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Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and sense of well-being. Depressed people may feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, worried, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, hurt, or restless. Severe despondency and dejection, accompanied by feelings of hopelessness and inadequacy. A condition of mental disturbance, typically with lack of energy and difficulty in maintaining concentration or interest in life.

Psychology: Skills, Abilities and Knowledge

Skills and Abilities Science Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems. Active Listening Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times. Critical Thinking Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. Analyzing Data or Information Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts Active Learning Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making. Writing Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience. Complex Problem Solving Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.

Psychology Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods Sociology and Anthropology Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins. Quantitative and research skills, rigorous training in the scientific methodthorough, objective research, analyze data logically, and put forth the findings with clarity. Implications of depression including anxiety and depression are of serious concern resulting in inability to cope with curricular demands and deviant behaviour, impairment of functioning in classroom performance and clinical practice. Preparing

medical students for life as doctors require more than acquisition of knowledge and skills. Constant monitoring of performance, professional conduct and behaviour associated with mental health is equally important. Although, the subject is of prime importance but unfortunately literature search done by Shapiro yielded over 600 articles discussing the importance of addressing the depression of medical education, only 24 studies reported intervention programs, and only 6 of those used rigorous scientific method. Therefore, it is important that medical educationists in Saudi Arabia conduct further studies to find the prevalence of anxiety and depression in other medical universitys, as well as, other disciplines offering graduate programs, identify the stressors and address the problem by instituting appropriate measures, (Inam, Bazmi., 2007). Anxiety that is no reason fear and sadness, accounted a sign of many psychological disorders that often decreased by defensive behaviors such as escape from an unpleasant situation or act as a discipline special ritual(Azad, 2008). Depression and anxiety were strongly associated with female gender, family dynamics, child environment, unsuccessful love affairs and among those with medical chronic disorders. A gradual decreasing incidence of depression and anxiety was noted with

increasing level of education. A significantly strong association was noted between child mortality and maternal depression while no such association was found in males. There is a significant difference in the age of depressed and normal individuals. There was significant correlation between unhappy childhood and unsatisfying family relationships. However, no relationships were found between depression & anxiety and marital status, presence or number of children, absence of male offspring, living in joint family system, financial problems and any deficiencies that the respondents felt that he might have, (Faraz, K.L., et al.,2009).

University is a time of change, new experiences, and independence. Along with these more enjoyable aspects come the pressures of academia, the reality of being away from home, and the responsibility of taking care of ones self. Some students cope with this better than others, however, depression is still a fairly universal experience despite the different circumstances that create it. Depress situations and prolonged exposure to depression can lead to an increased risk for depression, which is more common among university students than it was only a decade ago, (Neighmond 2011). Adjustment to university life and attending a university for the first time can be a stressful experience for university students. Because of the challenges faced when adapting to these life changes, university students are at risk of developing depressive symptomology. The development of depressive symptoms can lead to negative life events in the lives of university students, the most significant of which is suicide. This study examined whether depression and other factors (social support and spirituality) predicted depressive symptoms and high risk behaviors in university freshmen students. In addition, the mediating role of coping on the relationship between depression and the development of depressive symptoms was explored. Two emotion focused forms of coping as measured by WOC questionnaire subscales, keep to self and wishful thinking, significantly mediated the relationship between depression and depression in this study, (Brandy, M.J., 2011). The prevalence of depression in medical students which is especially in the first year medical students and marginally more in females. They should be supported by student counselling units in the first year of schooling itself as they may be able to cope up with

depression in the later years. By identifying the symptoms of depression and the depression inducing factors at an early stage hopefully the psychological morbidity among medical students can be prevented and the ones in morbid state can be helped to seek the professional, (Basnet B, et al., 2012)

University students, regardless of local or foreign may encounter numerous stressors along their study life. The stressors may vary from meeting deadlines to reaching expectations and coping in a new environment. One of the highlights of this study is that local and foreign students are in fact stressed out. These findings called for measures to be taken to ensure that the needs of these students are met. In addition, as social support networks are important in moderating depression, every possible action should be taken to expand social systems. It is hopeful that findings and implications from this study could help keep stressors faced by university students at a minimum level, (Shamirah., et al., 2012).

