi^ld
un-^^/jw. 256.
honor,
S.

incision.

S. s=^si(i^,
s^L-Lp.,

r^^nn^,

an enemy

uisms
272.

a pot, chatty
a ladle
(1.)
:

lurreiiJ

s=L-iaiLD,
s'LL'ciai,

^suissyu.
;

S. 3=^^<siiLD,

strength

^airetsB,

Qu

a jacket

(2.)

130.
3=<rm6\>,

3=k^^LD, always

Sl^^ti.
:

(Com.

-s^GimruLj .)

hemp.

S. <s=fB^^,

a race, family

'F/h^aeurili,
iii.
:

S. 3^(5mL-.msfreir, a vile fellow.

Qair^^rrLD. 182.
even

App.

asiir,

the

moon shines

into

an

s'ifiLf-,

confluence
stir:
s:s=s-.

of people

s^iL.

outcast's house.
3=<5mLa.,

iLD\
-s'li^LD,

an obstinate

person

the flow of metre

^rjirsLD,
:

a=s.3^

<sm^L

249.
IT
,

S. s^m^nuuiji,

convenience

^^i_

^ sm L^eu m LD
pledge.
<FiE33rei_,
^tFrrsij,

loss in

redeeming a
S. s^i^enru), S. s'lk^rrssrih,
:

sandal-wood.
offspring
:

<9=ie^^.
;

264.

a row, tumult, battle


<sa)ii), QufriT

<s=

107.
tree.*

S. s'li^, combination,

union

a place

a^emusti, a kind of flower


S. a^^ui, a

where streets meet:


ing.
S. '3=/h^

3=iisj;

even[64.

hundred

certainty, perpe-

meet, visit:
twilight.]
the

s<5kr(BGi&iTeir,

tuity.

AR.

a^^iT,

principal.

App.

S. \_<3=/B^iuiT,
iii.

S. <3=i^rreir,

moon:
;

Seoir.

AR.
S. S.

^^rnSeir, an under-judge.

S. <3=fB^, (1.)

a corner,

a place
(2.)

where

3=jS(cirLD,

a multitude

s=ssre=^etrLD.

four streets meet


S. <r/5(?^LD,

a joint:

tf^^/r,

always: eruQu!T(wsjLh. [sada.]


deceit; iaj(^,y^Br,
Qtofr^a^iii.

S.'5^^,

doubt;

<F(ip'3=LULD.

178,

H.

3'@iT,

a low rate.

257.

250

INDEX
<?^/Es^,

I.

a fair

[@c^SeS.]
:

s^Lorreff)

64.

manage, furnish,

ac-

a^iQ^aSL^LD, joy
sent.
S. r/itSip,

ldSlpJ^S;

a pre-

complish.
s^LDfrs^LD,

161, 128.
3=/iS^fT.3irLh,
:

presence of a

s'lS

likeness, equality:

eauu.
digest.

64.

bear:

QuiTffi;

great person

a^QpsLo.

Hence
j

are derived,

s-(x.lo

and

S. a^iitSiL'aS, an ascetic:
S. <ru^tJD, a

^euS.

<a=eiaLD.

vow

imprecation on one's

a^iBuLD, nearness
lLl-iJd

^QT)a!T(sm&s)LD,

self in case of failure.

S.

tF/il

161.

64. curse. a

\_a^!Tuua.

163.]

s'LDiSsr,

S. 3^es>u,

congregation,

assembly,

land ; s^tSeir^n'iT, a land owner, a^QpsLD, face, presence ^/sS^,


:

Qp

s^fTs^.

App.

ii.

[sab'ha.]
S.

-FU^LD = 3=^^LD.
attach-

a=Qpa=ujLD,

AR. s=u^, ^u^, sequestration, ment (legal.)


a=uuL-<seii~,

Q^Qja^QpaLo, the divine presence. doubt iFiQ^&Lo; sus:

picion.
.9=(ip3=irrTLD,

family,
(^(BlLhuih.

wing

wife

worldly

Slp(^;

the
,

affairs

shoulder-blade.

a^Qpds/refruj, a carpet.
a^QPfiiTiLiLo,

[mon.
in

a^-uuemu)
\

QarreSj

62. sit with


:

any thing held


the sea
:

com-

fQp^^rjtli,

legs
em-LD.

crossed under one

a^wto
[i^ujLD.
:

3=wiLD

si&).

57.

become ready, [ksha-

ffuuaua, a canopy for an idol


^uueif)

Qa

64.

be bruised, gaunt.

a^LD,

MA. Co. ^esiLD. ] 64. cook prepare.


;

a'uutT&sS, a lame person: npieueisr,

^sMiDiL/a),

cooking.

[ ,5^<gojtD.

(1.)

a sans. prefix = coni., con.


[ ja. ]

Po.

<5^il'Lj/r^^,

<3=uLi

shoes

C^/r
the lips,

188.

(2.)

aterm = born.

62.

smack

suck

a^LMU^gj, prosperity; acquisitions,


riches.
^liu^giih tSu^giEi .i_Ca/ ^(T^sSiiriDesr,

rumu,

joint;

any thing
:

thin.

prosperity

S. TLD'm^tli,

the whole

sr&ieoirili.

3=LDuifiLD, connection

S. a^LDih^iresTLD, the king's

court,

me-

s'LDueQ

and adversity come together. SsQojld.


: :

64.

tropolis.
S.
[

Qijes-.s.']

fLoueiTLD,

happen wages ,_ffS


:

/5z

128.
perfect,

3:iM3:as,rjLD,

thc
;

equator:
level
,
:

i8rri3i&

\_a^i}>um<ssrm ,oae

who

is

who

S. a^LDLD, equality

s^ldgst.

has attained
a=LDuir,

to. ]

e=LD^n Q&ns<sn
gram.
S. a^LDUJLD,

parallel lines.

a kind of paddy.

a=LD_^fTQan-LL(B(T^euLh, a parallelo-

o'LDu IT tii^'Sossr,

conversation,

inter-

course.
;

an opportunity
a clever

a sect.
:

S. FLDiT^^sir,

man

<s:rrLDfTiT^

s^ihuir^ 64. obtain, acquire ffLDua^^iuiM, acquisition.


ifiliSffp,

C^.
:

a principal

accountant

^inir^^^S(^

ergi

Quifliu^?

great (difficult) to S.
3=LD!r4=a^iTrjLD,

What a clever man ?


Qa=iu^

is

tS essr <s

s 'Ssr

[uffu),

3=u)SijLDL),
a=LDLj,

pomp

CxireoLD,

^l^lo

news

256.

a kind of reed, or sedge.

S. TLDir^tresTLD,

peace. l^ffT^.'j
;

S. a^LDir^,

the grave

mystic

medi-

s^wyjUessTUi,
<s=LDss)u,

abundance
fish,
;

yji3rii>, rS

tation.

dried
a

AR.

<s=LDiTu/E^,

^LDiru/E^,

settlement

a^LDLDLL^L,

&c anheuir. sledge-hammer horse


;

of revenue.

whip.

32

251

INDEX

1.

INDEX
S. s=idS.

I.

Saturn: App.
bayonet.
3=ib.

vii.

S. <3=iTfi!Tn<5mLh, S. 9=17^,

what

is

common,
]

easy.

H.
S. S.

s^'oSiLiQsr,
^sijr,

caste, race. [jATi.

182.
by a

see under

ff^eirLDLD,

birth:

iSpuLj,

3^(ssr<3!sru).

A3sv),

caste

{is

determined)

AR.

<FSiJrs!ir^,

a grant, document, wara window, 239;

man's deeds.
g^tr^dsniii,

rant.
'S=sirem0O,
^(ssrasrei),

nutmeg.
maintain

e^a^u^^tft, mace.
<r/7^

ueoaenS.
S.
.ff^ssrssfl,

64. assert,

accom252,

convulsions.

plish
S, a=ir^(^isjsui,

vermilion.

S. y/r^,
S. 3=rrarru>,

mildness,

^iT

a sea

ffz_a),
u)//?.

^Qp^s^nt^.

LD,

QiD^^esimij. a

meekness ^rrri^ good person ibso


: :

58. die

edenek.
S. rrrs^rBiL/LD,
S. 3=iT^fi!Tiir,

[ld.

H.

3=!r(g)UL^,

cultivation.
;

eloquence
a

eufrti'ds^rreo

H.

^rricms,

a shed

a station.
:

demon
is

incarnation of

.s^iTssmii,

a sewer

^eo^irssiir.
a-gii

the destroying power.


S. s^a^i^iULD,

S. 3=rrd9rr<ss>jS,

diligence:

aguuLf

what

practicable,

cu240.

[JAGRATA.]
,^n-d(ff),

rable, attainable.
;

a sack, pocket

pretext, false

S.

'S^ir^^jjii),

excuse: Qufrs(^.
S. ^rr^s^sarLD,

<5^/r^^
:

^iTemPffL>
;

62. shut

apply to

put on.
excell-

document

Qp^.
duration.

101.
S. s^rrd^itSatli,

S. ^/r^ar^Lo,

immutability,
a science

ffiT^^i^aLD,

AR.
S.

d^rrm^,

mrrm^, increase, excess.


240.
law.

ence, meekness, gentleness.


S. <Fnii^siJ>,

S. 3=irem^iiLD,

meekness

.f/t/e^, a=rr^.

s'lTeK^nuuu^,
242.

according to

S. ^iTi^ninu(5mu>, a
fast.

kind of prolonged
mortar.

S. -fiTim^ffl,

a learned
.

man
ii.

a title.

'S=rr/B/,

sandal paste
a curse
:

[ .y/rsru^/jii). ]

App.

S. 'S^iTULD,

s=!ru^^(B.
:

S. ^/r(ag2,i_/r/E;.EU), prostration

with eight
]

AR.

r/nSl^iT,
Gii'iesur.

a list

<a^iT<^^iT,

^lLi
[233.

members.
H.
3=!TtiT,
<3=irL^,
<9=rr(B

with-eight-members.

^rrin, the whole.


:

s^fTuu,
[sm^s^sins.

{.s^iTLjiSi,)

eat:

l/0. 138,

62.

ajar

^itl^.

^rruufT, food; a meal. Is^iruu.'}


146.
[j^nD-^/rasr-Guff-^sBBTi-ii),

rush upon.

<3=rr<siBi,

a gesture,

slight

notice:
115.

four method

S. 'Ffn-L&,
9=itlL(B

evidence;

a witness.
;

of dealing, pacificatiun,
submission.'}

gift, opposition,

62. transfer

beat

accuse.

S. 3=rrLD!T^^lULD,
FP'iemeir,
f.

^ITLDfrir^^UJW, ^LDIT^
skill.

s^irmt!)^^,

one of the
S.

^,
9=fTLDLh,

ability,

shdn^r
s^rrenS,

tribe.

a
;

watch of 3 hours;
pacification.

mid^<oir

S.

^ir^sssr,
-s=!T<sisr,

cow-dung. a whetstone
a span.

night
228.

AR.

a^iTLDirek,

goods

materials

euiriLD

138,
:

S. <3=iT^&m,

astrological calculation of

S. 'S'aLS, S.

nativity: <3=ir^ss (^/Sulj.


S. fprr^LD, boiled rice
:

^umieiifr. sj-eun-iB, Lord ^m9QuiTsLD, the owner's share of


the produce.

Qa^irga.

146, 212,
[esTLD.

239.
S, s^rr^esnh, (1.)
<9=rr^rr,

AR.

a^iriSdr, ^iriSeisr, bail,

security.

means;

(2.) for .y/r<F

s=iTes)LD,

a kind of grain,

plain work.

s'lTLDuio,

ashes

li^i.

253

INDEX
^iTLDunasr, the caste title of the
riahs.
s'lrihtSinrressll,

I.

pa-

ffmsuei),
^iTisS,

acock:
Q-xrrei).

Q^reue^.
;

blight in corn

a key. [port

:]

gum

benzoin.

s^iTLDLj,

apiece of cloth.
^Firiui^ffLn,

H.
evening.
[ezwii).
:

,FiTii^iT,
^/rai/,

^rru^ir, a

list

or schedule.

S.'S'lruisjsireiiLD,
l_s=irujil>,

death, l^ir. 190.]


juice

the same.]

FfreS6s>a, a bag.
FiTgsi,
;

S. s'lTiULD, a die or colour

S/du>, suit
[

broth

^affLh,

^emw.
[<5^ff^.]

AR.

^rriuiT,

customs,
]

tax.

Lit.

the

a^rrekQQrfiT,

the worthy, 270.

others.
S. 3=auj0\),

an image, appearance

Q^rr
SlsnLD, top, crest
:

PJD60,
p.
S.
-FfTuSl,

mULD.
:

^-s=&.

ink
a

emLD.
:

a/r, a seal

(zp^^-smrr.

s^rrsiaiu,
g=rr'li

shadow
lean,

Sipeo.

9issui,

network bag.
;

(0<s@.)
;

57.

bend

succeed.

64. cause to lean, bend.

@,
@is(^

.FnLuLj, slope; turning away from


the right way.
[_s^rruj.']

entanglement
62.

shame dirt. become entangled


;

l^Firsmi
:

S.

be obtained.

Lc/rzJ-LjL^Oaffsrr.]

s 'oSST <F
S. s=mii}>,

rr

uj

u Lf
is

&s,Q.sssr, tenaciously.

connivance
[ s.

<sessr

what

essential, juice, taste,

S. Q/sjaih, a lion.

simha.

savour, scaffolding.
<9^/7"/f.

and verb.

s. SiEJsirrrii,
]

ornament
:

.jtjs^ikjsnrnM.

s=n-jT&),

a mountain side; wind from the mountains. a charioteer.

s. &af,
[ s^rrir. ]

an infant

(^Leiietn^, uireoaisir.

s. &a-<mj^^, infanticide. [ &3?, s. Q(si^L^siT, QlLlp.<sit,

a/p^^.
:

S. s^rrrr^,

a creator

^q^
^qf,

S. s'irrrmuLl),

S.

any thing distilled. <s=iTrfj, a walk, way. nriffeia'jj, in grammar, a particle


serted. 270.
FiTQ^,
g^triT

L-U^sif.
s.

Si^LSL

9iL-L^

[^'^
64. create:
;

in-

s.

&ms^,
ment,

SlL6!s-3=,

discipline

punish-

<9^/rff.

60.

cleave to. [Co. ^/r

s.

if,

a creature
;

&(S^l^, Sq^iLl^.

iL

and

G<F/f.]

&lL, small
&6S!irS(^,

a small bird.
disperse. 266.
;

s=iTsair,

the male cobra.


s^irireii.

^/T/TL/,

cleaving
{_<9=mT.
:

to,

refuge,

&^pij^
&flS>!

patronage,
S.'fnsOLD,

90.]
^rrsi)ij>,

S. ff^ireosLD, a drain

^!tss!S6>l

deception:
[

^i^u
shams. s.

nothing
64.
,

fillip.

64.

62.

be dispersed

come

to

57. perish:

0<s

121.

destroy.

a^rnsniji.

jalam.

^^s'lraiih i_iaiis-OT!/S(7jOT-,

"

B^ih, will:

LD(3F3f
:

109.
^iTLDrrsunD.

he

IS

ming.
^rreS

&^^fri^LD, a conclusion

141, 181.

s. s.

S. FireQeiirrsssrdr^

an ancient sovereign
Pers.

success.
64.
[

prosper, succeed

eurr

of India.
S.
3=iT?0ii,

iL.
[
;

141.

sid'dhi.]
:

house, hall, avenue.


a

s.
]

s 0^!iua,
sioir

a picture

uild. 271, any

s^ir&d,

furrow

a pot. 266

a year.

thing elegant.
Lcir^uj,
vii.

P.
S.

3=reiiioB>&i,

a shawl.
leisure.

the

month

of April.

<ff=rrisiJST^LD,

App.
S^d(cct->^,

[^eS.
leather bottle
:

H.

^ireusirrfi,
s=irisi]L^,

a soucir, banker.
:

a small

Lf

a choultry

^^^rrii.

&QrBsi}>, friendship, affection

&Q,-b

S. s^fTsu^imsTLD,

circumspection.

SLD.

254

INDEX
S. &QiBQ^<s!r, a friend. 255.
[

I.

^^Q.-bsld. ]

@lp(ff),

wing

272.
S.Sli^dsm\
[

s^uutLemi
Qi&s^^,

thought: [S^&j.

QjT)

thing

66. be remarkable, beautiful.

S.

g/^^

CHINTA.] 155. 64. think: /S&ir. [107, 233. run (as the nose.) 62. spill ^/^^

QpuLf,

any
that

remarkable
little;

magnificence.

[9ip. 190,]
is

9>S^,
Sign.
&S)i,

which
Sleirear,

little,

P.

recommendation. &LJUU3, a bale: &lL.


Sufrrff'S?,

184.
^^iLi,']
little,

\_&ps)i,

iJl9, a little shell

^uiSl.
;

[a^LDrrrr.

134, 184,217, 266.


&ffiis,

P. QiDirir, counting, price

QuineB

more

or less

sparingly

Qsiti^s^ld.
;

\_LLuf-.

64.

leap for joy.

&g)id@, a wench

(vulg.) Qeu^enrr
disgrace. 184,231.
^l^siold.

&lSlL(B,

twinkling of the eyes.


throne
:

&ffi&s)LD, littleness,

S. &lu>LDrr<Fe!snh,
@ijiEj(ff),

lSiiIi.

l<Rap,

the itch.

le^p

a captive

64. shave, 261.


g. v.]

[imp. for

iTff, the

head

&.
officer

\Sg>!T.

P. &ffav<siT^mT,

the head

in a

Sip Ipuueir,
SesTLD,
Qek^ssr,

pQjjs-^n<sir.
:

App.

x.

court orcutchery.
S.

anger
little,

Q&iuld
small,..

270.

Srrt^&eS, a long lived person, used


as a salutation to a

13,14.
223, 224.

younger bro-

Sldresr^Q
|

SljSiLi

ther

App.

iv. V.

[ ^irLo

= ^/7*.

^,

embryo: a0. [of beasts.]


Sih

S. &ffLDtx>, weariness, sorrow.


&fffnu,
^fft

QQ/BSLD.

S. StQuL-LLD,
0(S/r

a chip

trowsers.

64. laugh: /E-n. [196,272.


SQff<ol^Lis>,

9
S.

excellence,

QsQuLD,

quickness

239.

64. shave:
S/b.

s^suffLhueBsr,^-

Seo,

some:

[_&(so^&0o, &^&<s\},

& 64. scratch the ground, as a hen. .\^7 E. ^@, the Eng. word sick
.

S&)&)&0\). nannul. 170.]


S.

S. ^SL^aJr, ^iGsr, a disciple:

(^UJm.

QeoLhuu), fencing.
S<s\)/f,

[sisHA.]
:

152, 249, 250.

few persons

QeoQutufr. 184.
aeSsfriTLD.

if,

chintz.
a

^. &(SOiTsQujLD, privilege:
Ste^fTUiLi,

B..9 .0,
S,

note;

writing;

ticket;

a splinter

fish scale.

document
&^Lh, slime and mucus.
cold
:

115, 209.

Syr.

0s)j;s!BiaL/,

S. CswiSL^LotD, S.

SCeuswi
ations.

across: (5*phlegm suld. a double entendre


:

S. &^<sirLD,
ver.=e
S. P^arzi), S.

(^0ifffr,f&.

capable of two or more interpretS. QSso, a stone,


Qis\><oOei/D,

^
I

[146. dowry. Q^sS, the goddess of prosperity,


of

S.^sm^, the wife


image
:

R&ma.

eS^Qirsu).
Sp^^fj-,

trifiing

matters

odd

money.
A'R. &&>e\)a, a district.
SeceutTtssrui,

&i^
S.

Qeu

odd money

&ffOiSdeis)jD.

66.

become

red.
[

0#=Q).

blow the nose. s,@p^.'\ comb. [^ &Lb!Tm, an opulent person. &<ss)LD, a district, country; Europe.
62.
&LJI-J, a

custard apple.

StsnuLf, redness, 130,

prop. Qis^su

&IJSLD, cumin.
9ff<5mLD,

ULf. g. v.]
S. ^suii)
S. Qeusk, Siva.

digestion.
state,

203.

&ir,

good

propriety,

order.

[shari.]
:

@aO, a palanquin
&(isjQ, a leopard.

u0O(o\)iTd(^.

&<S0LD, disposition;

good disposition.
:

^sijQsni, livelihood

iS&aLpui^.

255

INDEX
S. &<5iJ(e^w^d
I

I.

srrifi,

woman who

has

a-ULD, a benefit; health; prosperity.

a suna allowed to her out of the

shu
I

ew^ffltDim, auspicious, prosper-

common

estate.

ous.
a-uiTGULD,

Jivana + amsa + kiri.


livelihood
S. &eij(e^L83=LD,

nature: disposition:

^oj

portion

person.
.

au allotted subsistence.

ansau, s-uir, a government, province.


s-uiu^rriT, a native officer.

S.9<su^, life. 272. (III.) 64. live; die. S. gdl

LD

66. carry a load, bear. [Co.


,3=!DLD.']

O^

^eij

62.

scrape.

lS;

^ip, pus.
&ij

62. hiss.

^esTLD, ^(OT),
&iotS\,

China.
;

sugar

h. a
<3r

saddle

Qs^ssstld.

LD, a pad put under a burden carried on the head. ld\^^ (62), impose (a burden) 160. on another 3f(SLD, a burden uirrrui. [kshama.]

suMLDiT,

still,

idle

without reason.

a-,

(1.)

asans. particle = gr. i;,good,


*(iv,

232, 259,266.
gmjLD,
in comp.

well. (2.) =
S. *aLo,

own.

own.
[ssLffi.

comfort, prosperity, health:

s-ajLDLf, self-existence.
a-iLi!T^Q!r<ssr.

3^eijdQiULh, 142.

*9.

64. enjoy oneself.

rr

272. (II.)

66.

spring forth, gush from:

S. [s-QirSoeon-uw, the

acquisition of a

<3fffEj<LD,

an
62.

underground passage,
[a^^sJr.]

friend,
gain.']

suhrid, a friend
rudder.
lime-stone.
;

&)ituld,

mine.

