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Introduction: Speaking the Language of Exile: Dissident Thought in International Studies Author(s): Richard K. Ashley and R. B. J.

Walker Source: International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 34, No. 3, Special Issue: Speaking the Language of Exile: Dissidence in International Studies (Sep., 1990), pp. 259-268 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The International Studies Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2600569 . Accessed: 19/01/2011 10:58
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International StudiesQuarterly (1990) 34, 259-268

INTRODUCTION Speaking the Language of Exile: Dissident Thought in International Studies


RICHARD

K. ASHLEY

Arizona State University

R. B. J. WALKER
University of Victoria

You will have understood that I am speaking the language of exile. This language of the exile muffles a cry,it doesn't ever shout . . . Our presentage is one of exile. How can we avoid sinkinginto the mireof common sense, if not by becoming a strangerto one's own country, language, sex and identity? is Writing impossiblewithoutsome kind of exile. Exile is already in itselfa formof dissidence, since it involvesuprootingoneself froma family, a countryor a language. More importantly, it is an irreligiousact that cuts all ties, for religion is nothing more than membershipof a real or symbolic community whichmay or may not be transcendental, but whichalways constitutes a link,a homology,an understanding.The exile cuts all links,including those that bind him to the belief that the thingcalled life has A Meaning guaranteed by the dead father. For if meaning exists in a state of exile, it neverthelessfindsno incarnation,and is ceaselesslyproduced and destroyedin geographical and discursiveformations. in the face of Exile is a wayof surviving the deadfather, of gambling with death, which is the meaning of life,of stubbornlyrefusingto give in to the law of death . . . This ruthless and irreverent dismantling of the workings of discourse, thought,and existenceis . . . the workof a dissident.Such dissidence requires ceaseless analysis, vigilance and will to subversion,and thereforenecessarily enters into complicitywith other dissident practices in the modern Western world. For true dissidence today is perhaps simplywhat it has alwaysbeen: thought. Julia Kristeva "A New Type of Intellectual:The Dissident" It is no longer possible to thinkin our day otherthan in the void leftby man's it does not constitute disappearance. For thisvoid does not create a deficiency; a lacuna thatmustbe filled.It is nothingmore,and nothingless, than the unfolding of a space in which it is once more possible to think. Michel Foucault The Orderof Things Guest Editors' Note: We owean enormous debttotheskills whoworked and labors ofDeborah without Johnston, in theproduction as editorial associate of thisspecialissue.Her talents-especially herinsistent, compensation of this issue.In addition, informed all aspects we invaluable theoretically questioning-have proven throughout must ourgratitude toHayward R. Alker, whoserved as referees and commentators express Jr.and CraigMurphy comments havelent collected hereand whose and constructive uponthearticles painstaking, critical, considerably to theproject. ?) 1990International Studies Association