The transition from adolescence to adulthood is associated with stressful adaptation experiences that may increase symptoms of depression. We explored the prevalence and sex differences of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in freshmen Latino university students in Puerto Rico, and identified stressful life events that could contribute to symptoms of depression.Two thousand one hundred sixty-three freshmen university students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) public education system were assessed for depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and stressful life events using open questions.The model that best explained the variance of BDI scores among females was the presence of suicide risk, relationship break-up, illness, and relocation for university, whereas for males a similar model without the relationship break-up variable resulted in a better fit.Freshmen university students present a broad range of depression symptoms and certain stressful life events are associated with an increased prevalence of depression symptoms. Early detection of depression and tailored prevention programs should be developed to improve both mental health and academic performance among the university population, (Rodriquez, et al., 2013).

Girls had higher level of depression than boys as the girls have more challenges to follow Indian orthodox customs, prevailing in the society. When depression affects the brain, with its many nerve connections, the rest of the body feels the impact as well. So it stands to reason that if your body feels better, so does your mind. Exercise and other physical activity produce endorphins-a chemical in the brain that act as natural painkillers-and also improves the ability to sleep, which in turn reduces depression. Meditation, acupuncture, massage therapy, even breathing deeply can cause your body to produce endorphins. And conventional wisdom holds that a workout of low to moderate intensity makes you feel energized and healthy. Scientists have found that regular participation in aerobic exercise has been shown to decrease overall levels of tension, elevate and stabilize mood, improve sleep, and improve self-esteem, (Kumar, Sanjeev, Bhukar, J.P., 2013)

Significance of Study
Depression is a condition of mental disturbance, typically with lack of energy and difficulty in maintaining concentration or interest in life. Depression is prevailing in university students. It prevalence is due to several reasons such as social, cultural and economic. This is very common in educational institutions. However it is not liked by many of peoples yet it is practiced due to various factors. As for as sociology is concerned its major aim is to highlight various social issues to various strategies. Promoting gender equality has been the constant theme of sociology. Sociologists study how people get along together in groups. They study culture, social institutions and they affect individuals. The sociology of depression encompasses the cultural context in which people live, as well as the social stressors that people encounter as a part of life. The sociological aspects of depression are both influenced by and also influence the other biological and psychological aspects of people's lives. This research suggests that cultural differences in focusing on oneself and one's place within the social hierarchy are linked to the prevalence of depression. Some of this difference comes from the individualistic vs. collectivistic orientation of a particular culture. Cultural identity often influences the degree to which a particular individual shows somatic (physical) symptoms of depression. In other words, some cultures are more comfortable reporting depressive symptoms that are physical in nature rather than mental. This study will help us to understand the various factors that responsible for depression among students of university. In this study an attempt has been made in order to understand the roots of. The study will show us ground realities about depression and will be very helpful to get rid from this problem and will surely be a mile stone towards promotion of gender equality. This research is an effort to raise an issue prevailing in most parts of the country. This study will also help the other researcher who are interested to make researches or who are conducting their researches on various social issues.

Objective of the Study:

My study is based on the following objectives: 1. To examine the extent or level of depression among university students.

2. To explore the effects depression on students of university. 3. To suggests some measures to reduce depression among students





Andrews B, and Wilding JM., (2004) said that An apparent increase in seriously disturbed students consulting student health services in the UK has led to concern that increasing financial difficulties and other outside pressures may affect student mental health and academic performance. The current research investigated whether student anxiety and depression increases after university entry, the extent to which adverse life experiences contribute to any increases, and the impact of adversity, anxiety and depression on exam performance. Depression and financial difficulties mid-course predicted a decrease in exam performance from first to second year. This is the first study to confirm empirically that financial and other difficulties can increase British students' levels of anxiety and depression and that financial difficulties and depression can affect academic performance. However, university life may also have a beneficial effect for some students with pre-existing conditions. With widening participation in higher education, the results have important implications for educational and health policies. Brown, S.l., and Schiraldi, G.R., (2004) saidmental health has been declining among university students in recent years. Reports indicate that even subclinical symptoms of anxiety and depression can negatively influence life satisfaction and performance. Mental health experts are calling for more efforts to address these concerns among university and general populations. This study examined the effect of two, 15-week courses for reducing anxiety and depression symptoms in functional university students. Twenty-seven participants in a mental health skills course practiced cognitive-behavioral, relaxation, and lifestyle skills. Eighty-six participants in a conventional depression management course were taught depression theory and practiced relaxation and lifestyle skills. Success with the cognitive-behavioral approach used in the course lends support for the recommendation that educators be trained to adapt some of these skills to classroom settings. Additional research is needed to isolate the most powerful components of the course. Rab F, Mamdou R, and Nasir S., (2008) said that the rate of anxiety and depression, and the associated social and environmental factors, among 87 randomly selected female