^ffsm
a-0Li,
:

scratch,

scrape

out:

a-dsireir, a

si-rrisKsmLeuLD, a

harp.

s^dsfTssrsSo,

a fever

s,n'iuS^<3^<k).

.ffi@, dried ginger

a small piece

a-Qh)Ssi}>,

S. s-it&LD, toll,

custom
s-^^im.

^^li.

H.

s-iEJSiTssr,

a pipe for smoking.


:

S. a-&,

purity

s-LiT, light,

ray

<s^,

a-i^&o,

sfidsissir,

QaemLo. burning a
discharge

3?q^lL
<0(^
d?(iFiij(^

an abridgment. [Root. ^(tj. Comp. following words, and *tp, @Lp, apg)i.'] [a@.
62. contract, shorten
: :

@ ja

3^QF,s(^, a snare

auSgii,

62. shrink, shrivel.

:62. roll

up. 160.
Quir,

\_3fQ^m.']

ground.
g^(B

sfd^iLi^s Qairem<i)

steal,

carry

68.

burn;

roast;

*(5
m-QF)&r,

off.

^^-

(mo
,

^^

rolled,

or

fire

o-lL

arms.
62. point out:
(in comp.)
,

coiled up.

ami-.
fruit. 261.

s-q^lL.

a-Qf/m, a roll. [*(5.]


:

si-wr,

smallness.
[fees, &c.

*0ua), an image
*souLo, facility
3fen, sfsviu,
:

(SsQrrsLD, &).

3h'skns\a iTiu
S. s^^i^aLD, S. a-s,i^!T^,

the
:

chunde
/iga.

ere^^.

S. a-'smm!)iJDLi, lime

shQeon'au), a verse, couplet: saS.


eru(SD, s^iJj,

inheritance;
heir,
,

customary

own:

Q<3=itit.^,

rightful possessor.

^dr.
shsui^, a
s-sii,

[in

Comp.]
\_^lui.

H. *^/r,
S.

a-^iTsiimu
:

sf-^m^Qeo, of one's
^(ssresna^es)<s=.

small school-book.
foot

own accord

track,

mark: aaeot^,

^ffl<Fto!iraJr,

one

who has

good
165.

eu/r, a

wall

^^60. [heb. SHUR. Co.

aspect.
S. s-^^LD, purity
:

>]_

a-^^

s-isuirdstj},
s^(3iigji

s-^^, sh^^iueo, a hammer.


S.s^i^iTU), beauty: s^stji^nui,

Indra's paradise.

62. dry up.

^Lp(^.

s-suir^asrua,

power, independance.

256

INDEX
S. QJ/r<rLD, breath.

I.

^QT/isiieB,

a whirlwind.
]

[pROB.from
[107,170.
x-pg}i,
[

AR.
S.

s-enfrumeS&v,

or

g'SijfrumeS&v, a

PER. JORAPARI.
(^Lp

clerk, interpreter, 93.

[264.

60.

surround:
:

6u3s<r.

sKsumS,

[<3=inl,)

Lord,

sir,

master.
[dings.

(^ustr,

a kiln

airmeniriu.

Co.

*/b

S. s^eufrdsa, a flame.
S. <*
I

S, <9fiPJ!/-] S. (^sSiuLD,

eSlQ<3=iSi^i}j,

the gospel
:

good-ti-

vacuity

witchcraft.

S. 3i-^siriTLi,

a privilege
^jfra^iJosT.

Qe^asQivLD.

sKsaeu, taste:

^IfiM

a-ifipsji

{Qp^,)
;

56. (III.) revolve.

[Co.@tp,
round.
[e^rerff.

O^,

Q.3^U),

Q.g^iu,

whirl;

tlie

Q,f<sii, (and in poetry and O^,) in comp. give meanings red and right. [Co. ]

160,273.
*L^, a circlet
s-(e!F)a(^,

HEB. SHAVAH.
0<s^<s@,

curve

cipher

l/

Q^ss= &<s^^^....
an oil-mill
Qs^iiilseo, abrick,

223,224.
255.
[ 0<?^zi),

a sprain.

a-mmiT6s\, lynch-pin: prop. s^L^turr

seo.

Qi'3=im\(^^^, a precipice,

Q^ii),(g

&,
x-Q^,

the pulp of fruit. a shark.

^SJ-~\
Q.9=iij\<la!T&),
Gi3=fe^
[

^.
a sceptre.
[

s^>is(m,

LdauLSm. ] quickness: ^aQnih, ^uf.^.


[

Qd^ii, <?a/r

siaa-g)iui-j,

industry, diligence, 48,

273.
s-ppLD, relatives,
^s&<s!r. 99.
g^pg^

0<F(?a;, exactly right, straight. Q^u), C)<s=.] Q<rL^, ashrub: [yeaarifa), yssijr.]

connections

ui
[Co.

T.

O s^L-L^,
chant.

a jetti,

wrestler

a mer-

[*^j3;.J

62.

surround. 107.
]

Q&'iL, trade
Qs'L-es>i,

keenness.
@lp(^. a ball

(^ip, *^J3/.

awing;
a ball
;

AR.

<3i-ms!rd_^,

Mahomedan circum-

cision

eSlnF^^Q&^sesTLD.

Qs^em,
a

of flowers,

^
(^L-(B
^/i9.

@, heat

brand siriasffjs. [@.] 62. brand; wear: ^rfl.


;

&

0<y^@ 62.
Q&=^^i
3^qh<m

nosegay.

chip, adz,

grub up.
t?^n-....58.

O.FiSG'^iSBr,

from

(^L-s-uaih, @(gLD/i), (^Ss^LDLD, subtility,

Qs^^&si^,

dry

sticks,

leaves,

&c
261.

fineness,

194.
S.
:

62. put on, invest with

O s'ihgj, anything,
mal
life
: :

possessed of ani-

[@.
deceit
;

160.]

iSsTfresifl.

S.

@t^,

gambling,

gaming.
thread

S.

73, 218, 219.


S. (&^^!jLD, a rule in science
^girio,
;
:

O ^uLD, prayer iSuTir^^^ssr, Qs=uuLD, evenness, right, justice


Q<a=U)eiaLD.

[Ot?".]
a wing.

machine.

Q^uuLeai,

(^/S^, (a very vulg. word.) the seat. eurr. 62. wither away (miii-i

\_Q^tJDUL-.(siim,

a fisherman.]

Os^LDUu-L, red. [161.]


Q.TLDLJ,
per.
[

S. QiTiSBr,

a hero

aS'irsir.

a brass vessel.
Q<FLD.
<e\) ,

242

cop-

S. (^rfi'djm,

the sun. a trident


;

S. @(5W/i),

an impediment

<3=

li y,ij friEi s

a red stone, laterite.

from superstition.

Q^u^LDfS, (red.) sheep. [0<Fii, iLo^.]


Qs^LDLDfTeisrLD,
[

(^^, gout.
(gei),

redness
]

of the

sky.

pregnancy.

Qs^eueairesnh.

H. @a),
(^tp,

Dffij,

horse-cloth, &c.
si-p/S^tD.

Q^iiiecot-D,

correctness, rectitude. 39.

roundabout:

170.

O^LD.]

257

INDEX
S. Q-^iULD, a^iLiLD, victory:
S. 0<5=nS

I.

QeupjS.

S.

Q'T&^tm, the best


z_ajr,

eldest. \_QQffL-

64.

conquer: Qeueveju. 269.

Q.fL-im.'\
,

[ Q^flULD. ]

S. C^fflliSBji

mischief: qjj/ldlj.
;

Q^iu, a
Q3=uj

field.

S. Qs^^LD, destruction
1, 13,
]

cutting

off.

101.

58.
[ S.

do.

32, 72, 165,

S.
S.

Q^^,

cut off: ^S)l.

270.
Qs'iij

CHESHTA.
a deed.

Q'^^, a causeway, isthmus.


Gcriijii),

sins,

143.

[0^/Z/.

S.
]

custody,

treasure;

health.

Q^iL ^, news; doings. Q^iu IJJ&}


Gj^'LiLjetr,

[Q<s^iZ/.]

111.
148.

[CiSE^Z-Dii).]
Q'3=(7i^,

Qs=/T

60.

draw

near,

[^ff/f.]

Q3=iLi^
Q^ift

Q^lB. O<s^0<s@, pride, wantonness


64.

j)oetry.
64.

\_G)^aj.']

cause to do

160.

.3=

236, 244, 272.


64. gather together
;

unite. 239.

digest:

Q u IB ems, {& n lEj s iTiL .)


:

the

palm

of

^gu

the hand.
<?tF/r,

LDirULf.

a weight, measure.

Os^Q^uLj, sandals, slippers:


Q^reoireuissS,

(?<rff.

Qs^irdema,
[G6-/f.

connection
190.]

s^LL(BjD<sif.
[(?<s-/f.]
;

current

Q^reOLDeni^.

Q<s=&)
I

SYi

expenditure

permission

S.
S.

body of soldiers a (?<r^, a woman's cloth ^dso.


Q^rrecaw, a
:

salve.

to go. (local.) 256. [Q.?-4\] 209,

Q^eusih, service.

210, 244.
Qa^eoeuiP, 64. spend
;

S. Ci^ffl/^sw, a

peon; servant
:

115.

disburse. [0<f

G<?^iai;a),

S. Q<F(^

(dQfi)^)
an array.

a cock

ffireveo.

serve

64.

Q^esa^^

62.

cause

to

go

pay.
161.

S. Q3=emeii, service: ssel^ojui.

(Q<3=<s^^.)
0<Fa), Q,3=6\)^
12. [s.
Q'S'&ieuLD,
[

Q^su, mud,
S.
Q'ff'Sssr,

19, 245, 254.

56. (III.) go, pass.

CHAL.] 161, 267.


prosperity
]
;

riches.

245.

S. es)'3=icms, a sign, gesture: ^iT<3mi

Q^eo.

Qs=eu
eu.']

66.

be red, redden.

[O^

[Written sometimes,
redness
:

H.

Q^^irdsiriL/, a

Sev.']

Q<s=ei]uLi,
[

Q^sulj, Qeuui^.
190.

S. Qs=ad.3=Lh,

long vest. remainder; interest of


[_ujl>.

Qa=<su.]
:

T. Q^el, ear T.
0<?=isi/,

sa^.
o;.]
[

S.

money: Q s= em ^ LD
IT

euiLip..

health: 3^sui, ^QjjirdQ


2_(D!Bi_eiDii.

Q^a^^,
App.
[

goods:

0<ysfl, deafness.

Q,3^isueurrtLi,
Q'3=en<sm<sii

Mars.

vii.

Q^

Gis^ir^^eiiLD, proprietorship.

= Q^il><ss)LD,
]

S. Q^irii^u), property,
Q^irrr'Ssssr,

own.

[s-essririmj.

right, upright-

ness, evenness, 246.

Ocf.]

[ar.
Q<3=iTift

SAW-WAR.
Q<3=L^

sense,

feeling:
:

^jr^sixr,

Q.3=iT(jT)(^

57. flow

down pour out.

62. tuck in.

64.

flourish, thrive.

Q<rm<;!sruuL-L-.(5mLD,

Madras

Q3=

S.

0<3^/r/f65<sii>,

Swarga, Indra's heaven.


:

Quired, a
^-SF.iT,

word

suirir^es)^,

Olditl^,

\_Q-3=dresfl,

the head. poet.

^^, &
218.
56, 251.

Qg=iTeo^
Q^iTjSl

/7*.]
Q<9^e5r(Tj'(S<jr,

(O^^o).)

euird(^.

70. say, tell. 27.

57. scratch. 70.

Q^frrasTm^ir

S. Q'S'srru),

a parish,
64.

assembly.
258.

QiS^iTL^

64. adorn

^j<soiEjaiff-

S.

C^a/i9

collect

H.

(?<Fff, a

pair:

shoes.

258

INDEX
S. G.9=/r^&!r,examination, trial;iJ/fLlEo<F.
S.
(?<5=/r^,

I.

S. (Qtrusii,

memory: mir^.

[jtjya-

S. Q.3=rr^

64. examine,

brightness:

sgerf?.

[joti.] 194.

PAKA.] iQiruSlgu, snn: ^rfftuek.


(s^irupgisQLp&nLD,

[131.
vii.

try.

S. Q<FiT^iui,

Q^ir^ei^LD,

astronomy,
S.
:

Sunday. App.
(ej/rew,

(sj/rsBTii),

wisdom,

spiritual,

astrology.
S. Q^rruissnD, congratulation
festivity.

wise.
S.(5/rC(2)'-'C?^<3^ii, spiritual

[App.

xi.

instruction.

Qs^inhueo, laziness. iQ^frthuj.']


Q<!FfTt}iLj

62.be
gold

lazy.
:

L-

3. Q-s^irasssTLD,

Qunm.
;

AR. iQu^niT,
.ssrria/.

a head peon.
:

S.

Q<!Frrrru),

Q^iTQ^

lewdness

theft:

H. i_U)iJU>,

pomp

Qanevti,

60. wither, fall


<^/Sl.

away,

slip

down. [Co.
Qa^frdso,

and

s^iBJ]

I IT
H. LiT(em), a subordinate police-station. H. L-fTULj, a list: 3^(cl^lT.

C^/rsS, business,

&c. [^j0(E2/(^.]
:

a grove

Q^rriiiL^.

Q.3=!T<sirLD,

v. Q-rfTQ^urfi,
(^3=17^,

cholam, maize. violence, [jorawari.]


:

boiled rice

a^ir^ch.

62,63.

^a(B, a thin plate of metal.


^muu<ssr, a father, 151, 194. App.ix.
^sffLD, tin.

Q^s^irpgjisetas

274. (24.)

Q<3F(3rr [see

under ^o/.]
delight,

AR. ^surrir,
^s/r
S.

S. Qs^sirdQiLiLD,

<F<si]dQuji}),

comfort:

3?&Lri.

64. break to pieces. ^sesrw, burning.

objection, dispute.

57. be broken to pieces.

^s(T^
[

117, 118, 268.


Qs^^ii

(^For

words beginning with aa look under g), # or their second co7isonant.^


:

iStriresars:

eag-ii.

Wlioever meddles

with

things

S.m^iliuiii, a post, pillar


S. auseoih, a place
S.
:

that do not belong to him,

^^saijr.

^irssrii,

^ild. 115.

m^0sr,

m^iT,

added

to adj.

make

^Q 64.
I

will lose his life-

them
S. &o^iri3 S. em^iresTLD
S. en)^9^,

into nouns.
64. establish
:

^^ 68. be ^@ ^, fitness,
la/,

burn, consume.
fit.

117, 118, 157, 244.

iSSso Slffi^si-

[^(g. 190.] ^(S2DsiS!(cW/rioar@{T5aS), a sparrow, [^eroa


prohibition.]

= ^trenTLD.
condition.
e-jj;^,

state,

^sa
^iw.
166.
(chris.
^

oo^fTLD,

stability:

^<s@

157.
62.

come
64.

into one's posses-

ov^rR, a

woman:
the

Quern
Baptist,

sion,
i(ffisfl

[^-l
I
.

S. avfBfT/sseir,

usage.)
S. av/sfreuru},

.^.

>

16 1. appropriate. lei

^<sui_/(OTrg/-62. J

bathing.
[see

^
E.

under cs^.

younger
]

sister. Aj)p. x.

^lLS,

the Eng.

word judge.
[
:

^rkjsLD, pure gold:

^uni^Q.
^/fl.
to.')

166.

S. geoLD, (see

.s^siiii.)

p. ^(SniTLj, an answer.
^&!rair&},

jawab.

sikssm 62. abide ^m(g)

108.
:

(in

some
x.

window

connections^ic/on^r
239.

^aJrana).

^sisaa, a younger

sister.

App.
:

S.^si>^smLD, (1.) the south


(S^iTsm, a

0^/ei@.
93.

thread

^ioS)rr(e^rr<3S!!r,

waist
259.

(2.) the right side.


S. ^d-<F<air, a carpenter,

thread

33

259

NDEX
[Owe who cuts ;
applied
to a stone

I.

cutter, ado^J^^ek.']

AB.. ^au^Qeush, a document, voucher.

^ksi, 70. [^(^, ^ff.] ^m&i^, a father: ^suum. App. x. S.^u*, austerities, penance: ^euLo.
l^Qutr in comp. before
written for
1. ^Ljuec^p,
a sonant, is

[dastawez.]
P.^OT^jjT'fl, fees,

custom. ^/^fLD, a refuge: ^<ss>ias<offiM. ^L-.m3,&), an impediment: ^&siL


:

^u*.]
falsehood:

I^ld.

error,

^u^

S. jSiw, a track
jSi<s!i

^L^s^a-eu.

H. ^uufreo=^isi]iT&)=^urr0O, the post.

62. grope, feel with the

hand

^urreOLDfT, posted bullocks.


;

smear.
si.<smeij,

^uiS^ih,
a time
:

a fault

iSeaLp.

^uld, sSsio^.
217.

^uiS^^dQarreF^,

56.

(HI.) es-

S. ^iirsiM, a

pond: (^anh. ^if, astiek: sl^

cape from. l^uLj.'] jSuiSluQufT, escape

go astray.
154.
a fault.

^Lf.

64.

^LDfrjpi

grow

fat or thick.

62. be confused.

^(BiDirppLD,

perplexity

190.
confusion.

^doi)^LDfrppil,, utter
:

^UL^eS
^LJLf
fiLDir,

^uLj, a fault

i5rotp. p.
;

62. escape

commit

64. 160. save, rescue.

^<mi, hindrance ^i_ffiyi^.


^miiLiLD, utensil
;

property.

^LLinasr, a goldsmith.

H. ^Lodi^, a tom-tom. [sir. App. x. ^LD-ies)s, an elder sister ^dair ^LDium-, ^<ss>LDtum, an elder brother.
:

^L-L^, a screen. [Co. ^ssj/t^f^^i.]

a hole. [s. dravida.] 124.

^lL, (any thing


of a balance.

flat),

a plate, scale

^iSCp, Tamil,

^iL

^LD, 108. App. xii.


^.

62. strike against, hinder.

^LDueoiM,

the refuse

of betel nut

^L-.ise)i, adj. flat.

pt-isaiLJiSikisirm, aflat plate.


^ism'eo,
live

which has been chewed. ^LoiSi, a younger brother.


S.^LDiSlrrtr(3k,

App. x.

coals:

[^sajr,

^^.]

God.

Co. 6riisin^ = sru>+


[sro^.

^esSl

^wLjQ^, a guitar.
57.

grow cool

^jd^.
;

^ujiEj(^

62. languish. 223, 224.

jS<si!sr,

adj. cool: (^e^irm^.

^<s33ri_eb, collection,

demand

mate

S.^iueij,

kindness,

favor:

uCs^il,.

of a ship.
S.

[96,242.

^emi%!r,

punishment;

^dQ&sr.

A'R.

^iLifTiT,

ready: ^in^^ui.

S. ^(oBsriti, jSisssrissr, salutation: eu/i

^uSiT, curdled milk.


S. ^mlU=^UJ(alj.

S.

^(sssTLSf.

64. punish
;

^/7@, brokerage.
96.
^!is,<3sr,
;

^(^m-, a stand

^ekr

army

a broker, agent.

club.
;

62. collect taxes. Sec

visit.

^emes^iT, cold water


S-.^^^il), a gift; adoption.

50,52.
[^ix> +

H. ^iTULi^iTfTm, an inferior servant under a TShsildar.


siiLD,

a time

a sort, [^^sh,

a/irtos.]

^^^ti>, belonging to each one. ^LD. 108.]

S.^tfi

64. put on; stay.

S. ^fff^asru),

appearance:
:

Qs;rrprDLD, sir

^^^isB

^^gi

62.

64. vacillate
trip,

tremble.

lL&
S.^/fla

presence

a^Qpaih.

walk uncertainly.
:

64. behold.

S.^^^suii, quality ^eksain.


S. /5^ii), ivory.
S. ^ih^jLD,

S. ^iffQajili, visibility.
ijirii'i'n.

[g

^ifls, waste land: anLot-j.


S. ^rRs=^ffiM,

trick;

method,

policy:

poverty:

sreiB&aLc.

260

INDEX
^ift^S^sGisfrecr
,

I,

put on one's
106. (4.) ^qf^lL^ld.
give,

self,

^QgLD.Lj, a scar.
^(Lpetj

56. (III.)

[>/fl.]
lduixj,

62.

embrace
:

^'hmr, slL(B.
{_Co.

S.^0,
S.^QF)

(Qro^.)

a tree

^eo^Lp,

a bud, shoot

^eSir,^

70.

[da.]
<3=i

erfl/f.]

S. ^(Tjsasrti),
ILILD.

time,

opportunity:

^<cs>Lp

^Q^eS
[

254.

57.

shoot,

germinate.
273.

64. flourish.

{&Qp^)
:

cause to come
160.
iSeotp, ^errti.

^<EW^<cir

local usage]:

euQr^e^.

^eiTLD,
^CT-/f

a floor, an army.
(.)

S. ^/r,

ground, floor

S. ^irds^g^irau^rrii),

logic ... ,212,

213.

60. totter.

...

57, 228.

^sy/-/r|^,

feebleness,

looseness,

S.^irdaLD, disputation, argument.


AB,. ^lidsrreh^,
S. ^trueiau, a

190. [^sr/f.]
jSeBfr,

228.

a proposal,

tender.

a bud. [Co. ^etp.] a bond, connexion.

kind of yellow grass. 212.


^/Dth.

^^,

S. ^iTLDUj, ^0t>zi), charity, virtue:

^sireirir

62. stagger, 255.

\_^<sit.'\

S. ^soui,
'^l.

m^e^ih,

place: ^ith.
materials:

^eirefrfreioLD,

^eoeuiTiLD, ^efreuiriLD,

^srr(Br5

inability 62.

154.

push;

turn away;

reject

146, 239, 247.

^&, ahead: j*
^SsoairssS, a pillow
:

58,259.
^^ds'Ssasr.
^/S!, a weaver's

^dsiSipiTs, upside-down.

[251.40.]