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Think, if you will,of all of those familiar timesand places in modern life where genres blur, narratives of knowingand doing intersect in mutuallydestabilizing ways,contingency threatens to displace necessity, the veryidentity of the subjectis put in doubt, and human beings live and toil as exiles,deprivedof any absolute of being to call home. Think,in particular, territory of the marginalinstances of: theworking mother who mustdailypass back and forth acrossthemutually intruding,neverstablefrontiers of career-life and home-life-each withitsown distincof truth and meaningand each withitsown tive,historically elaboratednarratives for what the normal subjectwill naturally gender-marked implications do and therefore effortlessly be; thedraft-age whoseidentity youth is simultaneously claimedin nationalnarratives of "nationalsecurity" and the universalizing of the "rights of man"; narratives thedisemployed laborerwhoseplace in lifeis potentially crossedbyboththe narrawhichmight forher an identity in oppositionto tivesof "class struggle," inscribe of "nationalcompetition," an international and the narratives which bourgeoisie, forher an identity in oppositionto the workers of othernations; mightinscribe the womanwhose verywombis claimedby the irresolvably of contesting narratives "church," "paternity, ""economy,"and "liberalpolity"; the alien worker,whose movement withina nationalterritory is constrained by a nationalnarrative of "law,"but who at the same timeis deprivedof manyof the of "citizenship"; a narrative powersand protections attending the newspapereditorwho mustput himself in the place of "thereader"in order to decide whatshallcountas domestic news,international news,environmental news, or non-news, but who,upon encountering an ambigueconomics, sports, fashion, ous report,findsthathe cannot come to restwitha singlecategory because he in whichthereport readersand multiple narratives finds meanimaginesmultiple in Malaysiawho mustbear witness the Chinese businessman in to Malay narratives whichhe and other Chinese are describedas "stingy" and "materialistic" even as he mustencouragehis children to learn "Bahasa Melayu"(officially, "Bahasa Mathelanguagein whichthebusinessofthestateis conductedand theinsults laysia"), are spoken; the peace activist forwhoma fearsome of a future narrative universal "end of time" ofstatesurvival, callsintoquestion"nationalistic" butforwhom, narratives also,the of "universal latternarratives continuepowerfully to displace a narrative peace"; the Santiagoor Los Angelesbarrio-dweller who findshimself amidstthe narratives of a "market" thatfailsto includehim,the narratives of "honor"within a culture now displaced, the narratives of "education"thatpromiseto rectify and uplift of "law and order"thatthreaten to renderhima criminal him,and the narratives objectof police cudgels should educationfail; in the environmental the participant or culturalmovementwho subscribesto a of theinescapable"interconnectedness" of dispersedlocalesbut who,at narrative a necesa narrative of "rationalization" thatanticipates thesame time, would resist saryprogresstowarda universaland uniform order; and all those eventsconthe contemporary Westernstatesman who, upon witnessing noted by the collapse of the Berlin Wall, greetsthisrealizationof his long exin whichtheWest'sveryidentity and dreams"as a "nightmare" pressed"fondest purpose is suddenlyput in doubt and the Westernstateis at a loss to findany source of authority to represent. stable,alreadydomesticated These marginal sitesare no doubtvery different, butbeyondnoticing thatthey are in modern global life today,we can say thattheyhave at least four proliferating thingsin common. First,these sitesare intrinsically ambiguous.In none of these
ing;

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instances can one referto a timeand place sharply bounded, a homogeneousterritory in whichcategories are fixed, valuesare stable, and commonsensemeanings are sure. In none of thesesitesis therea unique and ultimate sovereign identity-be it the identity of the individualor the institutional structures of a social whole or community-towhichone can appeal in fixing meaningsand interpreting conduct. Here thewords"I" and "we" have no certain referent. Here, exiledfrom thecertain of every of life,one can neverconfidently truths modernnarrative invokean "everyis. As a body who knows"because one can neverbe surejust who this"everybody" result, one cannotspeak as an economist might of rational individuals whoseidentities are givenand who, in order to findtheirway and give meaningto theirlives, need onlydeploytheiravailablemeans to servetheirself-generated interests under oftheresponsiexternal constraints. One cannotspeak as a moralphilosopher might ble human being who has a dutyto groundhis conductin the transcendent princiof social ples of an ethicalcommunity. And one cannotspeak as a sociologist might an eternal actorswho habitually replicate yesterday, measuretheir practices byreferin a coherent ence to a recognizednorm,or projectsocial values alreadyinscribed order. thatthesemarginal timesand places are sitesof struggle, where Second,itfollows siteswherepeople conpoweris conspicuously at work.They are deterritorialized of representational frontand must know how to resista diversity practicesthat would traverse them,claimtheirtime,controltheirspace and theirbodies,impose on whatcan be said and done, and decide theirbeing.This is not to say limitations actorwho, as external"enemynumber thatpeople here oppose some personified one,"administers poweroverthem.Sincethedifferences between insideand outside are here uncertain, none can be clearlydefined.This is also not to say thatpeople here resistpower in the name of the lifeand freedomof some sovereign identity, of truth, some community some absolute and identicalsource of meaningthatis and repressed by power. In these sites,again, identity is never sure, victimized community is alwaysuncertain, meaningis alwaysin doubt. Instead, people here confront culturalpracticesthatworkto disciplineambiguity and impose arbitrary of identity boundariesthatseparate effects and meaningby erecting exclusionary and the natural and necessarydomicileof certainbeing fromthe contingencies and dangersto be chance eventsthatthe selfmustknowas problems, difficulties, exteriorized and brought undercontrol. Here, in otherwords,poweris notnegative and repressivebut positiveand productive.Practicesof power do not deny the of subjects worktoimposeand fixwaysof so muchas they autonomy alreadypresent to autonomous and doingthatshallbe recognized as naturaland necessary knowing of presence, of identity, of a territorial being.They workto produce effects ground and originof meaning.And theyworkby discriminantly readingand representing to imposedifferences betweenthatwhichmaybe counted ambiguouscircumstances as thecertainty of presenceand thatwhichmustbe regardedas theabsencebeyond itsbounds. in thesense celebrated in modern Third, thesemarginalsitesthusresist knowing a coherentrepresentation that excludes culture,where to "know" is to construct of a sovereign and controls contesting interpretations meaningfromthestandpoint it is the subjectwhosewordis the originof truth beyonddoubt.In modernculture, male-marked figureof "man"-reasoning man who is at home and at one withthe publicdiscourseof "reasonablehumanity"-whois understoodto be the sovereign It is thefigure of "man"who is understood to be theoriginof subjectof knowledge. and the source of the makerof history, language,the conditionof all knowledge, of truth and meaningin the world.And althoughin moderndiscoursethisfigure to an ambiguous and indetermito existin opposition "man"is understood sovereign and eludes the that here and now limitshim, escapes his mastery, nate history