medical students at a medical university in Lahore, Pakistan. Students completed the hospital anxiety and depression scale and a questionnaire about life events, social behaviour and past medical history. Overall, 43.7% of students reported anxiety and 19.5% depression. Students living in university dormitories were significantly more depressed and anxious than those living at home. Those having a history of negative life events in the recent past were more likely to be depressed. Students in their first 2 years of medical school were more stressed, and those who had more friends were less anxious and depressed. Dixon, S.K., and Kurpius, S.E.R., (2008) said that depression and university depression, major concerns among undergraduates, are potentially related to self-esteem and mattering. This study investigated the interrelationships among these four variables. Participants included university students (199 males and 256 females) between the ages of 18 and 23. Significant sex differences were found with women reporting greater depression, university depression, and mattering. Sex, self-esteem, and mattering accounted for 13.8% and 39.4% of the variance in depression and depression, respectively. Accounting for 49.1% of the variance, the full model including sex, self-esteem, and mattering enhanced the ability of depression to predict depression. All of the study hypotheses were supported. Gayatridevi, A.V.S, and Bhattacharjee, R.R., (2010) said that The medical students who got the benefit of counseling during the intervention program were found to have lower levels of anxiety and depression at the end of the intervention program when compared to the start of the intervention program. Counseling certainly helped to increase the levels of selfconfidence and the ability of adjustment of the medical students. It is suggested that counseling should be an integral part of any educational course, especially professional courses, in order to boost self-confidence and adjustment ability of the students. Relaxation techniques have time and again proved that they are adjunct to medicine in a number of ways; thus they have to be imbibed as a way of life for many to overcome such problems. Alvi T, et al., (2010) said that to determine the frequency of anxiety and depression among medical students of Wah Medical University and their associations with sociodemographic and educational characteristics if any. Cross-sectional survey.Wah Medical University, from September 2007 to March 2008. A sample of 279 students was included in the study after excluding first year medical students because they were admitted

for less than 6 months. A self administered Encounter Form was administered. Sociodemographic and educational characteristics included age, gender, birth order, number of siblings, monthly income, monthly expenditure on education, academic performance in professional examination, past medical and past psychiatric history, substance abuse and family history of psychiatric illness. Velayudhan A, et al., (2010) said that now days, university students frequently have more complex problems than they used to have over a decade ago - greater difficulties in relationships; and more severe problems, such as depression, anxiety and thoughts of suicide. Counseling helps students to understand themselves and the world around them, and to adjust themselves more efficiently and appropriately to other fellow beings. To determine as to what extent the medical students were able to cope up with their anxiety and depression with the help of counseling. In the experimental design 'Before-and -after with control design', Anxiety and depression among the students were found to be reduced after counseling. Male and female students in the experimental group showed decrease in the levels of anxiety and depression; whereas the control group, which did not get the benefit of counseling, continued to have the same levels of anxiety and depression. Counseling is helpful in building selfconfidence and the capacity to adjust, by reducing anxiety and depression among medical university students. Tabassum, A., et al., (2010) said that a sample of 279 students was included in the study after excluding first year medical students because they were admitted for less than 6 months. A self-administered Encounter Form was administered. Sociodemographic and educational characteristics included age, gender, birth order, number of siblings, monthly income, monthly expenditure on education, academic performance in professional examination, past medical and past psychiatric history, substance abuse and family history of psychiatric illness. Beck depression inventory and beck anxiety inventory were used to assess the level of depression and anxiety. The chi-square test was applied at 5% level of significance to determine associated factors for anxiety and depression respectively. Anxiety was found in 133 (47.7%) students and depression was found in 98 (35.1%), whereas both were found in 68 (24.37%) of students. Anxiety was significantly associated with female gender, birth order, year of study, examination criteria dissatisfaction and overburdening with

test schedule; whereas depression was significantly associated with age, female gender, examination criteria dissatisfaction and overburdening with test schedule. It seems that Sociodemographic as well as educational risk factors are significantly associated with anxiety and depression.