^/S

loom; axe.

64. cut

off.

^ds{i&&sai, the front.


^(sm'hssr

S.^esTLD, (1.) wealth, (2.) a term, of

=
]

front verandah.
Ijorn
:

sans,

nouns

ness.

si^s^&=Q!r,
[ S.

first

rtp^pQu^.
161.

JAN.

^Ssouu
H.
^dsiiuiTiB,

fisS, alone, (adj. ^sot^^.) 251,184. s>sSicaLD, loneliness


^'(istsr

begin

212.
108, 270.
.

^(SiissLo,

watchman. scarcity impediment.


;

^OT
^<33rs3r/F^ SOT^^
. .
,

... 223, 224.

^eussSsir, a frog: ^svdsir.


S.^fflicFii),

^ekeariB^eSQuj
[a raft.

223, 224.
j^ssJ/",

grain; store: ^irst^iULD,

^meS'S'eia'Fdsirrresr, 272. (!!)


^<^(3iD<5^.]

S. ^eiisr

^ua-, ^ULD. =
^uffi:

^eu'^sm, a term, fixed time:


S.

Qa

^euLo

264.

^ia;&, a large brass vessel


138.
^<si](Lg

^uSso,
73,

^rr, give.

[The root o{fi(^Qp^. 70.]


give

S.^iTSii, thirst.
60.

crawl
:

fsirs^^p(ss QsrQ,
to drink.

me sometMng
I

^euSstr,

a frog

^(a/<s^.
lSIiswlp.
:

^engii,

mistake S. ^enenTLD, thirst; longing: H.^eutrei), ^uireo, ^LJun'So,


^ei]u 62. err,

a mistake;

cresrs^^ fiirsib erQiSlp^,

am

thirsty.

^ulj.
<siin(i^<oir>^s=.

K.'R.

passed, registration, entry. slL/_&. KB.. ^iTsQ^, an order


:

the post.

^iTsi^, an assault.

App.
^gfl

ii.

^ns(S)
^dsir;

62. dash against;

Quar^.

^ia//risb@^s/r, a posted horse.

aiTisjseo,

displeasure.

[^/rE/(g

64. be wearied

pine:

m&} .'\
^iT!ii(^

108.
62.

bear, sustain: Qutr^i,

^eSl(B, bran.
^elrr,

3=3.
epifiu-i

^eSiT
^efl/f

except:
64.

172.

S.^rr,3=dr,

a slave, servant: ^i^exLo.

60, 57. (neut.) be removed.

S.^itSI, a courtesan:

QeuS, Q^e^i^irS.
officer.

remove.

[170.

AB,. sfr&ev^mr, a revenue

261

NDEX
H. ^/r, a gong, hour
^iTL^, a beard.
^ireeyi,

I.

158.

^irissrui, (1.)

a gift [danaM:] ^emss,


(wrjih.

Qsirmi,
pass over.

^rrsss
S.

the jawbone.
62.

(2.)

place.

[s'tanam.]
^irs^iui}), grain
:

^euo'ih.

^rr^iT, a giver,

[datri.]
;

^irm

S.^n-^i, (1.) an elementary principle


(2.) root
;

108, 271.

(3.)

the pulse.

S.

^iremfi, grandfather. S.^fTLD&'LD, ^fTLD^LD,

App.

x.

delay. [In Tinn.

^Qso, sudden alarm: fleas, Pemsuu. ^!o<s = (l.) p<5Bi<3=, p&(^. (2.) fright. ^esia 64.be affrighted 254.

^fTLD&Bfr,

lotus

^rj^i^ili,

sLDeotJa.

peiasuL^, fright

190.
90.

S. ^niSffih,
fiiTLD

copper: Q^a^mLj.
108. App. xii.

piappeusk

S.^/riiyeOii, betel prepared for eating.


S. ^rritiir^,

a kinsman.

pd(^, (die.) a quarter of the heaven, 90. App. ix. ^liiseir, the moon. App. vii. [Co. a.
glau.]
Pesi<s==pd(Q.

^iriu, a

mother.

^iTiULDiTLDm.

App. X.
difference

^. ^nu^LoiBujui,

of greater

pei^L^, sight

fascination

evil eye

and
S. ^n-ffili,

less.

a wife.

^L-LD, strength, firmness

S-ffi^.

^irffiren-th,

confidence,

freedom.

Pi<so,

mound
^lL.

^L-esit,

Qix.

pi-ir,

S.^/TiB,

[dhari.] a

terrain.

[^Lti.]
constancy:
273.

one itAo

^iiTfftdsBLD,

courage,

wears, or bears.
^iTQ^LD, give ye
S.^rrssjir,
!

^isLeo,

pus.IT
"I

70.
;

PdQ

give a start, be terrified,

P.

JsrrQrrfrstr,

a trumpet a large drop. a superintendent.

PdQse!!r J

263, 70.
:

plL-iLD, exactness, accuracy, order

S.-gireoii, a

copper dish.

^rrsorru-, a lullaby.
^ireS, the

Pl_
iii.

62. revile:

esxsii,

Sip.
;

[146.

marriage token.

Pessr'Ssssr,

a pial, elevated
of the

verandah. observan-

AR. ^iT^srr, Tahluk. App.


S. ^rrsuffw, a habitation
;

PP,

day

month

any thing im-

ces belonging to a day, especially


for the dead, [tit'hi.

moveable.
^/raflfc, better, [^/r^aj/,

^60^.]
130.

P^P

comp. Q^p.]
[190. sweetmeats.
;

64. be sweet.
;

Heb.^/raS"^, David
^ireij

P^P^uLj, sweetness
PlS^u

^T(Lp

60. be humble, bow down.


kind of thorn
tree.

62. stretch forth the arms, &c.

piBiEiQeow, a large fish

whale.

62.

get out of a person's


dejected, confound-

grasp.
Pojiiif^

^rresjip, a

^iripd^Q, want. \_^iti^. 190.]

62.be
aeota(^.

^irip^SJ

{Qp_^.^
160.]

humble, abase,

ed

lurreou}, vulg=a/risoii>, time.

[^iriJp.

S.^ tLHTeani,
humility. 184, 190.
242.

meditation.

^iripeiau), ^iTLE>(Sj,

'jilL, a collection, [^jsrr.]

S. ^rrerru), time in music,

^rr^
^rreir,

'jlI

62.

make round;

collect.

62. bear: Qurrjpi.


foot,

Ipje^. 160.]
(2.)

(1.)

stalk;

bolt;

S.g'UGSSTLD,

trifle, [lit:

grass.]

^0

(3.) a sheet of paper.

262

INDEX
^a'hisr, a

I.

the bundles
[^iJiff
.]

wisp of straw laid under on a bullock's back.


iSSso,

^esiiT,

(1.)

a curtain:
:

^eiaiT'T^Sso.

(2.) a

wave

^^o.

101.
a

AR. ^eufreS,
:

[Diwan.]

place

of

^jju>,

firmness

^-.gji^,

m^sLo.

^fft^iuih, wealth, substance:

^m^.

justice.
S. ^eudliu, divine,

101, 138, 242.


^rreiriTiS,

abundantly.

^fl

66. open.

^pmLD,

ability
;

269.

^treir,
^fffei^

crowd [any thing round.] 56. (III.) become numerous,


&;c,

^flLD, a part

ability.
:

^pe^Qsfr&), a key

3=ir<^.

[jins.

round,

[^jsyt.]

AR.
:

^ssra-, ^ersrla-,

^e^,

kind, species.
lSIjj^^-sbt

^niTLLa^Lh, grape:
^ijfretmfl,

Qam^Qpi^rfi.
siiSoeouui,
\_UJLD.

S. ^ssTLDiresTth,

^i^^esrnpLD,
daily

strength, ability

LD^iBirQiiTgiiil),

every day.
:

^^gjeilLD.
^rrnensili,

S. ^esni, a
^asreij,

day

fsireir.

206, 207.

any thing

distilled

s'lrrnr

itching.
a

^rR, a wick; three, [tri.]


^/fl

^Sosr,

kind of millet, any thing


l^esr.

57.

wander about, whirl. 220,

small.

265, 269.
ffirs^^iQaseit,

He

IS

in

danger of

^dr 56. (lll.)( l.)eat.(2.)itch: ^asr"/ ^mtS, ^ekuimriih, food, any thing
eatable
:

death.

Qrenffieineu, ^<ssfl.

^fffsms, a potter's wheel; a mill. [firfl.']


^fft\QsiTsmt}),a, triangle.
^rfl\Qsrr(5m-\'3=ir^^rTL>,
^fff

Q
^,
s.

trigonometry.

(1.)

fire

^dQet^,
evil
:

Qm(TF)Lji-j.

64. twist a rope, 8tc.

152, 261.

a. (2.)

Quireoeoirss-

^rfls:'ij(^,

a king,

father of Haris-

(3.) sweet, [in

comp.]
[ It is

chandra.
^rfl.a=uju>,

^s,
is visible.

l@(75afl,

an ostrich.

suppos-

what

^if]^Sj<siiili,

Trinity.
[^/fl.]

ed to eat fire.] ^iBj=^, sweet, (in comp.)


^iEi(Q, evil: QuireoiodirLJLj,^m>LD.[^.']

^ifiLf,

change: Qeugauir.

S. ^iLeiO'F, initiation.

^(5, holy; prosperity, [shri.]

P@ ^2-

^L-

62.

sharpen

beat

rice

turn, twist.
Is^ejou.

write. 228.

^Q^sn-mB, a screw.
.

^nK^\<3^eisu, the church, 128. \_^q^+

^Qh(d^iirm^LD, example

^L-Lf, pollution ^a-&. [^esiir.] contaminate ^SOT 62. touch


:

158.
S.

Q^lT.

[drishtantam.]
^(vji-OT, a thief

^ULD, ^iSl&as, a lamp:

(^<Eird(^.

^(Tj

134,242.
ffl6-(ffl/;(2.)thievish.

^<smLD, evil, 64. [^, 184.]

vulg

^m

62. steal. 138,


^IEJ(^.

^(^LL,(l.)theft:

[poet.]
;

^^.
220.

^(TR^^ii), correctness,

190.
correct. 270.

^(^/E^

^Qfi^^
.

^(muuesifl,
^QFjUi-i

become 160. sacred turn 160, 268. be turned ^OUJL^


62.
62. correct. 62.

S. ^ffLi), a
^fftr,

bank

boldness.

=^i7ff<s
^irir# ffisQ^sm,

a duuht which
Quirinrih
Qpisf-tjib^

is

not

service,

[(-/sosfl.]

cleared up.
^Iira
Qairuih

(act.) [gr. trep.]

impla-

cable anger will end in war.

62.

... .160,

263.

S.^0

60.be cleared

off,

appeased,

^(TTjSuif,

[^0+^i^.]

the sacred foot

expiated, [tira.] 128.


S. ^iTd3,fiffl&, a seer, prophet,

the presence of.


^(Vj^ei^eirLh,

[darsh-

the divine mind, or will.

IN.] 141.

263

INDEX

I.

NDEX
^(ai;<s@

1.

s.

62.

begin

Q^niimi^.
[iJ^-/.

^triLi \issiLD,

purity:

*^^tD

.184.

S.^euii), a
gjeuaLD,

term.

ness, ity.
:

S.^^ijLh, distance; difference ... .242.

harshness of taste

^euir
243,
4.

_^iT

^isiiijLhuQhuLj
^eiieiarr,

^a/rSTp

a leguminous plant. 243, 4. 56.


(III.)

57. be filled up, as a pit or

well.
64.
fill

bend, warp,
leuSstr.

^^iT^^iZsr,

up iSeiop. bad fellow.


:

shrink.
S. ^earruLD,

^euatoSTLD, drifting rain.


^^fi2/

[dwaram.] a door

hole

62. sprinkle gently.

S. ^Q^<si^u>, hatred.

_^eir, dust,
stone.
,girff!i,

powder

Quai^,^.
(2.) ill report.

^gjnsy

64. beat clothes on a

228,19,64. ffiesiSiiVdjeo, (1.) things bruised and eaten with rice. (2.) tempering
curdle milk
of steel.
gjisB,
^eftliT,
^(cYTigrj,

^11

(1.) a thicket

62. drizzle,

266.
a

defame.
266.

^ppso,

a shower
a tale-bearer
;

^p^,
^pss
0ii).

sweeper,

[190.]
:
.

a drop a

tS^ bud, germ


jump.
62.

107.
^eSir, ^etntp.

62.

winnow
\oun\o^

scatter abroad

defame.
s_OT(S7r

^err(Sffi

^ppsi

Koiswcnsw Ua/csor

leap, be frolicksome.

You must winnow when

there

is

wind.

^piL,
giimp,

a hook.

a harbour,

ford,
;

place of
S,

Q^
Q^smiisa^.

descent into a tank


S.

scheme.
141.
96.
:

App.

iv.

^sjr

=
I

^/f.

q.

words beginning with cannot be found here, see under

When

Q^
fi.

S. ^(Soruii), S. ^(23r
I

affliction

i)/r/fs<sii),

bad conduct

gii^m

Q^^gj,

gip

atsisis,

Qfi^^

a hedge, entrenchment.
62.

stammer
:

twist

any

thing.
66. forsake.

Q^uuLD,

a raft
(garii),

t-j'^ssur.

Q^uud
^w&SLD,
sleep: S^^eairr, S-pdsLD.
a
S. Q^LueuLo,

a small tank.

divinity, providence, fate.

to suspend any thing upon. [Co. 0^/r/Ky@.] ,^s(^, 62. hang up; weigh;

^s(^,

hook or rope

[daiva.]
S. Cl^lLK^SLD

90, 166.

^EKQ
^0ireiS,

O^/fl

206.
;

57. be intelligible

known

consider.
62.

select, pick, ascertain. 49, 93, 111,

sleep.
:

139. fSi^&sr.
[

S.^^SL^dimru), abuse
S. jpirS,

Q^HiuirineSa^Bgi sSiLQiosr,

I ivas
act.

ig-

dust

norant of the matter.


:

ffiir&r
:

Impers. with 4th case


2d. case.]

with

(l._)ameasure

ij<B<s/xa). (2.)

a quiver.

Q^fBiuu
I

u3i^,
161.]
:

make

known.
239.
the
real

^em,

a pillar

ero^iiuii

.265.

[ QjSffjuj.
,

^sisrL^e^, a hook

182.
Q^yr

a street
j

eS^

^skrL^p
I

airrrm, a fisherman.

iL^d

seSiufremLo,
[

'smrL^eo.']

182, 183.
stir

^sstsr

62.

marriage.

Q^(i5sn" = understand-

up, incite

67/,

erO^^sS, erq^uLj. S.^r^sar, {i.^^, ^^(sna.)


S.^sir^, an errand,

[ger.

., nausea.

a messen-

62. loathe.

57.

become

clear;

be

[gen. a bad one.]

S.^^Uii, incense.

scattered,

dissipated.

[O^//?.]

64. sprinkle, scatter.

265

INDEX
O^srf?

I.

Q^^

Q/,

clearness. 39, 190. [O^srf?.]


64. burst,
&:c.

(ssi^iueo,

sewing. 148.
a tailor,

[g^.]
[sio^.]
:

be
ix.

scattered

<ss>^iupan3<3sr,
j

[tii.

shoot stones,

S. ea^fftoju), boldness, courage

^uSfRiu

Q^m, south. App. No. GT^iT, opposite.


Q^dsr
I

[Incomp.
side

S. eta^eciD, oil, liniment: ^uSisotJa.

<s=/7@,

the

south

of a
OfiiT(^

street.

&c. App. vi.


the south

[<s(yb^.
:

O^ssr

\p(SO,

wind

ws^k^

^^-

[II-]

be

summed

up,

S.

Q^sih, a body
<S^s(3)

Q^rii(^

s^rPaili.

Q^iT(g)^, a collection.
sresur,

62. stop, cause to stagnate.

suffer ellipsis.

64.

sum

up.

the numerator.

62. stagnate.
:

0^/7-(S<s,

sum,
ellipsis

total.

[0^/r@.] In

S. Q^'3=LD,

a country
62. seek,

ibit, &ssiLD.

gram,

244,270.
that

S. Q^'S^iriB^uis).

Q^(B
QjS^,

[^^/E^irii).]

23-4,

235.
[190.

Q^tr/sjaSu,

any thing

hangs
148.

down
Q^nEj(^

Q^lLlld, Q^iLeai, what


a
[tit'hi.]

is

sought,
:

62. hang, be suspended,


:

day of the month


62.
sob, pine

^^.

Q^iniEi(^
Q^iTL-ir

62. begin
what

^ffl;@.241.

Q^LDLi
Q^iij

Q^fTiiT, in

away.
less,

60. follow

comp. connection.
after,

pursue.

57.

wear away, grow

Q^!nfr-s=&,

follows,

conse190.

wane.

quence
32.

64. rub Q^UJLD = Q^'3=Ui.


QjS/ff,

Q^ir

68. touch. 230.

64. connect, put the

arrow on

sand plain, [tinn.]


62.

the string.

G^Q^

consider;

ascertain.

Q^/rOiJL/,

intrigue,
;

connection.

C^sro/r,

a kind of frog.

[0^/r
^ij^ii,
sSt/jff

or for Q^frtiTLj.']
:

G^iT, a chariot; car:


(ssnh.

Q^fresyi, a thigh

^etoz

166.
a temple
:

Q^nL-Ls^, a trough, manger.


Cs/rsSei).

S. C^sulpro^ffesTLD,

Q^iTL-L^io, a cradle.

S.

Q^ensm^,

a god, or goddess. .151.


151.
;

S. Q^snifiT

Q^itlL, [Q^/t.] 230. 681.) Q^iriLQi^ek,! touched, (from Q^ir,


Q^rrmsr, a slave.
Q^iresisres)!,

S.

Q^eS, a goddess a queen. Q^<csieii, need ^eu^s^rril).


:

the throat.

Q^eir,
Q^gii

a scorpion
62. be strengthened,

254.

Q^irem^^iirgii, 90,

become

clear,

arrive
Q^QF).']

at

conclusion,

62. cling to infect, taint. Q^iT^SJ Q^iT^^(^tuiT^, an infectious disease.


;

172.

[comp.

Q^iTiB^rreij,

trouble
:

Q^irii^eiarr.

166.

G^/D|afl6^/r/fl,

examine thoroughly.
\Qpffi.

Q^iri^, the belly


Q^iruLjeiT,

Q^iruesiU.
:

Q^ppLD, emphasis, clearness.


190.]

the

navel

Qa!ruLi(sir,
^sfl.]

^m^.
Q^nih
160.

G^pps&i, comfort.
-62. comfort
52sr,

57. languish, faint.


57. be

[Co.

0^/r&

removed; pass away.


off:

honey:

togi

107.

s. January.

^dso,
64.

iiisi(^.

171, 244.

remove; wipe
:

64.

App.

vii.

sew, stick in

32.

Q^itSso, great distance

Q^irm^HLD.

266

INDEX
Qs5ire[)&i),

I.

antiquity

trouble.

S. issfTLn,
rESQF,

lEsifl,

Q^tTL^eo,

work

employ.
:

60.

city, metropolis.

crawl, be removed. 251.


laugh. App.

Q^iT(t, a pair of stocks

Q^!TQ

Qi^iTqLD!ru>.
[alli-

AR.

rsa&i,

a duplicate, copy.
;

60. worship

^nrr^.

mens, jewel
/ECisa

ed to filT(Lg.'] Q^nQseniM, a fold


Q^frem-rruSrjLD,

Qeai,

LD/Ben)^.

/5<s@

ii.

64.

laugh, deride.
lick.

62.

- 900
:

172.

P.

iBiiiSr^ffLh,
[/E/E/iSB)<s,

an anchor.
a noble

Q^fT^, a hole
S. Q^fresH,

^eurrffLD.

woman.]
62. crush, bruize.

sound

s^^^th.
antiquity,

/E'S^eo,

Q^rrm^ Q^mL, from


[O^/rcarjj;, antiquity.]

/E*/K/(g

/5@
n.)

wasting sickness.
160.
;

230.

(a.
rBm3=,

&

desire
(1.)

moisture.

/EcF*,

adj.
;

poisonous:
babbling.

[/^(OT*.]

Q^ireas, a feather, peacock,


S. Q^rrei^iM,

tail.

(2.)

desire

fault

(ff^ppLd.

S. lEsi^iLD,
lEiQo-,

mu-iiM, loss:
:

[^issfl.

Q^nmis=, a kind of rice-cake.

QismLiLh,
Q^itlLl^,
luirm.
S. Q^fTsail,
]

a garden ...

Ill,
[

181.

fEi

poison
66.

aSei^iJ).

[adj. /e.5^*.]

walk;

take place, go on; 272. (III.)


[/5i_.]

scavenger:

QeuLLi^

suffice. 32, 56, 73, 111,

267.
rsideas,
S. iBis;^

a large boat.

Q^a(smL^,

QjSrrsm

an earthen pot.... 149.


62. dig.
.-

ii.

mi^eei^,
62.

conduct, 143.

conduct, cause to go.

App.

160.
life,

S. Q^rr^^ffLD, praise
S. Q^rruLf,

tBiuL^, one's

deportment,

[/e

gj^.
of trees, tope.
S. ibiulSI

clump

Tel. Q^iTLDeBff, mosquito curtains.


Q^iTtLi

S. fEiuiSlel

57. curdle, (n.)


iBiLDiT,
(a.)
i_ii),
iBLeif,

64. cause to walk. 160.

64. cause to walk. 160.

62.

64. dip in, curdle,

move

about, walk,

[/f

^.]
transplanting. [/5.]

S. Q^irn'smLD, lines of flowers, &c, sus-

pended across
ces.
Qfiireo,

streets

and entran-

IE, the

(1.)

root of Q^rrp

Qpgj.
C
190.

ih

68.

middle

ld^^,

<se>LDUJua.

134.

plant. 57.

ihssLD, trembling.
tBiki(g)

(2.)

skin, leather.
defeat.
\_Q^irSo.']
(f.)

