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WatchGuard Certified Training

Fireware XTM Basics


Courseware: Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager v11.7

Revised: March 2013 Updated for: Fireware XTM v11.7.2

Disclaimer
Information in this guide is subject to change without notice. Companies, names, and data used in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise noted. No part of this guide may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of WatchGuard Technologies, Inc.

Copyright and Patent Information


Copyright 2013 WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. WatchGuard, Firebox, Fireware, LiveSecurity, and spamBlocker are either registered trademarks or trademarks of WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. in the United States and other countries. This product is covered by one or more pending patent applications. All other trademarks and tradenames are the property of their respective owners. Printed in the United States.

TRAINING www.watchguard.com/training training@watchguard.com

COPYRIGHT 2013 WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. WatchGuard, the WatchGuard logo, Firebox, and Core are registered trademarks or trademarks of WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries.

Table of Contents

Course Introduction ............................................................................................................. Training Options ........................................................................................................... Necessary Equipment and Software .......................................................................... Training Scenario ......................................................................................................... Prerequisites ................................................................................................................ Certification ................................................................................................................. Fireware XTM Web UI and Command Line Interface ................................................ Additional Resources .................................................................................................. Getting Started ..................................................................................................................... What You Will Learn .................................................................................................... Start with WatchGuard System Manager ..................................................................

1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 5

WSM Components ..................................................................................................................... 6 Activate your Device .................................................................................................................. 7 Use the Setup Wizards .............................................................................................................. 7

Exercise 1: Create a Configuration File with the Quick Setup Wizard ........................ 8 Exercise 2: Open WSM and Connect to Devices and Servers .................................... 9
Connect to an XTM Device ........................................................................................................ 9 Connect to a Management Server ......................................................................................... 10

Exercise 3: Open Policy Manager ............................................................................... 12 Exercise 4: Set Up WatchGuard Server Center .......................................................... 14 Test Your Knowledge ................................................................................................. 15 Administration .................................................................................................................... 17 What You Will Learn .................................................................................................. 17 Manage Configuration Files and Device Properties ................................................ 17 Exercise 1: Open and Save Configuration Files ......................................................... 18 Exercise 2: Configure a Device for Remote Administration ...................................... 19 Exercise 3: Change the XTM Device Passphrases ..................................................... 20 Exercise 4: Create and Restore a Device Backup Image .......................................... 21
Create an XTM Device Backup Image .................................................................................... 21 Restore an XTM Device Backup Image .................................................................................. 22

Exercise 5: Add XTM Device Identification Information ............................................ 23 Test Your Knowledge ................................................................................................. 24 Network Settings ................................................................................................................ 25 What You Will Learn .................................................................................................. 25 Properties and Features of XTM Device Interfaces ................................................. 25
Requirements for XTM Device Interfaces .............................................................................. 26 About DHCP Server and DHCP Relay ..................................................................................... 26 About WINS/DNS ..................................................................................................................... 27 About Network Modes ............................................................................................................. 27
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About Dynamic DNS ................................................................................................................ About Secondary Networks .................................................................................................... About Network Bridges ........................................................................................................... About Static Routes ................................................................................................................ About Advanced Networking Features .................................................................................. About IPv6 ...............................................................................................................................

28 28 28 28 29 29

Exercise 1: Use a Dynamic IP Address for an External Interface ............................. 31


Configure the External Interface for DHCP ........................................................................... 31 Configure the External Interface to Use PPPoE .................................................................... 32 Use Dynamic DNS ................................................................................................................... 33

Exercise 2: Configure an External Interface with a Static IP Address ...................... Exercise 3: Configure a Trusted Interface as a DHCP Server ................................... Exercise 4: Configure an Optional Interface .............................................................. Exercise 5: Configure WINS/DNS Server Information .............................................. Exercise 6: Configure a Secondary Network ............................................................. Frequently Asked Questions ..................................................................................... Test Your Knowledge ................................................................................................. Logging and Reporting ....................................................................................................... What You Will Learn .................................................................................................. Logging and Reporting Setup Process Overview ..................................................... Maintain a Record of Device Activity ........................................................................
Logging and Notification Architecture ................................................................................... See Log Messages .................................................................................................................. Log Server ................................................................................................................................ Log Messages ......................................................................................................................... Log Files ...................................................................................................................................

35 36 37 38 39 40 41 43 43 43 44
44 45 45 46 46

Build Reports from Log Messages ........................................................................... 47


WatchGuard Reports .............................................................................................................. 48 View Reports with Report Manager ....................................................................................... 51

Exercise 1: Configure Where the Device Sends Log Messages ............................... 51 Exercise 2: Set Up the Log Server .............................................................................. 53
Set Up the Log Server ............................................................................................................. 53

Exercise 3: Control Database and Notification Properties ....................................... 54


Configure Database and Notification Settings ..................................................................... 54 Send Log Notifications to a Network Administrator .............................................................. 55 Change the Encryption Key .................................................................................................... 56

Exercise 4: Use Log Manager to View Log Messages ............................................... 57


Connect to WebCenter to View Log Messages ...................................................................... 57 Run a Search ........................................................................................................................... 58 Export Log Messages .............................................................................................................. 60

Exercise 5: Configure a Report Server ....................................................................... 61


Add a Log Server ..................................................................................................................... 61 Select Reports and Timing ..................................................................................................... 62

Exercise 6: Use Report Manager to View and Generate Reports ............................ 65


Connect to Report Manager to View Reports ........................................................................ 65 View Reports ............................................................................................................................ 66

Exercise 7: Share Reports .......................................................................................... Test Your Knowledge ................................................................................................. Monitor Your Firewall ......................................................................................................... What You Will Learn ..................................................................................................
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67 68 71 71

WatchGuard Fireware XTM Basics

Regular Monitoring Improves Security ..................................................................... 71 Exercise 1: Review Network Status in WSM .............................................................. 73
Interpret the Device Status Display ........................................................................................ 74

Exercise 2: Use Firebox System Manager .................................................................. 75


Connect to an XTM Device and Change the Display ............................................................. 75 Use Traffic Monitor .................................................................................................................. 77 Run a TCP Dump Diagnostic Task and Download a PCAP File ............................................. 78 Check Bandwidth Usage and Service Volume ....................................................................... 80

Exercise 3: Exercise 4: Exercise 5: Exercise 6:

Create a Performance Console Graph .................................................... Use HostWatch to View Network Activity ................................................ Use the Blocked Sites List ....................................................................... Examine and Update Feature Keys .........................................................

82 84 85 86

View Feature Keys For Your XTM Device ................................................................................ 86 Add a Feature Key to the XTM Device .................................................................................... 87

Test Your Knowledge ................................................................................................. 88 NAT ...................................................................................................................................... 89 What You Will Learn .................................................................................................. 89 NAT Overview ............................................................................................................. 89
Dynamic NAT ............................................................................................................................ 90 1-to-1 NAT ................................................................................................................................. 91 Policy-based NAT ...................................................................................................................... 93 Static NAT ................................................................................................................................. 94 About SNAT Actions ................................................................................................................. 94 NAT Loopback .......................................................................................................................... 94

Exercise 1: Add Firewall Dynamic NAT Entries ........................................................... 95 Exercise 2: Configure Static NAT to Allow Access to Public Servers ......................... 97 Exercise 3: Configure NAT Loopback to an Internal Web Server .............................. 99
Other Reasons to Use NAT .................................................................................................... 101

Test Your Knowledge .............................................................................................. Policies .............................................................................................................................. What You Will Learn ............................................................................................... Policies are Rules for Your Network Traffic ...........................................................
Add Policies ........................................................................................................................... Configure Logging and Notification for a Policy ................................................................. Advanced Policy Properties .................................................................................................. Policy Precedence ................................................................................................................. Policy Tags and Filters ..........................................................................................................

102 103 103 103


104 104 104 105 105

Exercise 1: Add a Packet Filter Policy and Configure Access Rules ...................... 106
Add a Predefined Policy ....................................................................................................... 106 Modify Policies to Restrict Traffic ......................................................................................... 107 Use a Policy to Allow Traffic ................................................................................................. 109

Exercise 2: Create a Custom Packet Filter Template ............................................. 110


Add and Configure the Custom Policy ................................................................................. 111

Exercise 3: Configure Logging and Notification for a Policy ................................... 113 Exercise 4: Change Policy Precedence .................................................................... 114
Override the Default Order of Policy Precedence ............................................................... 114

Exercise 5: Use Advanced Policy Properties ........................................................... 115 Exercise 6: Use Policy Tags and Filters to Group and Sort Policies ....................... 117
Create and Apply a Policy Tag ............................................................................................... 117 Filter the Policy List ............................................................................................................... 118
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Test Your Knowledge ............................................................................................... 120 Proxy Policies .................................................................................................................... 123 What You Will Learn ................................................................................................ 123 Proxy Policies and ALGs .......................................................................................... 123 About the DNS Proxy ............................................................................................... 123 About the FTP Proxy ................................................................................................ 124 About H.323 and SIP ALGs ..................................................................................... 126 About the TCP-UDP Proxy ........................................................................................ 126 Exercise 1: Use the DNS-Outgoing Proxy Action ...................................................... 127
Add a DNS Outgoing Proxy Policy ......................................................................................... 127 Block a DNS Request by Query Name ................................................................................. 128

Exercise 2: Configure an FTP-Server Proxy Action ................................................... 130


Deny the Delete Command .................................................................................................. 130 Restrict FTP File Uploads to Text Only .................................................................................. 132

Exercise 3: Set Access Controls on H.323 Connections ........................................ 133 Test Your Knowledge ............................................................................................... 135 Email Proxies .................................................................................................................... 137 What You Will Learn ................................................................................................ 137 Control the Flow of Email In and Out of Your Network .......................................... 137
SMTP Rulesets ...................................................................................................................... 137 POP3 Rulesets ....................................................................................................................... 138

Exercise 1: Use the SMTP-Proxy to Protect Your Mail Server ................................. 139
Add an Incoming SMTP-Proxy Policy .................................................................................... Decrease Maximum Message Size ...................................................................................... Allow and Deny Content Types and Filenames ................................................................... Control Mail Domain Use for Incoming Traffic .................................................................... Add an Outgoing SMTP-Proxy Policy .................................................................................... Control Email Message Size ................................................................................................. Control Mail Domain Use for Outbound SMTP .................................................................... Restrict Email by Attachment Filename .............................................................................. 139 140 141 142 144 145 146 147

Exercise 2: Control Outgoing SMTP Connections .................................................... 144

Exercise 3: Use a POP3-Client Policy ....................................................................... 149


Add a POP3 Client Policy ...................................................................................................... 149 Configure the POP3 Policy to Lock Attachments ................................................................ 151

Test Your Knowledge ............................................................................................... 152 Authentication .................................................................................................................. 155 What You Will Learn ................................................................................................ 155 Monitor and Control Network Traffic by User ........................................................ 156
How Firebox User Authentication Works ............................................................................. Authentication Methods Available with Fireware XTM ....................................................... Use the Firebox Authentication Server ................................................................................ About Third-party Authentication Servers ........................................................................... About Authentication Timeout Values ................................................................................. 156 157 157 157 159

Exercise 1: Add a Firebox User Group and Add Users ............................................ 160
Create a Firebox User Group ................................................................................................ 160 Add Firebox Users ................................................................................................................. 161

Exercise 2: Edit Policies to Use Firebox Authentication .......................................... 164 Exercise 3: Set Global Authentication Values ......................................................... 166
Set Global Timeout Values ................................................................................................... 166 Set Other Global Values ........................................................................................................ 166
vi WatchGuard Fireware XTM Basics

Exercise 4: Enable Single Sign-On for the XTM Device .......................................... 168
Use a Web Server Certificate ................................................................................................ 170

Test Your Knowledge ............................................................................................... 172 Blocking Spam ................................................................................................................. 173 What You Will Learn ................................................................................................ 173 Stop Unwanted Email at the Network Edge ........................................................... 173
spamBlocker Tags .................................................................................................................. 174 spamBlocker Categories ....................................................................................................... 174 spamBlocker Exceptions ....................................................................................................... 174 Global spamBlocker Settings ................................................................................................ 175

Exercise 1: Configure the Quarantine Server .......................................................... 176


Configure Quarantine Server Rules ...................................................................................... 176 Configure the XTM Device to Use the Quarantine Server ................................................... 177

Exercise 2: Activate spamBlocker ............................................................................ 178 Exercise 3: Configure the spamBlocker Service ..................................................... 179
Determine What Happens to spam Email ............................................................................ 179 Add spamBlocker Exceptions ............................................................................................... 180

Exercise 4: Monitor spamBlocker Activity ............................................................... Test Your Knowledge .............................................................................................. Web Traffic ........................................................................................................................ What You Will Learn ............................................................................................... Control Web Traffic Through Your Firewall ............................................................

181 182 183 183 183

Control Outgoing HTTP Requests ......................................................................................... 184 Protect Your Web Server ....................................................................................................... 185 HTTP-Proxy Action Rulesets ................................................................................................. 185

Monitor Secured HTTP Traffic with the HTTPS-Proxy ............................................. 187 Restrict Web Access with WebBlocker .................................................................. 188
WebBlocker Server Options ................................................................................................. 188

Exercise 1: Configure HTTP Connections from Trusted Users ............................... 191


Add an HTTP Client Proxy Policy ........................................................................................... 191 Enable a Log Message for Each HTTP Client Connection ................................................... 191 Block HTTP Client Connections by URL Path ...................................................................... 192 Allow Microsoft Office Documents and ZIP Files Through the HTTP-Proxy ...................... 193 Customize the Deny Message .............................................................................................. 194

Exercise 2: Use HTTP-Proxy Exceptions to Allow Software Updates ...................... 196 Exercise 3: Configure an HTTP-Server Proxy Action ................................................ 197
Add the HTTP-Server Proxy Policy ......................................................................................... 197 Create a New Proxy Policy Ruleset ...................................................................................... 198

Exercise 4: Selectively Block Web Sites with WebBlocker ..................................... 199


Add a WebBlocker Action ..................................................................................................... Select Categories to Block ................................................................................................... Create an Exception ............................................................................................................. Enable WebBlocker Local Override ..................................................................................... 199 200 201 202

Frequently Asked Questions .................................................................................. 203 Test Your Knowledge .............................................................................................. 204 Threat Protection .............................................................................................................. 207 What You Will Learn ................................................................................................ 207 Default Threat Protection Measures Block Intruders ........................................... 207
Use Default Packet Handling Options ................................................................................. 208 Automatically Block the Source of Suspicious Traffic ........................................................ 209
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Block Ports Commonly Used by Attackers ........................................................................... 210

Exercise 1: Configure Default Packet Handling Options ......................................... 211 Exercise 2: Block Potential Sources of Attacks ....................................................... 212
Block a Site Permanently ..................................................................................................... 212 Create Exceptions to the Blocked Sites List ........................................................................ 212

Exercise 3: Block Sites Automatically ...................................................................... 214 Test Your Knowledge ............................................................................................... 215 Signature Services ........................................................................................................... 217 What You Will Learn ................................................................................................ 217 Identify and Stop Viruses at the Edge of Your Network ........................................ 217
AntiVirus Scans User Traffic for Viruses and Trojans ......................................................... 218

Intrusion Prevention Service Blocks Direct Attacks .............................................. 220


IPS Scan Modes .................................................................................................................... 220 IPS Threat Levels and Actions .............................................................................................. 220 IPS and Policies ..................................................................................................................... 220

Control and Monitor Application Usage on Your Network ..................................... 221


Application Control Actions and Policies ............................................................................. 221 Configure Application Control .............................................................................................. 221 Application Control Actions and Proxy Actions ................................................................... 223

Exercise 1: Set Up Gateway AntiVirus ...................................................................... 224


Activate Gateway AntiVirus ................................................................................................... 224 Configure Gateway AntiVirus ................................................................................................ 225

Exercise 2: Configure the SMTP-Proxy Policy for Gateway AntiVirus ...................... 227 Exercise 3: Configure the Intrusion Prevention Service ......................................... 229
Enable Intrusion Prevention ................................................................................................. 229

Exercise 4: Configure Application Control ................................................................ 231


Configure the Global Application Control Action ................................................................. 231 Apply the Global Application Control Action to Policies ...................................................... 234

Exercise 5: Use Different Application Control Actions for Different Policies ......... 235 Test Your Knowledge ............................................................................................... 238 Reputation Enabled Defense .......................................................................................... 239 What You Will Learn ................................................................................................ 239 How Reputation Enabled Defense Works .............................................................. 239
Reputation Scores ................................................................................................................ Reputation Thresholds ......................................................................................................... Reputation Lookups .............................................................................................................. Reputation Enabled Defense Feedback .............................................................................. 239 240 241 241

Monitor Reputation Enabled Defense ................................................................... 241 Exercise 1: Set Up Reputation Enabled Defense .................................................... 242 Exercise 2: See Reputation Enabled Defense Statistics ........................................ 244 Test Your Knowledge ............................................................................................... 245 Web UI ............................................................................................................................... 247 What You Will Learn ................................................................................................ 247 Introduction to Fireware XTM Web UI ..................................................................... 247 Limitations of the Web UI ....................................................................................... 248 Connect to the Web UI ............................................................................................ 249
About Certificate Warnings ................................................................................................... 249 Navigate the Web UI .............................................................................................................. 251 Get Help ................................................................................................................................. 251
viii WatchGuard Fireware XTM Basics

About the Status and Admin Accounts ............................................................................... 252 About Timeouts for Management Sessions ........................................................................ 253

Control Access to the Web UI ................................................................................. 255


About the Port for the Web UI .............................................................................................. 257

Exercise 1: Connect to the Web UI with the Status Account .................................. Exercise 2: Change the Port for the Web UI ............................................................ Exercise 3: Configure an XTM Device for Remote Web UI Administration ............ Test Your Knowledge ..............................................................................................

259 261 265 268

ix

WatchGuard Fireware XTM Basics

Fireware XTM Basics

Course Introduction
Firewall Basics with Fireware XTM v11.7.2

Devices Device OS versions Management software versions

WatchGuard XTM Devices with Fireware XTM OS v11.7.2 and later Fireware XTM v11.7.2 and Fireware XTM v11.7.2 with a Pro upgrade WatchGuard System Manager v11.7.2

Training Options
If you use Fireware XTM and WatchGuard System Manager (WSM) for your WatchGuard XTM device, there are several training options available to you: Classroom training with a WatchGuard Certified Training Partner (WCTP) WatchGuard maintains a worldwide network of certified training partners who offer regular training courses. A list of training partners can be found on our web site at: http://www.watchguard.com/training/partners_locate.asp Quick review presentation You can download and review the Firewall Basics presentation. This PowerPoint presentation gives an overview of WatchGuard System Manager and Fireware XTM Policy Manager. Students learn how to install a XTM device with the Quick Setup Wizard, create basic security policies, and get more information about additional subscription services. Fireware XTM Basics with Fireware XTM Training Modules Each training module available for WatchGuard System Manager and Fireware XTM focuses on a specific feature or function of configuration and security management. For more information, including configuration steps for advanced procedures, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help.

Necessary Equipment and Software


For the majority of the Fireware XTM Basics training modules, you only need a default WatchGuard Fireware XTM configuration file that you view and modify locally. You do not need to connect to a device to complete most of the exercises. The few modules that require additional hardware include instructions on what is needed and how to set it up. In some training modules, you will connect to one or more XTM devices or a Management Server. If you take this course with a WatchGuard Certified Training Partner, your instructor will provide the IP address and passphrases for devices used in the exercises. For self-instruction, you can safely connect to an XTM device or Management Server on a production network. You will not change the configuration file of any device.

To complete the majority of the Fireware XTM Basics with Fireware XTM training modules, you must have this hardware and software: Management computer Your management computer must be a personal computer with the Microsoft Windows XP, Microsoft Windows Vista, Microsoft Windows 7, or Microsoft Windows 8 operating system installed. For more information about management computer system requirements for WSM and Fireware XTM v11.7.2, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager User Guide or Help system. WSM software and Fireware XTM OS If you have a LiveSecurity Service account, you can download the v11.7.2 WatchGuard System Manager software and Fireware XTM OS from the WatchGuard web site through the Software Downloads page. The software is also available from your instructor during classes delivered by WatchGuard Certified Training Partners. Firewall configuration file During the training exercises, you will open, modify, and save XTM device configuration files. You can use Policy Manager to create new configuration files. You can also open the configuration file of your production XTM device and save it to your local hard drive. We recommend that you do not save any configuration files you make during the training exercises to an XTM device in use on your network. XTM device (optional) For some exercises, particularly the exercises which introduce logging, monitoring, and reporting, it is useful to connect to a real XTM device on a production network. You do not need to change the configuration properties of this device. You can complete the exercises without access to an XTM device installed on a production network, but it is much easier to grasp some concepts when you can see log messages and information from a real network. If you choose to connect to a device, you can connect to an XTM 2 Series, 3 Series, 5 Series, 8 Series, 800 Series, XTM 1050, 1500 Series, XTM 2050, or an XTMv device. You cannot use an XTM 21, XTM 22, or XTM 23 device because Fireware XTM OS v11.7 and later is not supported on those devices.

Training Scenario
Throughout the Fireware XTM Basics with Fireware XTM training modules, we use the fictional company, Successful Company. Each module in this course builds on a story of configuring a firewall and network for Successful Company, but you can complete many of the exercises using examples from your own network or a set of addresses and situations provided by your WatchGuard Certified Training instructor. Any resemblance between the situations described for Successful Company and a real company are purely coincidental.