Bitsika, V., et al., (2010) said that anxiety and depression inventory scores from 200 male and female university students attending a private university in Australia were examined for their factor structure. Once established, the two sets of factors were tested for gender-based differences, revealing that females were more likely than males to report symptomatology associated with pain and fatigue, sleeping and digestive problems, psychomotor agitation, confusion, and pessimism. Implications for counsellors are discussed. Al-Qaisy, L.M., (2011) said that the high rates of depression and anxiety among university students have major implications, not only with psychological morbidity that will have adverse effects on students health, development, educational attainment and quality of life, but also the deteriorating influence on their own families, institutions and even on other peoples lives. How long should the mental health of students, especially the alarming minor signs of depression, anxiety and depression, remain as a neglected public health problem in institutes of higher education? University counselors could play an important preventative role by considering anxiety symptoms as a potential warning sign for depression. In addition, if students have already begun to experience symptoms of depression, the counselor may want to explore whether extended periods of anxiety might have precipitated the depression. Furthermore, the gender differences reported in previous research could be a result of students cultural background and the socialization process both genders go through. Therefore, it is important to study international students from different ethnicities to see if gender is related to their experiences of anxiety and depression.

Koohsar, A.K.H., and Bonab, B.G., (2011) The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between quality of attachment with anxiety and depression in Tehran and Iran Medical Sciences Universities. To accomplish the stated goal 460 students from Tehran and Iran Medical Sciences Universities were selected by means of proportional sampling procedure. The Revised Adult Attachment Scale and Scales of Anxiety and

Depression in. Analysis of data with utilization of multiple regression analysis revealed that anxiety and depression of university students could be predicted from the magnitude of their quality of attachment. Moreover, data revealed that students with anxious attachment were higher in depression and anxiety than individuals with a depend attachment (dependability of others). In conclusion it is necessary to mention that findings of the current study are consistent with previous finding and theoretical stance indicating the predictability of mental health indices from quality of attachment in adults.

Safree, A., et al., (2011) said that in an attempt to understand the relationship between psychological well-being and academic performance, the level of depression, anxiety and depression of students are measured. Specifically, students are divided into low-achieving group and high-achieving groups and their depression level, anxiety level and depression level are compared. The findings of the present study indicated that there are differences in psychological problems between low-and high-achieving students in which low-achieving students reported higher level of depression, anxiety and depression compared to students with high academic achievement. This finding of the study can help to design programmes and strategies to boost students performance in academic life.

Mahmoud, JS, et al., (2012) said that recent research indicates that young adult university students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and depression. It is less clear what strategies university health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and depression. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 1824 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and depression. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and depression in this population.

Makkar, J, and Battaglio, C., (2012) said that late adolescence can be a stressful period, and is the most common age whenserious mental health conditions like anxiety, depression and schizophrenia typically begin. Upon entering a post-secondary institute, students may face intense academic pressures along with for the first time being separated from family and friends. Since depression and lack of belonging are risk factors in the development of mental health problems, it is important that university instructors acknowledge the importance of student mental health self-care, and attempt to create caring learning communities. University student services can also offer information regarding mental health services and resources that may be helpful for students at risk. Ghamari,M., (2012) said that Family function is effective on improving quality of life and increasing individual health level in community. Good family function can help members to cope with depression and inappropriate conditions. Disorder in family function make members confused, worry and relational problems and treat member health. In fact, what happened in family and the way of it function is key on flexibility and adopt with difficult conditions and situations. In families with good function, problem solving occurred appropriate; roles and responsibilities are clear and flexible; communications are direct and verbal communication is consistent with the symptoms of the face and body language; emotional accompanied and appropriate supervision is exist; and conflicts posed and resolves. All of these dimensions and characteristics educable and with training them can enhance family function and decrease psychological problems of students. Nelson JM and Gregg N. (2012) said that transitioning adolescents and university students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia university sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety. Results indicated no differences between the university-level groups, although a main effect for gender was found and trended toward females with dyslexia reporting more symptoms of depression and anxiety than did males with dyslexia. Internalizing symptomatology differences were not found for subtypes of ADHD. Transitioning high school students with ADHD, dyslexia, or ADHD/dyslexia reported fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression than did university underclassmen with these disorders. The unique characteristics and experiences of the university population of

individuals with ADHD and/or dyslexia are discussed relative to the general adult population with these disorders.