C?^/r(SD|s)S),

Q^iTi^m, G^iTL^,
Q^ireir,

a companion.

lBrEit(g)


\_rBL

62.

tremble. 263.
(273.)
IE

/EflQeO,

shoulder:

IE UUp,

)ui3Qffc, in

ljiuld.

the middle.
S. /5roi_,

Q^fTgnih,

Q^rrp

(Slp^,)

every, each, [affix.]

conduct

walk
191.

be

defeated. [70.

pace

a trip

idiom.
131.

like sec.']
Q<sn-pLi

= Q^aiso^.

iE<cS)Lut3<smL>,
lQ^rre\).'\

a walking corpse.

Q<srrpp, 70.

[C^/riso.]

Q^rrppiD, appearance

Q^npgs, or

Q^iTekffi

Q^nekgn.

S. lELL^a^^^iTU},

iE.as>p,^^iTLD,
:

a star, con-

stellation
62. appear. 90.
/el1(_,

suirmLScir.

75. [/E.]

m
fB^iL
S. /BsiM,

IEL-lLD=-IE<^lLCi.

+=^5^-]
of a liver.
[/5 ie&i.']

62.

push along.
tiger that

lEL-L-Tgu,
[/HL-L/,
O,

the middle

a nail, claw.

friendship; &QrB3,m. r.
a crab.

maQpih ue\)^tn Quirsgr l/oS,

iE<skr

has

lost its claivs

and

teeth.

iB<skri^miu, for

mmQr^dj

125.

34

26T

INDEX
S. /B^,

1.

a river

S. lEiTSii^sLD,
esi/f.

urbanity, civilization.
:

/Bji^ua,
iB^^ss)^,

a village:

mi'd(^, tongue
lEFiEiseir,

miTeij, ibit.

258.

a snail.
fEih^esrsuesnli,

we
:

10, 11, 37.

S. reii^eutssTLD,
:

a flower

S. lEiT^ih, destruction
S. /BiT@, nose, nostril S. /Eff^susBT,
:

^i^sy. Qpd(^,
:

garden y^iQ^inLtUi, y,(f^Q^ir8so. AR./BuiT, a person, an individual:


^srr. [a//f.]
S. rBLD&osimui, adoration
/ELDcmsffl

iBir&&a,x.

a barber

^iMUL-u.m',

lEiTi^^eir.
;

pay reverence. iBLD, 10, 37. App. xii. fBiiujT, the English word number. 188. App. ii.
64.
/eldlSssids,

reverence.

S. iEm.&Li,

drama

s^^si.
of certain

H.

miTiiT,
iEiTLiT(sir,

a ribbon. a polite epithet


:

classes
S.
iBiTL^,

[/e/t.]

the pulse.

hope, trust

eS<9rai;/r<9=z-D.

isr,

a country,

district.

19, 26,

[190.
/Eiii-i

fEtli^.']

62. hope, expect, rely on.


:

180, 166. Im. plant 191. d.] iBir 62. seek, desire eagerly. 261.

S./Bujuj,

kindness

^sBiL/

cheapness

iBirQu-iruf-Oj,
\_fB'T

customary

a^rr^irrjissBr.
SllUi.'\

SaUf-lU .']

S. /Birsu>, hell
[/5i7<sb,
iBffLDLf,

6r//?/Eff<ii).

excrement:

mirQi/Tffiiisi,
lS".

everyday.

l/EireiT+Q^ir

fBirL-L-Lh,

aim, desire. [/E/r.]


1

a chord, string; sinew.

S. iBHssr, a
lEifl,

man. pi

isinLimT
:

/Eij/r
:

or /Ejirrehdseir.

80.

witlL
3=imljsld.
ieitlL

a fox, jackall

iBQhS(m
a-,

62. bruise.

[Co. Q/sa^,

18,131.
62. fix, plant.

ib IB
it

SHUT LD

O/E0.]
62. be bruized. 160. gray hairs hoary.
;

rbQT)rEi(^
iBeiorr,

IS

shame: QsulLsld, <s._<F<Fii>, modesty: (^sstilild, [/e/toth.]

iBiressTeo,

fEeL>Lh,

= ^eir<oSiLD
/Efir,

lE"^^

272. (III.)
(sp,

62.
LD
,

a reed.

be bashful, ashamed.

lb ir'iisssnu

mec, /Esieo,

good. 13,14,184.
184.

honesty

elegance

lu^ir

m (SO eo
S.

IT IT ,

&) Q eo n IT

TEirem, a cord,
is<aiiLc,

bow-string
:

siugu.

(1.)

newness:
:

LjguesiLo. 134.

(2.) nine

(^mu^.
:

S. /5/T^(SJr,

master, lord

^(sesrieiKssr

AR.

iseuir,

fBQ^eif

a person
62.

tBiT^^t^ir, /BTT^^, husband's sister.

.^sJr. [see ieuit.'}

slip

down, or out
(ggifl/r.

App.

X.

of
S.iBirtS, (1.)

the hand.
meiBir,
iBossr

the navel: Q^rruLfsir. (2.)


:

57.
64.

cold, ague

a kind of poison
S. iBiTLDih, a

eu,ff=^iETriS.

become wet, soaked.


wet
. II.

name

Quiuir.

soak, wet.
cultivation.
[

AR.
93.

isniniT,
eio<x,

a deed,

writing:

u^^ift

mmQ'S^uj,
Introd.
/EesreniLo,
/EeirjS,

272. (111.)
184.]
[_rseo.']

fEiTLD,

ernp^^. 153. we
[/E/riL//J

10, 11, 37.


sireshta-

goodness.
a benefit:

\_iE60+einLD.

AR.

iBirajuQfT&v^iT,

a deputy

S-usirrrtD.

dar.

= deputy.]
any
thing

fsm/S ^i;S, (57.) be thankful. mmgii, it is a good thing a good


;

S. ihiTiusLJa,

excellence,
a leader

excellent.
S. lEiTUjsek,
;

thing.

155, 184,272. (III.)

lover.

mirQium
lEiruj,

184.

dog
an iron pen,

13,14,217.
a probe
;

S. lEirsiJi,

a snake,

dragon

UlTLDLj,

S, mirrfiTs^LD,

lane, (local.)

268

INDEX
.BiTir,

I,

fibres of plants.

S. rS^^ujLD,

eternity.

IB IT

so (T <su SJ

175.
(j-.)

lil^^ssiiT,

sleep

airssiiLD.
:

iE!T^,

four,

134,172.

[_iB!Teo,iE!T

S. Sliiem^,

p,
rsiTsjii

iBfresr.']

[O^/te/q.
hang, be suspended
:

S.

70.

fsiT^^dr, a barber: ^jihuu-L-di,

leir

S.

contumely ^-^/rsi^cjOTii). rSiu/B^&sr, an agreement; canon: SLL(pLjua. iSuLsi, slander: iSud Q^ireo.. .256.
a skilful person.]
(

miretf

S. IfSLjemek,
len,

a tongue
:

rBad(^....265.

S. SIlBsl^ld,

iSlSu.u>,)

moment,

lEiTL^,

a measure

ul^.
158.
S.

instant.

S. /Effi^sna,
iBireir^,

a Tamil hour current,


[/5/rrr.]

/SlS^^U}, a cause
iSlSit

rErre^2irs!^d(m
iBiT(emd(^rBir&r,

206.

57.
:

omen. 157, 242.

stand upright.
regulation,

64. place upright.


rule,

from day to day. iBirdsfT, tomorrow.... 206, 244,266. 206,242. iBTm, a day: mir'Ssir iEfT)i 62. yield a smell (good or

S. SiuLDLD,

obser-

vance

slLiSsit. 163.
:

S. SiLiirujLD, reason
1^^. 115.

Qpsni^nuj; right

bad.)

[/E^.]
,
:

S.

iLi IT iij IT

^u^,

a.

judge, 158. {.,$i^u^.)

mirpu^
iBappw, smell
icn-pgii,

172.
[/5/rjp.]

AR.

Sffd(^, a

tariff,

<su(T.3=ds!sr.

iSffuiL],
fill

iSuui-i

price fixed.
62. be filled up,

young plants
68.

fit

lor trans-

up.

[Co. Seap.']
[/Ssw/r.]

planting.
S.

[/Eff^.]
-.

f^ja/ 62. level.


S. l IT IT lLq^u Soar, S. Iq^^,

/E/r(OT),/E/r(C5)isfl^, various

u<c\\ ueoeSjs.

without

[p. 149. objection.


viii.

(O^issr QLDp(^.)
:

/sfT^^Mgu
/Ffreir

....172.

App.

11,37.
172.

S.
S.

fEfTeSTQf

leirasrgiiQ&rreir,
[/E/rff)2;.]

hang

one's

S.
self.

Sq^uld, an epistle anQ^iJa, <sb^. Sq^lS, 64. create, appoint. iS^lS 64. prove. [Com. ^J.]
fSe<>)ir


64.

57.

be in order.
[/Sw/r.]

arrange.
a screen,

iS&Dird^a^eo,

hedge:
;

^sro/r.

S. /9, S.

comp. = fSssm, a vocabulary


in sans.
^^Ssip

^ privitive.
:

S. Sit, (in

comp.)

without

negation.
:

u^LD^^rB,
:

S. Siress, luii,

determination, certainty

S/TLDireSTLD

163.

57. go on, be on foot

rsL

iSrremuS,

64.

determine.
:

[sold.

iBamuD,

length

lismh, /itLS.

S. Slif<i^^&9,

total destruction

SirQp
;

fs=uu(B^S^, establish a fact


a-u u(B^sy
S. Sl^ii),

^-(^ 161.

S.

SiTuu/s^LD,

without

connections

wretchedness, trouble.
S. SliTfue^Lh,

App.
utter

ii.

[/S^ii).]

certainty: iS^s^iuui.
163.
to
;

eradication,

de-

S. Slds^iuLD,
S.

certainty

struction.
S. iBrreuasLD, S.
ability,

[iT/rsazifl.

Sei^^^ii. a thing

be loathed.
severity.

competency

S. rS<SL^(Bijili,

harshness

iSiT(Suir(5S!!TLh,

nakedness:

.^LDLDessru).

S.

ei^w.z, (/SilsBTZ.) an observance,

iBeoeo^LD, position; state; affair, \_i8eo.']

religious practise.
S. lS,9m^lLILD, VUlg. for SdffUJLD.

iSeoLD,
Seoei],

land: yi^. 96.

liSeo.]

255.

moonlight
balance
:

Sleorr.

fS<5mLD,
;3.

fat

Qsfr(tpuLj.

tSejU'Ssxsu,

urrdQ, Qs^iTds^w.
place;

iB^iresTLD,

certainty; justice, exacti163.

iS&o,

a standing

persever;

tude
S. Sl^,

ance.

With various verbs

as.

a treasure.
:

S. rS^^ih, for ever, daily

S^ld. 255.

Si^ QaiT<sir, S^SSi), SSsoQugii, SSsduu, be, remain ^rm.

269

INDEX
/S2so

I.

64.

abide, retain footing,


62. establish.

S. lieou), blue;
lietTLD,

indigo.

[(III.)
[/Fot.]

ii(^
Sdsi~ss>LD,

length:
70.

SlLQ.
liiL,

272.

lengthen out.
ashes
efl^^.

[n.]
]

state, condition.

lisw,
:

long. [Comp.

limrL

255.

tSSsoeunth,

firmness, stability
70.

_^^.

Sgu,
i^SU

Ss\>, S6\}!i,

stand, stop. 27.


abolition, re-

S. (Seurrrresani,

iSeufr^^,
LDcirei^LJLj.

62. (n. &c. ipsa slaked slake lime.


;

lime

a.)

be,

moval
S.

S.

SQeu^^iULD, an oblation uS iStpiso, a shadow shade 3=ir<caiL/. S/DLD, a colour euHemLb 209. S^ 64. weigh, poise. cause to stand or Slga^^ 62. stop or cease, [nirudd'ha.] 27. iSesip, weight urrrrih.
:

^ii), a yoke: ^s^^ljl.

[^S0

57.

^iEj(Q, the

enjoy ^egnueS.'] pulpy part of the palmy:

ra fruit

QtEirrkii^.

[^ot.]

^lLuld, minuteness, a point of time.


.

iSss>p

>

=a
62.

kind of frog.
pulverize.
:

57.
fill

become
:

full

iSffLDLj.

64.
Seiajusij,

BsuLj.
:

^,^)id(^
106.
fulfilled.

fullness

^,^}iasiJD, subtility

^lLuim.
small,
fine
:

{Bes)pQ<sug)i

fSp

S^

iSesipQ supra

L^ff(5!3rLD

62.

become

^^jiiEjQ)

^62. become

62. fulfill.

^(SBar,
\_6ipg)i.'\

(^LL,) = viinute,

fine,

root

70. (Co.Seo.) stand, stop. 170.


64. think,

from which many derivatives are


formed.
.Miearr,

remember. 111,221.
[190.
his

[<S(T5^, i@3ssreija^(T^.']
/S&a-/,

a thought
Qtoo)

SSsstuli, Sisco^.

^<5mLp

foam, froth, scum


57.

Q/EirtBoir.

get in, creep in, enter:


272.
:

Sj/S'^

S1saiuuiruSl(j^is^tl3!r^

i3nQ<sii@

attention loas fixed on that.

SieS, the tip

s^ir, QpSssr.

fS&srey s^QF),

remember,
/f

[.s^.ff-.]

S.^^GHTLD, a novelty
10, 37.
,gir&),

ty^co^io.

I?,

thou

iSd(^

thread
a

a scientific

work

^it

62.

remove,

put away

m^rjLD
Sirsii,

260.

SisjS'Sir,

/fs/Q
S. i.a^LD,

you.
62.
quit, leave
.-

.gFp

{SipgJ,)

hundred
spin
:

107, 172.
[.^ei).]

2591

,gjrpQ(yekgii

72.

lowness, meanness
a low fellow
: :

li^Fsir,
(f<^<sr,

<s=

'Tsrifreirsir.

swimming
last,

rSfssJ

QieQ^
(III.)

^i^

^64.

57. forsake

efl.

iiLiil,,
/^L-if-

be prolonged. length: ^etrCb. 272.


prolong,
[(fsrr.]
[/s'stt.]

0/E(^6=ii),

QrE(^a-, the breast, heart,


:

64.

conscience ^qf^^oju). Qm(B, 0/Eii), QihL^iu, Q/blL, Q/elL


1-.

^l1
S. /fp,

62. stretchout,

242, 272. (III.)


isirenniu

(Co. ieir,)
I hctve

SsisTt-,

long,

[/fai-.]

272. [III.]
115.

QieQ

s-eir^asrQes^ii,

justice:

/?^ii)
:

not seen you for a long while.

r^ksi
1^1^,

62.

swim

ii(^s-.

QrsiLiaiUii, placed perpendicularly;

(I.)

you, 10, II, 37. (2.) water,

opposed
ing.

to ssLLtfnuLi),

52. com.
i^irA\(^LSL^,

^ em

esilr rr ,

^ &) LD

72.

Q/blL^l, a noise of the joints crack-

a bubble on the

water,

131,2289.

Q/EiL. 62.

270

INDEX

I,

INDEX

1.

UL-(B, silk.
uL-etai,
(1.)

u^iULD, a layer, [l/^.]


the bark
of a tree
:

AR. u^&}, u^&oiTs,


206, 207, 244.
u^eij,

in place of; eu^eo,

LDss-Qpneo. (2.)

a streak, stripe,

band.
uiLaaL-iuui,
title

an ambush
{(Lpeis! g)])

a layer.

(1.)
:

sword

(2.)

u^<ssr

deed

ulLliuld.
(1.)

u^im(S)
(2.) a

172.

62. lurk

unseen

in a place.

uiLQi^rrdso,

an edict,
a/rs?

S. u^^iT, a husband, [b'harta.]


S.

balance-sheet.
u<omLD,

u^fi, devotion,
[PAKTI.]

[b'hacti.]

a row,

money
:

52, 244.

uessfl, (1.)

a jewel: uemfl^. (6.) ser[uasiflaSsrai.

S. u^^ffua, care
S.

a bond. 138.
writing,

vice
U(siS
sssfl

uesSsSemi.
57.

u^^iBes^s,

document

bow down, do
,

service

u u Ci u em lady's maid. [smiii>u enS uj n LD ueeSarraiM, cakes: ueo


a, IT
,

S. u/F^iuiM, diet. S.

u^^eS,

a wife
:

to&sfl.

Ljemfl^eai, service, ministry: ssci^


lULD.
uiassr, (1.)

S.

melody:
be
fit

airsio. (2.) fit-

S.

u,
:

ness

dF(^^.

u^Si, ten ps=uj 52, 172. ui^sLD, assignment pledge: ep^^ui^LD, a torch a bond um^Sssr, ui^eo, uii^iT, a shed, booth.
; ;
:

161.

S. uii^,

row,
[Co.

S.

u emis
LD:Jisir.

.3= irdso ,

a granary, store house.

eurBiss)^.

company u^^.]

of guests,

usmiLDUiTL^,

various

things

S.
:

s=[r

ui^,

(1.) a ball; (2.) relation.

S. uiE^^enTLD,

relation,

[band'hu.]

usesTinrrw, a Saiva devotee: ^<mrL^.

P.

uiQ^nueh^,

arrangement,

ma-

uem

a.

abandy,

vehicle, 111 -.suemL^.


:

uismrL^etsis, a festival
/B/rerr.

^(Tjsflt^/r, ^(tj

S.

U(5kn^-3;dr, a learned
Qs^irije^rio&i

man. Pandit.

S.

nagement. ULDUSLD, a top with which boys play. uiu 56. fear. 107. \_uujlci.'] uivemth, a journey [prayanum.I

^^QpenQair uemv^^esr, he who knows a thiny without telling is a Pandit.


S.

uiui^
S. uiVLD, fear:
S. uuju^-

107.

^J^^ih.

usssr^u

62.

make, [pana.]
:

1,

165.

^, devotional fear, reverence uived, eauiuei', a worthless fellow.


194.
grain, pulse of various kinds.
benefit, result: ueoesr.

u msr'Ssssr
S.

cultivation

eSuff-iruu).

u^dsLD,

a breast-plate.
5.

uiLiffi,

u^iiT,(us;e^,) palm juice received in vessels with lime smeared on


the inside.
u^ii-, chaff,

uium,
uiL^
uuSliT,

258.

6. ui6,(ssi

233, 248.
literal

, the Eng. appointment: mnfrQ),he appointed. App.ii. corn, growing vegetables.


;

u^sijemrr,

explanation.

uuSipSi, practice: .jtjuiSiuiT'FLh \_uuS


S. uff, other

{_u^Lh, a word, S-sw/r.]

Li^^
S.

62. hurry. 121.*

ua

foreign

^iSiti.
:

&).']

66.

spread out mutual.

uhldlj- [Co.

(SJirdju^^, hesitate in speech.

HP'

'^P-']

u^,

u^

be imprinted. imprinted,
57.
fixed,

a chief

town.

S. uffovuffLD,

or fastened in,
S.
fix in

unemB, A small casket.


S.

64.

[r_ii.
:

un uu

Qss^ui, a foregin land.

S. u^si^iih,

haste

rashness

upiL.
S.

Qf,@, a sojourner: uffUffLJLf, haste. 273.

^itQ^Si.

u^^^s^,

an

impression,

edition.

ujuLj, surface, extension

62. extend.

Qicpun {u^-

273

INDEX
S. uffii, best,

I.

most excellent. 272.


heaven,
\_uff

ueo

(dwp^.)

grow strong
to. 66.

[ueo

S. uffUKSssrieOLD,
_<3Uii>.]

Lc><oS!sr

ear.']

[exception

conjugated
has
gained

272.

like. 64.]
uev^g)uQutri^eisr,

S. usjLDndigjLDW,
uffLOLj,

most excellent being.

he
fruit;

extension.

strength.

62.

become extended.
valour:
eSffuo.

uenil,

a weight
fruit,

result.

ueoek,
48.

S. urjrrsQrjLDtJa,
S. urrnruffdr,

result, 267. strength:

god
removal, atonement
:

Quffodr, uiveir.
(Sirasr

[p'hala.]

gssrnSiu/ruJ^cj'/F^ucueJrgjcutw, there

H.
S.

ujTTiH,

a frigitive.
/SaS

is

ij/fl/ririi),

ueorr,

no benefit to me by thus dwelling [alone. the jack tree.


force.

iT^^, iBennrjemLD.
S. uifisiTift, a doctor; barber.

usorr^struLD, uQeon^sirnLD,

S. urfl,fLD,

dowry.

uS 64.
uiodsesnf),

L/sS,

an offering
profit.

a sacrifice.
[

240.

ueoLD.I
:

[_<ssr.

urRa-, a boat in a river. S. urfls-^^u:), holiness.


Ufffan.ff:,

ueS^LD, the result, application


a

U(oO

a shield

QsiUJiii.
:

u^uu^,
uesi(^
St).]

venetian-window. [241. that which will result.


increase in

S. ufftQs^rr^dssr,

S. urfJQ&^fT^,

64.

examination examine.
(in

ui?L-ea<3=.

62.

number [u

QUQ^(Q.
a tooth
:

S. ufftg=Q^^u>,

a neg.

sentence,)
(e^s^w.']

ueo,

ueo^,

i^ii.
:

entirely.
S. Ufft^iTssrii, a bribe

ueoeod(^, a palanquin
iJCTsS, a lizard
:

ueoeo!rs(Q.

urffii^Qugr
[ uifi,

isb)>-sS.

[so

Qse^efl [ueo.] 107.


pre-

62.

speak for one,

Qp^. J

ueu/E^LD, (prob. for uireuSssr.)


tence.

S. uifiurreosir, guardians.
[S. ufffuirsuxaL^, technical language.]

He pretended
uiauewLD, coral.

he

had

sold

it.

S. ufflLDireissrd),
aiTLD.

value: [vulg. QugnLDtr


distribute,

S.

uiftiDirgii

uLp,
62.

(uesiLpiu,

uLpth,

uips^.'^

old

serve out.
.

