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Dynamic Performance and Analysis of Direct Torque Control Method Based on DSP for PMSM Drives

Selin Ozcira
Department of Electrical Engineering Yildiz Technical University Istanbul, Turkey sozcira@yildiz.edu.tr

Nur Bekiroglu
Department of Electrical Engineering Yildiz Technical University Istanbul, Turkey nbekir@yildiz.edu.tr

Ibrahim Senol
Department of Electrical Engineering Yildiz Technical University Istanbul, Turkey senol@yildiz.edu.tr

AbstractThis paper presents theoretical analysis and experimental verification of the direct torque control (DTC) for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive. PMSM drive is characterized by the direct torque control based on space vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) method which is controlled by digital signal processor (DSP). Since the constant switching frequency is produced by SVM technique, the space vector PWM control method enables the drive to produce voltage vector of any direction and magnitude thus, torque ripple is eliminated compared with classical hysteresis DTC. The proposed DTC method includes simplified reference flux vector calculator and torque estimator introducing space vector pulsewidth modulation (SVPWM) method. Experimental results obtained by a motor&generator setup are shown to verify the operating principle and performance. As a result, the experimental setup exhibits validity of the analysis and to demonstrates good dynamic response. Keywords-permanent synchronous motor; direct torque control; digital signal processor



Modern electrical drive systems consist of power electronics components, analog/digital controllers, sensors and observers. The improvements in the semiconductor power electronic components have enabled advanced control techniques with high switching frequency and high efficiency. Complex control algorithms have been used and got simplified in drivers due to the developments in digital signal processor and software technologies. DC, induction and synchronous motors are frequently used motor types with the driver systems. Recently, permanent magnet motors are widely used due to their advantages. PMSM offers high power density and high efficiency by utilizing the reluctance torque in addition to electromagnetic torque. Due to the fact that the permanent magnets which are placed in a PMSMs rotor produce fixed field, the change of rotor current can not be easily controlled as in the classical synchronous motors. Therefore, vector control and direct torque control which simplifies the torque control in theory of vector control have been commonly used for PMSM. Similar to the induction machine, vector control method is employed for the PMSM to obtain high bandwidth torque control performance. For vector control, the rotor flux angle needs to be known by the AC motor drive. For this reason, sensors (e.g. an incremental encoder) on the motor shaft are
The authors would like to thank the Yildiz Technical University Scientific Research Projects Coordinatorship for the financial support to the project coded 28-04-01.

utilized to sense the rotor flux angle. DTC is an alternative to field oriented vector control method in high performance applications of PMSM due to the advantages of reduced computations and implementing without encoder. Some approaches have been proposed about classic DTC scheme [1]. And some researchers have proposed to modify the classic DTC method. Reference [2] presented the direct self control theory. According to this theory, the variations in operation frequency are obtained by the algebraic calculations from the Heyland-Ossanna circular diagram based on the torque demand feed-back. PMSM has been modeled by state-space variables and accomplished the torque analysis in [3]. This study was a very significant step for the permanent magnet synchronous machine studies. The torque analysis of the permanent magnet synchronous machine in per unit mode has been developed and obtained in detailed the mathematical relationship between the flux and torque [4]. Position estimation of the PM motors for zero and low speed conditions according to the saliency can be found in some publications in last decade [5-6]. The direct torque control of the permanent magnet synchronous motor using two level torque hysteresis controller and achieved the direct torque control by using a method based on obtaining the d and q-axis voltages using certain coefficients has been proposed in references [7-8]. A lot of modifications in classic DTC scheme have been made [9-13]. The objectives of these modifications were to improve the start up of the motor, and to reduce the torque and current ripple, the noise level and to avoid the variable switching frequency by using switching methods with constant switching frequency. This paper presents theoretical analysis and experimental verification of DTC for PMSM by using SVPWM method introducing simplified reference flux vector calculator. Simplified reference flux vector calculator is derived from flux sector estimator which depends on the reference vector components and reveals that it is possible to use SVPWM method by estimating the angle of the reference voltage vector. II. CLASSIC DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL METHOD WITH HYSTERESIS CONTROLLERS

In the classic DTC scheme the electromagnetic torque and stator flux error signals are delivered to two hysteresis controllers as shown in figure 1. The stator flux controller imposes the time duration of the active voltage vectors, which

move the stator flux along the reference trajectory, and the torque controller determinates the time duration of the zero voltage vectors, which keep the motor torque in the defined-byhysteresis tolerance band. A double layer hysteresis band controller is utilized for stator flux control and a three-layer hysteresis band controller is used for torque control.