Prerequisites
This course is intended for moderately experienced network administrators. A basic understanding of TCP/IP networking is required. No previous experience with network security, WatchGuard System Manager, or WatchGuard hardware devices is required.

WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Certification

Certification
The WatchGuard Certified System Professional (WCSP) exam is available for all WatchGuard partners. The exam is based on the contents of this course, and we recommend that you study this training to prepare for the exam. If you are a WCSP, you can log in to your LiveSecurity Service account and browse to the exam at: https://www.watchguard.com/training/CertCentral.asp For more information about how to become a WCSP, see the WatchGuard Training Technical Certification web page at: http://watchguard.com/training/technical_cert.asp

Fireware XTM Web UI and Command Line Interface


You can use the Fireware XTM Web UI (Web UI) and Command Line Interface (CLI) management solutions to complete many of the same tasks that you perform in WatchGuard System Manager and Policy Manager. Some advanced configuration options and features are not available with Fireware XTM Web UI or the Command Line Interface. Because not all configuration options are available in the Web UI and CLI, and because the Web UI and CLI are online configuration tools (you need a network connection to an XTM device to use them), the exercises in the Fireware XTM Basics training modules do not use the Web UI or the CLI.

Additional Resources
For more information about how to install and configure WatchGuard System Manager see these resources: Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help You can launch the Help system from your management computer after you install WSM. To view more information about the features in a dialog box or application window, click Help or press the F1 key. A topic that describes the features you see and provides links to additional information appears in your default web browser. For the most up-to-date information, browse to http://www.watchguard.com/help/ documentation/ and launch the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help. You can also download the Help system for offline use. Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager User Guide Browse to http://www.watchguard.com/help/documentation/ and download the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager User Guide. WatchGuard Online Knowledge Base Browse to http://customers.watchguard.com/. For information about how to set up an XTMv virtual device in a VMware ESXi environment, see: WatchGuard XTMv Setup Guide Browse to http://www.watchguard.com/help/documentation/ and download the WatchGuard XTMv Setup Guide.

Course Introduction

WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Fireware XTM Basics

Getting Started
Set Up Your Management Computer and Device
What You Will Learn
WatchGuard System Manager is the primary management software application used to monitor and manage WatchGuard XTM devices and WatchGuard servers. In this training module, you learn how to: Use the Quick Setup Wizard to make a basic device configuration file Start WatchGuard System Manager Connect to devices and servers Start Policy Manager and open a device configuration file Set up WatchGuard Server Center

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module.

Start with WatchGuard System Manager


Most of the procedures you complete in this training module start from WatchGuard System Manager (WSM), which is the primary software application you use to manage all the XTM devices and WatchGuard servers in your network. You can use WSM to connect to any WatchGuard firewall device. This includes all XTM device models, as well as the Firebox and SOHO device models. In this training module, we use only XTM devices.

WSM Components
WatchGuard System Manager (WSM) includes several other monitoring and configuration tools, including Policy Manager, Firebox System Manager, HostWatch, Log Manager, Report Manager, and CA Manager. You can start these tools after you open WSM. WatchGuard Server Center is the application you use to set up, configure, and manage the five WatchGuard servers, as well as configure users and groups for role-based administration.
If you take this course with a training partner, the servers are installed on the same station as the management computer.

This diagram shows the components of WatchGuard System Manager and how you can get access to them. You install the WSM management software on a personal computer running Microsoft Windows XP or later. We call this computer your management computer. When you install WSM on your management computer, you have the option to install any or all of the WatchGuard servers. When you select to install any of the servers, WatchGuard Server Center is automatically installed. Management Server Manages multiple XTM devices at the same time and creates virtual private network (VPN) tunnels with a simple drag-and-drop method. Log Server Collects log messages from XTM devices and servers. Report Server Periodically consolidates data collected by your Log Servers and uses this data to generate the reports that you select. Quarantine Server Collects and isolates SMTP email confirmed as spam by spamBlocker, or confirmed to have a virus by Gateway Antivirus or by spamBlockers Virus Outbreak Detection feature. WebBlocker Server Provides information for an HTTP-proxy to deny user access to specified categories of web sites. You can install these servers on your management computer, or you can install them on other computers on your network that are dedicated to these tasks. Each server has different requirements and may need to be able to connect to other servers, the XTM device, or the management computer. For more information, see the training module related to each server.

WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Start with WatchGuard System Manager

Activate your Device


You must activate your XTM device on the WatchGuard web site before you can configure the device. When you activate the device, you start the LiveSecurity Service subscription for the device. The LiveSecurity Service provides alerts, threat responses, and expert advice to help you keep your network secure and up-to-date. When you subscribe to LiveSecurity, you also get access to the latest software upgrades for your XTM device, as well as access to technical support and training resources. To activate the device, you must have: An account on the WatchGuard web site The device serial number To create a new WatchGuard account, go to: https://www.watchguard.com/account/registration_gate.asp To activate your device with an existing WatchGuard account, log in to the WatchGuard web site. In the WatchGuard Support Center, click Activate a Product.
If you take this course with a training partner, your XTM device will already be activated and include the feature keys you need for the course.

Use the Setup Wizards


There are two setup wizards you can use to quickly create a functional configuration file for your XTM device. To use either setup wizard, you must connect the management computer to the trusted interface (eth1) of the XTM device. Quick Setup Wizard You can use the Quick Setup Wizard to discover and set up your XTM device. To start the Quick Setup Wizard, in WatchGuard System Manager, select Tools > Quick Setup Wizard. Web Setup Wizard You can use the Web Setup wizard to set up an XTM device from any computer that has a web browser. To start the Web Setup Wizard, in a web browser, type https://10.0.1.1:8080. Both setup wizards help you to set up your device with a secure policy configuration and basic network settings. The Web Setup wizard can also activate the device and download the required feature key, if the external interface is connected to a network with Internet access. The Quick Setup Wizard does not help you with device activation, but does provide a couple of additional network configuration options (drop-in mode, and optional interface configuration).

Getting Started

Exercise 1:
Your instructor will provide you with the information you need to configure your device for the training environment. For an XTMv device, Fireware XTM OS is included in the XTMv virtual appliance Open Virtual Machine Format (OVF) file. For more information, see the WatchGuard XTMv Setup Guide at www.watchguard. com/help/ documentation/

Create a Configuration File with the Quick Setup Wizard

The quickest and easiest method to create a functional configuration file for your network is to use the Quick Setup Wizard. However, you must be connected to an XTM device to use the Quick Setup Wizard. Before you start the wizard, you must have: A feature key You receive the feature key when you activate your XTM device on the WatchGuard web site. Each feature key is unique to the serial number of the device. Save a copy of the feature key to the management computer before you start the Quick Setup Wizard. WSM and Fireware XTM installed on the management computer WSM is the software installed on the management computer and WatchGuard servers. Fireware XTM is the operating system (OS) installed with a configuration file on the XTM device. Download the latest versions the software and XTM OS from the WatchGuard Portal. WSM and Fireware XTM are separate software downloads. You must download and install both packages on your management computer. The management computer must be on the same network subnet as the device. Your network information At a minimum, you must know the IP address of your gateway router and the IP addresses to give to the external and trusted interfaces of the XTM device. When you configure the XTM device with the Quick Setup Wizard, the wizard adds five basic policies: Outgoing, FTP packet filter, Ping, WatchGuard WebUI, and WatchGuard. It also sets interface IP addresses. In this exercise, we use the Quick Setup Wizard to create and install a basic configuration file on the XTM device. From the Windows desktop:

Your instructor may use the presentation files to show these steps instead of having you do them yourself.

1. Select Start > All Programs > WatchGuard System Manager > Quick Setup Wizard. You can also click the Quick Setup Wizard icon on the WatchGuard System Manager toolbar.
The Quick Setup Wizard starts and attempts to detect an XTM device on the same network as your computer.

2. From the list of devices, select the XTM device that you are using for this training session. 3. Follow the step-by-step instructions in the wizard to create a basic configuration file.
When you are finished with the wizard, you will have an XTM device which allows all traffic from the trusted and optional networks to the external network but blocks everything from the external to the protected networks.

WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Start with WatchGuard System Manager

Exercise 2:

Open WSM and Connect to Devices and Servers

When you open WatchGuard System Manager (WSM), you are not automatically connected to an XTM device. You must manually connect to an XTM device or to a Management Server to use many WSM features. You can connect to many devices and Management Servers at the same time.

Connect to an XTM Device


From the Windows desktop:

1. Select Start > All Programs > WatchGuard System Manager > WatchGuard System Manager.
WatchGuard System Manager appears.

2. On the main toolbar, click . Or, you can select File > Connect To Device. 3. In the Name/IP Address text box, type the trusted IP address of the device.
Use your device IP address, or get the IP address from your instructor.

4. In the Passphrase text box, type the status (read-only) passphrase for your XTM device.
Use the status passphrase to connect to a device and display status. If you save the configuration or add the device as a managed device to the Management Server, you are prompted to type the configuration passphrase.

5. If necessary, change the value in the Timeout text box. This value sets the amount of time (in seconds) that WSM waits for an answer from the device before WSM shows a message that it cannot connect.
If you have a slow network or Internet connection to the device, you can increase the timeout value. If you decrease the value, you decrease the time you must wait for a time out message if you try to connect to a device that is not available.

6. Click Login.
WSM connects to the device and then shows its status on the Device Status tab.

Getting Started

7. On the Device Status tab, click the plus sign (+) to expand the device entry.
Information about the device appears.

Connect to a Management Server


A WatchGuard Management Server allows you to manage many XTM devices at the same time from a single management computer. With a Management Server, you can quickly build virtual private network (VPN) tunnels between devices and centrally manage a large number of devices. When you connect to a Management Server, WSM shows the status of all the devices managed by that Management Server. The VPN tunnels between the managed devices appear on the page for each device. In this optional exercise, you connect to a Management Server in WSM. This exercise is only possible if your instructor has pre-configured a Management Server and clients for the classroom, or if you have a Management Server configured for use on your network. In WatchGuard System Manager:

1. Click the Connect to Server icon.

Or, select File > Connect To Server.


The Connect to Management Server dialog box appears.

2. Type the IP address of the Management Server.


You can connect to a Management Server on your network or to a Management Server on the training network. Your instructor will provide you with the IP address, user name, and passphrase.

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WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Start with WatchGuard System Manager

3. Type the user name and passphrase for the Management Server.

The default user name for a Management Server is admin. Your instructor may give you different credentials to use.

4. Click Login.
The Device Management tab appears with the Management Server and the devices it manages.

Getting Started

11

Exercise 3:

Open Policy Manager

Policy Manager is the tool you use to build the security rules your XTM device uses to protect your network. You use Policy Manager to configure policies, set up VPNs, change device passphrases, and configure logging and notification options. A policy is a set of rules that defines how the device manages packets that come to its interfaces. The policy identifies the source and destination of the packets. It also specifies the protocol and ports of the traffic that the policy controls. It includes instructions for the device about how to identify the packet and whether to allow, deny, drop, or block the connection. Policy Manager displays each policy as a group of rules, or a ruleset. You can view these policies in a list with detailed information about each policy, or as icons. In WatchGuard System Manager:

1. On the Device Status tab, select your XTM device. If there is no device visible in WSM, select File > Connect To Device, and then connect to your device.
You can have more than one version of WSM installed on your computer. However, you can have only one version of the server components (Management Server, Log Server, Report Server, Quarantine Server, and WebBlocker Server) installed.

2. Click . Or, select Tools > Policy Manager.


WSM checks the model and the OS (operating system) version used by the device. If you have multiple versions of WSM software installed, WSM automatically opens the correct Policy Manager version. If you launch Policy Manager for a device that uses an older version of Fireware XTM or Fireware, WSM may ask if you want to upgrade the OS on that device. Policy Manager opens in Details view by default.

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Start with WatchGuard System Manager

3. To change to the icon view, select View > Large Icons.


The next time you open Policy Manager, it will use the View option that was selected when you last closed Policy Manager.

Getting Started

13

Exercise 4:

Set Up WatchGuard Server Center

Before you can configure your installed WatchGuard servers, you must complete the WatchGuard Server Center Setup Wizard. The Setup Wizard creates the WatchGuard servers you selected to install on your management computer. When you run the wizard, you only see the screens that correspond to the server components you have installed. For example, if you install only the Log Server and Report Server, but not the Quarantine Server, the pages used to create a domain list for Quarantine Server do not appear in the wizard. For more information about the different WatchGuard servers, see the training module for each server, or the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide. In this exercise, we will use the WatchGuard Server Center Setup Wizard to set up the Management Server and the Log Server that we have installed on the management computer. Before you run the wizard, make sure you have this information: The passphrase you want the administrator to use (must be at least 8 characters) The Management Server license key The IP address of the Log Server The encryption key you want to use for the Log Server (832 characters, no spaces or slashes) The directory location where you want to keep your log files

To run the WatchGuard Server Center Setup Wizard:

1. In the Windows system tray, right-click

and select Open WatchGuard Server Center.

The WatchGuard Server Center Setup Wizard starts.

2. Review the Welcome page to make sure you have all the information required to complete the wizard. Click Next.
The General Settings - Identify your organization name page appears.

3. Type your Organization name. Click Next.


The General Settings - Set Administrator passphrase page appears.

4. Type and confirm the Administrator passphrase. Click Next.


The Management Server - Identify the gateway Firebox page appears.

5. Select Yes. 6. Type the external IP address and passphrases for your gateway Firebox. Click Next.
The Management Server - Enter a license key page appears.

7. Type the license key for your Management Server and click Add. Click Next.
The Log Server - Set an encryption key and database location page appears.

8. Type and confirm the Encryption key to use for the secure connection between the XTM device and the Log Server. 9. Select the Database location for your Log Server database. 10. Click Next.
The Review Settings page appears.

11. Confirm your settings are correct and click Next.


The wizard shows the server configuration progress.

12. Click Next.


The WatchGuard Server Center Setup Wizard is complete page appears.

13. Click Finish.


WatchGuard Server Center appears.

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WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Test Your Knowledge

Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. True or false? You must have a WatchGuard Management Server to use a simple drag-and-drop function for VPN creation. T 2. Circle the best tool for each task: Task
A) B) C) Monitor the status of one device Change the device network interfaces Configure a policy for web traffic

Tool
WatchGuard System Manager WatchGuard System Manager WatchGuard System Manager Policy Manager Policy Manager Policy Manager

3. True or false? When connecting to your device, you should decrease the Timeout setting if you have a slow network or Internet connection to your device. F 4. Which of the following are required before you can use the Quick Setup Wizard to make a basic device configuration file? (Select all that apply.)
A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) An account on the WatchGuard web site The device model number The IP address of your gateway router A feature key A live connection to the Internet A personal computer running Mac OS 10 or later A web browser An IP address to give to the external and trusted interfaces of the device

5. Fill in the blank: A policy is a set of rules that defines how the device manages packets that come to its interfaces. 6. Which of the following are WatchGuard System Manager components? (Select all that apply.)
A) B) C) D) E) F) G) LogViewer Router Policy Manager Appliance Monitor Windows NT Server Report Server Management Computer

7. True or false? You must install all WatchGuard servers on one management computer. F 8. True or false? You do not have to install a WatchGuard server to use WatchGuard Server Center. F

Getting Started

15

ANSWERS 1. True. You cannot centrally manage a device unless you configure a WatchGuard Management Server. 2. A, WatchGuard System Manager; B, Policy Manager; C, Policy Manager 3. False. You should increase the Timeout setting if you have a slow network or Internet connection to the device. 4. A, C, D, and H 5. policy 6. A, C, F, and G 7. False 8. False

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WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Fireware XTM Basics

Administration
Work with Device Configuration Files
What You Will Learn
After you install the XTM device in your network and use the Quick Setup Wizard to give it a basic configuration file, you can add custom configuration settings to meet the needs of your organization. You can save configuration files in a variety of locations. In this training module, you learn how to: Open and save configuration files Configure the device for remote administration Reset device passphrases Back up and restore the device configuration Add device identification information

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module.

Manage Configuration Files and Device Properties


A configuration file includes all configuration data, options, IP addresses, and other information for the XTM device. On the device, the configuration file works with the OS to control the flow of traffic through the device. The file extension for a device configuration file is .xml. Fireware XTM Policy Manager is a WatchGuard software tool that you can use to create, change, and save configuration files. When you use Policy Manager, you see a version of your configuration file that is easy to examine and modify. Changes you make in Policy Manager have no effect on device operation until you save them to the device.

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Exercise 1:

Open and Save Configuration Files

The Quick Setup Wizard makes a basic configuration file for your XTM device. We recommend that you use this configuration file as the base for all your configuration files. You can also use Policy Manager to make a new configuration file with only the default configuration properties. To create a new configuration file:

1. Open Policy Manager. 2. Select File > New.


A new configuration file appears with the default policies and settings.
Policy Manager is an offline configuration tool. The Web UI and the CLI are online configuration tools. An offline configuration tool lets you make many changes to a configuration file without sending the changes the to the device. An online configuration tool is designed to immediately send all changes to the device.

Most of the time, when you want to manage your device configuration, you use WatchGuard System Manager (WSM) to connect to the device and launch Policy Manager. When you do this, WSM loads the current device configuration file in Policy Manager. You can save a copy locally and then open this local copy in Policy Manager any time you want to work offline. In this exercise, you open the current configuration file for your device and save it to your local hard drive:

1. Open WatchGuard System Manager and connect to your XTM device.


If you are not familiar with this procedure, see the Open WSM and Connect to Devices and Servers training module or ask your instructor.

2. Click . Or, select Tools > Policy Manager.


Policy Manager starts and loads the configuration file currently on your device.

3. Select File > Save > As File.


The Save dialog box appears.

4. In the File Name text box, type Basics-Start. 5. Click Save.


By default, configuration files are saved to the My Documents\My WatchGuard\configs folder. The configuration file type is XML.

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WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Manage Configuration Files and Device Properties

Exercise 2:

Configure a Device for Remote Administration


This exercise is most useful for an instructor to connect to a student device during a classroom session. If you are self-instructed and do not need to remotely manage your device, you can skip to the next exercise.

When you use the Quick Setup Wizard to configure your XTM device, a policy that allows you to connect to and administer the device from any computer on the trusted or optional networks is automatically created. If you want to manage the device from a remote location (any location external to the device), then you must change your configuration to allow administrative connections from your remote location. The packet filter policy that controls administrative connections to the device is WG-Firebox-Mgmt. The Quick Setup Wizard adds this policy with the name WatchGuard. This policy controls access to the device on these TCP ports: 4105, 4117, and 4118. When you allow connections in the WatchGuard policy, you also allow connections to each of these ports. Before you change a policy to allow connections to the device from a computer external to your network, it is a good idea to consider these alternatives: Is it possible to connect to the device with a VPN? This greatly increases the security of the connection. If you can connect with a VPN, then you do not need to allow connections from a computer external to your network. If it is not possible to connect to the device with a VPN, you might want to consider using authentication as an additional layer of security. It is more secure to limit access from the external network to the smallest number of computers possible. For example, it is more secure to allow connections from a single computer than it is to allow connections from the alias Any-External. To restrict or expand access to the device, edit the From list in the WatchGuard policy. You can allow connections to the device from external networks by adding the Any-External alias (or an appropriate IP address). You can restrict connections to the device from internal locations by removing the Any-Trusted and Any-Optional aliases and replacing them with the specific IP addresses from which you want to allow access. You can remove all IP addresses and aliases, and replace them with user names or group names. When you do this, you force users to authenticate before they are allowed to connect to the device. If you decide to allow connections to the device from Any-External, it is especially important that you set very strong device Status and Configuration passphrases. It is also a good idea to change your passphrases at regular intervals. To use Policy Manager to configure the WatchGuard policy to allow administrative access from an external computer at a specific IP address:

1. Double-click the WatchGuard policy. Or, right-click the WatchGuard policy and select Edit.
The Edit Policy Properties dialog box appears. The name of this policy is WatchGuard, but the packet filter type is WG-Firebox-Mgmt. This policy is specifically designed to be used for administration of the device.

Your instructor might ask you to complete these steps. This will enable your instructor to troubleshoot configuration issues from his computer later in the class.

2. In the From section, click Add. 3. To add the IP address of the external computer you want to use to connect to the device, click Add Other. 4. From the Choose type drop-down list, make sure Host IP is selected. 5. In the Value text box, type the IP address of the remote administration computer. 6. Click OK to close each dialog box.

Administration

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Exercise 3:

Change the XTM Device Passphrases

In this exercise, you change the passphrases for your XTM device. An XTM device uses two passprases: Status passphrase The read-only password that you use to see information about the device, but not to make any changes to the configuration file. Configuration passphrase The read-write password that the administrator uses to save a configuration file to the device. We recommend that you change your device passphrases at regular intervals as part of your companys security policy. The passphrases we use in this exercise are examples of very simple passphrases. When you develop each of your passphrases, it is important to choose strong passphrases. A strong passphrase is one that contains at least eight characters, and includes a combination of letters, numbers, and symbols. To complete this exercise, you must have the current configuration passphrase for your device. If you are using a device in a production network, and you do not have permission to change the configuration passphrase of the device, do not complete this exercise.

1. Click . Or, select File > Open > Firebox.


The Open Firebox dialog box appears.