[allied to
LJLp(^

S. ufliUii^LD,

term:
retinue.

ldl-(Bld

.2\\.

entp. ]

62.

become accustomed
[uip.]

to,

u
S.

rft

uj IT -3= LD ,

mockery:

urflaiT'S^il,

exercise,

urReu/TffiM,

ULpdsii, custom,
(SULpdsLD,
uLpLD, fruit
:

familiarity. 134.

S. uifiLsa^, uiftLL&si<r, a trial, experi-

i-ILp-)

[Co. ULp.

ment, examination UQF), an ulcer, boil.

Qs^ir^ikisr.

99.

ueoQsr. 84.

[p'halam.]
155, 256.

UL^,
rice
:

guilt,

vengeance.

UQ^dms:,

a grain

of boiled

[Com.

uLpLD.]

UQRdsrr/ijseo, a pebble

stone.

uL^uLj, disgrace, scandal.

UQF)^^, cotton

u<Qs.

UQ

uq^ksi, a

kite. 254.

64. grow ripe. uQ^uLfSpih, colour


leaves,

[uLpLh.]

of

withering

UQFfULf, dry peas. 243.

[uip.]

uq^itMUL^, clumsy.
UQ^euiii,
S.

U(i^^,

season

maturity
xi.

youth.


un-n-

.fault,

damage. [uLp.]

64. repair.

uQfftruff

s^,

App.

U(zpen^, a rope of twisted straw.


uesiLpiv, old. 13, 14.
[i-iLp.']

AR. urr^iru,
S. uiTSu^iL, a

dismissal, discharge.

ueoLpiu

mountain
:

ld^.

[ ira/.

UL^, as before.
u<sS\!t(^,
ueirisjil),

F. uirevrTi^m, an order &lLl-.^, ^-^^ ueo, {ueo, up) several, many. [lat.
PLE. PLU. GR. POL.]
usoicias,

crystal.

a pit

@t^

....134.
(f.

usiretrm, one of a certain caste,

a board.

usirsfr^^.)

[ueireiTih.]

274

INDEX
wsireiH,

I,

small town

mosque
ii).]

UIT,

suffering

affair

wastage.
190, 230.

up

school.

[o.]
uiT

ds^iu>, a school-house. \_a^i


66. fly

1,

62.

sing.

upssL^
upmeu,

191.

64.

put to

flight.

\_up,

un &!)!, a bier umLim, grandfather


App. X.
umLiiTisB, a laborious
uuirefi, luiT.']

255, 271.
:

Qp^ireia^.

a bird

anything winged.
what
IS

man

e-stoip

lup.-] 191. upiQp upsaea ergigmrih ? far to a flying bird^

182.

u^, u^,
ujB

drepradation, pillage.
a basket used

S.

grandmother. 194. App. x. S^ld. [/_//r.] lj/tlL, a song unsmLD, an arrow ^ldlj rocket,
uiTtLuf.,
: :

by fishermen.
SLUT'oSlsrLD.

u^Qis!t(B, 64. be robbed.

S. unsssriLD,
S.

a vessel

urr^^mli. 134.
:

64.

pluck
J=&.

take from, rob.


[class.

urrem, jaundice, dropsy


Qfffrai}).

uirmr

ueap, a drum.

UQsr,

f.

one of the lowest

ua^sLD,
S. ufr^LD,

sin

uitsuld,

gjQrjirsLD.

up,

see ueo.

up^,
up,
upffi

U!jfi&m, a sinner.
a foot
:

230, 262. lupjpi.^


love
:

^^z-.
;

devotion to

human

S. uir^ireirw, the abyss

hell.

passion

^sstlj.

uir^, the half. 245. ^eiair.


Port.
-//r^/f?i/jff;f, aPAdre. App. uir^, custody.

62. take, lay hold of, suffice,

iii.

related to. 120, 230.


UQsriBjsiT.
LD

(^(5.

131.

U&- + ^zii = U(SJFr


a

= what belongs to ijsofl/f/f. uesfl, dew


:

palmyra


SIT

64.

preserve.
:

>

tree.']

S. uirsei^, a path

snip.

uSosr,

palmyra
a hog,
[

tree.

S. uir^^iULD,
t-'ssiirsiisfl.

[osar. urr^^, a bed in a garden, connexion; security: tS!

uek&aLD, plural, [uevi.]


u<sirjS,

S. uff^^iuiav^isk,
]

one who
a vessel,
(2.)

is

responsi-

vulg.

ble
172.

umeSjimr
UfT
uiT,

a claimant.
(1.)

S. uir^^ffii),

a beggar's

dish:

i_/ff(ssijri_ii).

worthiness

poem

the

warp
;

umL.
(in
S. uirtB^LD,

S. urrsuj,

a portion

degree,

that which

is

orderly,

re-

mathematics.)
uiT.sm, an elephant keeper.
utr&fis,
S.

gular.

urruil, sin
uiTuun-J=Sl,

ummiii.

a turban

^Ssouuir.
/SjS/iaBai'.
:

Mussalm3.n's slippers:
y,ff=Sl,

AR. urrdQ, balance


S. uiTsQiULD,
S. urrdSujeuireir,

due:

[182.

happiness

euiTLpeif.

109,

Q^rr. urruurr^^u

a butterfly. a

utrdQujeu^
dsssiirsBsfl;

.... 182.
[_su3a.

Ufruuirek, uiriruuirsir,
a snake

Brahman.

utrdf^, areca nut.


S.un'<9=LD,

untDjck, a stupid person.


urruiLj, (1.)
(2.)
:

snare:

a cord:

-fituuld. 2\7.

u(T3=niEj(^,

pretence:

LDirtuLoireotM.

236.

twisted grass used to protect


a preface

S.uuQ,

the

green weed

on standing

the banks of a river, &c.


S. tJffitSjiij,
ufTUJ,
:

water.
urrQeuifl, rent paid for the privilege

Qpseijetoir.

of fishing.
S. urreasi^, uirssii, a language, S. urrtui,

SH.\.]

mat

sail.

[&c.

57. leap, spring, run as water,

[bha7.5.

u!TUJ3=a-

62.

water, cause to flow.


skschlci.

a lesson

S. un-ffih, a burden:

52,

66, 261

uiTied,

singing,

[u/r.]

255.

S. uirnwuissyir, tradition.

INDEX
H.utriTir,

I.

ward, custody: sireveo. 115.

uirrrmL

S.

tSis'ira-,

a devil

Quiu,

iSs^rr^i}),

Qeu

62.

show

boast

make
255.

^freiTLD.
iS^frasTiD,

much
S.
S.

of

[ uiriT,

^lL.]
:

iS&asr,

awife: Q u eisr 3= it ^ ussld. uiTiH^ih, side, part uiremiT, a lever, crow-bar: &lLl-u
urrfff, uiTtflajfrm,

a kind of paddy. gum-resin lilSsisft. ^-QeoinS. a miser


: :

tl^^snTLD,
tSein*^

avarice

^]

57.

knead, rub with the


usage.]

urmsifT.

hand.
196.
see,
t5ss5<5=/i^iz)/r,leaven. [christian
S.

utrirda, uirirdQ^LD
ufTiT

64. behold,

see after.

iSdeeye-,
i3is^a-,

alms

iSesiasf,,

l3l-<c!ds^.

196,259.
u/r/rsay,

the fruit just formed from


:

^,

sight: sitlS. 178.

lurrir.']

the blossom

^0/-ol/.

It

becomes

inspect
{u/riruuiT^^.

263.
f.)

afterwards
tSlirfl,

siTiij

and

utpil),or(so9.

uiTiTUUireir,

Brdhman.
umruir^s^, a butterfly uirurr^^. (^Lptkem^. S. uireosek, a babe euirnireii^. a bridge j/rs\3ii),
:

the nape of the neck.

LDiiSiT,

mane.
LjieexEii

LSiciosif,
iSiirrff,

ior

58.

a demoness, kili.
a potter's stone.
;

iSl^siso,

Ufrev,

(1.)

gram,

milk. (2.) part ; (3.) in a division of nouns, &;c.

iSi^

64. seize

deduct. 107, 228,


spar-

258, 262, 263, 269.


iSl^L^^iM, a stoppage, seizure,

including
251, 267.

gender and
an

number.
affair.

ingness.
article, item,
tSl Lf.<aj

AR.
S.

urreDfSgj,

iT^ LD

S. uireiiLD,

sin:

uituld. 180.

[pai'a.]

i3Ej(^
iSlL
[

urroj^, imagination.
180. [u/reu/i.]
he
Lj/rafl

{8p^.)
i-S)srr.]

obstinacy

(^L-innLD.
:

62. pluck out

u^.

68. break into bits.

S. LJ/raS, a sinner.
S.

ROOT

64.

imagine. [Lj/ra;&3r.]

iStL-L^Li,
LD,

the posteriors

\_^(ir)uSli

^g] ^euair Q^trrsfithQuweouuiT^^g:, Jancying it to be his own.

^3=e^LD, (^ssarL^. 262.]


a corpse
:

iSsssnh,
iSsis^,

s^snii,

iSQu^im.
Q/Erriu.

uiTi^QuJsk,
uir<3n

a sinner

184.
affliction;

sickness:

62. lay things in order;

sow

iSesfJiufreS,
tSjsssr,

a sick

man
:

181.
[gffLflsar.]
:

seed, for
urr(5Si<si,

transplanting.
;

[mLo.

woman: Ouuld a puppet waste; desolation: \_ues>Lpuj.'] an old well ... .237. uiTLpiEj Qensrgs,
uiTLp,

bond, surety
;

S. iSlemiii, the

body an embryo a0.


oilcake:
{\u\g.
ljssst

LSl^(em)E(^,

(S35@.)
tSl^jbsu

u/r^, the spathe of palm trees. uireirufssj, Devanagari letters.


LurSsiriuuD,

luLj.

62.

S. i^^fT,

a father:

speak foolishly ^&) ^suudsr. 19, 20.


:

uir(cs>p,

a rock

camp. aJDunmip.
:

[pita.]
S. iSl^ffiTifdQ^LD,

hereditary right,

f.

S.

unmLD, beverage.
uiT'^iMUsm',^}!
urrSssr,

149.
:

[pitara=
iS^iii(^
;

father, aejita =

a pot.

(gt^. 62. drink [Co. pan.l ....242.

acquired.
tSl^dr^,

62.

(a.

and

n.)

i9
t3@si/, tightness.

squeeze

project.
:

S. iS^^u), bile
IS"-

i3^^.
:

i3d(g, intricacy.
tS<5^@, a i3^6i),
iSl^g}!,

iS^^^m, brass.

mistake, 194. ^u^^ld,^<s]


:

AR.

iSl^S,
a

humble servant ^i^Qiucsr.


drop
:

a tempest

Lf^eo.

tSl/s^,

^eiff

lO*'''

mingle.

62.

62.

come

after ... .225, 226.

276

INDEX
i3ijsir<s=LD,

I.

splendour.
163.
(1.)

S.

iSi!jiun<3=LD, i3jjujrreiO'S=,

labour:

S-eaip

iSirsirS

ui^. 213.
S. i3ffQiuns=<s!rLD,

Sffsimi}),

a manner.
(2.) ioX

Apju

iii.

advantage
go about

ismesiLo.

[PRAKARAM.]

[iSfffTSITrrili J]

S. iSlffeuiT^^, 64.

to

do a thing.

court, vestibule,
,

[praharam.]
266.
iSetrdotruQu^.
:

S. i3rrQisjs=LD, entrance.
S. iSffisfnuLD, flood
:

QsuerrsTii).

Slrf^/EjsLD,
iSjTff'iijQ

a sermon.
64. preach

iSff!TS(^, inattention.

S. iSffrremLD, life

breath

^isudr. 101.

iSlffff^imjiD,

childbirth:

iSff,3=isirisBrui,

appearance

sfnL&.
iSfra-rj-il).

S. tSffiT'SsS, a living

Sff^iT^uD, favour, kindness: QQ^ecau.

being &eiiQs=rEffi. S. LS/7-ff-/E^,(l.)dullness, (2.)"Brandy."


:

tSffS^^ii, notice,
i3ffeeiffs&r,
iSffew^fTLiili,

rumour
:

S.
:

tSj/ru^^^ the
iSffnLUua,

result,

what is gained.
:

S. iSniTLDemssr,

Brahmdn

UfriruuireBr.

subjects

(g^ufseir.

making

known

age: emus-.
supplication
:

S. iSlffiTiT^^&sr, a prayer,

eulogy.

iSffem^m^

'64.

make known, speak


264.
[right.

uxssrnjL-
S. iSfftriT^^
lSI/A

about
[_i3iT0o^iTULD.'\

w(sisr<sssruuLD.

64. pray, beseech. 158.

i3ij^L-^<smLD, going round


iSij^rruu),

from the
S.

(iS/D^.)divide,
iStrflff^ed,

57.

be divided.

64. 272.
:

luih.']

majesty: QtDsk&aLD.

LfrBs'il),

scarcity

for [SlrR

iSff^irQsrm, the chief, principal. 272.

tSlfftuLj,

division. [lS/A. 190.]

iSff^irsS, a i^rincipal person

prime

S.

iSfffiLiLD,

what

is

pleasant, delight.

minister.
iSij^,

AR.
opposition, (in

iSiifliuirffi,

complaint.
iSlfffT^.

App.

iii.

iSff^^,

com-

[fIRYAD.]
iSlffli2ssr,

pounds.) [PRATI.]
iSlrj^s^eoLD, adverse.

division.

^e(ouuLSifisl&sr, schism.

L^ff^dQ&sr, purpose, vow.


t3rr^eL^sti_, consecration.
IsuiT^,

=
ill,

i3lBlULD.

carcass

iSsssriii, <F<auili.

tSeueS^sofliL/ii),

defendant, [prativadin.]
Sans.
prefix = in

iSIl^

return,

iSl<cff)Lp,

ia,stead of, re.


iSlij^^ujL-a^iM,

iSeisLp

sorcery;

LDir/i^rflujih.

57. squeeze, wring.

a fault: ^uiS^U).
64.
(1.)

221, 222.

escape. (2.) live;

fore the eyes

what is evident, beQeueSuueni.


:

(3.)

commit
66. split

a fault.

i3es>LpuLj, livelihood: ^susstld.


iSlfffT

tSj^^iLj^^ffij], rejoinder: Lojj/Oz-D/rt^.


iSliju(^^Lh, the

<S]Q(Tf).

[Co. aflcrr,^.]
is

expanse, universe

[This verb (with some others)


intransit.

tSlffu/s^tii,

work,

composition,

when followed by Quit, and transit, when followed by


QufT: Thus, iSeirii^QufT, be split.
SsfTii-^QuiT,
split.

treatise. 230.
iSlijueSliULD,
iSffi^,

renoun, celebrity.
a

a prince, a lord.

tSeiruLj, a cleft: [lSsyt. 190.]

tSsTLD^s^frrff,

young Brahman
sL-i'Ssir.

dis-

iSletrirJ^a-,

a roof lath

eii(Bs=s-.

[195.
21,

ciple.

iS&refririLt,
iS<sirSstr,

a voc. case of
;

iSm'Ssir.

iSuLDTsmLD, rule, law:


iSlffLDiT,

a child

young

plant. 16, 18.

iSulB

Brahma, the creator. 64. wonder: ^a^s^rfliULju.


confusion, stupor
:

tSljn

[L//D,]

tSjndsmsfl

other, 191.
64. despise: [tS^,
.sssot-.]

LSu-izsiLD,

SulBulj.

^
iSlp.

<F l1 SW t_

U iEB3r,^U
;

iSfnlLj, rattan.
t^ffiUjS^QsnJi, effort:

66.

be born

come

forth. 257.

(tpiup.

S. iSlpc^, after, [prak.] 84, 225.

277

INDEX
iSlputS

1.

64.

cause to exist. 257,


Q^esrsunh. 190.

Lj(os>i

64.

winnow

strike

swell

160. [l9^.]
tSpuL-i, i3p(E birth
,
:

(^QuiT&ai.)

ifL-ULD,
ufiLisf.,

l-j<SLi,ULh.

LSpsir, a
iSlemjD,

neighbour ^nueorreir. [lS^-]


:

the eresent
:

moon.
U!t.'\i3^lj.

Ljemqh)

a bottle.
60. join with, be

coupled

i^pua(B, after
84, 225.

[L9isJr+

with.
Lf<oiS!r,

wound

^nemili,

sfriuiM.
:

iSm. 84, 85, 225, 244, 251, 263. LfpeeS, back-biting, scandal

S. i-jessretsSujLD,
:

virtue,

merit

^ffLozi.

ISO.
Lj^ir, a thicket: Q<3=Lf-.

Seku,

S&sresrfr.
,

84, 225.

Lj^eir,
Lj

tSdrcarif hereafter, 244. [iil(3nr+^if ,]


S. LSdrarrLD,

Sicker^
til-sJr^OTj;

any thing broken

sflisar cwld.

68. turn back, (n.)

263.

Mercury, App. vii. Q^i (l/P*, Lf^s!-, Com.) that which is new. 184. L/^,(L/^iL/, L/^^), new. 13, 26, 184.
,

62. plait, braid, twist.

Lis:jd(^

(ilirG'sBr,

^^Sasr. 225, 226.

Ljem^

62. renew, repair,


64.

[^y^.]

bury

^idaLnu&ssr^ii.
for con-

138.
Lfes^ujeo,
[l?,

any thing buried

dung

/B/r.sa).]

cealment.
S.

iS lb a> IT Q!T , plate.

Lj^^si}i = U(so^aLo,
i-j^^iMLj^uj

S. \_iSs=LD, a

seed

sflsw^,

scrotum.]
:

224,226.
141.

iS^3=a,ee}S, the left

hand
:

^i^<ss)S.

S. iya^S, sense, [bud'dhi.]


S. i-jsi^^freSl,

LS,^^niij(^ip<so, a syringe.
S. iSiili, a seat,

a clever, prudent

man

throne

^^sstld, altar

^/Sleurreftl.

141.
:

S. Lj^^rreir,
S. [iSip.. 64. distress.] S. LfiULJD,\\\e
:

son

LDS,m

264.
-.sBLDtQ^inssr.

arm, shoulder
62. roll,

LSemt, pain, suffering


iSrjEjQ, a
iSijiriu

Qeu^Sssr.

LlffL-L-irQ

cannon.
stones,
S.

LjniL.

App.
pervert.

vii.

\_Ljn(m,.']

57. scrape together

161.
Lj!iL),

straw, &c.

L?^, the
i3g)i

gum

or

mucus

of the eyes.

L/j^sij

a town:

L//fl.

141.

56. (III.) roll: ^-(Tf)(^.

62. rend, tear: Ql^.

S. Ljrriressnh,

Hindu
Ljrrui;

mythological
a rope of straw

iSppeo, a rag, a rent: &i<5m^.

usfw

H
60. (III.) praise:

work. S. Ly/fl, a town:


S.
Lf (wei^eir ,

Qtoii/^*.

strand of cord.
a husband
;

[239.

255.

man.

(vir.)

Ljsw,

LjSLpff^,

praise

C)ldujulj.

S. L-i(i^euLD,

an eye-brow.
hollow, hole, interstice;
place.]

164, 190.

[Lyan/rcFiso,
:

L/@
S. Lj&

56. enter

LSlrQ<su&,^sBLp. 272.

weak
i-l&)LD,

Ljems, smoke.

a sense

64. eat, cherish

s-<5m^^}i.

L/a)LDL/

field.
:

62. bewail

^(i:

273.

S. Ljdj^3,iji, a

book
:

S. i^(^L^, fatness

Giuirm^sLD. 19. \_Qu(V)Ldld.'] QsrrQ

Lj&)siiBsr,
L/(EV/r<yi),

a learned

man

tsSd^enirdr.

flesh,

meat:

ldhlSs^ld,

ULj, ^Lp.ULI.
S. LjSL^uih, a flower
:

^,
a

LD&^fr.

L-j<s^

a tiger
Ljaija,

S. LjiLD, refining, testing of metals.


S. Ljiemev, a cloth
;

i-j<k>,
:

woman's

cloth

fling.
(nSBTLD.

Caimans. any thing [In comp. Ljfir. L^p-']


:

grass

tri-

,J

e&i). 58.

278

i-ILpisj(^

62.

dwell

in,

be familiar

yi7/r, full

266.

with,
t-i(Lg,

[eiiLp.']

yj/rear, a centipede.

worm, maggot.
:

[64.

S. y/flsa^s, a

[_&Qpffi'],

be eaten by worms.
GnEQFfSsiM.

S. y/fl

trumpet

(ordaireiriM.

64. be filled.

[o^tD.
:

LfoDssLD, closeness
i-jQEi(^

S. y^rflui-i, S. y/Tia/ii,

plenty, great joy


antiquity,

^iQ^ir
before
;

62. be steamed,
:

grow

hot.

what

is

i-j(w^,
Ljsifi,

dust, soil

^@.
62.

formerly:

lj^it^sld.

tamarind.
:

y&-,

a cat

107.

Ljim(g), Vie
Lj&rsiB,

Qutriij; to Vie

Qu
QuL-Lf., box, case: Qu<5SiLp.


urrir
,

a dot:
62.

@^, (Q^^estimate
crops.
\_L-IP

i^/D@if

a temporary tenant.

QuLLes>L, a hen, female, [Oussbt.]

+ @if .]

Quern, a female, [Co. Eng. hen.]251.


set forth,

Ljpuu
L^/Dih,

68.

proceed.
251.

OL/saOT'|<5^/r^,
[Oi-'<5a?jr,

wife

LD(ksi(l

263.

161, 262.
side; outside
LfpLDLj, abroad, out side: LjpLoQu. LfpLDQu!rd(^, land not capable of

<F/r^.]

QusssT
I

, QueisriiTL-Uf., vulg. for


-9=

Q u eisr
QuesBT
I

a^ (in

uireo,

Gram.) the femirelative

cultivation,
L^^vy,
i-ipg3i,

[see,

C/_//r6B@.]

nine of gender.
QuiuQjT'S^s'il),

a dove.
a white-ant hill.
[L/a),]

the

or ad-

jective participle.
93.

ueir,

QuiuiT,

name

person

noun

esrOi-Ftu

93.

Quit. 107.