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modern discoursenonetheless invests in thisfigureof of his thought, penetration throughreason, man may subdue history, "man" the promiseof transcendence: and achievetotalknowledge, totalautonall ambiguity, clarify quiet all uncertainty, in every claimof modern"knowlomy,and totalpower.This is the promiseimplicit as ifby"man"and in thename of "man."This, too,is edge"-a claimalwaysuttered of modernsocialsciencemake-a promiseof knowlthepromisethatthedisciplines figureof "man" whose voice a edge and power on behalfof a universalsovereign would speak. And this,as it happens,is thesame promisethatlegitimates discipline in a compact with inscribed "man,"to theviolenceofthemodernstate-the promise, "man"in oppositimeand space of reasoning secureand defendthe"domesticated" theswayof "man's" ofhistory thatresist and dangerousforces tionto therecalcitrant reason. thatthey resist sites knowing Yet itis characteristic of themarginal just considered thismodern in thissense and, in doingso, putjustthispromisein doubt.They resist of "man"is formof knowing because here,in theselocal timesand places,thefigure but an indubitablepresence whose voice can be simplyspoken in the anything and conduct. Any figureof of people's circumstances, intentions, representation mighthere be assertedis immediately "man" whose sovereignrightto speak truth it is seen as a knowledgeinterpretations; recognizedas one among manyarbitrary that is put to work to tame able practiceof power, itselfarbitrarily constructed, on what people can do and controlmeaning,and impose limitations ambiguities, say. fromthevarious"central" of modernculture thatwould standpoints Accordingly, speak the sovereignvoice of "man," the variousmarginalzones of lifecan be cast of abjection. To theextent the as a fearsome moment thatthey resist onlynegatively, these sitescan be undernarrative, imposition of some coherent"man-centered" a momentthatescapes "man's" rational stood only to signal an entropicmoment, control,a momentthat spells the death of "man." They can be regarded only as moments thatthe modernpersonmustendlessly deferor promiseto masterin the indeterminancy, darkness, an identity in itself. Uncertainty, name of a life,a truth, terror, and anarchy-these are irrationality, ungovernability, disorder,turbulance, words that modern discourseuses to mark off these marginalplaces and times. These words demarcatemarginalplaces and timesas voids of truthand meaning thatmustbe feared,exiled,and, iftheypersist, disciplined bytheviolent imposition of the certainvoicesof truth theylack. of modern whilethesevariousmarginal timesand places defythecontrol Fourth, fromthe standpoint of of knowledge-while theydefystablerepresentation forms "man" -it mustnot be thought of sovereign that one or anotherunique figuration of "man's" under control theycan be knownonlythus,as "voids"yetto be brought zones are multiplying so thatit reason.When one allowsthatthesedeterritorialized can be said that"our presentage is one of exile,"itmakessenseto listen to theexiles who liveand move in thesecontested the dissident praczones,respecting marginal And whenone listens in thisway,itbecomesplainthattheseare ticesthey undertake. timesand places whereexciting thingsof uncertain consequenceare proliferating happeningin global politicallife. To be sure, the exiles mightspeak in wavering of modern timbre. faiths After metaphysical all,theseare siteswherethedisciplining cultureare put in doubt,constructs of sovereign "man" cannotbe made practically fromsovereign and putatively boundariesof conductauthorized objective effective, but also to produce a scarcity of are seen not only to be arbitrary perspectives resourcesby which people mightstruggleto make life possible. People here are as much as theyare inclinedto be dubious of all disposed to question identity and transcendental ends. If voices are here heard to flutter, universalnarratives and showdoubt,however, thewavering cannotbe equated withan anxious hesitate,