2. In the Firebox IP Address or name text box, type or select the IP address or name of your XTM device. 3. In the Status Passphrase text box, type the Status (read-only) passphrase for your device. 4. Click OK.
Policy Manager contacts the device and gets the configuration file.

5. Select File > Change Passphrases.


The Change Passphrases dialog box appears.

6. In the Configuration Passphrase text box, type the current configuration (read-write) passphrase for your device. 7. In the Status Passphrase and Confirm Passphrase text boxes, type 33333333. 8. In the Configuration Passphrase and Confirm Passphrase text boxes, type 44444444. 9. Click OK.
The new passphrases are saved to the device.

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WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Manage Configuration Files and Device Properties

Exercise 4:

Create and Restore a Device Backup Image

An XTM device backup image is a saved copy of the working image from the device flash disk. The backup image includes the XTM device OS, configuration file, feature keys, passphrases, DHCP leases, and certificates. The backup image also includes any event notification settings that you configured in Traffic Monitor. You can use Policy Manager to save an encrypted backup image to your management computer or to a directory on your network or other connected storage device. We recommend that you regularly back up your device image. We also recommend that you create a backup image of the device before you make significant changes to your device configuration file, or upgrade your device or its OS.

Create an XTM Device Backup Image


1. Select File > Backup.
The Backup dialog box appears.
You can also use Firebox System Manager to create and restore a device backup image to a USB drive connected to the XTM device. For more information, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide.

2. In the Configuration Passphrase text box, type the read-write passphrase for your device.
The configuration passphrase we used in this training module is 44444444. The second Backup dialog box appears.

3. Type and confirm an Encryption Key.


For this exercise, type MyStrongKey. This key is used to encrypt the backup file. If you lose or forget this encryption key, you cannot restore the backup file. The encryption key is case-sensitive.

4. In the Back up image to text box, select the location to save the backup file. 5. Click OK.
The default location for a backup file with a .fxi extension is: Windows 8 and Windows 7 C:\Users\Public\Shared WatchGuard\backups\<device IP address>-<date>.<wsm_version>.fxi. Windows XP C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Shared WatchGuard\backups\<device IP address>-<date>.<wsm_version>.fxi.

Administration

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Restore an XTM Device Backup Image


1. Select File > Restore.
The Restore dialog box appears.

2. Type the Configuration Passphrase for your device. The configuration passphrase we used in this training module is 44444444.
A warning message appears.

3. Click Yes to continue. 4. Type the Encryption Key you used when you created the backup image.
For this exercise, the value is MyStrongKey.

5. In the Restore image from text box, select the location of the backup image you want to restore.
The device restores the backup image and restarts. It uses the backup image on restart.

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WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Manage Configuration Files and Device Properties

Exercise 5:

Add XTM Device Identification Information

You can save information about the XTM device in the configuration file, which helps you to identify the device in reports, log files, and WatchGuard management tools. The device model is particularly important because some software features only function on certain models. You can use Policy Manager to give the device a name to use in your log files and reports. If you do not give your device a name, the log files and reports use the IP address of the devices external interface. You can use a Fully Qualified Domain Name if you register it with your authoritative DNS server. You must give the device a name if you use the Management Server to configure VPN tunnels and certificates for the device. The device time zone controls the date and time that appears in the log file and in management tools, including LogViewer, Report Manager, and WebBlocker. Set the device time zone to match the time zone for the physical location of the device. This time zone setting ensures the time appears correctly in the log messages. A default configuration file sets the device system time to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In this exercise, you set the device information for your student device. If you are working alone, you can use the example of our fictional organization: Successful Company. In other training modules, you see this information in reports and WatchGuard System Manager. From Policy Manager:

1. Select Setup > System.


The Device Configuration dialog box appears.

2. In the Name text box, type SuccessfulMain.


Your instructor might give you another name for your student device.

3. In the Location text box, type Seattle.


This identifies the physical location of the device.

4. In the Contact text box, type your name.


This is the name of the person in your organization who is responsible for the management of the device.

5. From the Time zone drop-down list, select your local time zone.
Select the time zone of the device itself. This enables you to synchronize reports from devices in multiple timezones.

6. Click OK.

Administration

23

Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. Circle the correct answer: To save a changed device configuration file to the XTM device, use the [Status | Configuration] passphrase. 2. Select the correct answer: Corporate headquarters is in Detroit. The branch office XTM device is located in Tokyo. You should set the branch office device time zone to:
A) B) (GM-05:00) Eastern Time (US & Canada) (GMT+09:00) Osaka, Sapporo, Tokyo

3. True or false? You can save the device configuration file to a USB flash drive. T 4. How frequently should you make a backup image of your device?
A) B) C) D) E) Daily Weekly Monthly Each time you make a substantial change to the configuration Never

5. Which of the following information is used by WatchGuard System Manager applications to identify an XTM device? (Select all that apply.)
A) B) C) D) E) Firebox Name System administrator name Encryption key Model number External IP address

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WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

5. A, D 4. D 3. True You can save the device configuration file to any local disk drive including a USB flash drive or a network share. 2. B (GMT+09:00) Osaka, Sapporo, Tokyo Set the XTM device time zone to its physical location 1. Configuration ANSWERS

Fireware XTM Basics

Network Settings
Configure XTM Device Interfaces
What You Will Learn
An XTM device has three types of interfaces: external, trusted, and optional. To use your device in a network, you must set the IP addresses of the interfaces. You can also enable routing features on some interfaces. In this training module, you learn how to: Configure external network interfaces using a static IP address, DHCP, or PPPoE Configure trusted and optional network interfaces Use the XTM device as a DHCP server Add WINS/DNS server locations to the device configuration Add Dynamic DNS settings to the device configuration Set up a secondary network or address

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module.

Properties and Features of XTM Device Interfaces


A firewall physically separates the networks on your local area network (LAN) from those on a wide area network (WAN) like the Internet. One of the basic functions of a firewall is to move packets from one side of the firewall to the other. This is known as routing. To route packets correctly, the firewall must know what networks are accessible through each of its interfaces. The device provides additional functionality for some interfaces. External interfaces can be configured to work with Dynamic DNS. Trusted and optional interfaces can be set up with the device as a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server. The device has three types of network interfaces: External Interfaces A device external interface connects to a wide area network (WAN), such as the Internet, and can have either a static or dynamic IP address. The device gets a dynamic IP address for the external interface from either a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server or PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) server. With DHCP, the device uses a DHCP server controlled by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) to get an IP address for the external interface, a gateway IP address, and a subnet mask. With PPPoE, the device connects to your ISPs PPPoE server to get the same information. Fireware XTM supports both unnumbered and static PPPoE connections. For more information about unnumbered PPPoE connections, see the Unnumbered Connections article on Microsoft TechNet. Trusted Interfaces A trusted interface connects the private local area network (LAN) or internal network that you want to secure. Because a trusted interface is a LAN interface, the IP address for a trusted interface is static. Usually, trusted interfaces use private or reserved IP addresses that conform to RFC 1918.

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Optional Interfaces Optional interfaces connect to your optional networks, which are mixed trust or DMZ environments separated from your trusted networks. Public web, FTP, and mail servers are usually found in optional networks. Most users configure at least one external and one trusted interface on their device. You can configure any interface as trusted, optional, or external. You can have a maximum of four physical external interfaces. When you configure the IPv4 addresses for interfaces on a device, you must use slash notation to denote the subnet mask. For example, you enter the network range 192.168.0.0 with subnet mask 255.255.255.0 as 192.168.0.0/24, and a trusted interface with the IP address of 10.0.1.1/16 has a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0.

Requirements for XTM Device Interfaces


Each interface on the XTM device can connect to a different network. The computers and servers protected by the device can use either private or public IP addresses. The device uses network address translation (NAT) to route traffic from the external network to computers on the trusted and optional networks. All devices behind the trusted and optional interfaces must have an IP address from the network assigned to that interface. To make this easy to remember, many administrators set the interface address to the first or last IP address in the range used for that network. In the graphic below, for example, the IPv4 address of the trusted interface could be 10.0.1.1/24 and the IPv4 address of optional interface could be 10.0.2.254/24.

About DHCP Server and DHCP Relay


You can configure the XTM device to assign IP addresses automatically through DHCP to devices on the trusted or optional networks. You can also configure the device for DHCP relay. When you use DHCP relay, computers behind the device can use a DHCP server on a different network to get IP addresses. The device sends the DHCP request to a DHCP server at a different location than the DHCP client. The device sends the DHCP server reply to the computers on the trusted or optional network. This option lets computers in more than one office use the same IP address range.

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WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Properties and Features of XTM Device Interfaces

About WINS/DNS
Several XTM device features use Windows Internet Name Server (WINS) and Domain Name System (DNS) server IP addresses. These servers must be accessible from the trusted interface of the device. For example, this information is used by remote user virtual private networks. Make sure that you use only an internal WINS and DNS server to make sure you do not create policies that have configuration properties that prevent users and services from connecting to the DNS server.

About Network Modes


The XTM device can be configured in Mixed Routing, Drop-In, or Bridge mode.

Mixed Routing mode


All of the XTM device interfaces are on different networks. Trusted and optional interfaces must be on different networks. Each interface has an IP address on its network. Use static NAT (network address translation) or 1-to-1 NAT to map public addresses to private addresses behind the trusted or optional interfaces.

Drop-In mode
All of the XTM device interfaces are on the same network and have the same IP address. The computers on the trusted or optional interfaces can have a public IP address.

Bridge mode
All of the XTM device interfaces are on the same network. You specify an IP address to use to manage the device. Traffic from all trusted or optional interfaces is examined and sent to the external interface. Interface IP addresses cannot be configured. NAT is not used in Bridge mode. Traffic sent or received through the device appears to come from its original source.

The computers can have public IP addresses. NAT is not necessary.

The most common configuration method is a routed configuration. We use a routed configuration to explain most of the features and examples in this document.

When you use the Web Setup Wizard to create your initial network configuration, the device is automatically configured in a routed configuration. When you use the Quick Setup Wizard in WatchGuard System Manager to create your initial network configuration, you can choose to configure the device in a routed or drop-in configuration.

Network Settings

27

About Dynamic DNS


You can use Dynamic DNS to make sure that the IP address associated with your domain name changes when your ISP gives your XTM device a new IP address. DynDNS is the only dynamic DNS service supported by your XTM device. For more information, go to the DynDNS web site: http://www.dyndns.com.

About Secondary Networks


A secondary network is a network that shares one of the same physical networks as one of the XTM device interfaces. When you add a secondary network, you make (or add) an IP alias to the interface. This IP alias is the default gateway for all the computers on the secondary network. Secondary networks can be used only in Mixed Routing or Drop-In mode. If your device is configured with a static IP address, you can add an IP address that is on the same subnet as your primary external interface as a secondary network. You can then configure static NAT rules to send traffic to the appropriate devices on that network. For example, configure an external secondary network with a second public IP address if you have two public web servers and you want to configure a static NAT rule for each server. You can also add secondary networks to the external interface of a device if the external interface is configured to get its IP address through PPPoE or DHCP. You can add up to 255 secondary networks per device interface.

About Network Bridges


You can use network bridges to merge two or more physical network interfaces on your XTM device. A bridge operates in the same way as a normal network interface. For more information, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide.

About Static Routes


You can use static routes to control how your XTM device sends traffic to other devices. For example, you can create a static route to specify that all traffic that goes to a server at another company is sent through a different external interface. For more information, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide.

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WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Properties and Features of XTM Device Interfaces

About Advanced Networking Features


VLANs
VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks) are an advanced network feature that allow you to group devices by traffic patterns instead of by physical network access. You can use VLANs to connect devices on different networks so that they appear to be part of the same network. For more information, see the Fireware XTM Advanced Networking training course, or the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide.

Link Aggregation
Link Aggregation is an advanced network feature that allows you to group physical interfaces together to work together as a single logical interface. You can use a link aggregation interface to increase the cumulative throughput beyond the capacity of a single physical interface, and to provide redundancy if there is a physical link failure. For more information, see the Fireware XTM Advanced Networking training course, or the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide.

Multi-WAN
The multi-WAN feature allows you to send network traffic to up to four external interfaces. This is useful when you want to have a backup Internet connection, or if you want to divide your outgoing network traffic between multiple physical interfaces. Multi-WAN settings do not apply to incoming network traffic, and you can only use this feature in Mixed Routing mode. For more information, see the Advanced Networking training course, or the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide.

FireCluster
If you have two XTM devices of the same model, and you use Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade, you can configure the two devices as a FireCluster for high availability and load sharing. FireCluster is supported for all XTM device models except XTM 33 and XTM 2 Series. For more information, see the Advanced Networking training course, or the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide.

About IPv6
Fireware XTM supports a limited set of IPv6 networking features. XTM device interface addresses You can add a static IPv6 address to the External, Trusted, or Optional interfaces when the device is configured in mixed routing mode. Each interface still must have an IPv4 address configured. DNS servers You can use an IPv6 address to specify a DNS server Static routes You can add an IPv6 static route Device management You can use an IPv6 address to connect to the Fireware XTM Web UI or the CLI for device management. You cannot use the static IPv6 address to connect to the XTM device from WatchGuard System Manager. Diagnostic logging You can set the diagnostic log level for IPv6 advertisements. Packet filter policies You can use IPv6 addresses in packet filter policies.

Network Settings

29

MAC access control Applies to both IPv6 and IPv4 traffic. Inspection of traffic received and sent by the same interface Applies to both IPv6 and IPv4 traffic. Blocked sites and exceptions You can add use an IPv6 address to define a blocked site or exception. Blocked ports Applies to both IPv6 and IPv4 traffic. TCP SYN checking The TCP SYN checking setting in Global Settings applies to both IPv6 and IPv4 traffic. Fireware XTM supports basic routing and some filtering of IPv6 traffic. However, Fireware XTM security and advanced networking features do not apply to IPv6 traffic. If you enable IPv6 on an interface, you should treat this as a bridged connection. The Fireware XTM security features such as proxies, default packet handling and security services to not apply to IPv6 traffic. For more information, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide. WatchGuard continues to add more IPv6 support to Fireware XTM for all XTM device models. For information about the WatchGuard IPv6 roadmap, see http://www.watchguard.com/ipv6/index.asp. Because the IPv6 support is limited, the exercises in this training focus on device configuration in an IPv4-only environment.

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WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Properties and Features of XTM Device Interfaces

Exercise 1:

Use a Dynamic IP Address for an External Interface

The XTM device can get a dynamic IP address for an external interface with DHCP or Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE). At the Successful Company, the network administrators start with an IP address assigned by DHCP for their external interface. However, as their company grows, they change this to a static IP address, and add a backup PPPoE connection.

Configure the External Interface for DHCP


In this exercise, we use Policy Manager to configure an external interface of the Successful Companys XTM device to get its IP address from a DHCP server.

1. Select Network > Configuration.


The Network Configuration dialog box appears.

2. In the Interfaces list, select External (Interface 0). Click Configure.


The Interface Settings dialog box appears.

3. In the Interface Name text box, type InternetConnection. 4. In the Interface Description text box, type Connect to the Cloud. 5. Make sure that the Interface Type is set to External. 6. Select Use DHCP Client.

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31

7. Select Obtain an IP Automatically.


For most DHCP connections, you do not need to configure any additional settings.

8. Click OK.
DHCP appears in the IP Address column in the Network Configuration dialog box.

Configure the External Interface to Use PPPoE


Another way to get a dynamically assigned address for an XTM device external interface is to use a PPPoE server. When you do this, your ISP gives you the user name and password. In this exercise, we configure a Successful Company interface to use PPPoE. In the Network Configuration dialog box:

1. In the Interfaces list, select Optional-2 (Interface 3). Click Configure.


The Interface Settings dialog box opens.

2. In the Interface Name text box, type BackupInternet. 3. In the Interface Description text box, type Use when primary account fails. 4. In the Interface Type drop-down list, select External. 5. Select Use PPPoE. 6. In the User Name text box, type the PPPoE user name. For this exercise, type username.

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Properties and Features of XTM Device Interfaces

7. Type and confirm the PPPoE passphrase. For this exercise, type passphrase.

8. Click OK.
PPPoE appears in the IP address field in the Network Configuration dialog box.

Use Dynamic DNS


When you use a dynamically assigned IP address for an external interface, it is important to maintain the connection between your current IP address and your domain name. In this exercise, we configure the Successful Company XTM device to use the DynDNS service. In the Network Configuration dialog box:

1. Select the Dynamic DNS tab. 2. In the Interfaces list, select InternetConnection (0). Click Configure.
The Per Interface Dynamic DNS dialog box appears.

3. Select the Enable Dynamic DNS check box. 4. In the User Name text box, type successfulco. 5. In the Password and Confirm text boxes, type password. 6. In the Domain text box, type example.com. 7. In the Service Type drop-down list, make sure dyndns (Dynamic DNS) is selected.
This is the default option. For more information on each option, see http://www.dyndns.com/services/.
dyndns sends updates for a Dynamic DNS host name. statdns sends updates for a Static DNS host name. custom sends updates for a Custom DNS host name.

8. Make sure the Options text box is clear.


You can also type dynamic DNS options in this text box. For more information on options, see http://www.dyndns.com/developers/specs/syntax.html

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9. In the Forced Update text box, type or select a time interval (in days) to force an update of the IP address.
For this exercise, keep the default number of 28 days.

10. Click OK.


The Dynamic DNS status appears as Enabled on the Network Configuration Dynamic DNS tab.

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Properties and Features of XTM Device Interfaces

Exercise 2:

Configure an External Interface with a Static IP Address

To configure an external interface with a static IP address, you must know the IP address, the subnet mask in slash notation, and the default gateway. In this exercise, you use Policy Manager to configure the primary external IP address of the Successful Company network to use a static IP address.

1. Select Network > Configuration.


The Network Configuration dialog box appears.

2. Select the Interfaces tab. 3. In the Interfaces list, select InternetConnection (Interface 0). Click Configure.
The Interface Settings dialog box appears.

4. Select Use Static IP. 5. In the IP Address text box, type 203.0.113.10/24.
This is the fictional IP address. With a real world static IP address, the Internet Service Provider (ISP) provides the IP address, subnet and default gateway.
If you are in a classroom, get the address information from your instructor.

6. In the Default Gateway text box, type 203.0.113.1.

7. Click OK.
The external IP address appears in the Network Configuration dialog box.

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Exercise 3:

Configure a Trusted Interface as a DHCP Server

In this exercise, we use Policy Manager to configure a trusted interface on the Successful Company XTM device as a DHCP server.

1. Select Network > Configuration.


The Network Configuration dialog box appears.

2. Select the Interfaces tab. 3. In the Interfaces list, select Trusted (Interface 1). Click Configure.
The Interface Settings dialog box opens.

4. In the Interface Name text box, type OurLAN. 5. In the Interface Type drop-down list, make sure that Trusted is selected. 6. In the IP address text box, keep the default selection of 10.0.1.1/24. 7. Select the Use DHCP Server radio button. 8. In the Address Pool section, select the existing address pool and click Delete. 9. Click Add.
The Add Address Range dialog box appears.

10. In the Starting address text box, type 10.0.1.100. 11. In the Ending address text box, type 10.0.1.200. 12. Click OK.
The new addresses appear in the Address Pool list.

13. From the Leasing Time drop-down list, select 24 hours.

14. Click OK.

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Properties and Features of XTM Device Interfaces

Exercise 4:

Configure an Optional Interface

Optional interfaces are commonly used for servers which are used by both the public and members of your organization, such as HTTP and FTP servers. In this exercise, we configure an optional network that Successful Company can use for their public servers.

1. Select Network > Configuration.


The Network Configuration dialog box appears.

2. Select the Interfaces tab. 3. In the Interfaces list, select Optional-1 (Interface 2). Click Configure.
The Interface Settings dialog box appears.

4. In the Interface Name text box, type PublicServers. 5. In the Interface Description text box, type Servers used by customers and vendors. 6. In the Interface Type drop-down list, select Optional. 7. In the IP Address text box, keep the default network IP address of 10.0.2.1/24. 8. Make sure Disable DHCP is selected.
Because this network does not use DHCP, no further configuration is necessary.

9. Click OK.
The new settings appear for Interface 2.

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Exercise 5:
Your instructor may provide a WINS/DNS server on the training network.

Configure WINS/DNS Server Information

Several Fireware XTM features operate correctly only if you use a WINS/DNS server on your trusted network. These features include Gateway AntiVirus, Intrusion Prevention Service, spamBlocker, and Mobile VPN (Virtual Private Networks). In this exercise, we use Policy Manager to configure the Successful Company XTM device to use WINS/DNS servers on the OurLAN and WebServer networks.

1. Select Network > Configuration.


The Network Configuration dialog box appears.

2. Select the WINS/DNS tab. 3. In the Domain Name text box, type example.com. 4. In the DNS Servers text box, type 10.0.1.53 and click Add. In the DNS Servers text box, type 10.0.2.53 and click Add.
These are the IP addresses of the internal DNS servers for this exercise. You are not required to enter more than one DNS server. However, we recommend that you add more than one DNS server to make sure that users can still get DNS name resolution when the primary server is not available.

5. In the WINS Servers text boxes, type 10.0.1.53 and 10.0.2.53.


These are the IP addresses for the internal WINS servers for this exercise.

6. Click OK.

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Properties and Features of XTM Device Interfaces

Exercise 6:

Configure a Secondary Network

A secondary network is a network that shares one of the same physical networks as one of the XTM device interfaces. In this exercise, we use Policy Manager to add a secondary network to the Successful Company OurLAN trusted network.