DTC for PMSM by using SVPWM method provides to drive the inverter with a constant switching frequency. The inverter can produce voltage vector of any direction and magnitude in every sampling time. That means the changes in stator flux is to be any direction and magnitude and consequently the change in torque is smoother.

s a s b sc


1 1 (1) V2 (110) V7 (111) V6 (101) V3 (010) V0 (000) V5 (001) (2) V3 (100) V0 (000) V1 (001) V4 (110) V7 (111) V6 (011)

(3) V4 (101) V7 (111) V2 (011) V5 (100) V0 (000) V1 (010) (4) V5 (001) V0 (000) V3 (010) V6 (101) V7 (111) V2 (110) (5) V6 (011) V7 (111) V4 (110) V1 (001) V0 (000) V3 (100) (6) V1 (010) V0 (000) V5 (100) V2 (011) V7 (111) V4 (101)

ic ib ia

switching table


0 -1


tan 1

0 1 0




sa s b sc
SVM block

Figure 1. Block diagram of classic DTC based PMSM drive system [9]

The corresponding output variables, , te and the stator flux position sector are used to select the appropriate voltage vector from a switching table which generates pulses to control the power switches in the inverter. At every sampling time the voltage vector selection block chooses the inverter switching state, which reduces the instantaneous flux and torque errors. The switching vectors are selected in order to provide the stator flux error within bandwidth and the actual torque error in the bandwidth at each switching period. Classic DTC method using hysteresis controllers has some disadvantages such as variable switching frequency, the current and torque ripple. The movement of stator flux vector during the changes of sectors is responsible for creating edge oscillations of electromagnetic torque. And implementation of hysteresis controllers requires a high sampling frequency. When the electromagnetic torque and the magnitude of the stator flux are limited in the exact desirable hysteresis band in analogue operation, inverter can change state each time the torque or the flux magnitude are throwing the specified limits. However a hysteresis controller is implemented in a digital signal processor (DSP) it requires specific sample time on which the magnitudes of torque and flux are checked to be in the desirable limits. Hence, torque and flux can be out of the desirable limits until the next sampling period. For this reason, an undesirable torque and flux ripple is occurred.




i i

Voltage 3modulator 2



tan 1

Test est

3Estimator 2

Vref i i

Figure 2. Block diagram of proposed DTC using SVPWM method for PMSM drive system

In this modified DTC scheme the main purpose is to estimate a reference voltage vector, in order to control the inverter. In Fig. 2, estimator block contains stator flux linkages and torque equations which are given below.

= =

t +t

t t +t t

(V Rs i ) dt

+ |t =0

ic ib ia

33 22

(1) (2)

(V Rs i ) dt + |t =0

Test = p ( i i )


m = 3V Vdc


Equations (1), (2) and (3) presents estimated stator flux linkages and torque. The reference voltage is generated by different between reference flux and estimated flux in voltage modulator block. Voltage modulator block contains stator flux linkages and torque equations which are given below.

V ref = V ref =

ref cos ( est + ) est cos est ref sin ( est + ) est sin est
Ts Ts

+ Rs i + Rs i

(4) (5)

The SVM technique is computation intensive it is possible to simplify computations by using look up tables. Since the decomposition of reference voltage vector is identical among the six sectors, only a 60 degree sine look up table is needed. In order to complete one revolution (360 degree) the sine table must be cycled through six times. For a given step size the angular frequency (in cycles/sec) of reference vector is given by Eq (13).

step f pwm 6 2bits


Vref = V ref 2 + V ref 2


ref = tan 1

V ref V ref


where, step is angle stepping increment and #bits in the integration register. In this study is calculated 0.508Hz for f pwm = 10 kHz , 16 bits and step = 20 value. That defines the frequency setting resolution, i.e. the actual voltage frequency delivered to motor is controlled within 0.508Hz . EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND RESULTS Implementation of the system was carried out with the TI DSP kit TMS320F2808 and the software packages both Code Composer Studio and Matlab&Simulink. The experimental system configuration consists of one Siemens permanent magnet synchronous motor by feed controlled inverter and one ABB servo motor which operates as a load for the system. Siemens permanent magnet synchronous motor has following nominal values: Pn = 1.1kW, Un = 400V, In = 2.11A, nn =1500 rpm Tn = 7Nm. ABB servo motor which operates as a load has following nominal values: Pn = 3.3kW, Un = 400V, In = 9.5A, nn =3000rpm Tn = 10.5Nm. In order to run servo motor as a load, a commercial servo drive is used. This servo drive is a regenerative drive which can feed the grid by brake energy. The system can be seen from Fig. 3. Inverter uses insulated gate bipolar transistor intelligent power module IGBT-IPM (7MBP25RA120 Fuji Electric). Inverter unit is equipped with a power diode module (6RI30G120 Fuji Electric) and a smoothing capacitor on its dclink. The switching pattern in Fig. 4 is adopted and implemented for 3s dead-time with TI DSP F2808. The correctness of the space vector PWM algorithm can be verified by probing the filtered outputs of F2808 using a simple lowpass filter. Fig. 5 shows the expected wave forms for all phases. IV.