Al-Qaisy, L.M., 2011. The relation of depression and anxiety in academic achievement among group of university students, International Journal of Psychology and Counselling Vol. 3(5), pp. 96-100, Available online at

http://www.academicjournals.org/IJPC Alvi T, Assad F, Ramzan M, and Khan FA.2010. Depression, anxiety and their associated factors among medical students, J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. Vol. 20(2), Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Wah Medical University, WahCantt. Andrews B, andWilding JM., 2004. The relation of depression and anxiety to life-stress and achievement in students, Br J Psychol. Vol. 95(4), PP: 509-521, Royal Holloway University of London, UK Azad, H. (2008). Psychopathology (volume1).Tehran: Besat Basnet B, Jaiswal M, Adhikari B, and Shyangwa PM., 2012. Depression Among

Undergraduate Medical Students. Kathmandu University Medical Journal, Vol.39(3), PP: 56-59. Bitsika, V., Sharpley, C.F., Melhem, T.C., 2010. Gender Differences in Factor Scores of Anxiety and Depression among Australian University Students: Implications for Counselling Interventions, Canadian Journal of Counselling, Vol. 44 No. 1, PP: 51 64 Brandy, M.J., 2011. Depression in Freshmen University Students, Dissertations.Paper 177. http://ecommons.luc.edu/luc_diss/177

Brown, S.l., and Schiraldi, G.R., 2004. Reducing Subclinical Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression: A Comparison of Two University Courses, American Journal of Health Education, Volume 35, (03), PP: 158-164 Dixon, S.K., and Kurpius, S.E.R., 2008. Depression and University Stress Among University Undergraduates: Do Mattering and Self-Esteem Make a Difference? Journal of University Student DevelopmentVolume 49, Number 5, pp. 412-424 Faraz, K.L., Ansari, B., Jawad, A., Dawson, A., AND Baig S.M., 2009. Prevalence Of Depression And Anxiety In A Village In Sindh, Journal of Ayub Medical University Abbotabad, Vol. 21(2), PP: 68-72, http://www.ayubmed.edu.pk/JAMC/68 PAST/212/Faraz.pdf Gayatridevi, A.V.S, and Bhattacharjee, R.R., 2010. Efficacy of behavioral intervention in reducing anxiety and depression among medical students, Ind Psychiatry J. 2010 Jan-Jun; 19(1): 4146. Ghamari,M., 2012. Family Function and Depression, Anxiety, and Somatization among University Students, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 5, PP: 101-105 Inam, Bazmi., 2007. Anxiety and Depression among Students of a Medical University in Saudi Arabia, Int J Health Sci, Vol. (2): 295300. Koohsar, A.K.H., and Bonab, B.G., 2011. Relation Among Quality of Attachment, Anxiety and Depression in University Students,Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 2nd World Conference on Psychology, Counselling and Guidance 2011,Volume 30, PP: 212215 Kumar, Sanjeev, and Bhukar, J.P., 2013. Stress level and coping strategies of university students, Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management, Vol. 4(1): pp. 5-11, Available online at http://www.acadjourn.org/JPESM Mahmoud JS, Staten R, Hall LA, Lennie TA. 2012. The relationship among young adult university students' depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life

satisfaction, and coping styles, Issues Ment Health Nurs, Vol. 33(3) PP:14956. Makkar, J, and Battaglio, C., 2012. Depression and Anxiety Among University Students: Implications for University Instructors, Canadian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 1, 5-16 Neighmond, Patti. 2011. Depression on the Rise in University Students. National Public Radio. January 17. http://www.npr.org/2011/01/17/132934543/depression-on-therise-in-university students. Nelson JM and Gregg N. 2012. Depression and anxiety among transitioning adolescents and university students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia, J AttenDisord. Vol. 16(3):244-254, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Rab F, Mamdou R, and Nasir S., 2008.Rates of depression and anxiety among female medical students in Pakistan, East Mediterr Health J. 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):126-33, AllamaIqbal Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan. Rodriquez, et al., 2013.Depression symptoms and stressful life events among university students in Puerto Rico, Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 145, Issue 3 , Pages 324-330, Safree, A., Yasin, AND Dzulkifli, M., 2011. Differences In Depression, Anxiety And Stress Between Low-And High-Achieving Students, Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, Volume 6 Number 1, PP:169-178 Shamirah-Farah Faleel, Cai-Lian Tam, Teck-Heang Lee, Wai-MunHar, and Yie-Chu Foo., 2012. Stress, Perceived Social Support, Coping Capability and Depression: A Study of Local and Foreign Students in the Malaysian Context, Science, Engineering and Technology 61 2012, PP: 75-81 Tabassum, A., Assad, F., Ramzan, M., AND Aslam, K. F., 2010. Depression, Anxiety and Their Associated Factors Among Medical Students, Journal of the University of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan 2010, Vol. 20 (2): 122-126 World Academy of

Velayudhan A, Gayatridevi S,

andBhattacharjee RR. 2010. Efficacy of behavioral

intervention in reducing anxiety and depression among medical students, Ind Psychiatry J. 2010 Jan;19(1), 6-41, Department of Psychology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India.