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quavering.It cannot be equated witha fear of death thatmustbe calmed by the might imposition of a certainidentity and a universal narrative in whichan identity of "self"does not securean exclusionary territory to call home. For thequestioning and uncertainty here signala "deficiency," a "lacuna thatmustbe filled." Ambiguity are not here regardedas sourcesof fearin themselves. of identity-theseare reAmbiguity, uncertainty, and the ceaseless questioning sourcesof the exiles. They are the resourcesof thosewho would live and move in these paradoxical marginalspaces and times and who, in order to do so, must of powerthatwould imposeupon thema struggle to resist knowledgeable practices on whatcan be done, an orderof "truth." They certainidentity, a set of limitations are resourcesthatmake possiblewhatJulia Kristeva (1986) would call the workof "dissidence," the politicizingwork of thought. In Michel Foucault's phrasing of the openingof "a space in whichit is once more (1973:386), theyare indicative boundis alwaysin processand territorial possibleto think."Here, whereidentity authoredfromone ariesof modernlifeare seen to be arbitrarily imposed,thelimits hitherto closedor another sovereign standpoint can be questionedand transgressed, offculturalconnections can be explored,and new culturalresourcescan be cultivated thereby.Here it becomes possible to explore, generate,and circulatenew, doing,and beingpolitioftendistinctly joyful,but alwaysdissident waysof thinking, cal. in to theseproliferating sitesof modernpolitics We do notcall attention marginal dosome specific theory, order to highlight lapses in contemporary global political have yetto takeseriously mainsof conductthattheorists enough.We do so in order and decenteredsitesof politicallife already to suggestthatthese deterritorialized studies.Kristeva at the marginsof modern international have theircounterparts We wantto (1986:292) has suggestedthat"A spectrehauntsEurope: thedissident." has hauntedthe"European continent" suggestthatforsome yearsnow,a "spectre" and distinctly of international studies. It is the spectreof a widelyproliferating voicebywomenand men who,for theoretical attitude dissident spokenin uncertain of theory and theorizas exilesfrom theterritories variousreasons,knowthemselves centersof a discipline.It is the affirmed at the supposedlysovereign ing solemnly a dissident thathappily workof thought, spectreof a workof global political theory, findsits extraterritorial place-its politicized"nonplace"-at the uncertaininterand practice. sticesof international theory worksof thoughtare not difficult to find.In the published These proliferating of thefield, more so in the informal xero-circuits and stillmore so in the literature, seminar papers of graduate students,one can detect an increasingvolume and of workwhoseprincipal businessis to interrogate to explorehow they variety limits, and to think thatis, in a are imposed,to demonstrate theirarbitrariness, other-wise, of excluded of limitations and the exploration way thatmakes possiblethe testing on as reflection on ontology, on epistemology, Some knowtheiractivity possibilities. of a discipline. methodology-on what many call the unspoken presuppositions of a post-positivist interSome knowtheiractivity as exploration intothe possibility a post-empiricist scienceof international or a nationalrelations relations, discourse, of globalpolitics. as a kindof history, albeit critical theory Othersknowtheiractivity an originary one thatdoes not aspireto remember pastbut to expose and undo the in theconstruction of are forgotten arbitrary practices bywhich"counter-memories" to setup a seriesof a "necessary" as attempts present.Stillothersknowtheiractivity on theone hand,and European social relations relays betweeninternational theory, on the other. And and/orcontemporary feminist theory, theory, literary theory, works a name do their ofthought, notpausingto givetheir works manymoresimply and irreverent of the but simply to a "ruthless dismantling proceedingstraightaway of discourse, in moderngloballife.Howeverthey and existence" workings thought,