1. Select Network > Configuration.


The Network Configuration dialog box appears.

2. Select the Interfaces tab. 3. In the Interfaces list, select OurLAN (Interface 1). Click Configure.
The Interface Settings dialog box appears.

4. Click the Secondary tab. 5. Click Add.


The Add a secondary network dialog box appears.

6. In the IP Address text box, type 172.16.0.1/24. Click OK.

7. Click OK to close the Interface Settings dialog box. 8. Click OK to close the Network Configuration dialog box. 9. Save the configuration file.

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Frequently Asked Questions


Can I use any IPv4 address for my trusted and optional networks? You can, but we suggest you only use only IP addresses specified in RFC 1918. These private networks include any of these IP address ranges: - 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 (10.0.0.0/8) - 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 (172.16.0.0/12 - 192.168.0.0 -192.168.255.255 (192.168.0.0/16) If you use any other IP address range, you can have a conflict. For example, if you configure your trusted network with the IP address 206.253.208.100/24, any user on the trusted network that tried to go to the WatchGuard web site would fail because 206.253.208.100 is the IP address of the WatchGuard web site. The XTM device would route 206.253.208.100 traffic to the trusted interface instead of the external interface to get to the WatchGuard web site server. What is slash notation? Slash notation, also known as CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) notation, is a shorter way to write an IPv4 address and its subnet mask together. To find the subnet mask number: - Convert the IP address to binary. - Count each 1 in the subnet mask. Some of the most common network masks are:

Network mask
255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.125 255.255.255.192 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.240

Slash
/8 /16 /24 /25 /26 /27 /28

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Test Your Knowledge

Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. When you use a static IP address for the external interface, what information must you get from your ISP? (Select all that apply).
A) B) C) D) E) An IP address A default gateway address A subnet mask A password or passphrase A user name

2. True or false? If you use DHCP on the external interface of the XTM device, you can configure a secondary network for the external interface. 3. True or false? You can configure the XTM device as a DHCP server. 4. What features use the WINS/DNS settings in the Network Configuration dialog box? (Select all that apply.)
A) B) C) D) E) Mobile VPN connections to the XTM device Your ISP to route to the XTM device Computers on your trusted and optional networks Your WatchGuard Management Computer DHCP

5. True or false? You can only add secondary networks in Bridge mode. 6. Which two interfaces are necessary to create a basic network configuration in Mixed Routing mode? (Select one.)
A) B) C) External and optional Trusted and optional External and trusted

7. Which of these items is NOT a method used to assign an IP address to the external interface of a XTM device? (Select one.)
A) B) C) D) Static addressing DHCP PPPoE PPPoA

8. True or false? Only the trusted interface of a XTM device is able to assign IP addresses as a DHCP Server. 9. True or false? Firewall proxy policies apply to both IPv4 and IPv6 network traffic.

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ANSWERS 1. A, B, C 2. True 3. True 4. A, C,E 5. False 6. C 7. D 8. False 9. False

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WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Fireware XTM Basics

Logging and Reporting


Set Up Logging and Reporting, and View Logs and Reports
What You Will Learn
Your WatchGuard XTM device sends log messages to a Log Server, which provides data for the Report Server and triggers notifications and alerts. The Report Server generates reports from your log messages, which you can use to troubleshoot problems on your network. From WatchGuard WebCenter, you can use Report Manager to view the reports that your Report Server generates, and to run other On-Demand Reports and Per Client reports. In this training module, you learn how to: Set up a Log Server Configure an XTM device to send log messages to a Log Server Configure logging and notification preferences Use Log Manager to search log messages Export log messages in a CSV file Set up and configure a Report Server Generate and save reports at regular intervals Change report settings Save, print, and share reports

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module. In this module, you will connect to one or more XTM devices and WatchGuard servers. If you take this course with a WatchGuard Certified Training Partner, your instructor will provide the IP address and passphrases for the devices and servers used in the exercises.

Logging and Reporting Setup Process Overview


To setup logging and reporting for your network, you must configure the logging settings for your XTM devices, and setup and configure your WatchGuard Log Server and Report Server. The complete process includes:

1. Install the WatchGuard Log Server and Report Server on your management computer or another computer in your network.
You can also install your Log Server and Report Server on different computers. You can install more than one Log Server on your network, but you only install one Report Server.

2. Run the WatchGuard Server Center Setup Wizard to set up your Log Server and Report Server.
If your Log Server and Report Server are on different computers, you must run the wizard on each computer to set up each server separately.

3. Configure the settings for your Log Server.


Specify database and notification settings.

4. Configure the settings for your Report Server.


Specify databases, notification, and logging settings, and create schedules for report generation.

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5. Configure your XTM device to send log messages to your Log Server.
Specify the IP addresses of the Log Server where your device sends log messages, set the priority for your Log Servers, and enable logging in your policies.

6. Use Log Manager to review log messages. 7. Use Report Manager to view Available Reports, and generate new On-Demand and Per Client reports.
For instructions to configure logging on your network, see the topic Quick Start Set Up Logging for Your Network in the WatchGuard System Manager Help. You can use role-based administration to enable users who do not have administrative rights to also use Log Manage to view log messages and Report Manager to see and generate reports. For more information about how to use WatchGuard Server Center to add a user, see the topic Define or Remove Users or Groups in the WatchGuard System Manager Help, and follow the instructions to add a user in WatchGuard Server Center.

Maintain a Record of Device Activity


At its most basic level, logging is the process of recording the activity that occurs at an XTM device or WatchGuard server. Notification is the process of telling an administrator when a specified activity has occurred. For example, when the XTM device denies a packet, this event is recorded in the log file. When the device determines that a set of events indicates a threat that you have configured for notification, such as a port space probe, your network security administrator is alerted. The types of notification messages you can receive include an email message, a pop-up message on the management computer, or an SNMP trap. When the network security administrator receives a notification message for a threat to the network, he can use that information to help him examine the log files and make decisions about how to make the network more secure. He could decide to block the ports on which the probe was used, block the IP address that sent the packets, or inform the ISP through which the packets were sent.

Logging and Notification Architecture


To understand how logging and notification work, you must know the components of the WatchGuard logging and notification system. WatchGuard System Manager and Policy Manager You use WatchGuard System Manager (WSM) and Policy Manager to set rules for the types of events that prompt the XTM device to send log messages and notifications. WSM supplies the tools to see the log messages the XTM device creates, and to generate reports of XTM device events. With Policy Manager, you can configure Log Servers for your XTM devices. XTM Device and WatchGuard Servers Your XTM devices and WatchGuard servers create log messages for each event that occurs, including events for the device or server itself, and sends the messages to the configured Log Server according to the rules you configure in the security policy. If an event has a notification action associated with it, the device or server sends a notification to the Log Server.

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Maintain a Record of Device Activity

Log Server The WatchGuard Log Server is the computer to which your XTM device and WatchGuard servers send all log messages. The Log Server stores log messages in a PostgreSQL database. You can use your management computer as the Log Server, or you can use a different computer. When you select a location for your Log Server, make sure that your devices and server are able to send traffic to the Log Server computer.
(2) The XTM device generates log messages and sends them to the Log Server

(1) Set your logging rules and save them to the XTM device

(3) The Log Server saves the messages and sends notifications

See Log Messages


You can use two different WSM tools to see the log messages generated by the XTM device: Log Manager To see log file data from WSM, you use Log Manager in the WatchGuard WebCenter web UI. It can show the log data page by page, or you can search log messages for specific details, such as key words or log fields. Log Manager is available to you after you install the Log Server software. Traffic Monitor For a quick look at the log messages generated by your XTM device, use the Firebox System Manager Traffic Monitor. With Traffic Monitor, you can apply color to different types of messages, and ping or traceroute to the IP addresses of computers included in the log messages.

Log Server
The Log Server collects log messages from your XTM devices and WatchGuard servers. The Log Server also sends notification messages when it gets a notification request from the device. You can install the Log Server software on your management computer, or on a different computer by selecting to install only the Log Server component when you install WSM. In addition to installing the software, you must configure the Log Server with a Log Server encryption key. The XTM device uses this key to encrypt log messages sent to the Log Server. The same key must be used on the device and on the Log Server. The encryption key must be no less than eight and no more than 32 characters. You set the Log Server encryption key when you configure the Log Server with the WatchGuard Server Center Setup Wizard. One Log Server can receive and store logs from many XTM devices. If you install the Log Server on a computer with a desktop firewall other than Windows Firewall, to enable the WatchGuard Log Server to connect through the firewall you must open TCP ports 4107 and 4115 on that firewall. If you use the default Windows firewall, you do not have to change your configuration. Log Servers operate in failover mode, not redundancy mode. In other words, an XTM device can only send messages to one WatchGuard Log Server at a time. The backup Log Server is used only when the primary server becomes unavailable.
Logging and Reporting 45

Log Messages
WatchGuard System Manager includes strong and flexible log message tools. An important feature of a good network security policy is to collect log messages from your security systems, examine those messages frequently, and keep them in an archive. You can use log files to monitor your network security and activity, identify any security risks, and address them. WatchGuard XTM devices send log messages to your WatchGuard Log Server. They can also send log messages to a syslog server or keep a limited number of log messages locally on your XTM device. You can choose to send log messages to one or more of these locations. The XTM device sends five types of log messages: Traffic, Alarm, Event, Debug, and Statistic. Each log message includes the name of the log type as part of the log message. Traffic Log Messages The XTM device sends traffic log messages as it applies packet filter and proxy policy rules to traffic that goes through the device. Alarm Log Messages Alarm log messages are sent when an event occurs that causes the XTM device to send a notification request. Event Log Messages The XTM device sends an event log message because of user activity. Actions that cause the device to send an event log message include: Device start up and shut down Device and VPN authentication Process start up and shut down Problems with the XTM device hardware components Tasks completed by the XTM device administrator

Debug Log Messages Debug log messages include information used to help troubleshoot problems. You can select the level of debug log messages to see in Traffic Monitor or write to a log file. Statistic Log Messages Statistic log messages include information about the performance of the XTM device. By default, the device sends log messages about external interface performance and VPN bandwidth statistics to your log file. You can use these log messages to change your device settings as necessary to improve performance.

Log Files
The XTM device sends log messages to a primary or backup Log Server. Log messages are stored in a SQL database file in the location you specify when you run the setup wizard. We recommend that you select the built-in directory location for your operating system: Windows 8 and Windows 7 C:\ProgramData\WatchGuard\logs Windows XP C:\Documents and Settings\WatchGuard\logs

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Build Reports from Log Messages

Build Reports from Log Messages


When you install WatchGuard System Manager, you have the option to install the WatchGuard Report Server on either the management computer or another computer with Microsoft Windows. The Report Server periodically collects data from one or more of your WatchGuard Log Servers. From WatchGuard WebCenter, you can then use Report Manager to review the collected data and generate reports. Report Manager is automatically available when you install the Report Server.

The WatchGuard Web Services API for Reporting is also automatically installed with the Log Server or Report Server. You can use the WatchGuard Web Services API to extract Log Server and Report Server data for custom reports. For more information about this tool, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help. To use Report Manager from a computer that is external to your XTM device when your Report Server is behind the XTM device, you must have a port open to allow the Report Manager traffic between the Report Server and the IP address of your external computer. To make sure the correct port (4130) is open, the WG-LogViewer-ReportMgr packet filter policy must be included in the configuration file of the XTM device that is your gateway Firebox. This policy should be added automatically when you configure the logging settings for the XTM device. If it is missing from your gateway Firebox configuration file, you must add it before you can connect to WebCenter. For more information about how to add a policy to your configuration, see the module Policies, on page 103 or the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help.

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WatchGuard Reports
WatchGuard Reports are summaries of the log data that you have selected to collect from your XTM device log files. Report Manager consolidates the log data into a variety of predefined reports so you can quickly and easily locate and review the actions and events that occur at your XTM device. The predefined reports include:

Report Type
Application Control

Report Name
Application Usage Top Applications by user Top Applications by host Top Users Blocked Top Hosts blocked

Description
Summary report of application usage data Summary of application usage data by user Summary of application usage data by host Summary of users blocked by Application Control Summary of hosts blocked by Application Control Detailed report of server activity Summary of server activity Summary of server authentication Detailed report for all XTM devices and VPN tunnels managed by your Management Server Top client reports by application usage, blocked applications, blocked categories, proxy bandwidth, and proxy connection count The Compliance Reports group gives you information about the traffic on your network that relates to HIPAAand PCIcompliance

Audit Reports

Server Audit Details Server Audit Summary Server Authentication Audit

BUM Report Client Reports Compliance Reports

BUM Report Top Client Reports

Alarm Summary Report Audit Trail User Authentication Denied Gateway AntiVirus Summary ConnectWise Reports

Summary report of alarm records on the XTMdevice Detailed list of audited configuration changes for an XTM device Detailed list of users denied authentication Includes date, time, and reason for authentication failure Gateway AntiVirus action summary ConnectWise Reports are only available if you have a ConnectWise account and have configured the ConnectWise settings for your Report Server.

Firebox Statistics Intrusion Prevention Service Summary Most Popular Domains WebBlocker (Summary, by Category and by Client)

XTM device bandwidth statistics for all interfaces. All intrusion prevention actions Top web sites visited by clients Statistics and web sites blocked by WebBlocker service

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Build Reports from Log Messages

Report Type
Exceptions

Report Name
Alarms Denied packets detail Denied packets by client detail Denied packets by client summary

Description
All alarm records Detailed report for each incoming or outgoing action Detailed report of all denied packets, grouped by client Summary report of all denied packets, grouped by client Detailed list of audited configuration changes for an XTM device These reports are generated when a Bandwidth report is scheduled. They include information about the bandwidth/ transfer rate for external interfaces as well as BOVPN and Mobile VPN tunnels. The data sampling interval is based on the report time range. The minimum interval is 1 minute. The published report samples data every 10 minutes. Detailed report of all activity for the DHCP lease XTM device bandwidth statistics for all interfaces Detailed list of users authenticated. Includes login time, logout time, and connection method information Detailed list of users denied authentication. Includes date, time, and reason for authentication failure Gateway AntiVirus action details by email sender. Available for SMTP or POP3 Gateway AntiVirus action details by host Gateway AntiVirus action details by protocol Gateway AntiVirus action details by virus Gateway AntiVirus action summary Prevention summary details by IP-spoofed packets Prevention summary details by protocol Prevention summary details by signature Prevention summary details by source IP Prevention summary details by severity All intrusion prevention actions Summary of packet-filter data by time Summary of packet-filter data for hosts by source Summary of packet-filter data for hosts by destination Summary of packet-filter data by service Summary of packet-filter data by session

Firebox Reports

Audit trail Bandwidth/Transfer Rate (for external interfaces and VPN tunnels

DHCP lease activity Firebox statistics User Authentication User Authentication Denied Gateway AntiVirus Reports Detail by email sender Detail by host (HTTP) Detail by protocol Detail by virus Gateway AntiVirus summary Intrusion Prevention Service Reports Detail by IP-spoofed packets Detail by protocol Detail by signature Detail by source IP Detail by threat level Intrusion Prevention Service Summary Packet-Filter Summaries Daily trend Host summary by source Host summary by destination Service summary Session summary

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Report Type
POP3 Proxy Proxy Traffic

Report Name
POP3 Server summary Recipient summary Proxy daily trend Proxy source by hits Proxy source by bandwidth Proxy destination by hits Proxy destination by bandwidth Proxy session by hits Proxy session by bandwidth Proxy summary

Description
POP3 server activity summary POP3 recipient activity Proxied traffic summary by time Proxied traffic summary of hits by host Proxied traffic summary of bandwidth by host Proxied traffic summary of hits by destination Proxied traffic summary of bandwidth by destination Proxied traffic summary of hits by session Proxied traffic summary of bandwidth by session Proxied traffic summary by proxy Summary of Reputation Enabled Defense actions SMTP proxy action records by time SMTP server activity summary (for internal and external email accounts) SMTP email activity summary (for internal and external servers) Statistics by spam type, action, and spam senders and recipients Trends, active clients, most popular domains, WebBlocker information, and web sites blocked by proxy rules. Charts are included for the more detailed reports. You can click a chart to see the detailed report. Web traffic details by category Web traffic details by client Hourly trend data Top web traffic clients by name and IP address Top web sites visited by clients All URLs in order by client All URLs in order by domain All URLs in chronological order Statistics and web sites blocked by WebBlocker service Web sites blocked by category Web sites blocked by client Summary of all Wireless Intrusion Detection actions

Reputation Enabled Defense SMTP Proxy

Reputation Enabled Defense Summary SMTP proxy detail SMTP server summary SMTP email summary

spamBlocker Summary Web Audit Reports

spamBlocker summary Web audit summary

Web audit by category Web audit by client Web Traffic Reports Activity trend Most active clients detail Most popular domains URL details by client URL details by domain URL details by time WebBlocker Reports WebBlocker summary WebBlocker by category WebBlocker by client Wireless Intrusion Detection Wireless Intrusion Detection Summary

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Build Reports from Log Messages

View Reports with Report Manager


From any web browser, you can connect to WatchGuard WebCenter to use Report Manager to view the Available Reports that you schedule your Report Server to generate, or to generate new On-Demand Reports and Per Client reports. With Report Manager, you can: Select report parameters, such as date ranges and times for reports, and the XTM devices or servers to include in reports. View a report in HTML format or export it to a PDF file. Print or save a report.

Exercise 1:

Configure Where the Device Sends Log Messages

The Successful Company administrator must tell each XTM device in the network to send log messages to the WatchGuard Log Server. When he configures the logging settings for the XTM device, he adds the IP address of the Log Server where the device will send log messages and the Log Server Encryption Key to the device configuration file, and save the configuration file to the XTM device. Then, after he sets up the Log Server, the log Encryption Key on the device matches the log Encryption Key on the Log Server, and the Log Server and XTM device can communicate. The XTM device waits until it sends its first log message to establish a connection with the Log Server. In this exercise, we use Policy Manager to configure the XTM device to send log messages to the Log Server.

1. Open the configuration file. 2. Select Setup > Logging.


The Logging Setup dialog box appears.

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51

Your instructor may ask you to configure your XTM device to send log messages to a Log Server in the training lab.

3. Select the Send log messages to the log servers at these IP addresses check box. Click Configure.
The Configure Log Servers dialog box appears.

4. Click Add.
The Add Event Processor dialog box appears.

5. In the Log Server Address text box, type your workstation IP address. 6. In the Encryption Key text box, type mylogserverkey.
If the XTM device and Log Server do not connect, enter the encryption keys again. The most common cause of connection problems is encryption keys that do not match.

7. In the Confirm Key text box, type mylogserverkey again.


For this exercise, we put the Log Server on the Successful Company trusted network at 10.0.1.17.

8. Click OK to close the Add Event Processor dialog box.


The Log Server appears in the Configure Log Servers dialog box.

9. Click OK again to close the Configure Log Servers dialog box.


The Logging Setup dialog box appears.

10. Click OK to close the Logging Setup dialog box.


The XTM device does not establish a connection with the device until you save the configuration file to the device and it tries to send the first log message.

11. If you have access to an XTM device for this lesson, save the configuration file to the device.

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Exercise 2:

Set Up the Log Server

In this exercise, the Successful Company network administrator sets up a WatchGuard Log Server. In most organizations, the Log Server is a dedicated computer on the trusted or optional network running Microsoft Windows. The network administrator can also configure the Log Server on the external network if he has many XTM devices and wants to store log files in a central location. The logging channel is encrypted, so he does not need to use a VPN tunnel between the XTM device and the Log Server. If necessary, the administrator can use NAT (network address translation) to route from the external interface to the Log Server behind a firewall. Then, he can configure a WG-Logging policy to open these ports: TCP 4115 Used by devices with Fireware XTM OS TCP 4107 Used by devices with WFS OS, and by all SOHO, SOHO 6, and older Edge devices

Set Up the Log Server


The first step after the Log Server is installed is to run the WatchGuard Server Center Setup Wizard. This wizard completes the basic setup for all the WatchGuard servers you have installed on this computer. After you set up WatchGuard Server Center, you can configure the Log Server.
If attending a class, your instructor installed the Log Server on your workstation.

Configure the Log Server


On the computer that has the Log Server software installed:

1. Right-click

in the system tray and select Open WatchGuard Server Center.

The Connect to WatchGuard Server Center dialog box appears.

2. Type your Username and Administrator passphrase. Click Login.


The WatchGuard Server Center appears.

3. In the Servers tree, select Log Server.


The Log Server Server Settings page appears.

4. Select a tab to configure the settings for your network.


In the subsequent exercises, we use the Server Settings and Database Maintenance tabs.
Logging and Reporting 53

Exercise 3:

Control Database and Notification Properties

In this exercise, we configure the Log Server to comply with the Successful Company document archive policy. At Successful Company, the network administrator must back up critical network data, such as log messages, to a secure drive at least once a week. Because the Log Server and Report Server are installed on the same computer, they share a PostgreSQL database. We must make sure that the combined maximum database size settings of both the Log Server and the Report Server do not exceed 50% of the total disk space available on the primary operating system partition of the server computer. This is to make sure the two servers do not use more disk space than is available on the server computer. We will also select to use the Built-in PostgreSQL database that is installed with the Log Server.

Configure Database and Notification Settings


We use Log Server database maintenance and notification settings to control how long we maintain log messages, as well as when and where we back them up to a location other than the Log Server.

1. In the WatchGuard Server Center Servers tree, select Log Server.


The Log Server pages appear with the Server Settings tab selected.