QuiuiT

kh

bloom, flower. 155. [y.] mouldiness y^Q. S.yS 64. perform acts of ceremonial worship treat courteously. [y6w<s:.]
y^3=(smLD,
:

y 64.

U|, a flower, 155. the earth

y/i/.

57.

change one's place.

QuiLi

64. (a.) remove.

58. rain: euQ^ex^.

Giuifia-

[com.] uifl^, great,


x.

[Qu0.

y*

184.] 258.

QurBujuum. App.
Q.u.fjQ'jjirrr,

62.

smear, anoint.

the great; 184. ancestors.

i^&^esSdsir'L, a

melon
:

239.

QuQF),

\_G}UQF)LD,

Qu

ifl

lu ,

Q u iT^

great,

S.ysB)*:, worship: ^rj-rrs&er. Qq^lS, i-i(i. y<F0, an insect S. ^^SujLh, nought, emptiness. y^c^*, any thing that is smeared on,

13, 14, 263, 266, 272.

QuQf,. 64. grow large, abundant: uq^.

QuQF)(^
62.

grow {&Q,Qpgii.) multiply,


62. increase,
:

[Qlj^.]

increase.

[y*. 190.]

yLL,

y^y
yil
ydjir, a

a lock

263.
;

QuQKdsLD, increase
QuQF)S(^,

euefrir^^S.

62. lock, fasten

yoke.

an
Lh

overflowing,

flood

[yzlnz_, picotta.]
62. or 56.

[yil.] (HI.) put on,

Q isd eiT

<oir

QuQniEjsfTUJLD, assafcfitida.
G)UQ)S=3=ir<sS\,
Q)

assume.
knob, ferule.
[or see lj^ji. 77.]

a bandycoot.
[a sigh, agreat breath,]
:

u Qf)Qp 3=

Si-

yj(om, a shrub,
S. y,/SLh,

Q unhLDrrtSl s^ih, heef


QunhLS^LD, plenty
Qu(i)<ss)LD,
:

LDnL-(B&a,fS.

a goblin,

demon

LS(gp.
QLD<ssr<co->LD
;

u^ira?.

S. ^uxmrisouD, the

world, earth, 90.

greatness:

pride. 184.

[b'hu.]
S.y,Ll,

[y4-/-D<5Sffl"i_OTii).]

the earth

S. y/jssrii, fullness: S&s^pey. 272.

19,90. (HI.)

eu(T^ih. honour and disgrace come from ones self alone.

279

INDEX
QuQ^/iMua^iM, for the most part:
QuQ^LDUiTGsreiaLDiuiTUU.
uaeo.']

I.

gjuQuiTuuLLi^, such, 199.


QuiTuiT^, half to each. S. QuemLp, a chest, ark:

[_QuQhi}i-^
u&xsk.']

QulLl^,
190.]

S.

Queodr, strength:

S.Quga

e^^^euih,

[Co.

[PEDHA.]
Glj-j2/,

68. obtain;

bear children;
69. [Co. bear.]

what

is

gained.

[Qu^.

have offspring. 56.


190. [b'hri.]
S. QugiiLDiresrui, value,
swii).]

Qp^pQug}!, the first-born: ^(k>^


QuQsr, a louse.
<SS)U
esiu, a bag.

p.

148.

[^uiAldit

QupQ^sir, she bore, 69. [Ou^.] QupQ^fr, QiupQQt^fr, parents iSisir


:

'^emiuuQiuppwffam. 87.
QuekajTih

A. <oS)U3=m, decision, adjustment.


(sau^ir, a pie

Quq^^^

223, 224.

of an

anna

/r*.

P. <3s>uQLDSxf., survey of grounds.

F.Qu,
S.

a privative particle, without:

Siuw = ug;-iJo, green, fresh, pure. emuiLiueauiu, gently, leisurely Old


:

[s. vi.

ENG.

IN.]

Qu3f 62. speak, converse, [b'hasQu.fS, a female demon. [Quiu.']


Qu&=3h, word, speech; rumour. 239.

HA.]

(StTeirQiDmetr.
etauijjcsr,

ujjiLiasr,

boy [gr.

pais.]

Out
Tel. Qufrds'S^LD, OurrdQei^u}, a trea-

258. [Qua.'} P. Qu(si^sn-ir, a PeshcSr, an officer under aTahsilddr.

sure

.-

pjjeSuju}.
feast,

Qufrmseo, a Hindu
is

when

rice

[QuCB QuL-eat [man. H. QulLl^, an interview with a great


QuL-e)i, a Pettah
S. S.

boiled. 148.

Qurr/Bj(^

62. boil over,


eat.

bubble up.
little.

Qu^}! Qu^ih,

suburb, village.

Quir&, 64.

62. cherish. 248. [pena.]

Qum^,

dust; any thing

difference,

disunion

eS^^

QuiTL-, a spot of sandal on the forehead a moth.


;

OufTLLOtesT, this instant.

what difference

is

there between

him

and a cow ? Qu^, an evacuation, purging: Qu^ s(^d(^Lp., ^tTuu(B, take purgative medicine.

Qutr^l, a sack

261.

Quir^Loa, a bullock that carries a


sack.

[251.
;

Qurr^, common

s=rr^iTrf(S!!!srLh.

Quea^, block-head, simple person,


Qpitsir, [Co.

Qun^ssiL

138,

62. sequestrate.
in general.

Heb. pethi.]
:

[248.

QuiT^uui, generally,

S. Qu<cSi^

SSiLD,

folly
:

LD^uSsSTLD. 184.

Quiu, a devil
Qurrek,
or

ua^ira. 223, 224.

Qu^^,

a grand-child
x.

QufT^^eo, a hole ^eurrrj-U). QuiT^^ 62. cover mend. \_iBgi. Qutrms^, a hole, hollow LDrjuQuir
Qurrrft

QuiruiSleFSsir.

App.

[written

also, QuiLiffdr,
QuiTfTssuri^,

Qu^^.'] com. for Quuek.

QuiTQT)

64. fry

hatch eggs.
190.

60. join; fight

Quitq^lL
QjUiTQF)^s}do!st,

P. QurBs;, Quffl^, revenue.


S. Quifi,

vow

157,217. Q/s^^dsim'.

Qufflms, a large drum.


230.
to each, [Cu/f.] 242.

[prop.

SlrrtriT^^&sr.'}

Qurfl&)

OunQf)
I

i^
I

QuQ^i(^,
Quit, (1.)

together
mniD
uiTQF,

name

Quiurr,

tEiTLDLD,

^gj
:

62. agree

unite,

come
to

qsjtjj/,

^iIld^.

62. unite,

make

Q,sajui(2.) great: Qurffiu,Qu(if)il.

sgree

^^asT [QL;/r0.]

280

QuiTQ^s'ir,

substance
:

meaning

QUIT^ITSJ
Quir^ir

wealth

^iT^^LD, {_QufrQ^+s-eir.
Quireved/r^, evil
[obs.

190] 138,270,245,258.
Qurr&)ecin',

iSjbSp^ QuiT^=QuiT(i^^, QuasJ


62.

117.

264.

QuiTLp^ ....25.
117.
:

suffice

root.

Ou/reDjfi/.]

[^/i/g.
evil
:

QuiTjSgJ, a sapling

Lorrdsek^.

Qu

ir

6V

pour down QurrL^iuLj, paraphrase;


QufTL^
57.
emir.

ISO IT

u Lj

Quire\}s\)irEi(^,
:

QutTLD

72*

ej^^si^.

QuiTuSpgu,

70*123,242.
78, 272, (I.) a battle:

QunL^uLj
190.

Qunuj
QuiTiT,

190.

[Oufl-i^.]

(1.)

[war.]

(2.) a

QurTL^<sii,

profit,

abundance.

heap [Ozj/r. 190.]


Quirirda^ofTih,
SeiTLD.

[Ou/rt^.]

[207.
;

a battle-field

^jrcumr

QufTQ^^, sun, time


QuirQj/'siPLD,

evening. 25,
;

impatience
a sense

envy

<s/r

QuiTiT

rrLD,snajLD

154, 155.
; ;

Qu[T^, a spark
QuiTffi

a trap. 131.
;

64. cloak, cover, put on, wear. [For this (Ju/r, is often used. Co. 259.] [QurrQ^. wear.]
:

64. bear, sustain

forgive.

Ci-'/r/fsffixa;,

a covering: g/sif [Cu/r/f.]


,

221, 222, 68. [bear,


Q)uiTjpid(^

s.

b'hri.]

Quired, as

141,170,227.

62. pick or peck up.

Quir^ui-j,
[Qufrsu.]

responsibility:

urrijii,

E. Quir(m), the Eng. word, Police. QufTSs 56. (III.) resemble. 170,

190.

227.
Quireo

Q u rrgu ism LD
Qurrm,

patience

Qufrstap, 184.

gold:

^litail

248.

141,227. Qurremh, a kind of gum. Quirjbsu 62. extol; preserve. 128.


_

(?ijff(OT)isJr,

he went
:

Quit

58.

Tel. Quusk, a trap

QU!TaL-(BLD
S. QuiTSLD, (1.)

Qiua/jS.

140.

QuirsirjD

enjoyment.

227.
f.

(2.) crop

Qunir^^rreir,

of corn.
QuiTs.isd,

m. Queir^^ifl. grandchild. App. x.


Ln

Quir

a going.

[_Quir. 148.]

58. go. 61, 117, 124, 258.

Qun&sL^

64. loose, 258.

^ip.
the late.

LDs&T

a daughter

(^Lorra^^.
[ix>a, acliild]

QurrssireS,

a dead
=^isrfl.]

man,

LDssw, ason: (^LDfrjdr.


S. LDsir, great:

[Cu/rag,
Tel. QurrdSlrfj,

QuiBiu. [mahat.]272.

a black-guard,

vaga-

S. LDsirm^'~~

App.
a great king
a great

ii.

146.
262.

bond.

{_Qun-<i(^.']
;

S. uasirrrrr^ek,

Qurra(^, an excuse, evasion

way

S. LDarrepiuireudr,
\_LDsir

personage.
[152.
:

^/ra@. Quirs(^

[Gu/r.]

{_Qufr.'\

+ ^^uireuisir.']
glory.
((]t^.)

62.
;

cause

to go. 258.

S. LoQesiLD,

S. Quir-s^tssTLD, food
B^rruuiT.

nourishment. 146.
123.

LD@^

60, exult

<9^/EC^/T(SiP.

[b'hojanam.]
put, place,

ldQ^s^Q, rejoicing:
[iZ)S^.]

aeSuLj.

190.

QurT.3=a,

Quir^<sf^

Quit

68.

put forth,
106,

Lodsm,
ple

(pi. ot LDa.)
Sl<ar3s(rseir.

children, peo-

utter.

[Comp.

put.]

124,

256, 259.
QuiTiLL-imk,

S. LDiEi3,eom, congratulation, prosperity,

[Cu/r.]

68.

benediction.
LDiEK^

Tel. QuitlLl^, rivalry, competition.


S.

Quir^^sr, Quir^ih. Quir^sih,


ledge, instruction
;

know-

LDs=s(ff)

62.
62.

grow dim, wan


confuse
: :

sldqm.

&-uQ^.9=ld.

LD3'rEi(^

ldius,i^.
ldiuie)(q.

62. be confused

281

INDEX
H.
LDs=a8si),

I.

horse medicine.

S. LD<5meisii,

the skull

^^Qnjir.
:

AR.

LD'Tireo^, a torch bearer, servant

ld^(^, a sluice, a bridge


I

uitsold.

who
Lo,3=.sFi}>,

trims the lamps.


(2.) a

S. ld^ld,

a sect:

.fsisldiulI);

madness,
... ,194.

A. LD6=6S, a stage in travelling.


j

folly, fury.

(1.)

fish, i^ssr,

mole.

S. ld^,

Q^Lo&3. (3.) sign, evidence.


LDff',

S.

LD^

discretion;

the
;

moon

64. estimate

thinli.

[o)^.]

a tiled roof.
LD4=Sr(Zsrs=@.

S. LD^ULf,

LDo^aesrissr,

App.

ix.

S. LD(s^3=i}), a
S. LD(QcFifl,

bed

us<ss>a.
of flowers
;

S.

a bunch
:

gar-

S.

an estimate, esteem. 190. [lc^.] &-^Q^^ld. [sarzi). ld^Qldit<s'ld, loss of sense lj^^uS LD^LULD, noon: LD^^UireSTLD.
:

land

yjLDrrdsi.

LJD^Si^,

the elder brother's wife

LDte^a^m-,

saffron,

S. LD(si^g=ssr3=^adsi,
LDL-.s(^

Loi-.Ej(^,
uiiiEj(g)

yellow.... 209. bathing-room.


;

stiretsifl.

App.

x.
:

S, iDjp,

honey, sweetness
sweetness

(?sjr.

105.

62.

to fold

repeat.

266.
197.

any thing intoxicating.


S. LD^rjLD,
:

a fold, a time

^esftemLD.

134.

62. be folded, repeated.

P. Lc^^rruLj, a kind of blue light.


S.

LDlLDl
S. LDLLD, simplicity, folly
;

273.
a

LD^p, middle
elephant.)

/f.

monas-

S. \_LD^^sua,

top

of the head]

(of an

tery or religious house.


LDU.&),
LDLp.,

a flat leaf of some trees.

S. LD^^LDLD,

what

is

in the

middle

LDLp.

io, a
i/D

deep
57.

the lap.
perish.
S.

LD^^ium^ek,
stander.]

a mediator.

[Middle-

64. fold up.

place, a pool.
:

S.tD/F^LD, dullness, indigestion.


g-ssar^ggii.

64. hold, imbibe

S. LD/s^iraLD,
LD.i^,

gloom, cloudiness

ldulj.

LDemi, sluice.
LDesiiiLKck,

a stupid person, an idiot

S.

an ape. LDii^rru), a mystic formula


LDi^jrn-Qeoir-r&sT,

secret.

QpL-llTiSIT.

secret counsel. 141.

ldlLlld,

a pony.
limit,
[tsjil.

S.LD.i^ffl,
LDiBssi^,

a counsellor, minister.

ldlL, LDLLQih, extent,


t-u>.-]

a herd,

flock

Q^irQpuil>.

211, 212.

258,259, 269,272.
LDULJ, cloudiness
:

LDL-tmi, a branch of a cocoanut tree.


LD<sm-iki(^,

maund
an odour.
(2.)

197.

LDUjd(^
LDUJEi(^

LDi^irjjLh, su)ldSo.

\_LDsmLD,

(1.)

marri-

62. bewilder. 62. be

['e/@.
:

age. POET.]

LDiuaesTLD,

bewildered seo aburning ground: s-Q^rr.


friends
:

axsm&i, sand, [ldsot.] ....223,224.


LD essr en IT eir ek ,

S. LDuS^^rjiTisir,
LDuSlrt,

iS^gjqr^ss&t.

bridegroom.
(ifl(SBwilqL,)
;

hair: S-QfTrrtDLh.
(1.)

LDsssreurTLLL^,

bride.

izjiiSei),

the Eng.

word,

7nile,

S. LDSssB, a bell

jewel

hour. 158, 267.


of village

188. (2.) a peafowl.


S. LDfTs^th,
LOffssireo,

LDesStussirrjm, a
affairs.

manager
polish

emerald uS^esy-a^. /btz^. a measure


: :

LDesSiurrs^uj,

the

given

to

S. LDffeesnh,

death

-a^ns^.

plaster on walls.
ld'Sssst,

Lon^SJ, see
:

LDjTLD

a low seat, a stool

^^cstld.
99.
he
is

iMff^^uQuir
LDfTLD,

58. grow
eSlQ^tL^FLn.

18.

hard, dull.

Lcessr,

earth
auffttlsu

a tree

^euajr

irem^Q^is^gi,

dis-

AR.

LDrriTLD^^, repairs,

mending.

comfited.

S. LDiftiurreia^,
;

propriety, decency, re-

LDsssneoil, a region

a circle; coil.

verence.

282

ldqFjlL

62. infatuate [LO0ar.l6O.]

LD/SliLieo,
LDgji,

arrest, stop.

[iMfrgu.']

S. LDQF/^^euLD, midwifery.
S. LD(75^^sS<5=Q, a midwife.

LDffi,
LDgii

LDpe^p, LDpp.~\ auother. a wart, pimple.


[LDjbgu,

LDQ^ih^, medicine

^<sSt^^Lh; QsvLf.

64.

LDQ^i^, gunpowder.
LDQ^madr, LCQ^LDssir, son, daughterin-law. App. X.
LDQ^eiTfreri),
LD(fF)(ei^

LD^^sQ
[182.
[to(T7)err.]
:

deny, refuse.
64. disown, apostatize.

LDffi^rTiLj,
LDgtJ.^fToir,

step-mother.

\_LDg)i.']

the next-day. 257.

one

possessed.

LD}lUUf., LDjplUL^lLjLD,
tSsfreijLD.

again

flQfiUlU.

56.

(Ill-)

be

infatuated

[tji^.]
:

LDnFe'tr.

LDffis^LD,

the other world


\^LD1I.

LDii(Se\)rr

LDQFj&r,

bewilderment: LDivasLh.
lditldld,

SLD, UITih. 242.

184.]

Loemp, (1.) secret. (2.) the veda.


S. lditu^lold;

secret;
suitldld.']

grudge.

Loeap

[corrupted into
LD6o(B,

57. be hidden, disappear. 90.


:

64. conceal, hide

epeff.
:

239.

barrenness, LoecLeir, LosdL^,


LDsmpeij,
f.)

barren person, (m. and


Loeoih,

screen

den

^<s>s)i,sa

&)LD. 190.

excrement
^'(Tji^L/.]

iS,

LDpp,

the

other,

258.

[Co;^

is

LDeoiT, a

full-blown flower. [Com.


218, 219.
60.

another.']
LopQ/fLDibirvc
,

[day.
the

and
iiisi)/f

iDsS

(0) speak Slp^, grow


to

day before yester107, 178.

flower:

euirtL/LoedQ^

Lcprgi, Lopeeip, other.

graciously.

Lop^LD, besides.
LDe!!r.F/Suj,
LDissrsf.

57.

cheap.
uireu^ih, QiB. 247.

wilfully

LDiMUD^^ih^.
[In

LoeSeij,
ldSso,

cheapness of corn. 190.


:

Lnasrg],

mind.

comp.

a mountain

LDicurm,
.

LDQ(m.']

Tel. LDos\)<sQgLLqi,G<5=LLif, a wrestler.


LDedeou-j^fiLD,

LDasrau^rruii), grief: ^lua^FLD.


LDes!'S='3^iTL-&,

boxing and wrestling. ld&>^&slL. 62. box.

cousciencc:

^i^&3>n

LD6^^s(^su/E^ir0!r,
square.
LDeoeoiTQF)

he

began

to
LDsar^irrr,

from the bottom of the


relent towards

heart, [^/f.]
LCiZsr^ffiEJi^,

LDeoeinrAs,
iZ)CTisS<ss,

60. lie upon the back. upon the back.

any one

[LDSSr^.]
LDlS!Sr^=:LDe!!rLD.

jasmine.
:

S. LDeajeBTUi, QLD'otresnh^ silence

^emLo

iDssrQ^ir^^ iS^^iTosr.

CI

covcjenial friend.
:

LDtssruuiTiLD,
LDLpSso,

by heart, or rote
Losm^.
62.

ops

childish talk.
:

UUITlLD.
;

LDop,

an axe

Q&iti!t<S

a red-hot

iMQSTLD,

mind

Loears-,

iron used in ordeals.

LDQ^uLj LDp
LD(wd(^
LDQiEi(^
LDiDiaLp,

62.

make

blunt.

repent:

(^emuu

62.

become blunt.
58, 266.

ldsstldQw, rejoice, [see


ellipsis of 5th case.]
LD<oS^<s!r,

ldQq@pss.

62. protract, delay.

rain

man:

LD^ei^'ssr.

66. forget.
;

LDpi. a petition:
(e^iTu,s3i^!T^<sij.

^ ekr

sssr

ld .

93.

LD/D^, forgetfulness
\_LDpLD,

sin: zj/rsuiD.] 190.

i/)fc, a

house

the

site

of a house,

Lup
I

Q/isir,

a caste

\_LDijLii.']

262. App.
LDiissTiLirrett
,

vi.

S. LDQr^LLisLtum, a

LD^

Mahratta.

ldSsst^,

house

wife.

64. stop, arrest. 61.

[a)&.] 152.

36

283

IKDEX
L[>Qm)Sff,
iiig.]

I.

captivating,

[miud-seiz-

S. LDir^iH, (LDfr^/Hems), a

model

manem^rff,

ner. 228.
:

\_Queisr.

S. LDQ(es)jn-S, cousent

3=uiw^.

S. LDir^, (pi. ldit^it) a

woman:

LDQ(emijir<^&uJLDU(oSsr,^. 62. build

S. LDfT^^riLD, a measure,
as. 158, 211.
S. LDfr^^esiir, a pill.

only; as much

castles in the air. [a

kingdom
chariot.]

of

the mind.]
S. LDQfen^n^LD, desire,
LDesTQt^

[mind

u>fru\LSerrSs:T, lditulSSsit,

bridegroom:
pardon
ex-

62. supplicate,

pray

tSj/r

LDessreu irsfTosr.

AR.
LDekesrsir, LDesrEsrsueir,
[s.

LDfTULj,

exemption,
LDdrs^ULj.

a king

^rja^asr.

cuse

tD^.]
64. forgive
62. take
;

LDmam,
Quirgii. 65.

lditiB.

App. x.
:

LDsk^
LDckeS
LD<oirSssr,

AR.
(in S.

LDrrQpeo,

usage

euipdaih.

up the clothes
QiDeinssn,

LbiTLD'3=iM,

LDrrtS^Lh, flesh: LD!!ikiQ<^LD,

passing a river, &c.)


throat
:

{jse^L

ifi/Tii
I

Q^rremsr
:

(_/i^/i),

mango

fruit.

{_LDir

+ LJLpu).
\_d= IT 60 tli

AR.

uisin)ireo, lditsv,

a palace

^jeajr

S. io/Ti^/ii,

fraud, deceit: <o2](^^3sv,(^^.

tD&sr.