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are to be heard insisare knownand presented, moreover, theseworksof thought dualismsupon whichmoderntheory and practently questioning thetime-honored man/history, present/past, present/futice have long pivoted.Identity/difference, sovereignty/anarchy,, community/war, ture,inside/outside, domestic/international, agent/structure, particular/univermale/female, realism/idealism, speech/language, center/periphery, state/society, politics/ecosal, cultural/material, theory/practice, otherdichotomies havebeen examnomics, revolution/reform-these and countless and exposedas arbitrary cultural ined in theirpractical workings, turned, rethought, modes of subjectivity, constructs objectivity, and conby which,in modernculture, duct are imposed. of a discipline, As seen fromthestandpoints thatwouldclaimto occupythecenter are knownprimarily as indications of a it is true,these marginalworksof thought a degeneration of reigningparaa crisisof confidence, a loss of faith, negativity: wouldsay,"theold is dyingand the as Gramscians digms,an organiccrisisin which, a timeof newcannotyetbe born."So cast,theyare knownto markan interregnum, in implicit delaybetweenparadigms.So cast,also, theyare subjectto the discipline who long fora center, a securesource of meaning questionsthatmoderntheorists by guaranteedby a "dead father," so readilyask. Can theynot prove theirmerits as a new paradigmwhose knowledgeclaimswould bear a configuring themselves can promiseof controlin the name of "man?" If theyaspire to be takenseriously, thatcould speak a themselves as a theoretical counter-hegemony theynotconfigure commanda space, secure a home, sovereign voice,assume a name, take a position, set down a law,and layclaimto the centerof a discipline? The discipline is readyto that the answersto these questions-answers that would affirm hear affirmative studyof international politicsis indeed a businessof makingheroic promiseson To thoseworks of thought thatanswerno, the figure. behalfof a universal sovereign disciplineturnsa deaf ear when it can. of theseexileworks of thought, It is characteristic though, thattheywillanswerno. For these dissidentworksare like the marginalsitesdiscussedearlierin thatthey in the interest of the powerof the resistassimilation to modernmodes of knowing modernfigures of sovereignman and sovereign state.They share the threeother featuresof these marginalsites as well. These dissidentworksof global political fortheplayof difference movein intrinsically whererespect theory ambiguoussites, and the undecidability of history includingthe displaces the assertionof identity, of one or anotherinterpretation of a universal of sovereign "man." assertion identity siteswherepoweris conspicuously at workand subjectto They move in politicized And theyconstitute of experimentation meticulous examination. exciting works and closed offconthatwould transgress limits, open up hitherto exploration arbitrary of new waysof knowing and and enable the construction and circulation nections, and willto subversion," these vigilance doing politics. Requiring"ceaselessanalysis, enterinto complicity withotherdissident marginalworksof thought"necessarily in the modernWesternworld." practices The purpose of thisspecial issue, then,is not to announce a new and powerful on global politics forwhicha discipline mustmake way.The contribuperspective tionsto thisissue do not speak a sovereign voice or proclaima credo. They do not and ritualizea story of originsthatwould supplyunityto thesedissident fabricate worksof thought. to be defended,no boundariesthat They stakeout no territory mightseparate citizensof a new discipline fromthose who are alien to it. They a manual of war by whichsoldiersof a new mode of neitherwritenor exemplify be taughtto seize,defend,and extenda domain.They globalpolitical theory might issue no promises.They bear no flag. in these pages, on the contrary, is to providean opportunity fora Our intention public celebrationof what these dissidentworksof thoughtalready celebratein