2. In the Maximum Database size text box, type the maximum allowable size in gigabytes for the Log Server database.
Make sure that this setting, combined with the maximum size you specify for the Report Server database, does not exceed 50% of the disk space on the server computer.

3. Click Apply to save your settings. 4. Select the Database Maintenance tab.

5. In the Database Backup Settings section, select the Backup log messages automatically check box. 6. In the Backup log data every text box, type or select 7.
This sets the frequency of backups to once a week.

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7. In the Database Settings section, make sure Built-in database is selected.


This is the default setting.

8. Click Apply to save your settings.

Send Log Notifications to a Network Administrator


We also need to configure the Log Server to use the Successful Company email server to send messages to the network administrators group.

To use an existing PostgreSQL database on another computer, select the External PostgreSQL database option.

1. Select the Notification tab. 2. In the Events > Send an email notification section, select the When a failure event occurs on this Log Server and the When an event notification is received from any device or server check boxes. 3. In the SMTP Server Settings section, in the Outgoing email server (SMTP) text box, type mail.myexample.com. To change the port for connections to the SMTP server, type the SMTP server address in this format <localhost>:<port number>. 4. Select the Send credentials to the email server check box. 5. In the User Name text box, type netadmingroup. 6. In the Password text box, type mailpassword.

If the SMTP server you are using for this training accepts connections on a port other than port 25 (the default port for SMTP traffic), you can change the port. When you type the domain name of a mail host, the Log Server tries to do a DNS lookup on the mail host. In this exercise, the DNS lookup fails because myexample is a fictitious domain.

7. In the Notification Setup section, in the Send email to text box, type administrator@myexample.com. 8. In the Send email from text box, type netadmin@myexample.com. 9. In the Subject text box, type Log Server Notification.

10. Click Apply to save your changes.

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Change the Encryption Key


When a network administrator at Successful Company moves to London to take a job with another company, the remaining staff recognize that they need to change all the firewall passwords. In this exercise, we use WatchGuard Server Center to change their Log Server encryption key, and update the encryption key for each XTM device logging to the WatchGuard Log Server.

1. In the Servers tree, select Log Server.


The Log Server pages appear, with the Server Settings tab selected.

2. In the Encryption Key Setting section, click Modify.


The Log Server Encryption Key dialog box appears.

3. In the New key text box, type myencryptionkey. Click OK.


The Log Server Encryption Key dialog box closes and the encryption key is changed.

4. Open Policy Manager for your XTM device. 5. Select Setup > Logging.
The Logging Setup dialog box appears.

6. In the WatchGuard Log Server section, click Configure.


The Configure Log Servers dialog box appears.

7. Select the Log Server IP address in the list, and click Edit.
The Edit Event Processor dialog box appears.

8. In the Encryption Key and Confirm Key text boxes, type myencryptionkey. 9. Click OK to close the Edit Event Processor dialog box. 10. Click OK to close the Configure Log Servers dialog box. 11. Click OK to close the Logging Setup dialog box. 12. Save the configuration file to the XTM device. 13. Repeat Steps 412 for each XTM device that sends log messages to this Log Server.

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Exercise 4:

Use Log Manager to View Log Messages

Log Manager is the WatchGuard System Manager tool that you can use to find details about the traffic through your network. You can choose to see the data in your log files page-by-page, or you can search by key words or specific log fields to find a particular log message. This is helpful when you want to troubleshoot a problem on your network. Log Manager is available to you in the WatchGuard WebCenter web UI after you install the Log Server software. If you install your Log Server and your Report Server on the same computer, both Log Manager and Report Manager are available in WatchGuard WebCenter at the same server location, so you can log in to one WebCenter web UI to look at both your log messages and your reports. If you install them on separate computers, you must connect to WebCenter for each server separately. To use WatchGuard WebCenter from a computer that is external to your XTM device when your Log Server is behind the XTM device, you must open a port to allow the Log Manager traffic between the Log Server and the IP address of your external computer. To make sure the correct port is open, the WG-LogViewer-ReportMgr packet filter policy must be included in the configuration file of the XTM device that is your gateway Firebox. This policy should be added automatically when you configure the logging settings for the XTM device. If it is missing from your gateway Firebox configuration file, you must add it before you can connect to WebCenter. For more information about how to add a policy to your configuration, see the Policies module. In this exercise, we will enable certain Successful Company users to connect to WatchGuard WebCenter to view log messages and reports, use the Log Manager Search tool to troubleshoot a problem with email reception on the Successful Company network, and export log messages to a CSV file.

Connect to WebCenter to View Log Messages


There are two ways to connect to WebCenter for your Log Server: directly to the web UI in a web browser, or from WatchGuard System Manager. To connect to WebCenter in a web browser:

1. Open a web browser and go to https://<IP address of your Log Server>:4130.


The WatchGuard WebCenter web UI login page appears.

2. Type your Username and Passphrase. 3. Click Log In.


WatchGuard WebCenter appears, with the LOG MANAGER > Devices page selected.

4. In the Devices list, select your XTM device.


The Device page appears for your device, with all the Log Messages from this device from the last 60 minutes.

To connect to Log Manager from WatchGuard System Manager:

1. Open WatchGuard System Manager and click Or, select Tools > Log Manager.
The Server Login dialog box appears.

2. Type the Server IP address, Port, User Name, and Passphrase for your Log Server. 3. Click Login.
WatchGuard WebCenter appears, with the LOG MANAGER > Devices page selected.

If you are attending a class, your instructor will provide the credentials for the Log Server.

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View Log Messages


1. In the Devices list, select your XTM device.
The Device page appears for your device, with all the log messages from this device from the last 60 minutes. Traffic log messages are displayed by default.

2. Select a log message in the list.


The log message details dialog box appears with additional information about the log message you selected.

3. To sort the log messages by a column, click that column header.


The log messages are sorted by the column header you selected.

4. To view all log types, at the top of the page, select


All of the log message types appear in the log messages list.

5. To view a specific log type, at the top of the page, select the tab for the log type.
The log messages list is updated to include only log messages of the type you selected.

Run a Search
The Successful Company support team manager has contacted you because the support team is not receiving email requests from Big Client A. To find out what is happening to email from Big Client A, you will run a search query to see if traffic from Big Client As email server is passing through your XTM device to your email server. You can use Log Manager to search for any details included in the log messages for your devices that are logging to your Log Server. You can start a search from either the main LOG MANAGER > Search page or from any Device page. From the Device page, when you specify the text to search on and click Search, the web UI automatically switches to the Search page and populates the form with the text you specified. When you run a search, you can search the log messages for only one device at a time. You can save your search parameters for each device so you can run them again for that device, but you cannot run saved search parameters for a different device. Each time you want to run a new search for a different device, you must specify the parameters to search on. To refine your search, you can specify the time range and select a log type to search for. By default, the Search page includes one search query block. To run a simple search, just type the text to search on in one text box in the default search query block. To run a complex search with an AND operator, specify text to search on in more than one text box in a single search query block. To run a complex search that includes an OR operator, add another search query block. You can add up to nine search query blocks to your search. When you define a search query, you can include the name of one or more columns in the log file in your search parameters. Though you can search for any column included in your log files, some of the columns that are most often searched are: policy, protocol, src_ip, src_port, dst_ip, dst_port, src_intf, dst_intf, app_name, and app_cat_name. For more information about how to use Log Manager, see the Logging and Reporting topics in the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help. For this exercise, we will use Log Manager to run a search query that inspects the traffic from Big Client A that was not allowed through the firewall. To search the Traffic log messages on the Log Server to find all traffic from Big Client As source IP address that was denied, we will include the src_ip and the disp columns in the query text.

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To run a search from the Log Manager Search page:

1. Select LOG MANAGER > Search.


The Search page appears with a list of all the devices logging to your Log Server.

2. Select a device.
The Search page appears with the one search query block displayed.

3. From the Time Range drop-down list, select the amount of time to include in your search. For this example, select Last 6 Hours. 4. In the Log Type drop-down list, Traffic is selected by default. Do not change this selection. 5. In the ANY of these words text box, type the IP address to search for. For this example, we type the column to search in and the IP address to search for in this format: src_ip=<IP address>. 6. In the ALL of these words text box, type the disposition of the traffic. For this example, we want to find all traffic from the specified IP address that was denied, so we type disp=Deny. 7. Click Search.
The Search results are refined to include only log messages for traffic from the specified source IP address that was denied access through the firewall.
If you are attending a class, your instructor will provide the source IP address for your search. If you want to test this outside of a class, you can search on any IP address in the Source column.

Because the Successful Company Administrator might want to run this search again later, he decides to save the search. To save search parameters for a specific device:

1. From the LOG MANAGER > Search page for a device, click Save.
The Opening search.query dialog box appears.

2. Select Save File and click OK. 3. Browse to select a location to save the search query file and type a descriptive name for the search query file. For this example, type search1.query.
Make sure to choose a file name that will make it easy to identify the search query when you want to run the search again.

4. Click Save.
The search1.query file is saved in the location you selected.

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When the Successful Company Administrator wants to run a saved query for a device again, he simply loads the search query file and runs the search again.

1. From the LOG MANAGER > Search page for a device, click Load.
The Load Search Query dialog box appears.

2. Click Browse to select the search1.query file and click Open.


The path to the search.query file appears in the Load Search Query dialog box.

3. Click OK.
The Search page is refreshed to include the details specified in the search query file and the search results are updated to include only those results that match the specified search query.

Export Log Messages


The network administrator from Successful Company wants to take the log messages from one of his XTM devices that was not passing traffic correctly over a Monday afternoon and review them in a third-party application. To do this, he can export the log messages from one device for a specific date and time to a CSV file. The file name of this CSV file is the date and time range for the log messages in the file. When you export the CSV file, it is automatically added to a ZIPfile. The ZIP file name is the serial number of the device, as well as the date and time range for the log messages. If you choose to save the ZIP file to a location on your computer, you can specify any file name.

1. Select LOG MANAGER > Devices.


The Devices list appears.

2. Select the Name of a device.


The log messages page for the selected device appears.

3. From the Actions drop-down list, select Custom Timerange.


The Custom Date-Time Range dialog box appears.

4. Select the Start date and time, and End date and time. For this exercise, select last Monday from 12:00 to 22:00. 5. Click OK.
The Log Messages page is updated with only the log messages for the specified date and time.

6. From the Actions drop-down list, select Export logs (.csv).


The Opening file dialog box appears for the ZIP file.

7. Select whether to open the ZIP file or save it to a location on your computer. Click OK. 8. If you save the file, browse to select a location. 9. (Optional) Type a file name for the ZIP file. 10. Click Save.
The ZIP file is saved to the specified location on your computer.

11. Browse to the location where you saved the ZIP file, open the file, and extract the CSV file.
The Successful Company administrator can now open the CSV file and review the log messages, or import the CSV file to another program or to the WatchGuard Log Server.

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Exercise 5:

Configure a Report Server

Successful Company network administrators decide that, for performance reasons, they are going to install the Report Server on a different computer than the management computer. In this exercise, we configure their Report Server. Before you configure the Report Server, you must run the WatchGuard Server Center Setup Wizard, which sets up the Report Server. After the Report Server is set up, you can use the WatchGuard Server Center Report Server pages to finish your Report Server configuration.

Add a Log Server


A Report Server can consolidate data from one or more Log Servers. You must add the IP address of each Log Server to the Report Server configuration. On the computer that has the Report Server software installed:
If you are attending a class, your instructor may have already installed the Report Server on your workstation.

1. Right-click

in the system tray and select Open WatchGuard Server Center.

The Connect to WatchGuard Server Center dialog box appears.

2. Type your Username and Administrator passphrase. Click Login.


The WatchGuard Server Center appears.

3. In the Servers tree, select Report Server.


The Report Server pages appears, with the Server Settings tab selected.

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4. In the Log Server Settings section, click Add.


The Add Log Server dialog box appears.

5. In the IP address text box, type the IP address of your Log Server.
In most training environments, this is the same IP address as your management computer.

6. In the Password text box, type myadminpassphrase.


This must be the same passphrase you selected when you ran the WatchGuard Server Center Setup Wizard.

7. Click OK.
The IP address of the Log Server appears in the list of Log Servers. A single Report Server can consolidate data from more than one Log Server.

Select Reports and Timing


To specify which reports are generated and when they are generated, the Successful Company network administrator must create a Report Schedule and specify the reports to generate. By default, the Report Server automatically includes 50 records in each summary report. The Successful Company network administrator would prefer to include 75 records in summary reports and schedule the reports to be generated every Monday. He also has not purchased the WatchGuard Gateway AntiVirus or Intrusion Prevention Service options, so he disables those reports. Finally, Successful Company network administrator wants to generate a PDF of the report that he can send to senior management, so he configures the Advanced Settings to generate a PDF file of the report data.

1. Select the Report Generation tab.

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2. In the Number of records included in each summary report text box, type 75. 3. In the Report Schedules section, click Add.
The New Schedule dialog box appears.

4. In the Schedule Name text box, type the name for this schedule. For this example, type All Devices - No GAV-IPS. 5. In the Devices list, select the check box for each device to include in this report generation schedule. For this example, select the All Devices check box. 6. In the Report types list, select the check box for each report to include in this schedule. For this example, clear the Gateway AntiVirus Reports and Intrusion Prevention Service Reports check boxes. 7. In the Report Schedule section, select Run recurrently. 8. From the Run recurrently drop-down list, select Weekly. 9. From the Recur every week on drop-down list, select Monday.
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10. In the Range of recurrence section, keep the default setting of No end date. 11. Select the Advanced Settings tab. 12. Select the Generate reports for external use check box. 13. Select an option to specify how reports are generated for device groups: - One report for each device in the group - One report with combined data for all devices in the group For this exercise, select One report with combined data for all devices in the group. 14. Select a format: HTML or PDF. For this exercise, select PDF. 15. From the Display dates and times using drop-down list, select the time zone you want to appear in the reports: My local time zone or UTC. 16. (Optional) From the Location drop-down list, select the location where you want the report to be saved. 17. Click OK.
The schedule appears in the Report Schedules list.

18. Click Apply to save your configuration changes to the Report Server.

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Exercise 6:

Use Report Manager to View and Generate Reports

After you create a report schedule on your Report Server to generate specific reports, you can use Report Manager to review and share the reports created from log message data. You can review the Available Reports that you configured your Report Server to generate on the Daily or Weekly tabs. You can also generate real-time On-Demand or Per Client reports. In this exercise, the Successful Company network administrator connects to WatchGuard WebCenter and uses Report Manager to review an Available Report and to generate an On-Demand report.

Connect to Report Manager to View Reports


There are two ways to connect to WatchGuard WebCenter to use Report Manager to view and generate reports: directly to WebCenter in a web browser, or from WatchGuard System Manager. To connect to WatchGuard WebCenter in a web browser:

1. Open a web browser and go to https://<IP address of your Report Server>:4130.


The WatchGuard WebCenter login page appears.

2. Type your Username and Passphrase. 3. Click Log In.


WatchGuard WebCenter appears. If your Log Server is installed on the same computer, the LOG MANAGER > Devices page is selected. If your Log Server is not installed on the same computer, the REPORT MANAGER > Devices page is selected.

4. If necessary, select REPORT MANAGER > Devices. 5. In the Devices list, select your XTM device.
The Device page appears for your device, with all of the Available Reports that have been scheduled for this device.

To connect to WatchGuard WebCenter from WatchGuard System Manager:

1. Open WatchGuard System Manager and click Or, select Tools > Report Manager.
The Server Login dialog box appears.

2. Type the Server IP address, Port, User Name, and Passphrase for your Report Server. 3. Click Login.
WatchGuard WebCenter appears. If your Log Server is installed on the same computer, the LOG MANAGER > Devices page is selected. If your Log Server is not installed on the same computer, the REPORT MANAGER > Devices page is selected.

If you are attending a class, your instructor will provide the credentials for the Report Server.

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View Reports
After you connect to Report Manager, you can select the reports to view or generate.

1. Select REPORT MANAGER > Devices.


The Devices page appears.

2. From the Devices list, select a device.


The A val i able Reports page appears for the selected device, with the Daily tab selected and the report data sorted by Users.

3. From the Daily calendar, select a date to see the Available Reports for that day. 4. From the Available Reports list, select a report to view.
The selected report appears.

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5. To view the report data by hosts instead of by users, select Hosts. 6. If the report includes links to client data, you can click the client data detail to open a Per Client report.
To generate an On-Demand report:

1. At the top right of the page, select On-Demand.


The On-Demand Reports page appears for the selected device.

2. Put your cursor in the Start text box to select the start date and time for the report.
The date and time selection calendar appears.

3. Select a month and day from the calendar. Slide the time selectors to specify the hour and minute. Or, click Now to select the current date and time. 4. Click Done.
The selected date and time appears in the Start text box.

5. Put your cursor in the End text box and select the end date and time for the report. Click Done. 6. From the Select a report type drop-down list, select the type of report to generate. 7. Click Run Report.
The selected report is generated.

It can take a few moments to generate the report. The longer the time range for the report, the longer it takes to generate the report.

Exercise 7:

Share Reports

In this exercise, the Successful Company network administrator uses Log and Report Manager to view a weekly report, and then generates a PDF of the report to send to his manager. He also makes a hard copy for the Sarbanes-Oxley auditors.

1. From any report page, at the top right of the page, click
The Opening file dialog box appears.

2. Select the Save file option. 3. Click OK. 4. Select a location to save the PDF file. 5. Click Save.
The PDF is saved in the selected location.

The network administrator can now send the PDF to his manager and print a copy for the auditors.

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Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. What is the default location for a WatchGuard log file? 2. True or false? The XTM device can send log messages only to one WatchGuard Log Server. 3. Which logging component is responsible for sending notification email messages when an event occurs on the XTM device that triggers notification? (Select one.)

A) B) C)

XTM device Log Server Policy Manager

4. Which of these log configuration settings are available in Policy Manager? (Select all that apply.)

A) B) C) D)

Scheduling reports Setting the maximum size for a log database file Setting the log encryption key Selecting a backup Log Server for log messages Setting the mail host and email address for email notifications Configuring email notification for denied SMTP packets

E) F)

5. Which of these log configuration settings are available in WatchGuard Server Center in the Log Server configuration pages? (Select all that apply.)

A) B) C) D) E) F)

Scheduling reports Setting the maximum size for a log database file Setting the log encryption key Selecting a backup server for log message database files Setting the mail host and email address for email notifications Configuring email notification for denied SMTP packets

6. True or false? Log files created by an XTM device with Fireware XTM OS are stored in a proprietary format. 7. True or false? Log Manager automatically saves the search queries you run. 8. True or false? When you run a search query, it applies to all the devices that are connected to your Log Server. 9. True or false? You can export the log messages for more than one device at the same time. 10. True or false? You can use Report Manager to generate an On-Demand Report about more than one XTM device at the same time. 11. True or false? You can save a search query for a specific device to run it again for only that device.

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12. Which tool is used in the WatchGuard reporting architecture? (Select all that apply.)
A) B) C) D) E) F) G) Report Server Quarantine Server Log Server XTM device Active Directory Server Log Manager Report Manager

13. Circle the WatchGuard tool you use to configure each of the following:
Select Log Server used by an XTM device Set number of HTML records per report Select Log Server polled by Report Server Set the frequency reports are generated Generate a PDF of a report Set the date range for a report Select reports to run on a daily or weekly schedule Policy Manager Policy Manager Policy Manager Policy Manager Policy Manager Policy Manager Policy Manager Report Server Report Server Report Server Report Server Report Server Report Server Report Server Log Server Log Server Log Server Log Server Log Server Log Server Log Server Log Manager Log Manager Log Manager Log Manager Log Manager Log Manager Log Manager Report Manager Report Manager Report Manager Report Manager Report Manager Report Manager Report Manager

14. True or false? You can use Report Manager to configure any report and send it in an email. 15. True or false? To connect to WatchGuard WebCenter, use the IP address of your XTM device. 16. True or false? You can email a PDF of a report directly from Report Manager.

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ANSWERS 1. Documents and Settings\WatchGuard\logs 2. False. The XTM device can send log messages to one or more WatchGuard Log Servers, a syslog server, or the XTM device internal database. 3. B. Log Server. The Log Server sends a notification email in response to the log message it receives from the XTM device. 4. C, D, F 5. B, C, E 6. False. Log messages are stored in a SQL database file. 7. False. You cannot save a search query to run it again later.

8. False. You can only run a search query on one device at a time. 9. False. You can export the log messages for only one device at a time. 10. False. From Report Manager, you can only generate an On-Demand report for one device at a time. 11. True. You can save a search query for a device to run it again later for the same device. You cannot save search query parameters to run the same search for a different device. 12. A, C, D, F, G 13. Select Log Server used by an XTM device Policy Manager Set number of HTML records per report Report Server Select Log Server polled by Report Server Report Server Set the frequency reports are generated Report Server Generate a PDF of a report Report Server, Log and Report Manager Set the date range for a report Report Server, Report Manager Select the reports to run on a daily or weekly schedule Report Server 14. False. You can run On-Demand and Per Client reports from Report Manager and generate a PDF of each report, but Report Manager cannot connect to your email program to open an email message and attach the PDF the message. 15. False. Use the IP address of your Log Server or Report Server to connect to WatchGuard WebCenter over port 4130. 16. False. You can generate a PDF of a report from Report Manager, but you must save it and attach it to an email message in your own email editor.