US.
LDiT,

S. LDSiSQiTLDsiT,

great.

S. LDiresitu,

LDiTtUs)s,

lie,

deception:

LDiruiTULj, a

covering for the bosom.

[Co.
U}rr,

LDTTlTLj.']

(1.) for lds/t. 272. (2.) a


:

mango

wiTiB\s.iT(oOLD,

monsoon:
LDiTifiu^gj,

LDsa>Lpsrr<s^u>.

tree

LDtrLOffw.

(3.)

an

animal

AR.

LoiTiffuLD,

part,
ii.

side,

LDfT&n-'smw, a
trict.
ii)ffE/<ssfl,

small tract or dis-

behalf,
LDiTiT,

by means
LDtT^w,
tile

of App.

an honorific termination. 151.


I

mango

fruit,

[ldit

+ B(S^.']

LDTTTTSL^

mouth

of

De-

S.

L>n:3=LD,

LDirS,
LDITS-,

month. App. ix. LDrr&LDrr'9=LD, App. ix.


:

cember. App.
S. LDiriTssiii,
LDiTiTLi,

ix.
:

way

eui^. 141.
:

a spot, fault

Logii.

breast,

bosom

0/e^<s-.

239.

AR.

produce: (^Ssir^^eo. 101. S. LDirJ'S^fffiuiri, LDirpa^iBium, envy Quit


i/)/7(gCT,
:

S. LciT&o, (1.) evening. 233. 3=!rujiB^nLh.


^i,^siT<soiJa.{2.) a garland. [mala.]

QffeSiLD.

H. small hole
in the wall to

LDiTeo,

palace, {ldsisdtiso-) ^askruodssT.

LDiriui, a

P. LDaSd(^^fTrff, paying revenue.


LDfTeftleas,

keep lamps, &c.


Olo^s. mrn^, upstair-terrace U3it(B, an animal of the genus Bos.
:

a
:

large

building,

king's

palace
LDfT(f^

^rrsmrLoSssr.

56. (III.) die, perish.

16, 18, 255.


S. u>iTiLl(saLD, lditlLSI,
(misaLD, QiDiskeenLD.

LDfTQifLLiLJD,

fraud, trickery.

excellence

Qu
;

LDiTjS'i

siTfussr

(8^^,)
161.

multiply

LDiri(B

one into another. 70.


connect
be
LDfTffi,

62.

hook,

other

(ldjj;)

In comp

able. 117.

time.

LDn-L-Qtsk, &c
Lnit(^ssasr, a scholar
S. LDiresSlasili, a jewel.
:

117.

LDfTgii

^irfTLnrrgii,

night time.

62.(1.) change. (2.) mul-

^a^csr.

tiply.LDiTg}!

Olj0<s@. [Comp.
confusion,

Qeugu-'}

\uir(B,

perversity.
[ld/t^.]

S.

LDir^L[>

= LD!r.3=lJD.
(adj.
LDir^arLD,)

LDTTppLD, a

word

reply,

Lnrr^^etr,

pomegraI

LDiTroQr^i \^rraj,

step-mother. App. x.
[of gold.

nate tree.
S. Lcn^iT, a

LDrTp(n^<^,

an enemy,

mother:

^iriu, ^ekdssr.

LDirp^,

change,

antidote, fineness

284

INDEX
Loapffj

I.

62.

change, 160.

[i/j/rjj/-]

3.5^,

moustachios
70.

eSes)^. 99.
flQFfUi^.

S.LDiTGsrLD,

S.

shame; honour. 199. ld/tsSjjld, a grant. App. ii. iii.


(1.)

il

(err)

redeem:

S.LDireir,

deer. (2.)

s.

term, of m.

nouns.

lS^, lS^so, upon [poet.]

[i^.]

lB
l!s, lSszijld,
lSI(^

LSfBS^ = LS(^fBS^.

[i^@.]

much
exceed,

172.

LS(m = LS(^.

57. 68.

be over,

a-

i^
iSga

56.

(III.)

turn;

be

cured:

bound. [mickle.] 141.


l8(^\^, abundance. 141.
zi/@ \ii^
tHisas, fault, affliction.

62. transgress.
fish:
Lx>ffr^ii,

141, 259.

LBek, (1.)

242. (2.) a

star: QeumeiB. [LSsir, 190.]

iBds
E. iS&Qiuirdi, the Eng. Mission.
lB<cs>3=,

197.

dP
Qp.
172.
npa^rrei^,

upon [poet.]

QLoQeo,

iff/.

m presence,

in person.

218, 219.
LSl^g:Ui =
lI(^3^

LS(^P 62. exceed

190.
;

npa(B, roof: Qldit. rmsiEiTL^, complexion.


S.

transgress

QpsiM, face.
preface.
:

[ii?@.] 261.

S. (JD.5&-, the fore-part.


rLpa(sij<zs)!T,

L8igu,

lS^

neck:

Q^trsssrsiai.

66. float.

S. npsiri^riili, reason, cause

srrsKsimrti.

4^P, superficial knoivledge. lS^ulj, iB^mxsu, a float. 190, 182,


GieaiiS^is^

S. Qpc^iT^^Lo, propitious hour.

npaaiT,
QpdarremB
S. (rpsQiuii),

veil.

183.
lI^

64. trample

under

foot.
:

= (g.)

-^\ App. viii.^ primary and principal.

S. cS^^ijiDjLS^^nK, LB^^ijsk, a friend

rtps'iso,

[npiueo,) hare.

QQ/BS^ek. 272. lBulL 62. frighten. 160.


LSff(^

AR.
:

Qp.s^rruiT<sn-(ee),

a traveller's

bun-

56. (III. )be afraid

^0*.

galow.

AR.

iSgrra^irff,

a mir.sddr. p. 148.
simply^ii^irff^^/rff-.

LSffrrsr, is

used

AR.

(Lp&uLj, weariness: ^dstrutj. Qps-Qp^fTiT, a district accountant.


Qps^gii,

S. lBq^sld, a beast.

Qpe^, red ant.

LSQF)Qai^rim,

king

of

beasts.

Qpa^'^, a little
to

winnow, /or children

[=sy+^ =
S. LSQFjgj,
LS&:)n-gii,

67.]
:

mildness
pepper.

Qwgieif, ^trii^ih.

a road, switch.

play with. H. rtp<rSeSdsir, np-s'&sems, an agreement in writing S-t^muLf-dema.


:

iBefrt;^,

QpLd(^

62.

bend.

lBgstsQs,-

(prop.

sfl^C<5),
salute
E0(5ia/,

QpL-iEi(Q

62.
a

be bent, or become

waste of time and labour.


iSlesreij

lame. 160.
(tptLD,

62.

[imp.]

lameness, being maimed.

npLwm,
LSmtS(m, lS
polish
es)i

lame man: s^Lsunes^.

iBepi

u uf

splendour,

L8emid(^

uefrusiruLj.

\_LBdr.']

62. polish. [lSsst.]

QiiSSiiow If a lame man desire the honey on the bough ivill it come near him?
"i

iSek, LB&srosreo, lightning.

(Tcif, a

iBekmi

62. lighten, flash.

apL^

glow-worm.

ed
;

crown
tie.

QiFiLo.
;

57. be finished

accomplish-

258.
;

64. finish

accomplish.

285

INDEX
npu^'if.si-,

1.

a tie or knot.

\_(Lpuf.r\ \_QpL!^.']
:

(LpQ
(tpQ-g(^

npL^Sii, the

end

smuSl.

127, 254.
62. bathe.

QpL^a^suDrr^, a pick-pocket

(LpiJf-^

QPQ^ds, QpQ^^LD,
QPQ^^Si
Qpdstr,

entirely, 254.

Qps,
Qp(B(^

np&siL^

quickly. 170.
62.

{psi-)

plunge.
;

[(30(y).]
;

make

haste. 170.

a tender shoot

germ
[_(zpefr.']

peg;

57. plat.

wedge. 252, 253.


Qpdstr

(T^il, see

Qp&r.
(2.)

64. germinate,

QpiLQ, (1.) want: @6^S!/. pediment ^esii

im-

QpiLQ

[265.
against.

open, Qperr(W^, (1.) a thorn; fork (3.) a fish bone.

(2.) a

62. butt,

strike

nppLD, winnow.
QpiB, a

(LpiLisni,

an egg: [^eesnLD.']

QpjS
^GSTLD, petulance, obstinacy.

bond

&lL.
:

57. break

sgif

64. break, [act.]

(Lp^So, 151, 175,212, 213, 254,259.


np^eoiTiM, (w^isoiTeiigi

(wgiiA(^

175.
151.

iSanaanu

np^eSiuemeusm
Qp^Sso, an alligator.

QpgiiQpS)!

62. twist.
twist the mustache.

(ipj}is(g,

64.

murmur.
turn,
ratio.
\_sld.
:

npempuSi, complain. 68.


old.

Qpg}, np^iu, P-psi, used.]

^,

[seldom

np<ss)p,

order;
;

relationshij)

complaint
QpempeaLD,

npsi(m, a back. 178. np^^LD, np^^, a kiss. 239.

Qp<cmp, 64. stiffen.

manners, order

Ct>(if^

np^^emrr, a seal. 138.

Qp^gi, a pearl.
(3o/^^//?,

9,

228.
197.
viii.

npk^, Qpk^ = -3^^(a^.) App.

(Lpp = (Lp<asr, [In comp.] QpppLD, a yard. Q-pp/8a<cffi<s, (wp^es)S, siege.


QPPSii

62.

cease:

become

ripe,

(ipid^fflems,

Qpisi

caju-nut tree

vine,

tough.
195,
S.

62. go before,

[(T^ssr,]

QpeS,

(1.) a

sage

(2.) a devotee.

225.

P. QpesBei^, a munshi. 39.

npuugj
(LpLD^mg)!

172.

Qp^,
AR.

a tip, point

s^rr,

Qarr&ssruj.

177.

Qpek. 84, 85, 225, 251, 263.


(Lpm&L-j, a munsifF, village judge.
(LpckLj

npujp&,

effort,

endeavour:

iSaiutrs^uD.

[(y)UJCT,] 190.
QpiL/pSoysmiiu/rif ^stfisSl^oni^iutrii,

84,225.
a

men
if OT
;

of effort suffernot disgrace.

Qpssrear^aBsr,

npu, a knob.
Qpijiek, a rude

manger U3?J;Q^fril. front embankment, \_Qpeir,


a
:

^^SBT.]

man.
stick, (a tree.)
QpesresTLD.

QPQ^ijims,

drum

84, 86, 225.

H.

(ipeoiTLD,

QLDiTffOmh,

plating

with

Opx^issfl. 263.
QposTegirgn
".

gold or silver,
(tp!h>,

y<^<s?.

.172.

a breast.

QpekQm
Qpa!rQ(es)iT, forefathers,
QpekQrf'ikiir,

84, 220, 225.

npLpasih, a roar, growl, deep, sound.


190.

269.

[(T^ctt.]

the edge of a

woman's

QpLps(^

62. sound, be

at

an in^Lp

cloth.

[^/rSssr.]

strument.
Qpi^!Bis!Teo, the

knee. 60.

QpLpmj(Q

62. growl, sound.

QpLpLD, cubit.

64. grow old. QP ig^^@, nose beak.


,

172.

233, 258.

286

Qpda(ss^iij siiSl^, the nose rope of a

Qld^^, much:
QiLc^'asifi,

Qurfliu,

^^s.

261.

bullock.
nose-ring.
(^ps,si<5mpuj!ssT,
off.
[=5!/J3/.]

bed,
;

uQdems.
;

261.

QldiL, truth
is

body

a consonant

one whose nose

cut

272, (II.) 179, 263, 270.


Qld(t^(^,

polish.

QpmQi^, bamboo.
S. g^i=;*,

QldsS

breath
:

^euir^Lh,

[murcha.]

57.

_@. 263. become thin ^Ssir.


:

64.

make

thin.

Q-psiM. [vulg.J QP(S^&, face Qp(s^a, a blind mouse.


S.

Tel. Oiflj)2(s@eiDia;iJu. I61.be aroused.


QiDffO, QtDeir, QLoeoeSiu,
QLD6\}eci,

fine thin.

Qpi-m,

a block-head.

192, 232.
^(sstld.']

QpL^^s<si!rLo,

stupidity, [see

Qioevepi

70.

QiDedQevosr, slowly.

chew. 170.

^ 62.

QpL^, a cover; apiece of cocoanut.

Qldq(^, wax.

hide

toeap.

62.

daub with cow-dung.


slowly
:

[iLi.

^(B,iox(LpL-uLjj3=@l. [sometimes,
(Lp.'\

QLoeiretr,

QLoeneo,
:

GiLnffieuir

Oizj^O^sar, mildly, gently

[_Qlo^.'\

g/3 k'ssfl, mist. QpL-tLD, a fire covered up: sensru


Lj.

QLDmQLD!iLD, more and more.


Qiz)fi3r[roLo,

197.

gentleness.
\s>Ub

254.
n>

QpL-\uy,'3:&, a bug.

QpiL
(2.)
Qpsspi,

62. kindle.

S. QLDSU3, cloud.
:

QpiLeiai, (1.) a

bundle
172.

[g/j.] I7S.

Po. Qld0s=, a table.

a bug.
for Qpeir)i.

E. QLD^avQaL-., Eng. magistrate.

Qld, a heap, eminence. 244.


P. Qldl-l^, matee.
QiDLLi^ioiaLD,

Qp\^fTS!!)^ = urrLLL-m-,

grand-father.

[184.
:

np^^ffih, urine
Qp^QsBirn',
S.

&g)iihir.

Qpuurr, elders.
Qpirsa^^enrLD,
obstinacy,

Qlduj

haughtiness
feed

0<f(7k<s@.
;

57. graze,

thatch a

^h&sLD

wrath, madness.
S. ^iT^<ss)s^,
S. (2^/f^^,

64.

house.
graze, feed, (trans.)

swoon

a?eir,

Q^s^rruih.

QiDiu^a^iS'^,

pasture.
a

\_Qlduj.']
:

body, figure, shape.


the original tongue.

QLD'Luum,
242.
Qtceiarr,

shepherd

<^i^
[_Qlduj.']

Qld

S. Qpiso\uiresi<SL^,

djuum, 16,57.272.
Qld}ild,
:

S. (tpediM,
(LpdoO,

^i^iuLD, root, source.


a corner. 218.

manner: eS^ui. moreover and above ^&>


101, 107, 251,

(LpBifr

172,242.
one who has a bodily defect.
56. (III.)

&>mXl^LD.
Qld&),

(tpe^,
gy3(sr5

Qwp, QLDm.
ii.

kindle.

257, 263. App.


entr sigii

brain,

marrow.
158, 172.

When
is

the sea .swells

and rises

ivhat

bank

there to (7-estrain) it?

i^3^i}i=^-fr

{!K^)

App.

viii.

Gu:)(s\)\si]iTjiLh,

the

government share
101.

QLDff^a-

Old
62.

of agricultural produce.
i-jS(Lg,

land:

[from
is

Qldl^, the plough tail.

QUDtLl.']

QldlL,

a place

where custom

drum ^uuf. Qtop Qsrren(&^. 259. overcome.


Qld&tld, a kind of
:

S.

paid.
s=Q'3=(SJsm, a peon.
QiDffjeif,

Qt-cpluL^,

the aforesaid,
[Intro.]
;

as above.

[(?/_c&iiLJLf .]

Qld^,

soft,

[mritu. Lat.

QldisS, a

body

good condition. 263.

miiis.']

CiDCT

|<s^(?iMff-,

a thatched roof.

287

QLDdr\QLD0O,

more and more.


184.

[Clc 60.

QiDfTQ^

60.

QLDirsQpgil, fLpSQR,

smell.
QunzsrlemLD, excellence.

Qlditit,

buttermilk. 149.
the

[swz

uirniru., 62. boast, vaunt one's


self.

QLDireiiiriLi,

chin:

^irsuirim

slL
[Co.

QiDiresiLp,

any thing

defective.

SJDLD
ewic,

(1.)

a term of abstract nouns.

QuJ!TssiLpuua,di,
spp;SQiDiies>ifi^

cow without horns.


a pedant.

184. (2.) ink, 265, ld&. [mashi.]

a.

eBLD^fresTLD,

plain:

QeueS.

Qllsyt
x.
S. QLoetreanh,

emtD^^fBeir, esiLD^giiS.
(saiLDii^ek,

App.

a son

Losesr.
:

silence

toiBjan-LD,

^jemLD

miLDiuLD,
'E. 6s)i-Diueo,

the middle
(1.)

rs, ^iswi_.

the Eng.

mile;

(2.)

lUfT
S. ojirsLD, a
iLiirdaas,

confusion: ldiussld.

kind of
the

sacrifice.
;

body
72*

s^rFjjtl),

-i_eb.

Qiorr
Qldits(Q, the
LDLj.

[iu/r=tie.]
:

bud

of a flower

=5/(5

S. ujn".rii),

mendicancy:
a

iSJ^eia'S^.

AR.
QiDmL'smis^^dso,

iJJir^em^,

QiDmLiciai, bald:

H.

lurr^,

memorandum. memory: (e^iTU<sEu>.


which? er^. 47.

a bald-head. 236, 261,266.

lutr^,
:

QLorr^^m, the total or whole

^<s

ujitQ^itqF)

2_zi).

203.
a sea-voyage.

QLDiriLi

S. ujiT^Peeifr, a journey,

64.

swarm, cluster round,


Os^irSo.

light upon, as bees. 107.

who? ^ir. 47. luireuek, who ? ^ir- 47.


iurriT,

QlditS, a word
QiDfrekfef^

iLnrip,
luirdssr,

a lute

aS'fer.

56.

(III.)

draw water.
smnLo.
S.

an elephant:

.^^-

342.

S. [uj,^u^, leader of the herd.] [li/^ti


S. Qlditsld, desire
;

lust

P. QwiTsfr, a seal
S. QLD!TsaiLD
QLD!r

Qp^^ima.
bliss.

a herd + u^.'] QuLcdr, Yama, Pluto.

QLc>!iLs=LD, heavcu,
;

66. smell

entrance. \_Qps,(^,

S. iLjsLD,

an age, a period of time.


:

QlDfTIT.']

S. iLj^^LD, war, fight


S. li/^^,
to

Qurrir, s^esaeiai.

sagacity: S-uitiuld.

*. Kings bite luhen they appear embrace.


S. Qldhs'iI),

OuJ
S. QiuQ^J=(5!o<3=iLiiTs,

(1.)

deceit: sut^^F&ir. 239,

as

it

pleased

258. (2.) danger.


S, QiDirs^issni, expiation
:

[yat'ha + ich'ha according to


LDm<sSui-i.
desire, 41.]

H.

QiniT^ir, boots.
Gloitl^,
QLDrr(B

KDlUfT
S. QlUfTSUi, luck

arrogance.

= (ips.
Qwira^LD,

QinrrQ

^^(^^lih.
:

64.

meditate

&ib^.
fit,

S. QiDP'tLsFLD,

heaven, libe-

S. QiLiiT&QujLD,

what
:

is

decency,

ration. 272.
S. QiDir^rfLD,

decorum
S. Qiurr.ff'&sr,

(^(igesLD.

Qu^fTsi

ring.

counsel,

deliberation

62. hit, dash.


[QLorr.']

QwrruuLD, smell, scent.

S.

QufT^^,

a tamil league.

H.

QiDirrrn-,

(1.)

agoldmohur;

(2.) a
S. Qiu^tsussTLD,

footstool.

QluSfT ^euOKmLo. youth


:

288

(SiiEisemLD, familiarity

QQiesld.
;

[Properly,

it

cannot begin a word in

S. eu^fE^Ln, the S.
eu.3=i},,

season of sjning

south.

Tamil. Look under

^. ^.

e_.

comp.

charge. 246, 247, 262.

Nannul. 148.]
P.ffem^rr,

evs^uu
:

a road

GjitlL.
S.

mit, (n.
ei]s=3irLD,

H. rf&v^,

AR.

nuSi^gi, a Rayat, cultivator.

S. <aj0.

ei]3^uujS^ and a.) 262. a verse, saying


,

161.
: :

sub-

euirsQ'uu).
(w,l^uSIqf^.

64.
LD
'}

dwell,
163.

live

[jsn

fr -3=

AR. jff^,
h.^. ffiT^

consent,

agreement:

3^ld

AR.

ei](^&), collection.

[/je^j^j.
:

(susro^,
tEiTLDir,

a fault,

calumny
:

(s^ppio,

rS

an agreement

a re-

S. GijJ^&ffU},

strong glue.

signation.
S. ffirsi^^sir, jTrrssf^^eir,
L-s^^sisr,
rrfrL-<s=^tsiir,

S. (snm^ffLD, a

garment

Ljtexsu.
<sBrrrfluju).l^^.

^ai^

S. Q-'sib^, thing,

matter:

demon. 224.

S. eii^3=dsar,
S. <3j(s^I

S. r!ns=<ftli,

pride, passion,

isu(g<s=<sii, (Sudf^a^Lo,
:

deceit:

64. deceive

eiLorrd^.
[ia;/_

S. 0L7ii),

form: ^-^ui1>,s^(v^<siild,

S. a;L_, north,
.

S-Qf,.

<5(g,
eutiii,

[udak.] App. ix. euu-dQs. Co. ennemL

239, 259.
emSiib,

a rope

euissau^a.

eiiLf.sL-, strain, [ojl^, atL.'] 62.

ward appear'ance but H. ^urrdj, a Rupee.


S. Q^i3,

one should not look at the outat the disposition.

(Siu^

57. drop, flow

downwards.

64. cause to flow.


suif-S!/,

one who possesses a form. ISO.


(S\)

euLSLiBJLD,

form, frame of the


fruit. (2.) a scar.

body; beauty: s^^uld.


gr^ Look
S. CT/iJii,

words in eo under AR. GoQ-stTiiT, an envelope.


for

^. s-.
3.

en, (1.) withered


Jsff)L-,

a cake.
(1.) a

destruction: mrrs'U), ^lS.sij,

aiL-iLD,
trict
;

small tract, or dis;

(2.)
:

(3.) circle

exchange of money &^0^^Lb.