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countless scattered localesofresearch labor: difference, notidentity; thequestioning and transgression of limits, nottheassertion ofboundariesand frameworks; a readinessto questionhow meaningand orderare imposed,notthesearchfora sourceof meaningand order alreadyin place; theunrelenting and meticulous analysis of the workings of powerin moderngloballife, notthelonging fora sovereign figure (be it man,God, nation, state, paradigm, or research program) thatpromises a deliverance from power;thestruggle forfreedom, nota religious desireto producesometerritorial domicileof self-evident being thatmen of innocentfaithcan call home. Our intention, too, is to enable the further circulation of the new strategies of questionin ing,analysis, and resistance thattheseworks ofthought have foundto be effective in othersitesas one or anothersiteand thatmightproveprovocative and workable well. In short, we do not wantto "shout,"as if a voice raised in International Studies Quarterly mightbespeak the arrivalof a new movement thatwould stormand take studies.We wantinsteadto make it possibleto listen the capitolsof international to the "muffled cries" of dissidencethatare alreadyeverywhere to be attentively heard. of Dissentand theCelebration The first contribution to thisspecialissue,"Patterns of Difference," a patient labor of listenbyJimGeorge and David Campbell,reflects ing to the exiled voices of dissidentscholarshipspeakingin a varietyof widely dispersedsitesover the last decade. In spiritwiththe voices to whichtheylisten, theseeds thetemptation to findin dissident Georgeand Campbellresist scholarship of a new orthodoxy. a variety of emergent But theydo highlight questionsthatare whetherit be a dissidencethat one repeatedlyengaged by dissidentscholarship, School and Habermasor the mightassociatewithCriticalTheoryof the Frankfurt or poststructuralist. dissidence one might be inclinedto label postmodern These are ofhistory, constructs questions bearingupon theEnlightenment rationality, objectivhuman agency,and social structure; and ity, truth, the relation betweenknowledge of power; the relationbetweenlanguage and social meaning;the role and function thesocialsciencesin modernsocialand political foremancipalife;and theprospects in the late twentieth Also in keepingwiththe voicesto which torypolitics century. a foundatheylisten,George and Campbell resistthe temptation to memorialize tionalprehistory of contemporary dissident do briefly reviewa Yet they scholarship. of contributions social theoretical debates bearingon the variety to contemporary and Kuhn mentioned-a variety thatspansfrom questionsjust Wittgenstein, Winch, throughthe Frankfurt School, Habermas,Ricoeur,and Gadamer,to Derrida and and consensualposition," Foucault.They do so not to gesturetowarda "coherent thatdeprivethediscipline of the butto accentuate thelively and enlivening tensions of an objectively presupposition given territorial ground,on the one hand, and on theother.As Georgeand Campbell enable theopeningup of spaces forthought, havebeen productively showin thelatter partof their essay,thesetensions exploited of dissident in the variety worksin international studiessince the early 1980s. The papers byJamesDer Derian, BradleyKlein,MichaelShapiro,WilliamChaWebertakeadvantageof theemergent loupka,and Cynthia thinking space to which of topicsthatare George and Campbellallude. These papers range acrossa variety and computerto readersof theQuarterly: simulation no doubtfamiliar surveillance, alliance politics,arms assistedwar gaming,the accelerationof weapons delivery, of the politics of ecologicaland anti-nuclear the local politics transfers, movements, of political to and transformation international institutions, debt,and theproduction to introduce thesepapersand saywhattheymustmean name a few.Yet anyattempt would be to do violenceto them.For whilethese papers range across topicswith of some sovereign familiar names,theydo not approach themfromthe standpoint withwhichauthorsand readersare one. They some centerof interpretation subject, word of truthand power beyonddoubt,a do not pretendto projectan originary