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Fireware XTM Basics

Monitor Your Firewall


Monitor Activity Through the XTM Device
What You Will Learn
WatchGuard System Manager includes several tools to monitor the health of your XTM device and network. In this training module, you are shown how to: Interpret the information in the WatchGuard System Manager display Modify the Security Traffic display to match your network configuration Change Traffic Monitor settings and trace the source of a connection Use Performance Console to create a graph that shows traffic to the external interface Use HostWatch to view network activity and block a site Add and remove sites from the Blocked Sites list Add feature keys to the XTM device

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module. In this module, you will connect to one or more WatchGuard XTM devices. If you take this course with a WatchGuard Certified Training Partner, your instructor will provide the IP address and passphrases for devices used in the exercises. For self-instruction, you can safely connect to an XTM device on a production network. You will not change the configuration files of any device.

Regular Monitoring Improves Security


As with any security product, regular monitoring of your firewall improves both performance and security. When you use WatchGuard System Manager (WSM) to connect to an XTM device, you are immediately presented with key information regarding the health of your firewall and the WatchGuard servers on your network. WSM is particularly useful for networks with more than one XTM device because you can see many devices at the same time. You can also monitor connections between XTM devices. With Firebox System Manager, you can quickly scan the configuration and status of a single XTM device, spot unusual activity, and take immediate action. Firebox System Manger includes eight methods to monitor your device, each presented on a separate tab: Front Panel Displays the status of each device interface, along with information about active VPN tunnels and Subscription Services. Traffic Monitor Displays a color-coded list of the log messages from the device. Bandwidth Meter Provides a real-time graphical display of network activities across a device. Service Watch Shows a graph of the policies configured on a XTM device. The Y-axis (vertical) shows the number of connections or bandwidth used per policy. The X-axis (horizontal) shows the time. To get more information about a policy at a point in time, click a location on the chart. Status Report Shows the technical details of the device.

If you change the view from connections to bandwidth, Firebox System Manager remembers the setting the next time you start the application. 71

Authentication List Identifies the IP addresses and user names of all the users that are authenticated to the device. Includes a Summary section with the number of users authenticated for each authentication type, and the total number of authenticated users. To disconnect an authenticated user, right-click the user name and close the authenticated session. Blocked Sites Lists all the sites currently blocked by the device. From this tab, you can remove a site from the temporary blocked sites list. Subscription Services Shows the status of Gateway AntiVirus, Intrusion Prevention Service, Application Control, spamBlocker, and Reputation Enabled Defense. From here, you can also perform a manual update of the signature databases used by Gateway AV, IPS, and Application Control. This tab is active only if you have purchased these services. Gateway Wireless Controller Shows the connection status and activity on your WatchGuard AP devices. You can also monitor and manage the client connections to your WatchGuard AP devices. From the Firebox System Manager toolbar, you can also launch other XTM device monitoring tools, including: Performance Console Used to prepare graphs based on device performance counters to better understand how your device is functioning. HostWatch Shows the network connections between the selected networks. If any of your Subscription Services have expired, an expired service warning appears on the Front Panel tab for each expired service. The Renew Now button also appears at the top of Firebox System Manager. To renew your subscription to the expired services, you can click Renew Now. You can also choose to hide the expired service warnings. For more information, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help.

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Exercise 1:

Review Network Status in WSM

The Successful Company network administrator has now saved a basic configuration to his XTM device and has installed and configured a Management Server Log Server, and Report Server. We can now look at this network security infrastructure with WatchGuard System Manager (WSM). From the Windows desktop:

1. Select Start > All Programs > WatchGuard System Manager 11.x > WatchGuard System Manager 11.x. 2. Click
.

You can also select File > Connect To Device.

3. Type the trusted IP address of the XTM device you want to connect to.
Use your device IP address, or get the IP address from your instructor.

For this exercise, your instructor may have you connect to the training lab XTM device to provide more traffic for the exercises.

4. Type the XTM device Status (read-only) Passphrase.


Use the status passphrase to connect to a XTM device and display the status. The XTM device appears in the WSM display.

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Interpret the Device Status Display


Information about a device you connect to appears in the WatchGuard System Manager Device Status tab. The information that appears includes the status, IP address, and MAC address for each Ethernet interface, and the installed certificates. It also includes the status of all virtual private network (VPN) tunnels that are configured in WSM.

Expanded information for each XTM device includes the IP address and subnet mask of each device interface. It also includes: IP address and netmask of the default gateway (for external interfaces only). Media Access Control (MAC) address of the interface. Number of packets sent and received on each interface since the last device restart. Each device can be in one of four possible operation modes. The current mode is shown by the appearance of the device icon: Usual operation. The device is successfully sending data to WatchGuard System Manager. The device has a dynamic IP address and has not yet contacted the Management Server. WatchGuard System Manager cannot make a network connection to the device at this time. The device is being contacted for the first time or has not been contacted yet.

The Device Status tab also includes information on Branch Office VPN Tunnels and Mobile VPN tunnels.

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Exercise 2:

Use Firebox System Manager

The Firebox System Manager Front Panel tab has a group of indicator lights in the shape of a triangle or star to show the direction and volume of the traffic between the XTM device interfaces. The points of the star and triangle show the traffic that flows through the interfaces. Each point shows incoming and outgoing connections with different arrows. When traffic flows between the two interfaces, the arrows show the direction of the traffic. In the star figure, the location where the points come together can show one of two conditions: Red (deny) The XTM device denied a connection on that interface. Green (allow) Traffic flows between this interface and a different interface (but not the center) on the star. When traffic flows from this interface to the center, the point between these interfaces shows as green arrows. In the triangle, the network traffic shows in the points of the triangle. The points show only the idle and deny conditions. If you use the star figure, you can customize which interface is in the center. The default star figure shows the external interface in the center. When you put a different interface in the center, you can see all traffic between that interface and the other interfaces. All allowed and denied traffic is relative to the interface in the center of the diagram. You see no information about traffic between interfaces on the perimeter of the star. In this exercise, you start Firebox System Manager and change the status display.

Connect to an XTM Device and Change the Display


1. In WatchGuard System Manager, click
to connect to your XTM device.

2. Type your XTM device trusted IP address and the status passphrase. Click OK. 3. On the Device Status tab, select the XTM device.

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4. Click

Firebox System Manager appears. It contacts your XTM device and gets data about network traffic, interface settings, and other status information.

5. As shown in the upper-left corner of the FSM window, the default mode shows the interfaces in a star shape.

3 Port Star

6 Port Star

10 Port Star

13 Port Star

To switch to the triangle display, click the triangle icon in the top-right corner above the star display.

6. In the star display, click the red ball adjacent to eth2.


The eth2 interface moves to the center of the display. The other interfaces move in a clockwise direction.

7. Click the red ball adjacent to eth0 to move it back to the center of the display.

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Use Traffic Monitor


Traffic Monitor is an application that displays a continuous list of log messages. The messages are refreshed every five seconds by default, which makes Traffic Monitor a good place to start troubleshooting problems you have with your XTM device. One unique feature of Traffic Monitor is the ability to ping or trace the source of a connection you see in the Traffic Monitor window. In this exercise, you use Traffic Monitor to trace the source of a connection through an XTM device that is accessible through the training lab.

1. Select the Traffic Monitor tab.

2. Select an entry in Traffic Monitor and right-click it. 3. In the Source IP address menu, select traceroute. This executes the tracert command against the IP address identified as the source of the packet.
The Diagnostic Tasks dialog box appears with the results of the traceroute. Traceroute is a utility that traces a packet from your computer to an Internet host. This shows how many hops the packet needs to reach the host and how long each hop takes.

4. Review the result of the traceroute. 5. Click Close.

The number of hops and the response time of each hop determines how long it will take for the results to appear. The results do not appear until the trace route is complete.

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Run a TCP Dump Diagnostic Task and Download a PCAP File


The maximum size of a PCAP file is 30 MB. If your XTM device has limited memory, the size of the PCAP file is automatically reduced to an appropriate size based on the memory available on your device.

From Firebox System Manager, you ran run a variety of diagnostic tasks. In the previous exercise, we ran a traceroute task directly from Traffic Monitor to find how many hops a packet took and how much time each hop took to reach the destination IP address. In addition to traceroute tasks, you can also run Ping, DNS Lookup, and TCP Dump tasks. When you run a task, in addition to the standard parameters for each task, you can include arguments to help refine the search results. To help you diagnose problems with the traffic on your network, you can complete a TCP dump task and download a packet capture (PCAP) file, which includes the results of the last TCP dump task that you ran. You can then open the PCAP file in a third-party tool, such as Wireshark, and review the protocols in the PCAP file to find any issues in your network configuration. When you run the TCP dump task, you can choose to save the results on the XTM device to download later as a PCAP file, or you can save the results directly in a PCAP file. You can then open the PCAP file in a tool such as Wireshark, and review the protocols to diagnose the issues on your network. To run a TCP dump and save the results in a PCAP file:

1. In Traffic Monitor, right-click anywhere and select Diagnostic Tasks. Or, select Tools > Diagnostic Tasks.
The Diagnostic Tasks dialog box appears, with the Network tab selected.

2. From the Task drop-down list, select TCP Dump.


The Interface drop-down list appears.

3. Select the Advanced Options check box.

4. In the Arguments text box, type the parameters for the search. You must include the interface to examine. For example, type -i eth0 to examine the eth0 interface.
This can be a physical interface on the XTM device (such as, eth0), a Link Aggregation interface (such as, bond0), a wireless interface (such as, ath0), or a VLAN interface (such as, vlan10).

5. Select the Stream data to a file check box.


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6. Click Browse to specify a location to save the PCAP file and a name for the file. 7. Click Run Task.
The TCP Dump task runs. TCP dump data does not appear in the Results list.

You can also choose to run the TCP dump on the XTM device and later save the results to a PCAP file. In the Diagnostic Tasks dialog box:

1. From the Task drop-down list, select TCP Dump.


The Interface drop-down list appears.

2. Select the Advanced Options check box. 3. In the Arguments text box, type the parameters for the search. You must include the interface to examine. For example, type -i eth0 to examine the eth0 interface.
This can be a physical interface on the XTM device (such as, eth0), a Link Aggregation interface (such as, bond0), a wireless interface (such as, ath0), or a VLAN interface (such as, vlan10).

4. Select the Buffer data to save later check box. 5. Click Run Task.
The TCP Dump task runs and the details appear in the Results window.

6. When the TCP dump has collected enough results, click Stop Task.
The TCP dump stops automatically if the file reaches either the maximum allowed size for your computer, or the amount you specified in the Arguments text box. The TCP dump task stops and the Save Pcap file button appears.

7. Click Save Pcap file and specify a file name and a location to save the PCAP file.

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Change Traffic Monitor Settings


You can configure Traffic Monitor to use different colors to show different types of information. In this exercise, we change the color of the source IP address for denied traffic to bright pink so that we can see it better.

1. Select File > Settings.


The Settings dialog box appears.

2. Select the Traffic Denied tab. 3. In the Traffic Denied list, select source ip. 4. Click the Text Color button.
The Text Color button shows the current color selected for source ip log messages.

5. Select bright pink and click OK.


The text color changes. All information for this message type now appears in the new color in Traffic Monitor. A sample of how these messages will look in Traffic Monitor appears in the Sample window at the bottom of the dialog box.

6. Click OK to close the Settings dialog box.


For log messages of denied traffic, the source IP is now a bright pink.

Check Bandwidth Usage and Service Volume


When you connect to a training lab XTM device, you may not see lines form in these tabs. This is because your training XTM device is passing only a small amount of traffic.

Firebox System Manager also has a way for you to quickly check your firewall bandwidth usage and the volume of traffic for your primary proxies.

1. Select the Bandwidth Meter tab.


The list of XTM device interfaces appears on the left. Each interface is a different color. The central panel shows the relative volume of traffic through each interface.

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2. Select the Service Watch tab.


On the left is a list of policies configured for your XTM device. Each interface is a different color to identify them. The central panel shows the relative volume of traffic examined by each proxy policy.

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Exercise 3:

Create a Performance Console Graph

Performance Console is a XTM device utility that you use to monitor different performance counters on the device. With Performance Console, you define counters that identify the information that you want to see. You can see the information displayed as a graph, or export it to a third-party application. The Counter Configuration settings you see depend on the chart counter type that you select. Not all settings are available for all chart types. Available settings include: Chart Window <New Window> opens the new chart in a new window. If there is a chart already open, you can choose to show both charts in the same window. Poll Interval Set how frequently data is gathered from the XTM device. Type Use this drop-down list to select the type of graph to create: Rate, Difference, or Raw Value. Suppose you want to graph value_1 and time_1, value_2 at time_2, and so on. - Rate If you create a graph by rate, you use the value difference divided by the time difference: (value_2-value_1)/(time_2-time_1), (value_3-value_2)/(time_3-time_2), and so on. - Difference If you specify difference, you use the increase from the previous value to the new value: value_2-value_1, value_3-value_2, and so on. - Raw Value If you specify raw value, you use the value only: value_1, value_2, and so on. The raw values are generally counters of content such as bytes or packets. The raw values can only increase, not decrease. Policy To view the data for the traffic that is passing through an individual policy, select that policy from the drop-down list. Save Chart Data to File Select this check box to save the data collected by the Performance Console as an XML (Extensible Markup Language) file or a CSV (comma-separated value) file. For example, you can open an XML data file in Microsoft Excel to see the counter value recorded for each polling interval. You can use other tools to merge data from more than one chart.

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In this exercise, you use Firebox System Manager and your local XTM device to create a Performance Console graph that shows the utilization of the device CPU.

1. Click

The Add Chart dialog box appears.

2. In the Available Counters list, expand System Information and select CPU Utilization.

3. Click OK.
The CPU Utilization chart appears in the Configured Charts list.

4. In the Configured Charts list, double-click the Chart Name.


A performance graph appears, with the data collected for this counter.

5. Click Close.
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Exercise 4:
Domain name server (DNS) resolution does not occur immediately when you start HostWatch. When HostWatch is configured for DNS resolution, it replaces the IP addresses with the host or user names. If the XTM device cannot identify the host or user name, the IP address is used instead.

Use HostWatch to View Network Activity

HostWatch is an application that shows the network connections between the networks you select. HostWatch also gives information about users, connections, and network address translation (NAT). The top part of the HostWatch window has two sides. On the left side, you set the interface. The right side has a list of all the other interfaces. HostWatch shows the connections to and from the interface that appears on the left side. In this exercise, you use HostWatch to view the activity on the training network.

1. Click

The HostWatch window appears.

2. To select an interface, right-click the current interface name and select a new interface. Or, select View > Interface and select a new interface. 3. As you view the connections through the XTM device, double-click an item on either side.
The Connections For dialog box appears and shows information on the connections for that item.

4. In the HostWatch window, to add the source IP address of any connection to the Blocked Sites list, right-click it and select Block Site.
The Choose Expiration dialog box appears.

5. Set the time period to block the IP address. Click OK. 6. Type the configuration passphrase when prompted. Click OK.
The IP address is added to the temporary blocked sites list for the period of time you set here.

7. Close HostWatch.

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Exercise 5:

Use the Blocked Sites List

The Blocked Sites list shows all the sites currently blocked as a result of the rules defined in Policy Manager. On the Blocked Sites tab, you can add sites to the list, or remove blocked sites. In this exercise, you remove the blocked site you added in the HostWatch exercise. You then add a site to the list.

1. Select the Blocked Sites tab.

2. From the Blocked IP List, select the IP address you just blocked. Click Delete in the lower-right corner.
The Delete Site(s) dialog box appears.

3. Click Yes, type the configuration passphrase, and click OK. 4. To add a site, click Add at the bottom of the dialog box.
The Add Temporary Blocked Site dialog box appears.

5. Add the site 10.1.1.1 and block it for 24 hours.


The site appears on the Blocked Sites list.

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Exercise 6:

Examine and Update Feature Keys

When you purchase an option for your XTM device, you add a new feature key to your configuration file. You can use either Firebox System Manager or Policy Manager to see the current list of feature keys currently for your XTM device. To add a new feature key to a device, you use Policy Manager.

View Feature Keys For Your XTM Device


To view your feature keys in Firebox System Manager:

1. Select View > Feature Keys.


The Firebox Feature Keys dialog box appears.

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2. To see more information about the feature key, click Details.


The Feature Key Detail dialog box shows a list of the features in the feature key.

3. Click OK to close the Feature Key Details dialog box.

Add a Feature Key to the XTM Device


You use Policy Manager to add a feature key to your XTM device.

1. Open the configuration file you are editing for these exercises. 2. Select Setup > Feature Keys.
The Firebox Feature Keys dialog box appears.

3. Click Import.
The Import Firebox Feature Key dialog box appears.

Complete this exercise in class only if your instructor requests that you do so and provides you with an updated feature key.

4. Click Browse and select your feature key file. Or, open your feature key file, copy the contents, and in the Import Firebox Feature Key dialog box, click Paste.
You can purchase this key from WatchGuard. If you attend a WatchGuard Certified Training course, you will receive this key from your instructor.

5. Click OK to close the Import Firebox Feature key dialog box. 6. Click OK to close the Firebox Feature Key dialog box. 7. Save the configuration file to the XTM device.
You cannot use an optional feature until you add the feature key to the configuration file and save it to your XTM device.

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Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. True or false? Performance Console is used to prepare graphs that show various XTM device functions based on performance counters. 2. Which of the following monitoring tools can be viewed directly in a Firebox System Manager tab? (Select all that apply).
A) B) C) D) E) CA Manager Bandwidth Meter HostWatch Policy Manager Traffic Monitor

3. True or false? A PCAP file includes packet information about the protocols that manage traffic on your network. 4. True or false? You can save a PCAP file and open it later in Traffic Monitor. 5. True or false? You can add a site to the Blocked Sites list from HostWatch. 6. True or false? Service Watch is a monitor that provides a real-time display of the bandwidth consumed by policies on the XTM device. 7. Match the correct monitoring tool to each task:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Service Watch HostWatch Log Server Subscription Services Traffic Monitor Blocked Sites List a. Ping the source of a denied packet b. Not a Fireware XTM monitoring tool c. View a list of users connected through the XTM device d. Add an IP address for the XTM device to block all traffic e. Learn the status of your IPS signature database f. See the volume of traffic generated by each proxy policy

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7.

6. True 5. True 4. False. You can save a PCAP file and open it in a third-part tool, such as Wireshark. 3. True 2. B and E 1. True ANSWERS

1: f, 2: c 3: b 4: e 5: a 6: d

Fireware XTM Basics

NAT
Use Network Address Translation
What You Will Learn
As with many routing devices, your XTM device can use network address translation (NAT) to conceal the IP address space of your network. In this training module, you learn how to: Learn the forms of NAT available with the XTM device Add more IP addresses to which the device will apply dynamic NAT Use static NAT to protect public servers Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module.

NAT Overview
NAT is an important tool for todays network administrators. Fireware XTM gives you great flexibility for controlling when and how NAT is applied. When a computer sends traffic through a XTM device interface and the traffic flow matches a NAT rule, the device changes the IP address to an assigned value before the traffic reaches its destination. When the XTM device sees the response, it restores the original IP address to send the response to the computer that made the request. In general, these rules can help you understand the different types of NAT: Dynamic NAT is used for traffic that goes out to the Internet from behind the XTM device. Static NAT is used for traffic that comes in to your network from the Internet. 1-to-1 NAT is used for traffic in both directions

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Dynamic NAT
Dynamic NAT is also known as IP masquerading.

When dynamic NAT is enabled, your XTM device changes the source IP address of each outgoing connection to match the IP address of the device interface that the connection goes out through. For traffic that goes to an external network, packets go out through the device external interface, so dynamic NAT changes the source IP address to the device external interface IP address. The XTM device tracks the private source IP address and destination address, as well as other IP header information such as source and destination ports, and protocol.

Dynamic NAT is normally applied to connections that start from behind the device. When dynamic NAT is applied to a packet, Fireware XTM tries to always keep the same source port that the requesting client used. The source port is changed only if necessary. For example, if two internal clients use the same source port to access the same web server. However, the source IP address is always changed when dynamic NAT is applied. When the response returns to the same device interface from which the original connection exited, the firewall examines its connection state table and finds the original source IP address. It reverses the NAT process to send the packet to the correct host. With Fireware XTM, dynamic NAT is enabled by default in the NAT Setup dialog box. By default, dynamic NAT is applied to any connection that starts from one of the three reserved private address ranges and goes to an external network. To see the default dynamic NAT rules in Policy Manager, select Network > NAT.

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NAT Overview

Dynamic NAT is also enabled by default in each policy you create. You can override the global dynamic NAT settings in your individual policies.

About Dynamic NAT Source IP Addresses


In the default dynamic NAT configuration, the XTM device changes the source IP address for traffic that goes out an external interface to the primary IP address of the external interface the traffic leaves. You can optionally configure dynamic NAT to use a different source IP address. You can set the dynamic NAT source IP address in a network NAT rule or in the NAT settings for a policy. When you select a source IP address, dynamic NAT uses the specified source IP address for any traffic that matches the dynamic NAT rule or policy. Set the Dynamic NAT Source IP Address in a Network Dynamic NAT rule If you want to set the source IP address for traffic that matches a dynamic NAT rule, regardless of any policies that apply to the traffic, select Network > NAT, and add a network dynamic NAT rule that specifies the source IP address. The source IP address you specify must be on the same subnet as the primary or secondary IP address of the interface the traffic leaves. Set the Dynamic NAT Source IP Address in a Policy If you want to set the source IP address for traffic handled by a specific policy, configure the source IP address in the network settings of the policy. The source IP address you specify must be on the same subnet as the primary or secondary IP address of the interface you specified for outgoing traffic in the policy. Whether you specify the source IP address in a network dynamic NAT rule or in a policy, it is important that the source IP address is on the same subnet as the primary or secondary IP address of the interface from which the traffic is sent. It is also important to make sure that the traffic the rule applies to goes out through only one interface.