254.
:

E. eoiri^a,
188.

the

Eng.
QffOrr

word

lantern.

(EulLl^, interest.

euL-L^ed, a brass plate


sn lL. (sj li) ,

Qessrssim.
:

betel-nut bag

QeupjSSsc

S. {_Qeon-Birueuir^ih, a

world-wide scany^iS.

ueau.
<sj(S!!!!r<iaLb,

dal +. ^UeUIT^LD.'}
S. Q/s^fraih,
S. Q&i!TiSt)LD,

reverence
62.

i^dsLD. 259.

world

iwemiEi(Q

reverence; worship.
,

metal.
:

euemL^,
2_G'a)/ruLJ.

eu essr Lp-eo

bandy: uemi^.
:

S. Q&)[TUL), avarice

eu&M, a
tune.

beetle.
euiuetzTto.
4,

(3)J.

ensmemih, manner

AR.<2y<siso/r^^, agency.

rBrrLDir,

S.isw@

power

of attorney.
:

64. divide, separate


<syS/f.]

iSrff.

[Co.

enssm^esr, a washerman: ejarrsS. <ni]<om(est!\(^gj<cs>p, his working-place.


iEi;^s<sii),

u(ff,, uuSlir,

su(^ui-l,

class,
;

division,
:

["ss^-]

Gu<ss^
iii.

eusms,

way kind
,

sS^^ld. 199. [si/^.]


to.

<a;^E/@
S. (Sjsffl^

AR.
S.
lau

usasiurriT,

belonging

App.
115,

d s^sasT address,
App.
iv.

titles,

&c.
271.


64.

fading away
62. scorch 62.
:

(shitlLlld.

eumL. sy/r. fade away


: :

57. bear affliction


afflict.

u.
srr.

AR.

eudSs)), an attorney.

S. sK/F/r/E^ijz-D, a

wilderness
:

S. euri^ezTLD, salutation

iSisereiiflio.

289

eij,i^fr(ssr,

he came. [swi^. 70.]

euiT^^aii, merchandize.
euiT^^aisir, a
(sufr^^LDiresTLD,

1,

158.

S. euLS-3=i}>, a family, lineage, race. 182.


suiity, quarrel, insolence.
S. suiunr,

merchant

eSiuaurrffi.

matter, business, news:

age

euiusij, tSjjiriuili.

^rjojiugiuLilar'kir,

suiuem'Lo,

manner
;

one in the prime of life. euujssrLh, eS^ih.


;

euiT^^
lEU

64. increase: Quqf^(^.


,

[lc.

&) ,eij ei>^

the right side: ^LL^a^esBr

eiiiueo, field

Ljeoih, Qeuei9.
:

(Si/eug!.y,

hurried removal

.106.

S. enuSijLD, (1.) the core of a tree


euuSiTLD. (2.)

ldit

eueniEKSsia Lo^^irir, pariahs, (respect-

adiamond,
:

eu^Ssrui. (3.)
es^suuLD.

fully)
caste,
siieOLD,

those of the right hand-

wrath, anger
sijuSlnxi,

Qssiruu>,

the belly. 120.

the right side. 255.

eurreurr,
euffiV),

by degrees, 170.
(1.)
:

(SueoiM eurr,

iSfr^LLs^etmruiuem^i,
right.

go

a kind of grain.

round from the


(2.)
fiusS,

euffs^,

income, revenue.

coming

eunhissis, (Shqkldhsstld.

eueSl

strength

(SueoeoeatD.

64. ache; row. (as a boat.)


SKifoisoswiD.]

S. eu!jui3rj'9=a^Lo, divine grace: Qq^(5!!>u.


eiijTui-j,

[(qi/sS,

a strength:

ache,

(1.)

limit; (2.) a ridge in

spasm, convulsion.
(SU(Suj,

corn
S.
(SurfLD,

fields.

a boon, gift. 269.

sy^, a net
(Si]&),

spontaneously, 170: ^irQesr. 262.

(SUffLhi-j,

edge, limit
detail
:

eprrih.

eneir, eueSiu, euepi,

sum, euedso,

enj&in-gii,

iSustld. [a/^.]
;

strong; strength, [ua).]


ev&)&OL^ suLpcEQ, violent dispute.
Gu eo
&:>

suja/,

coming, advent

isv0Sfo,s.

iirs(ssr(Lp<sisip,

(1.) regular order, 146.

u LD

ii&>iies)LD,

ability,

power:
[255.

^Loir^Si. 108.*
(2.) schedule.
ei/CTsueysJr,

a powerful, able, person.

ainn
S. [^eurrtrsLD, a S.

220.

eueireirireir

ssmiesr, a very powerful

boar:

eresTLc.]

person.
<su <ki,giirg)i

Q;j/r3r,apagoda,(money.)[vARAHA.'J
euffiTL-i^,

dried cake of cow-dung


prop.
<su/dlLi^.']
;

suQisy

eSlff/nLL^.
euift,

eiiLps(^, a dispute, 96, 262.


&iLpiki(^
(SulS-,

euffl

(1.) tax, tribute

(2.) line. 110.

hawk

^ffrr&^ireB.
Qsstreij.

62. snatch, steal;

62. be in use.
UDirirdsLh,

[248.
urfism^.

57. write, bind.

[210.
:

eufflss>&=,

order, row, rank

<c^qiei(^.

eui^:

57, flow.

way:

242,

S.

(sjrf]ff=<s-,

pieces of bamboo, &c., tied

evL^/Bmi, walking in the way.

across.

ev^
GUQF)

euL^urr, adoration, custom.


QJt^fifl

70. come. 1, 27, 32, 46, 70.


:

68. take leave of one. 254.

ems, advent
rain

enn&f.

190.

also euL^

^e^uLj, send on

one's

S. unQhf&J^LCi, (1.) a year, enQj^u-w;

^im

way.
isiinp,

(2.)

Lomip.
ix.

euQ^si^

64.

isiiQF^&ssrm

euQF,^^ii, trouble. 202,

euQKiB^

(Cld^@.) App. 203,244, be


62. labour,

rain: Quuj.

U(ips(^,

@^260.
si](w<sij

a fault, an error: (^jopLc26. slide, slip,

stumble

62. deviate.

afflicted. \_s^.
:

eueiruuih, progress, manners, affairs.


su&rili,

su^li^/rajTii),

sources of income
138, 211.

eurr^

suan/r, limit.
enixofr

eueiTQ^
(aUstriT

57. write, draw, inscribe. 211.

excellence, fertility.
60.

grow up.
(1.)

64, bring up, cultivate. 158.

eiisiBud(^il.
suireanh,

138, 211, 212, 244.


:

eueirir^^

62.

increase; (2.)

colour

SjDih.

put to sleep. 160.

290

INDEX

I.

INDEX

I.

S.

(sflG<3^iS15,/-o,

[aflG<5^i_ii),

sflC-s^ei^.sLo.]

eSd^ieuaeir, a learned
ujsjr,

man

any thing
aS)as.F,

especial.
elasticity,
:

ueceueBT, woSSTL^^ek. 230,242

(1.)

spring,

im:

S.

eS^em^, science, learning, [vidya.]


aeosS.

petuousity

lS(^. (2) a time,

turn

S.
S. sSsi^ii),

sSq rsrr^ til,

Tplay;

any thing

artificial

poison

itf^.

and splendid.
S. eSu.ff'n'UJLh,
;

S.

<i(SL^LD,

dangerous.
affair,

(^sQisiis^irujili.)

cultivation:

S. (^sls^iuld,

matter

object of

QeueirisirireissreiaLD.

sense
sSi_

sitiBiuld. p.

146.

S. aflL/a^/rjii,

(^<sSiUu.FirnLD)
:

adultery,

S. dlsm^friTLD,

amplitude:

^sedLo.
196.

uncleanness
S. eSlu^^iTsdr,

Q.3=irffLD.

JULD,=
254.
eSLiTtu, lassitude
fflSi^
:

those who have divided their inheritance [vib'hakta.]

sSsir,
:

dawn, rise -^ i^L^ujpair (SOLD, dawn, morning


57.
IIJLD.

^s'^
:

S.

eSu^^,
eorr^ii.

misfortune. [Co. s^wu^^.']


(sflsuiTii))

S. e^uffih,

a particular

euir

a.^

p. 13.

S. ^uif<SLD,

what

is
rrgu

contrary,

per-

sS

68. leave. 254.

verse

frgii LD

eS<ses)^,

a riddle.

[ss0/q<s

S. (sSly,^,

ashes smeared by Saivas


^uj<ss>im,
;

/F^>

eflO^^i, liberty:
272. (II.)

s-tUfr^ssriM, [afl.]

S. <SldOld, purity
S. i^QiM!T3^<zs^LD,

a^^io.
absolu-

expiration

d!p, a lodging
<mL-,
(1.)

[csS.]

s=n-<se^s.

tion

LDekesHuLf.

answer, permission: 2-^

S. eSihutli, the reflection of

any thing,
rigid,

iSff^eSihuLD.
[sfl.]

(2.)apullet: <es)i3>Qsfr

eSthnp

62. swell,

become

sob, cry: Q^LDLf.

(lLl-w, a cross
[sfl.]

beam

diameter,
123. (b.)

S. sflizj/f^^^ic, vain, useless

<^<5m, sS.q^

6fl^i_/r^
sfltltfOT,

S. s0(L//r@OTLD, sorrow,

anxiety

^asua,
2_sM/r,

grasshopper:

Ser??,

moth.
S. (^luirdQiUfTQSTua,

aflil
aflsBzir,

68, 109, 272.

commentary:

heaven, the aether: ^sit^ld.


S. (tiuir-s=QtULD,A.\s'^\x\e, suit: eSeijrr^ui,
ld/t

(lism<rmruuLh, a petition. 93.

S. dl^LD,
^^ffl.

kind:
199.

^eurs?

manner:

suLps(^. 242.
S. eS/iy/r^,
si}>.

sickness:
123, 187.

Qibituj,

Slesi^, Qnir

S. sfl^aoeiT, a

widow

ssistiQuem, ^ld
eS^oinD,
0/(75

S. eSliuirusui, extension,
S. S^QSTLD, pain,

pervading

all

sorrow

things.
S. (^lunutrffLD,

^^LD, s(BuLj.
S. afl^, a rule

business;

occupation;

s9^

sflan^, (sSsjo/r, sfl^^^.) seed.

destiny.

trade
destiny.
S.
<:iu!TiSi

euir^^su).
64. be omnipresent.

64.

command,
sow seed:

64.

0^srf?.
:

203, 204.

<liuiTLpLD,

Jupiter. App. vii.


:

S. dl^^ivirs^LT), difference

Qu^ld,

Qu

S. aSjsiz), lust, sensuality

SSLO,
<l^d^,

Q(S]pffS0S)LD.

^rnL
:

sirLaQtEfriu.

62.

[from

s0/r(Ey5.

g. v.]

seed

posterity

^/e^^.

drive, chase

away:

lSIulL,

^s

203, 204.

293

INDEX
S. eSir^Lo, austerity, self-denial,
Q/ErreirLj.

I.

vow

S. dlediT^w. (1.) extension;

(2.) sport,

dalliance; a comedy.
rruLjpLD, the side.
start aside with
,

eSfrSa, finger, toe.


a0/7-(CT5

[i-z/piJ).]

233-

56.
:

(III.)

price

Qjaju). 228,

9.

fright
eSffI

iSffi^.

57.
15. g.

iLjiuiTfs^,

[high-priced.] precious,

open,
iSfff.']

extend,

become

costly.

S.

wide. [Co.

64. open,

stretch,

spread out,

i^SsiejrouQupp, which has fetched a high price.


afliM,

bow

a rain-bow

s-eisr

fifi/fliyajr,

a viper: eSrfJiudruirLDU.
Lonih.
S. weusrrfftb, a suit at

S. eScr^LL.ff^LD, [sfl(75d6i8,LD.] a tree,


i^QFf^iT,

law

sfliL//T,^(zjzi).

vain,

profitless:

eSem.

S. eSenffU), [eSugto.'] a particular, 260.

272. (III.)
S. <iQF)gj, a
S. eSQfj^^U),

S. eSeufft

64.

enter into particulars.

banner; trophy.
[Q;Llz_iz).] a circle
;

163.

ha-

S. sSeuastJ}, marriage
S.
S.
afiffl^ff-^ifl,

aiSiuirsm-ixi.
:

259.

tred

eSSfffr^LD.

law-suit, dispute

(S^is>s(^.

S. <il(iF)^^Q.g=^G!rLD, circumcision.

eSQeusLD, discrimination:
eSifi,

i-j^^-

S. eS(y^.i^frLjLSujLD, old age


S. dl(V)^^,

QpuLi.

an eye

s,<om.

[(T/jl^.]

increase

eu0inT<d:&,

advancement QuQhasLD.
;

oSt^

64. open the eyes, awake, watch. 259.

<i(W)i^, {\.)

afeast;(2.) a guest

e8(Lr,

stare,

57. fall; die. 262.

T. <^^ss,rr(B, rate

sSq^uuld, desire
190.
dlQf^LDLj

^sa^.

\_<s8

qkld

.']

elQiii(^

eS^Lo,

iSuarrnui.

62.

l^

swallow, devour, con-

sume.

e8safr,
efl/r

^ssifT

62. desire. 270.

<^Q^i
203.

the pendant roots of a ba-

eSeB>^
64.

nian-tree, [(SS(M.]
S. eSetrdsm,
/i/@.]

sow seed,

[see. sSsw^.]

an explanation,

[sflew

57.

make

haste: ^eufH.
:

dlmrreij,
[aflisiD/r.

haste,

swiftness

Q<suaili.

<eirs(^, a

190.]
:

sSsyrig
ues>e.

lamp ^ULD, ^S(cma. 258.


:

62.

make
broom
:

clear, bright,

S. eiQrriT^Lh, hatred, opposition

evident:

O^/ft. [root, eflsr.]

239.
S. eSlQffa^, an

<slefrd(^LDrrru,

opponent: s^^^qF). 272.


(^QE^^ITli^LD,

<lEfr\iEj(ff)

^es^iuuLD.

62. be clear, bright, evi[root, sScJr.]

S. eS ir^ ^ eS

me ^
nCWS
;

dent

Q^fff.

S. WfT^^ITIB^LD,
affair.

eSistTLDurrii,

advertisement, procla-

mation
170.
SetTLDLj

eflso,
iaS)@

off"

lSj&^^u}.

62. speak out, reveal. 270.

62. get out of the way. 170.


e^ariT-sPLD,

superscription, direction
:

62. put out of the

way. forbid:
separation.

weossLD,
190.
<sfla)/E/@,

i6

eS)&
prohibition,


SIM.

of a letter

QLn<sO(^:eO[r.3=iJa.

57, grow, arise.

64.

cause to grow. 244.


crops in the fields
:

s=s=&},

Qurr

(1.)

fetters;

(2.)

[beast:

[sfl^.]

lUfT

w6diT, the side.

(sflff|(Br5

62. play. 255.

56. (III.) burst open, be-

srS)iu>Li,

a rib: uq^Qieh^ldlj.

come manifest.

294

INDEX
firewood
:

I.

siuiS,

^uL/s(g
stifF

S.

Oa;@, much, many ^^sld. [bahu]


:

107,241.
IsBj^

64.
:

shiver,

grow

from

S. Q(a;@ja3/r(ZzmD,
Q(aij\ss(risiTi}),

a present. 128.
fine

cold
Ijb

^lSIq^.
[aflei).

{SjD^',) sell,
sale
:

70. as

.sei).

Q<sn\sa!Tefi
fine.

weather.
clear up,

64.

become
'-jQ^'i

Ipucksr,

eS&QijuJLD.
[afl

"^pgiiQp^eo,

proceeds of a sale,

Qeu\s<ssis, heat,

closeness:

SLD.
IsjTS!/

(1.)

(Efl(CT)ay.)

62.

question

QeiiLsjL,
;

salute.
I(ss),

Q(S}]L^
:

a shot, report of a gun. 261.


64. sound, split, crack.

a question

Cssjrsfl.

&r,

an action; (2.) mischief; (3.) a verb. 77, 270. ^sjrsSfc, an intransitive verb.
LS^afl&ir,
isTa=FLD,

0<a;a@, rashness, haste. idrremiJD. QsulLsu), shame


:

QeuL-L^0sr(si{,

rashness,

[opp. QldjS

a transitive verb.

Q<WL-L^, open, plain.


QevLLL^iufTesr

[Qsi/srr.]

the verbal or adverbial

participle. 77.

Oavil
sgio,

93.

62. cut, fell. 107, 239, 255,

<^aaLD, a swelling
190.]
aff/E/Q

blister.

[ao'/E/@.

who

is

a tree affords shade to the cutting it down.

man

eS^u),
sS"*

62.

swell. 233.

Q(cii<sm(B , a

QeusmrQsmiu, butter. 58. hollow in a bamboo, &c.


Qeuem&aLDiLKrssr, white[_Q(Sii&r.'\

^'_

iMiTsrrmrl.

62.

cast,

(^ea,F,
viss.
iff=3^,

(1.)

(2.)

App. viii. throw as a net. a weight = 40 iJSDii).- a mustachios tSem^F.


:

Qa/sasrlaniz),

ness, white.

Qev/B^
Q&iiSfr, hot water, [^QenLn+riir.
<s?^cs83riaf/r.]

58.

Com.

a blow, stroke, swing, of


[aflff.

any

thing:
eS(B, (].) a

190.]
:

house

ldIw, [aS".] (2.)


18, 19, 59.

heaven. 19, 29.


effil
eS'SsBsr,

Q&i\uuLD, heat: sfTiEKcmS). [Oai;.] QeueomLn, jaggery s(iF,uLidail.Lf-. Qei]&)!i 70. conquer. [Lat. valeo] G LDp Q s !T (oir

a lute,
vain.

[/u/rtp.]

Qeuefl,

a plain

the out side

:'

Qen

eSessr,

lat.

[comp. the rad. vain, VANus.] 191, 272. (111.)


rule; rate;
portion:
uiEj(m

&refl(ssju..

244, 263.

Q (sn sfl S: e= LD

S.

affiSii,

Oa;e/ff|/JLj

light
68.

^sjf?. [Osi/eyr.]

come abroad, be
62. reveal.

known. 161, 261.


S. i^, a street,
(^ixiLj,

Q^(^, Q^q^i^^,
(^ifiiULD.

^m^.

Q<uu\^6^LJu(Bfi^

161.

vain talk, loose talk.

S. (^jjih,

bravery:
eSap.']

Osy

|s(fi'L/Lji5i_,

clearness,

obvious-

^iT ^(B,

cry out, squeak. 263.

ness.
QEi]efi\\iuijiEJsu),

[e?^, for
^ffij

manifest, revealed

68. be great

boast one's self


264.

uuSlrriEJsu),

i^ff&^^LD,
:

liSlffrrSliULD.']

[poet.]

eSp^QF)

264.
60.
sit

Qsve^Quj, outside
in majesty.
(susrflsi),
Q(aj(er^

LjpuiQu.
[254.]
[Oai/eyr.]

Qen
Qsii, Qsuih, QeuiLi,

reveal.

64.

wash, whiten.
in

Qsnek,
in

Qw,

comp. hot,

comp. white, bright, simple, unmixed. [Allied


to
eSleir.']

Qeuem,

fierce, quick.

295

INDEX
QoKstrarui,

I.

a flood:

tSrjeajiTSLD.

215,

S.

Qsa^'^,

pain

QtBireij, QibitiL.

73.

216.
GKZimsfriTL-L^, a slave girl
:

S. Qeii^iT^^iuiueaLD,

readingof the veda.

QgtisQ.
S. Qoi^irenu),
:

Qeueireinr , a goat.
Qeueir or IT (SsarissiLD,
^QSTLD,

demon

^rrtres^^eir;

agriculture
:

@tfL^
or
S.

[vulg

Qensir&riresiLD,

Qeii^ium, a person
Qeu^LD.
Q(ai]^, a sudorific

learned in the

Gsi/syr/raBLo.] Qsiicfrefr/reS,

steam, [white vapour.]


a cultivator.

medicine, fomen-

O ey err srr
App.

/Toff" sir,

tation.

[Cffl;.]

Osysyrsrfl,

silver; the planet


vii.

venus.

Qeaii^eisr,
eardr.

QeuujiE^eir, a

king

ldcst

[poet.]

QetKstrQsrrtig^^,

dimness

of sight-

Qaip^Qeiibfidsr,

a conquering

hero.

QeueirQen-^uiLj
OeusyrOgyrar, early

234,

23.5.

Qeuihuj, margosatree. [Adj. Qqjulj.']


Qeutr,

273.
;

Q eu etrdsiT whiteness
,

white. 217.

Qeuir
:

root: npeoLh.
64. perspire.

Qeu-^,

drunkenness
J

bewilderment

Q<siiira(V)(rF),
QeiJiT(S!Disu,

prickly heat.

[@(5-]

LDlLISSll).
Qeiigii,

perspiration.

Qwnjj^,

Qeu^w = empty
[Co.
<aj^.

Qei]ei)LDiSlSi^,

gum-arabic.
a hedge,
(2.)

bare,' poor.

and Eng.

S. QeueS,

(1.)

a land

BARE.]
Qtsiip^,

measure about 5 acres


or 2,000,
S. QeijSaO,
'Sossr,

[s/reiiBfl.]

victory; Q^iuu>. [Qsy^jj;,]

@t^

[vela.]
:

QeunD^Sso, betel leaf, 13i. ^rrLDL/,eoil>.


Q<S!]dsrQp(ssr,

work,

affair

sssll^ujld,

ueisr

Qeuek^
\d61I

70.

u<5sS, Q^rrL^iiso. 52, 267.

QeuSsossirneisr,
es)LdsfrjT<sBT.

a servant
52.
:

uessfl^

S. Qojsili,

Qen

velocity

^ifj^u^.

Gsueb,, a javelin

&!>sQ<sueo,

Qwedir

58. burn.
smu-i<a=ed.
:

Qeuasrr, burning:

Qeusij,

espionage

[/re/rif.]