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voiceof "man" thatpromisesto settlethe ambiguities of lifeonce and forall. These papersinsteadapproachthesetopicsin a mannerthatis respectful of theuncertaintiesoflifeat themargins, wheremeaningis in doubt,theplayof poweris visible, and the fixing of meaningis whatpractices of powervisibly labor to do. They thereby a sovereign sensitize us to the politics involvedin asserting presence,givingnames, and saying supplying representations, whatthings mean-even in saying whatthese papers mean. More than that,theysensitizeus to the paradoxes involvedin any to asserta sovereign attempt voicein a worldwheretheacceleration and agitation of socialactivity of transgressions ofinstitutional givesriseto a proliferation boundaries and where, as a result, zones of humanlaborexpand relative marginal to thesupposthat institutional boundarieswould demarcateand edly homogeneous territories of such a world,thesepapers showthatthe refusalto contain.Engagingthe politics and its pretenses of territorial embraceone or anothersovereignstandpoint being to a kindof idealismor a retreat to political does notentaileithera flight passivity. It instead enables a disciplined,criticallabor of thoughtthat takes seriouslythose in whichthequestionis no longerwhichsoverunfinalized powerpolitical struggles territorialeignshallwinand whichshalllose but how,ifat all, a sovereign-centered izationof politicallifecan be made to prevail. in the pages of "The Official In offering of dissident thissmallcollection analyses we are of course sensitive Journalof the International StudiesAssociation," to two problems. One problemis thatthiscollection, excludes-or at beingsmall,inevitably least failsto include-many, manyvoicesof dissidencein international studiesthat all we can say deserveequallyto be heard and celebrated. Facingup to thisproblem, in the pages of thisissue renders is thatwe hope thatthe conductof scholarship and farmore worrisome formof somewhat less effective anotherwidelyreplicated of preservexclusionbased noton physical buton thesupposednecessity limitations of political and scholarly ing institutional boundariesin the territorialization life. The second problemis thatdissident as Donna U. Gregory scholarship, (1988:xiii) has noted, is "more often attackedthan read." For example, one especiallywell knownline of attack, issued by RobertKeohane (1988:392), is thatso-called"reflec"lack . . . a clear reflective researchprowhileskilledin critical tivists," arguments, of worldpolitics." As Keohane goes on to gramthatcould be employedby students to theirargumentshave scholarsor otherssympathetic say, "Until the reflective delineated such a research programand shown in particularstudies that it can of the illuminate issuesin worldpolitics, important theywillremainon the margins . . ." This is a of empirical invisible to the preponderance researchers field, largely fineadmonishment. It is delivered without theslightest It is as directas itis succinct. of the privilege concealment accordedto a certain of beingarbitrarily interpretation or of the punish"empiricalresearch,"of the policingfunction being performed, delivered.But it mentthatwillcome to those who failto heed the admonishment could not be offeredor plausibly entertained read and by anyonewho has actually of the"reflectivists" takenseriously as Georgeand Campbell theworks admonished1, and Der Derian make clear.
1 Or, for that matter,by anyone who has actuallyread and taken seriouslyImre Lakatos's (1970) most famous article on scientific research programmes. To read Lakatos's article through to theend is to see that it actually thatproceeds fromnaivejustificationist develops as an elaborate sequence of deconstructions positionsthrougha varietyof other positions to finally arrive at a "position" that Popperians finddisconcerting because, as Lakatos allows,it is grounded in nothingother than the arbitrary play of aestheticpractices.This last "position,"forall its potential to disconcertthe male-marked Popperian figureof the sovereign scientist, is one that many dissident scholarswould happilytake seriouslyas a "starting point" fortheir"researchprogrammes."One mightsay,in fact, that many already do and that to this extent they are far more faithfulto Lakatos's own argument than are fewpages of Lakatos's articleand are amnesiac regardingthe rest. Keohane and many otherswho evoke the first