1-to-1 NAT
When you enable 1-to-1 NAT, the XTM device changes and routes all incoming and outgoing packets sent from one range of addresses to a different range of addresses. Consider a situation in which you have a group of internal servers with private IP addresses that must each show a different public IP address to the outside world. You can use 1-to-1 NAT to map public IP addresses to the internal servers, and you do not need to change the IP addresses of your internal servers. To understand how to configure 1-to-1 NAT, we give this example: Successful Company has a group of three privately addressed servers behind the Optional interface of their XTM device. These addresses are: 10.0.2.11 10.0.2.12 10.0.2.13 The Successful Company administrator selects three public IP addresses from the same network address as the external interface of their device, and creates DNS records for the servers to resolve to. These addresses are: 203.0.113.11 203.0.113.12 203.0.113.13

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Now the Successful Company administrator configures a 1-to-1 NAT rule for his servers. The 1-to-1 NAT rule builds a static, bidirectional relationship between the corresponding pairs of IP addresses. The relationship looks like this: 10.0.2.11 <--> 203.0.113.11 10.0.2.12 <--> 203.0.113.12 10.0.2.13 <--> 203.0.113.13 When the 1-to-1 NAT rule is applied, the device creates the bidirectional routing and NAT relationship between the pool of private IP addresses and the pool of public addresses.

To connect to a computer located on a different device interface that uses 1-to-1 NAT, you must use the private (NAT base) IP address for that computer. If you have problems with this method, you can disable 1-to-1 NAT and use Static NAT.

Define a 1-to-1 NAT rule


In each 1-to-1 NAT rule, you can configure a host, a range of hosts, or a subnet. A 1-to-1 NAT rule always has precedence over dynamic NAT. In each rule, you specify: Interface The name of the device Ethernet interface on which 1-to-1 NAT is applied. The device will apply 1-to-1 NAT for packets sent in to, and out of, the interface. In our example above, the rule is applied to the external interface. Real base The IP address assigned to the physical Ethernet interface of the computer to which you will apply the 1-to-1 NAT policy. When packets from a computer with a real base address go through the interface specified, the 1-to-1 action is applied. In our example above, the real base is 10.0.2.11. NAT base The IP address that the real base IP address changes to when 1-to-1 NAT is applied. In our example above, the NAT base is 203.0.113.11. Number of hosts to NAT (for ranges only) The number of IP addresses in a range to which the 1-to-1 NAT rule applies. The first real base IP address is translated to the first NAT base IP address when 1-to-1 NAT is applied. The second real base IP address in the range is translated to the second NAT base IP address when 1-to-1 NAT is applied. This is repeated until the Number of hosts to NAT is reached. In our example above, the number of hosts to apply NAT to is three.

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Policy-based NAT
With policy-based dynamic NAT, you can make an exception to the global NAT rules (the rules at Network > NAT in Policy Manager). Normally, the XTM device uses the primary IP address of the Outgoing interface when it applies dynamic NAT to outgoing packets handled by a policy. Each policy has dynamic NAT enabled by default. You can disable dynamic NAT for all traffic handled by a policy, or you can configure the device to use a different IP address for dynamic NAT handled by the policy. To see the NAT settings for any policy:
Both dynamic NAT and 1-to-1 NAT can also be controlled at the policy level. If traffic matches both 1-to-1 NAT and dynamic NAT policies, the 1-to-1 NAT policy takes precedence.

1. Double-click a policy. 2. Select the Advanced tab.


With these policy-based NAT settings, the global rules can be changed for traffic handled by an individual policy. To change the dynamic NAT configuration in a policy:

1. Double-click a policy. 2. Select the Advanced tab. 3. Select the Dynamic NAT check box. 4. If you want to use the global dynamic NAT rules set for the device, select Use Network NAT Settings. 5. If you want to apply dynamic NAT to all traffic handled by this policy, select All traffic in this policy.
This setting applies even if the source and destination IP addresses of the traffic flow do not match the source and destination ranges for any rule on the Dynamic NAT tab in Policy Manager (Network > NATthe global dynamic NAT rules).

6. If you select All traffic in this policy, you can also select the Set source IP check box to set a different source IP address for traffic handled by this policy when dynamic NAT is applied.
This makes sure that any traffic handled by this policy shows a specified address from your public or external IP address range as the source. A common reason to do this is to force outgoing SMTP traffic to show the MX record address for your domain when the IP address on the external interface for the device is not the same as your MX record IP address.

Policy-based 1-to-1 NAT


With this type of NAT, the XTM device uses the private and public IP address ranges that you set when you configured Global 1-to-1 NAT, but you can enable or disable the rules for each individual policy. 1-to-1 NAT is enabled in the default configuration of each policy. If traffic matches both 1-to-1 NAT and dynamic NAT policies, the 1-to-1 NAT policy takes precedence.

If you have more than one external interface configured on your device, we recommend that you do not select Set source IP. If you select this option, you must add the specified IP address as a secondary IP address to the interface that the traffic goes out through.

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Static NAT
Static NAT is also known as port forwarding.

Static NAT allows inbound connections on specific ports to one or more public servers from a single external IP address. The XTM device changes the destination IP address of the packets and forwards them based on the original destination port number. You can also translate the original destination port to an alternative port on which the server is listening. Static NAT is typically used for public services such as web sites and email. For example, you can use Static NAT to designate a specific internal server to receive all email. Then, when someone sends email to the XTM devices external IP address, the device can forward the connection to the private IP address of the designated email (SMTP) server.

About SNAT Actions


When you configure static NAT, the static NAT configuration is saved in an SNAT action. You can create or edit an SNAT action when you create or edit a policy. Or you can select Setup > Actions > SNAT to add, edit or delete SNAT actions. After you have created an SNAT action, you can use the same action in one or more policies. To use static NAT, you add a static NAT action to the To section of the policy that handles each type of inbound traffic. To implement static NAT for the diagram above, you would add a different static NAT action to the FTP, SMTP, and HTTP policies that handle the inbound traffic to each of the three servers.

NAT Loopback
NAT loopback allows a user on the Trusted or Optional networks to use the public IP address or domain name to get access to a public server that is on the same physical device interface. For example, you could use NAT loopback if you have an internal Web server and you want to allow users on the same network segment to access the Web server by its public domain name or IP address. There are no configuration settings in the user interface to enable NAT loopback, however, you must create a policy in your configuration to allow the traffic. The From section of the policy must list the Trusted or Optional networks from which access is allowed. The To section of the policy must contain a static NAT entry for each server to allow access with NAT loopback.

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NAT Overview

Exercise 1:

Add Firewall Dynamic NAT Entries

The default configuration of dynamic NAT enables dynamic NAT for traffic that comes from any private IP address and goes to any external network. The default entries are: 192.168.0.0/16 Any-External 172.16.0.0/12 Any-External 10.0.0.0/8 Any-External These three network addresses are the private networks reserved by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and are typically used for the IP addresses on private LANs. To enable dynamic NAT for other traffic flows, you must add an entry for them. For example, you could add a dynamic NAT rule for traffic that comes from a trusted network and goes to an optional network. In that case, all traffic sent from the trusted network and going to the optional network would appear to come from the Optional interface IP address, because the Optional interface is the outgoing interface for that traffic. The XTM device applies the dynamic NAT rules in the sequence that they appear in the Dynamic NAT Entries list. In this exercise, we use Policy Manager to configure the Successful Company XTM device to use dynamic NAT for traffic coming from only their trusted network and going to any external network.

1. Select Network > NAT.


The NAT Setup dialog box appears.

2. On the Dynamic NAT tab, select the 10.0.0.0/8 - Any-External dynamic NAT rule. 3. Click Remove.
A warning message appears.

4. Click Yes. 5. Click Add.


The Add Dynamic NAT dialog box appears.

6. In the From text box, type 10.0.1.0/24.


The From field defines the source of the IP packets. In this exercise, the 10.0.1.0/24 network is the Successful Company trusted network on interface #1. We have reduced the range of addresses from the larger 10.0.0.0/8 to only those addresses that are actually in the Successful Company network.

7. From the To drop-down list, select Any-External.


This sets the XTM device to dynamically NAT all traffic coming from the trusted network and going to any external network.

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8. Click OK.
The new entry appears in the Dynamic NAT list.

9. Click OK.

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Exercise 2:

Configure Static NAT to Allow Access to Public Servers

In this exercise, you use Policy Manager to configure the Successful Company XTM device to use Static NAT for their SMTP server.

1. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policy. 2. Expand the Proxies list and select SMTP-proxy. Click Add.
The New Policy Properties dialog box appears.

3. In the To section, click Add.


The Add Address dialog box appears.

4. Click Add SNAT.


The SNAT dialog box appears.

5. Click Add.
The Add SNAT dialog box appears.

In this example, we create the SNAT action from within the policy. We could also have created the SNAT action before we created the policy. To create or edit SNAT actions from outside the policy, select Setup > Actions > SNAT. After you configure an SNAT action, you can select the SNAT action from the Add SNAT page in the policy.

6. In the SNAT Name text box, you can edit the name for this SNAT action.
For example, change the name to SMTP-SNAT.

7. Click Add.
The Add Static NAT dialog box appears.

8. Make sure the External IP Address text box includes the external interface IP address of your device. 9. In the Internal IP Address field, type 10.0.2.25.
This is the private IP address of the SMTP server located on the optional network.

To change the packet destination to a specified internal host and to a different port, select the Set internal port to a different port check box.

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10. Click OK to close the Add Static NAT dialog box.


The static NAT mapping is added to the SNAT Members list for this SNAT action.

11. Click OK to close the Add SNAT dialog box. 12. Click OK to close the SNAT dialog box.
The selected SNAT action is added to the Selected Members and Addresses list.

13. Click OK to close the Add Address menu.


If you have set Policy Manager to use Manual-order mode, toggle the precedence back to Auto-order mode. Select View > Auto-Order Mode and click Yes.

14. Click OK to close the New Policy Properties dialog box. 15. Click Close in the Add Policies dialog box.
The SMTP-proxy policy appears in the policy list. The Internal IP address you selected appears in the range in the To column.

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NAT Overview

Exercise 3:

Configure NAT Loopback to an Internal Web Server

In this exercise, you use Policy Manager to configure an XTM device policy to allow users on the trusted network to get access to a web server on the trusted network by its public domain name or public IP address. You can create a separate policy for NAT loopback, or you can edit the policy that enables static NAT to the web server to allow NAT loopback.

1. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policy. 2. Expand the Proxies list and select HTTP-proxy. Click Add.
The New Policy Properties dialog box appears.

3. In the To list, select Any-External. Click Remove. 4. In the To section, click Add.
The Add Address dialog box appears.

5. Click Add SNAT.


The SNAT dialog box appears.

6. Click Add.
The Add SNAT dialog box appears.

7. In the SNAT Name text box, you can edit the name for this SNAT action.
For example, change the name to NAT-Loopback.

8. Click Add.
The Add Static NAT dialog box appears.

9. Make sure the External IP Address text box includes the External interface IP address of your Firebox or XTM device. 10. In the Internal IP Address text box, type 10.0.2.30.
This is the private IP address of the HTTP server located on the optional network.

11. Click OK to close the Add Static NAT dialog box.


The static NAT mapping is added to the SNAT Members list for this SNAT action.

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12. Click OK to close the Add SNAT dialog box.


The new SNAT action is automatically selected in the list of configured SNAT actions.

13. Click OK to close the SNAT dialog box.


The selected SNAT action is added to the Selected Members and Addresses list.

14. Click OK to close the Add Address dialog box. 15. Click OK to close the New Policy Properties dialog box. 16. Click Close in the Add Policies dialog box.
The HTTP-proxy policy appears in the policy list. The Internal IP address you selected appears in the range in the To column.

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Other Reasons to Use NAT


When you create a branch office VPN tunnel between two networks that use the same private IP address range, an IP address conflict occurs. To prevent this, both networks must apply 1-to-1 NAT to the VPN. This makes the IP addresses on your computers appear to be different from their true IP addresses when traffic goes through the VPN. You would also use 1-to-1 NAT through a VPN if the network to which you want to make a VPN already has a VPN to a network that uses the same private IP addresses you use.

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Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. Fill in the blank: __________________ NAT conserves IP addresses and hides the internal topology of your network. 2. Fill in the blank: __________________ NAT is often used for policies that require more than one port or port numbers that change dynamically, such as for many messaging and video conferencing applications. 3. Fill in the blank: NAT ___________________ allows a user on the trusted or optional networks to get access to a public server that is on the same physical XTM device interface by its public IP address or domain name. 4. Complete the missing entries: The default dynamic NAT entries in Policy Manager are:
___________/____ 172.16.0.0/12 ___________/____ Any-External ___________ Any-External

5. Static NAT for a policy is also known as (select all that apply):
A) B) C) D) E) IP masquerading Port forwarding Tunnel swapping Quality of Service All the above

6. True or false? Dynamic NAT rewrites the source IP address of packets to use the IP addresses of the outgoing interface.

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6. True 5. B 4. 192.168.0.0/16 Any-External 172.16.0.0/12 Any-External 10.0.0.0/8 Any-External 3. Loopback 2. 1-to-1 1. Dynamic ANSWERS

Fireware XTM Basics

Policies
Convert Network Policy to Device Configuration
What You Will Learn
Your XTM device controls traffic to and from your trusted, optional, and external networks. You use a set of rules called policies to define which traffic should be allowed or denied passage through your network. In this training module, you learn how to: Understand the difference between a packet filter policy and a proxy policy Add a policy to Policy Manager and configure its access rules Create a custom packet filter Set up logging and notification rules for a policy Use advanced policy properties Understand how the XTM device determines precedence

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module.

Policies are Rules for Your Network Traffic


When you add a policy to Policy Manager, you tell the XTM device what types of traffic to allow or deny. You can set a policy to allow or deny traffic based on criteria such as the source and destination of the packet, the TCP/IP port or protocol used to transmit the packet, or the time of day. You can use the same policy to give the XTM device more instructions on how to handle the packet. For example, you can define logging and notification parameters for the policy, or use network address translation (NAT). There are two types of policies: Packet Filter Policy A packet filter examines the IP header of each packet to control the network traffic into and out of your network. It is the most basic feature of a firewall. If the IP header information is valid, then the XTM device allows the packet. If the packet header information is not valid, the device drops the packet. Proxy Policy A proxy monitors and scans the entire connection, from the protocol commands to the data inside the packet. It examines the commands used in the connection to make sure they are in the correct syntax and order. It also examines the contents of each packet to make sure that connections are secure. A proxy operates at the application layer, as well as the network and transport layers of a TCP/IP packet, while a packet filter operates only at the network and transport protocol layers. Packet filters are an easy way to allow or deny large amounts of traffic. Proxies can prevent potential threats from reaching your network without blocking the entire connection. The device includes default sets of rules, called proxy actions, for each type of proxy policy. You can use the default settings for each type of proxy action, or you can customize them.
In this course, we refer to packet filters and proxies together as policies. Unless otherwise indicated, the procedures refer to both types of policies.

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Add Policies
Policy Manager uses either a list view or an icon view to show the policies that you configure for your XTM device. For each policy, you can: Enable the policy Set the allowed sources and destinations for traffic managed by the policy Configure properties such as logging, notification, and advanced properties (described below) Apply policy tags to policies and use the policy tags to sort and filter the policy list

The XTM device includes a default list of predefined packet filter and proxy policies for you to use. You can add one of these predefined policies and then change the settings to meet the needs of your organization, or just use the default settings. Based upon the access rules you configure, connections can be allowed, denied, or denied with a reset connection. To enable access through the device for an Internet protocol that is not included in the list of predefined policies, you must create a custom policy template. A custom policy can match traffic from one or more TCP or UDP ports, or other IP protocols such as GRE, AH, ESP, ICMP, IGMP, and OSPF. A custom policy cannot match traffic from other protocol types, such as AppleTalk, ATM, Frame Relay, or IPX.

Configure Logging and Notification for a Policy


You can set custom logging and notification rules for each policy. These rules tell the XTM device the events for which it needs to create log messages or trigger a notification. Notifications can occur through email, a pop-up window on your management computer, or with a Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) trap. An SNMP trap is a notification event issued by a managed device to the network SNMP manager when a significant event occurs.

Advanced Policy Properties


You can also use several advanced property settings for each of your policies: Proxy Actions Each time you add a proxy policy to Policy Manager, you select a set of rules used to protect either clients or servers on your network. You can use the default proxy action settings, or you can modify them to meet the needs of your organization. Schedules You can set policies to only be active at the times of the day that you specify. You can also create schedule templates so that you can use the same schedule for more than one policy. Traffic Management A Traffic Management action can guarantee that a particular policy always has a certain amount of bandwidth through the XTM device, or it can limit the amount of bandwidth that the policy can use. Quality of Service (QoS) Marking QoS marking allows you to mark network traffic with bits that identify it to other devices that understand QoS. The XTM device and other QoS-capable devices can assign higher or lower priorities to each type of traffic with QoS marking. Network Address Translation (NAT) You can enable or selectively disable 1-to-1 and dynamic NAT in any policy. You can also configure incoming NAT properties to allow Internet connections to privately addressed servers protected by the XTM device. ICMP Error Handling You can customize the method the XTM device uses to handle ICMP errors for each policy.

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Custom Idle Timeout Use this feature to set the amount of time the XTM device waits before it drops a connection. Sticky Connections A sticky connection is a connection that continues to use the same interface for a defined period of time when your XTM device is configured with multiple WAN interfaces. Stickiness makes sure that, if a packet goes out through one external interface, any future packets between the source and destination address pair use the same external interface for a specified period of time. Policy-based Routing If your XTM device is configured with multi-WAN, you can configure a policy with a specific external interface to use for all outbound traffic that matches that policy.

Policy Precedence
Precedence refers to the order in which the XTM device examines network traffic and applies a policy rule. The XTM device sorts policies automatically, from the most specific to the most general. For example, a highly specific policy could be a policy that matches only traffic on TCP port 25 from one IP address, while a general policy could be one that matched all traffic on UDP ports 40,000-50,000. You can also set the precedence of each policy manually. For more information on policy precedence, including complete rules for specificity, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide. The XTM device uses the rules from the first policy that matches the traffic for routing. If no match is found, the traffic is denied as an unhandled packet.

Policy Tags and Filters


A policy tag is a label you can apply to your policies to help you organize them into easy to manage groups. You can apply more than one policy tag to a policy and apply any policy tag to many policies. A policy filter uses the policy tags you have applied to your policies to specify which policies appear in the policy lists on the Firewall and Mobile VPN with IPSec pages. When you create a policy tag or filter, you must use some combination of these characters in the policy tag or filter name: Uppercase and lowercase letters Numerals Special characters: -, space, _, +, /, *

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Exercise 1:

Add a Packet Filter Policy and Configure Access Rules

Successful Companys network administrator was told to stop employees from using Internet Relay Chat (IRC) at the office. The management team decided that IRC is too distracting for employees and a potential security risk. The administrator also wants to activate a Windows Terminal Services connection to the Successful Company public web server on the optional interface of the XTM device. He routinely administers the web server with a Remote Desktop connection. At the same time, he wants to make sure that no other network users can use the Remote Desktop Protocol through the XTM device. In this exercise, you open a basic XTM device configuration file in Policy Manager. You add two predefined policies to the configuration and configure the access rules for each policy.

Add a Predefined Policy


First, add policies to the XTM device to control IRC and RDP traffic.

1. Open the configuration file you are editing for these exercises. 2. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policy.
The Add Policies dialog box appears. From here, you can add a predefined packet filter policy, a proxy policy, or a custom policy you have created. You can also create a new policy template.

3. Expand the Packet Filter list. Select IRC.

Policy icon that appears in Policy Manager

List of ports and protocols controlled by the policy Description of how the policy is used and for what services

4. Click Add.
The New Policy Properties dialog box appears.

5. Click OK.
This adds a basic IRC policy to your configuration. If you do not change this policy, it allows all IRC traffic from any trusted computer to any external computer.
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6. In the packet filter list, select RDP. Click Add. Click OK.
This adds a basic RDP policy to your configuration. If you do not change this policy, it allows all RDP traffic from any trusted computer to any external computer.

7. Click Close to close the Add Policies dialog box.


The IRC and RDP policies appear in Policy Manager.

Modify Policies to Restrict Traffic


By default, a new policy allows traffic from any trusted interface to any external interface. To block all IRC traffic originating from computers on the Successful Companys trusted and optional networks, we must modify the IRC policy.

1. Double-click the IRC policy.


The Edit Policy Properties dialog box appears.

2. Select the Policy tab. 3. In the IRC connections are drop-down list, select Denied.
The policy now denies traffic from any computer that connects through the trusted XTM device interface to any external computer. To further restrict IRC traffic, you must also deny IRC from any computer on optional device interfaces.

4. In the From section, click Add.


The Add Address dialog box appears.

5. In the Available Members list, select Any-Optional. Click Add.


Any-Optional appears in the Selected Members and Addresses list.