Due to the fact that rotating angle of the stator flux vector depends on the variation of the torque angle and rotation angle of the rotor, equations (4) and (5) can be used to calculate the components of the reference voltage vector. The PI controller generates rotation of the load angle which is used in voltage modulator block. In order to calculate the switching time duration at any state of stator flux vector with space vector modulation, angle of reference vector is also calculated by using Eq. (7). SVM block contains calculation of the switching time duration at any state of stator flux vector by using equations below. Here n defines sector of the stator flux vector.

T1 = =

3Ts Vref n 1 sin ref + Vdc 3 3 (8)

3Ts Vref n sin ref Vdc 3

T2 =

3Ts Vref n 1 sin ref Vdc 3

(9) (10)

T0 = Ts T1 T2

Equation (10) provides to calculate the time which is corresponded with zero vectors. The voltage space vectors and their duration are calculated depending on modulation index m which is assumed as 0.907< m <0.957. In order to implement SVM algorithm by using DSP, switching frequency is obtained by Eq (11).

f pwm =

f cpu Ttimer _ per

100 MHz = 10 kHz (2 x 5000)


Components of the reference voltage vector parameters are sampled and calculated. By using Eq (12) modulation index m is then calculated to identify undermodulation. For undermodulation mode the adjacent voltage vector and time segments are calculated. The corresponding digital words are then converted to time segments with help of timers.

Figure 3. Laboratory setup

Figure 4. Switching pattern

and proposed DTC with SVPWM. These figures show dc-link within the scale of 600V, torque within the scale of 6Nm and current within the scale of 5A. The green, red and blue graphics indicate dc-link voltage, torque and current respectively. Implementation with classical DTC method the dc-link voltage is 560V~570V and with SVPWM method it is approximately 540~550V. It is confirmed that proposed method accomplishes operation of lower dc-link voltage. It can be seen from Fig. 6 torque pulsation is occurred by implementing classical DTC method while the torque reference is 3Nm. But in Fig. 7 the variation of the torque is smoother than Fig. 6. By comparing Figs. 6 and 7 which show red graphics as torque responses it is obtained that DTC with proposed method achieves reduction of the torque ripple. Although Fig. 6 and 7 both include ripples, Fig. 6 has also wide band pulsations because of the current responses which depend on stator flux. In Fig. 6 and 7 the current response are shown by blue graphics. It can be seen from figures the actual current value is 1.2~1.25A. In Fig. 6 the current response has pulsations due to the stator flux hysteresis controllers which are used in order to apply the switching table in classical DTC method. It can be seen from Fig.7 the propose method can eliminate the current pulsations. The switching frequency is also at the same value in order to have comparison. The average number of switching for the semiconductor components of the inverter during the classic DTC is almost the same with the number of switching of the DTC-SVM method where the switching frequency is constant. In addition, it is implemented DTC algorithm at the motor side. Additionally as a load servo generator and regenerative drive is used in order to feed the grid by brake energy on the grid side. The appropriate configuration is accomplished on both filter and grid side. According to the configuration in this test bench, sort of algorithms can be trained at the motor side while the brake energy is regained to grid at the generator side. In this study the power flow to grid is measured approximately 400W. It is important to reduce the torque and current pulsations at the relatively low dc-link voltage and regain the brake energy to grid for the aspect of green energy applications.

Figure 5. Wave form of filtered SVPWM outputs

Figure 6. PMSM steady state responses with classic DTC



Figure 7. PMSM steady state responses proposed DTC with SVPWM method

Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 show steady state performance comparison between classic DTC with hysteresis controllers

This paper presents theoretical analysis and experimental verification of the direct torque control (DTC) for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive. Analysis reveals the simplified reference flux vector calculator and torque estimator introducing space vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) method is conventional for DSP based control. It is not easy to change the sampling period of the hysteresis controllers with respect to the operation point of the drive system. For this reason, a value of the sampling period is chosen which shall satisfy the system operation. As a result it is clarified that proposed DTC-SVPWM method is a good solution to achieve constant switching frequency for DSP application by using the reference voltage vector calculation and torque estimation. The experimental motor&generator laboratory setup has verified that the proposed method makes it possible to reduce torque pulsation. Torque variation has a notable reduction in DTC- SVPWM compared to classic DTC. It can be seen that in classic DTC the torque pulsation of

electromagnetic torque which is resulted by the sector changes of stator flux vector and produces sharp edges, eliminated by using DTC-SVPWM. REFERENCES
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