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There are, though,othercritical readingsof dissident scholarship thatdo deserve a painstaking reply.In the essayconcluding thisissue,we shallconsidera variety of such critical readingsand offer a responseto them.Our intention, as willbe seen,is not to preemptor stifle criticism of dissidentscholarship. Since dissidentscholars laborto expand thespace and resources of thought, they wouldbe thelastto gainsay any criticism of their work that would point out limitations to which they have acquiesced or whichtheyhave covertly inscribed.As evidencedby the essayscollectedhere,in fact,dissidentscholarsexhibita critical ethos,an ethicsof freedom disciplining theirwork,thatencouragesand welcomescriticism such as this.Our of a widely purpose,instead, is to expose,analyze,and displaythepoverty replicated to imposelimitations on the strategy of readingdissident thatfunctions scholarship workof thought in replyto the hazards and opportunities encounteredin all the intrinsically paradoxical and ambiguous sites of contemporary global life. This in Keohane's (1988:382) sense. It funcstrategyof reading is "diversionary" world tions,in his words,to "take us away fromthe studyof our subjectmatter, politics." What is at stakeis notjust a matter It is not a questionof of academic privilege. whether dissidentscholarsshall be given theirdue or, alternatively, marginalized and rendered"invisible." Whatis at stakeis nothing less thanthe questionof sovereignty:whetheror not this most paradoxical question,alive in all the widening marginsof a culture,can be taken seriously in international studiestoday. More pointedly, the issue is whetherand to what extentthe disciplineof international studieswillbe able to exerciseitscritical resources to engage and analyzethe problem of sovereignty and resistance to sovereignty as it unfoldsin all the multiplying deterritorialized in crisis-includingthatextraterritorial zones of a culture zone that eludes sovereign called international representation politics. It would be a mistake, to accentuate of a strategy our critical of however, analysis As we argue in theconcluding is in readingdissident scholarship. essay,thisstrategy thatworkon theworldscene to read ambiguous withall thosepractices complicity and excludeparadoxesof space and time, thusto circumstances, imposeboundaries, of soverof social and political lifethatmale-marked domesticate territories figures thisstrategy of can be claimedto represent. As we also argue,though, eignauthority studiestoday, reading is fastapproachingexhaustionin international just as the of socialand cultural thatcan be called upon to effect theterritorialization resources less able to speak in politicallifeare growing thin,more abstractly "philosophical," in whichwomenand men actively undertake replyto the unsettledcircumstances In an important to this theirlaborsof self-making. sense,the scholarscontributing of reading and disciplining special issue presume the weakeningof this strategy studiesand in the world of politics ambiguoushappenings,both in international studied. They, like marginalizedpeoples everywhere, exploitthe openings made possibleby thisweakening. to thisissue might casta sideways Thus, whilethecontributors occasionally glance of reading,theyrefuseto be delayedor diverted at instancesof thisstrategy by it. of reading that would draw them into They refuse to be seduced by a strategy of idealized realities simulations theoretical discussionsor self-enclosing abstractly that function only to redeem some notionof sovereignscholarly being. Instead, thesescholarsdo what,we suspect,scholarsof international studiesin generalare inclined to do. They geton with their work.They engagetheintrinsically problematicalrealities of a worldthataffords fewpeople todayanything a domestic resembling havenof self-evident beingexemptfromthe playof power.Like all exilesfromthe of modernculture, undertake a critical territories thesescholars supposed sovereign task,a taskof dissidenceto whichFoucault (1984:50) has gestured.It is a taskof

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working"on our limits, thatis, a patientlabor givingformto our impatiencefor liberty." References
FOUCAULT,

M. (1984) What is Enlightenment? In The FoucaultReader,edited by P. Rabinow. New York: Pantheon. Relations:Postmodern Readingsof World GREGORY, D. U. (1988) Foreword. International/Intertextual edited byJ. Der Derian and M. Shapiro. Lexington,MA: Lexington Books. Politics, Two Approaches. International StudiesQuarterly KEOHANE, R. 0. (1988) International Institutions: 32(4):379-96. Reader,edited by T. KRISTEVA, J. (1986) A New Type of Intellectual:The Dissident. In TheKristeva Press. Moi. New York: Columbia University and the Methodologyof Scientific Research Programmes.In Criticism LAKATOS, I. (1970) Falsification edited by I. Lakatos and A. Musgrave. Cambridge: Cambridge and theGrowth of Knowledge, Press. University
FOUCAULT,

House.

M. (1973) The Orderof-Things: An Archaeology oftheHuman Sciences. New York: Random