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6. Click OK.
Any-Optional appears in the New Policy Properties dialog box in the From list. The rule now denies IRC traffic from all computers behind the device to any external computer. Traffic that comes from the external interface is always denied by default unless you create a rule to allow it.

7. Click OK to close the Edit Policy Properties dialog box.


The policy is now marked with a red X in List View or a red top banner in Large Icon View. This indicates a Deny policy.

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Use a Policy to Allow Traffic


We also want to allow RDP traffic to the Successful Company web server on the optional network. However, we want only our network administrator to be able to connect, so we will restrict this policy to allow only the static IP address of his home office computer.

1. Double-click the RDP policy.


The Edit Policy Properties dialog box appears.

2. In the From list, select Any-Trusted. Click Remove.


The policy originally allowed all RDP traffic from any computer on trusted networks to any computer on an external network.

3. In the From section, click Add.


The Add Address dialog box appears.

4. Click Add Other.


The Add Member dialog box appears.

5. In the Value text box, type 50.51.200.22 as the IP address of the network administrators computer. Click OK.
The IP address appears in the Add Address dialog box Selected Members and Addresses list.

6. Click OK to close the Add Address dialog box.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears with the IP address appears in the From list.

7. In the To section, select Any-External. Click Remove. 8. In the To section, click Add.
The Add Address dialog box appears.

9. Click Add Other.


The Add Member dialog box appears.

10. In the Value text box, type 10.0.2.80.


This is the IP address of the Successful Company public web server on the PublicServers (Interface 3) optional network.

11. Click OK.


The rule appears in the Add Address dialog box Selected Member and Address list. This allows RDP connections from the IP address of the network administrators desktop computer to the IP address of the public web server.

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12. Click OK.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears with the IP address in the To list. If the Outgoing policy is not present in this configuration, there is no default rule to allow general outgoing TCP connections. All other RDP traffic will be denied.

13. Click OK to close the Edit Policy Properties dialog box.

Exercise 2:

Create a Custom Packet Filter Template

Successful Companys network administrator frequently troubleshoots their public servers from the network server room. These public servers are all connected to the optional interface of the XTM device. The network administrator would like to be able to use VNC to view the files on his trusted desktop computer. To do this, he must create a custom VNC policy and allow access from any computer on the optional network to his desktop computer on the trusted network (10.0.1.201). To create a custom policy, we must know that VNC uses TCP port 5900. To find out which ports are used by different network services, refer to the documentation that accompanies each software product. In this exercise, you learn how to create a custom packet filter to solve a problem in the Successful Company network.

Make a New Policy Template


1. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policy.
The Add Policies dialog box appears.

2. Click New to create a new policy template.


The New Policy Template dialog box appears.

3. In the Name text box, type VNC. 4. In the Description text box, type Virtual Network Computing. 5. For the Type option, make sure that Packet Filter is selected. 6. To define a protocol and ports for the new policy template, click Add.
The Add Protocol dialog box appears.

7. From the Type drop-down list, select Single Port. 8. From the Protocol drop-down list, select TCP. 9. In the Server Port text box, type 5900.

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10. Click OK to close the Add Protocol dialog box.


The TCP 5900 protocol appears in the list of Protocols controlled by this policy.
It is possible to create a new policy template for a service that uses a port range. After you specify the Type as Port Range instead of Single Port, the options to define a port range are available.

11. Click OK to close the New Policy Template dialog box.


The VNC Policy appears in the Custom list in the Add Policies dialog box.

Add and Configure the Custom Policy


Now that you have a custom policy template that controls VNC traffic, you can add it to the device configuration.

1. In the Add Policies dialog box, expand the Custom folder. 2. Select VNC. Click Add.
The New Policy Properties dialog box appears with the VNC packet filter.

3. In the From list, select Any-Trusted. Click Remove. 4. In the From section, click Add.
The Add Address dialog box appears.

5. Double-click Any-Optional.
Any-Optional appears in the Selected Members and Addresses list.

6. Click OK to close the Add Address dialog box.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears with Any-Optional in the From list. This enables the device to allow VNC traffic from any computer on an optional network.

7. In the To list, select Any-External. Click Remove. 8. In the To section, click Add.
The Add Address dialog box appears.

9. Click Add Other.


The Add Member dialog box appears.

10. From the Choose Type drop-down list, make sure that Host IP is selected. 11. In the Value text box, type 10.0.1.201.
This address restricts VNC traffic to only the desktop computer of the network administrator.

12. Click OK to close the Add Member dialog box.


The IP address 10.0.1.201 appears in the Selected Members and Addresses list.

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13. Click OK to close the Add Address dialog box.


The IP address appears in the To list.

14. Click OK to close the New Policy Properties dialog box. 15. Click Close to close the Add Policies dialog box.
The VNC policy appears in the list of configured policies.

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Exercise 3:

Configure Logging and Notification for a Policy

In this exercise, you make sure the XTM device creates a log message for any IRC connection denied by the IRC policy we created earlier in the lesson.

1. Double-click the IRC policy.


The Edit Policy Properties dialog box appears.

2. Select the Properties tab. 3. Click Logging.


The Logging and Notification dialog box appears.

4. Select the Send log message check box. 5. Select the Send Notification check box and keep the default Email selection.
The XTM device will now send a log message to the WatchGuard Log Server each time an IRC packet is denied. The device also sends a message to the Log Server that tells it to send an email notification to the specified email address. For more information, see the Logging and Reporting training module.

6. Click OK to close the Logging and Notification dialog box. 7. Click OK to close the Edit Policy Properties dialog box. 8. Save the configuration file to your local hard drive as Policies-Configured.xml.

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Exercise 4:

Change Policy Precedence

When you define a new policy and configure the policy parameters, it is automatically sorted and placed in the proper order within Policy Manager. To illustrate the policy auto-ordering process, add the NetMeeting packet filter with the default properties and watch for the position in which it is placed. To set Policy Manager to the Details view:

1. Select View > Details.


In this view, policies appear in the order the device will use to process traffic.

2. Click

The Add Policies dialog box appears.

3. Expand the Packet Filters folder and double-click NetMeeting.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears.

4. Do not modify the policy. 5. Click OK. Click Close.


The device automatically places the NetMeeting policy in the correct position according to its ordering criteria.

Override the Default Order of Policy Precedence


You can override the order in which the XTM device automatically puts policies. To change the order of policies you switch to manual-order mode and select the policy whose order you want to change and drag it to its new location. In this exercise, we move the NetMeeting policy so it has the lowest precedence.
The Auto-order Mode feature can be enabled or disabled. When the menu item has an adjacent check mark, Policy Manager sets the precedence. When the check mark is missing, Policy Manager uses manual-order mode.

1. Select View > Auto-order Mode. 2. Click Yes to confirm that you want to switch from auto-order mode to manual-order mode.
The policy order numbers now have a gray background to indicate that you can move them.

3. Drag-and-drop the NetMeeting policy to the bottom of the list.

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Exercise 5:

Use Advanced Policy Properties

After a few weeks of blocking all outgoing IRC traffic, the Successful Company managers notice that many of their engineering team are leaving at 5:00pm. A little research into the problem returns the surprising result that the engineers are perfectly willing to work late as long as they can chat on IRC with their friends outside the company. Productivity will increase if we schedule the IRC policy to let them chat in the evenings.

1. Double-click the IRC policy.


The Edit Policy Properties dialog box appears.

2. Select the Advanced tab.

3. Adjacent to the Schedule drop-down list, click


The Clone Schedule dialog box appears.

4. In the Name text box, type Evenings. 5. In the Description text box, type Disable the policy in the evenings.
You can use this schedule for other policies so you should describe it with the hours blocked or allowed rather than the policy for which you are building it.

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6. In the schedule grid, change the hours from 5:00 to 10:00 PM, Monday through Friday, to Non-operational hour.

7. Click OK to save the schedule and apply it to the IRC policy. 8. Click OK to close the Edit Policy Properties dialog box. 9. Save the configuration file as Policies-Done.
You can compare your results with the Policies-Finish file included with the training.

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Exercise 6:

Use Policy Tags and Filters to Group and Sort Policies

The Successful Company administrator has added two sets of FTP, RDP, and IRC policies to his configuration file: one for remote office users and one for corporate office users. He wants to easily separate the two sets of policies into groups so that he can see all the policies in the two sets at one time. To do this, he creates two policy tags, Remote and Corp, and applies them to all the policies configured for each group. He then creates and applies a filter to the policy list so that only the policies with those two policy tags appear in the list.

Create and Apply a Policy Tag


To create the policy tags and apply them to policies:

1. On the Firewall page, select all of the policies in the policy list for the remote office. 2. Right-click the selected policies and select Policy Tags > Add to policy > New. Or, select View > Policy Tags > Add to policy > New.
The New Policy Tag dialog box appears.

3. In the Name text box, type a descriptive name for the tag for the remote policies. For this exercise, type Remote. 4. To specify a color for this policy tag, click Color and select a color from the palette. For this exercise, select blue. 5. Click OK.
The Remote tag is applied to the policies you selected and appears in blue text in the Tags column for those policies. The tag also appears in the Tag List in the Manage Policy Tags dialog box.

6. Select all of the policies in the policy list for the corporate office. 7. Right-click the selected policies and select Policy Tags > Add to policy > New.
The New Policy Tag dialog box appears.

8. In the Name text box, type Corp. Click Color and select a red from the palette. 9. Click OK.
The Corp tag is applied to the policies you selected and appears in red text in the Tags column for those policies.

The policy tags you create are automatically added to the Tag List so you can apply them to any new policies you add to your configuration file in future.

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After the Remote and Corp policy tags are applied to the policies, the Successful Company administrator can sort the policy list by the Tags column. If a policy has more than one tag applied to it, the policy is grouped alphabetically by the applied policy tags. To sort the policy list and organize it alphabetically by policy tags, click the Tags column header.
The policy list is rearranged so all policies with the same tag applied are grouped together.

Filter the Policy List


Because his device configuration file includes a large number of policies, the Successful Company administrator wants to filter the view of the policy list so only policies with the Remote and Corp policy tags applied to them appear in the list. When he applies a filter, the administrator can select whether or not policies must include all of the specified policy tags to appear in the filtered policy list. To filter the policy list:

1. In the Tags column, click


The filter options list appears.

2. From the filter options list, select a filter option: - Match All Only policies that include all the specified policy tags appear in the filtered policy list. This is the default option. - Match Any Any policy that includes any of the specified policy tags appear in the filtered policy list. For this exercise, because we want to see policies that have either the Corp or the Remote policy tag applied, select Match Any. 3. From the filter options list, select the policy tags to include in the filter. For this exercise, select Remote and Corp.
The selected filter is applied to the list.

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4. Click anywhere on the policy list to save your selection and apply the filter to the policy list.
The policy list is updated to show only the policies that have either the Remote or Corp filter applied.

To save a filter:

1. From the Filter drop-down list, select Custom. 2. Click


.
The Save Filter dialog box appears.

3. In the Name text box, type a descriptive name for the filter. For this exercise, type Remote and Corp. 4. Click OK.
The filter name appears in the Filter drop-down list and the Manage Filters list.

Now that the filter is saved, the Successful Company administrator can apply the filter at any time to see only the policies with the Corp or Remote policy tags applied. To clear all filters from the policy list: From the Filter drop-down list, select None.
All filters are removed from the policy list.

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Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. Choose the appropriate policy type(s) for each task. (Select all that apply.) Packet Filter
Examine the header information Strip an attachment Examine the application layer content Check for RFC compliance Block based on server command type Check the source against a list of blocked sites Verify that the destination is a valid location on the trusted Send a log message if the packet is malformed Generate a report on network traffic

Proxy

2. True or false? You can use the same operating schedule for multiple policies. 3. Which of the following protocols can be used in a custom policy? (Select all that apply.)
A) B) C) D) E) TCP Frame Relay ATM UDP ICMP

4. True or false? Policies are ordered primarily by name. 5. True or false? You cannot use SNMP for policy event notifications. 6. True or false? You can only apply a policy tag to a single policy. 7. True or false? You cannot save a filter to apply it again later. 8. True or false? If you select Match All when you apply a filter, all policies that have any of the policy tags you include in the filter will appear in the filtered policy list.

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ANSWERS 1. Filter Examine the header information Strip an attachment Examine the application layer content Check for RFC compliance Block based on server command type Check the source against a list of blocked sites Verify that the destination is a real location on the trusted Send a log message if the packet is malformed Generate a report on network traffic 2. True 3. A, D, and E 4. False 5. False 6. False 7. False 8. False. If you select Match All, only policies that have all of the policy tags you specify in the filter will appear in the filtered policy list. Proxy

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Fireware XTM Basics

Proxy Policies
Use Proxy Policies and ALGs to Protect Your Network
What You Will Learn
You can use proxy policies to protect servers and clients from threats. With a proxy policy, the XTM device examines the contents of each packet to determine whether the network traffic is safe. In this training module, you learn how to: Understand the purpose of each proxy policy or ALG (Application Layer Gateway) Configure the DNS proxy to protect your DNS server Prevent users from putting files on an external FTP server Configure access control for VoIP calls

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module.

Proxy Policies and ALGs


A proxy policy is similar to a packet filter policy, except that it contains a set of additional rules called a proxy action to examine traffic. Application Layer Gateways (ALGs) are very similar to proxy policies, but also contain features that allow the XTM device to automatically manage some of the network connections necessary for Voice-over-IP (VoIP) sessions to operate correctly. There are nine proxy policies and ALGs that you can use: DNS, FTP, H.323, HTTP, HTTPS, POP3, SIP, SMTP, and TCP-UDP. Most proxy policies or ALGs have both a client and a server proxy action with different options. The exceptions are the DNS proxy, which has incoming and outgoing proxy actions, and the H.323-ALG and SIP-ALG, which only have client proxy actions. When you configure a new proxy policy, select the Client or Outgoing proxy action to protect users on your network, and the Server or Incoming proxy action to protect servers on your network. In this module, we discuss the DNS, FTP, H.323, SIP, and TCP-UDP proxy policies and ALGs. The HTTP, HTTPS, POP3, and SMTP proxy policies are discussed in other training modules.

About the DNS Proxy


The Domain Name System (DNS) is a network system of servers that translates numeric IP addresses into readable, hierarchical Internet addresses, and vice versa. This is what allows your computer network to understand that you want to reach the server at 200.253.208.100 or type the www.watchguard.com domain name into your browser. It is important to understand that the DNS proxy settings are useful only if the DNS request is routed through the XTM device. For example, if your network clients use a static IP address to connect directly to a DNS server on your network, the DNS proxy settings have no effect.

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The DNS proxy includes six categories: General The General category includes the basic DNS protocol anomaly detection rules to deny malformed and non-standard DNS queries. We recommend that you do not change the default settings for these rules. OpCodes OPcodes (operational codes) are commands sent to a DNS server, such as query, update, or status requests. They operate on items such as registers, values in memory, values stored on the stack, I/O ports, and the bus. If you use Active Directory and your Active Directory configuration requires dynamic updates, you must allow DNS OPcodes in your DNS-Incoming proxy action rules. This is a security risk, but can be necessary for Active Directory to operate correctly. You use the OpCodes ruleset to allow or deny specific DNS OPcodes. Query Types Use the Query Types category to allow or deny DNS connections based on the type of DNS query sent in the connection. Query Names The Query Names category can be used to allow or deny DNS connections based on the fully qualified domain name sent in the connection. Proxy Alarm The Proxy Alarm category lets you define the type of alarm that is sent any time a notification is triggered by a DNS proxy action.

About the FTP Proxy


The FTP protocol is used to transfer files from clients to servers. Because the FTP protocol does not use encryption, we recommend that you configure the FTP proxy to protect FTP servers on your network, or secure the use of external FTP servers by users on your network. Each FTP session uses a control channel to transmit commands and responses, and one or more optional data channels to send and receive files. The FTP proxy includes six categories: General These rules control basic FTP parameters such as maximum user name, password, file name, and command line length. You can also configure the maximum number of times that a user can attempt to authenticate, and automatically block connections that exceed these limits. Commands You can configure rules to put limits on some FTP commands. Use the FTP-Server proxy action to put limits on commands that can be used on the FTP server protected by your XTM device. Use the FTP-Client proxy action to put limits on commands that users protected by the XTM device can use when they connect to external FTP servers. The default configuration of the FTP-Client is to allow all FTP commands.

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About the FTP Proxy

You generally should not block these commands, because they are necessary for the FTP protocol to work correctly:

Protocol Command
USER PASS PASV SYST

Client Command
n/a n/a pasv syst

Description
Sent with login name Sent with password Select passive mode for data transfer Print the servers operating system and version. FTP clients use this information to correctly interpret and display server responses.

The user interface allows or denies based on protocol commands and not client commands. For a full reference on FTP protocol commands, we recommend you refer to RFC 959, section 4.1.

You can block these commands as necessary:

Protocol Command
RETR STOR DELE RMD MDK PWD LIST NLST CDUP CWD SITE

Client Command
get put delete rmdir mkdir pwd ls dir cd.. cd <path> site <command>

Description
Retrieve a file from the server Put a file on the server Delete a file on the server Delete a directory on the server Create a directory on the server Print the Present Working Directory (PWD) path List the names in the current directory path Detailed list of files in the current directory path Move up in the servers directory tree Change to a specific directory on the server Send a server-specific command. This command is associated with FTP denial of service attacks and is often blocked for all FTP-Server proxy configurations.

Download The Download ruleset controls the file names, extensions, or URL paths that users can download with FTP. Use the FTP-Server proxy action to control download rules for the FTP server protected by your XTM device. Use the FTP-Client proxy action to set download rules for users connecting to external FTP servers. Upload The Upload ruleset controls the file names, extensions, or URL paths that users can use FTP to upload. Use the FTP-Server proxy action to control upload rules for the FTP server protected by your XTM device. Use the FTP-Client proxy action to set upload rules for users connecting to external FTP servers. The default configuration of the FTP-Client is to allow all files to be uploaded. AntiVirus If you have purchased and enabled the Gateway AntiVirus feature, you can configure the actions to take if a virus is found in a file that is uploaded or downloaded. For more information, see the Signature Services training module. Proxy and AV Alarms An alarm is a mechanism to tell a network administrator when network traffic matches criteria for suspicious traffic or content. When an alarm event occurs, the XTM device takes the action that you configure. For example, you can set a threshold value for file length. If the file is larger than the threshold value, the device can send a log message to the Log Server.

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About H.323 and SIP ALGs


Voice-over-IP (VoIP) software and devices use either the H.323 and SIP protocols to make network connections and transmit data. You can use the H.323 or SIP ALGs to deny connections that use unauthorized audio or video codecs, permit or deny specified users the ability to start or receive VoIP calls, and set other general security settings. The H.323 and SIP ALGs each have three categories: General The options in this category are used to prevent common VoIP attacks and ensure that VoIP connections follow accepted standards. We recommend that you do not change these settings unless it is necessary to operate with your VoIP devices, software, or service provider. Access Control Use the settings in this category to allow users on your network to start and/or receive VoIP calls. You can configure a different access level for each user with a hostname, IP address, or email address. Denied Codecs You can use this category to prevent users on your network from sending or receiving calls with a VoIP service that you have not authorized, or a VoIP service that has known security problems. Any connection that uses a codec from this list is automatically dropped.

About the TCP-UDP Proxy


The TCP-UDP proxy is used to examine and filter HTTP, HTTPS, SIP, and FTP traffic that does not use the standard ports associated with those protocols. For example, when the TCP-UDP proxy recognizes HTTP traffic on a port other than TCP port 80, it uses the proxy action you specify to examine that traffic. The TCP-UDP proxy has one proxy action category: General This category enables the XTM device to examine HTTP, HTTPS, SIP, and/or FTP traffic sent on non-standard ports using the proxy actions you specify. You can also choose to allow or deny traffic from other protocols.

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About the TCP-UDP Proxy

Exercise 1:

Use the DNS-Outgoing Proxy Action

Because of problems associated with adware accidently downloaded to their network, the Successful Company network administrator would like to block DNS requests to messenger.yahoo.com. This site has been associated with programs that also install malware, such as Gator. Malware refers to a group of software applications that are usually installed without a users knowledge or consent. Most malware programs are designed to capture private information or allow attackers to use resources on your network.

Add a DNS Outgoing Proxy Policy


1. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policies.
The Add Policies dialog box appears.

2. Expand the Proxies folder and double-click DNS-proxy.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears with the Policy tab selected.

3. In the Name text box, type DNS-Outgoing-Proxy.


You do not need to change the From and To settings because they are already set from your trusted networks to any computer on the external network.

4. From the Proxy Action drop-down list, make sure DNS-Outgoing is selected.

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Block a DNS Request by Query Name


1. Click
If the Enabled or Action settings are different for any of the rules in the list, you see a warning message when you try to select Simple View.

The DNS Proxy Action Configuration dialog box appears for the DNS-Outgoing actions.

2. In the Categories list, select Query Names.


The Query Names list appears with messenger.yahoo.com already in the list, but it is not active. This rule was included in the default configuration for your use, but is not yet active.

3. To activate the rule, click Change View.


The Rules (advanced view) page appears.

4. Select the messenger.yahoo.com check box.


The default DNS proxy configuration does not deny DNS requests that contain messenger.yahoo.com. To edit the properties of this rule, click Edit.

5. Click OK to close the DNS Proxy Action Configuration dialog box.


The Clone Predefined or DVCP-created Object dialog box appears. Because DNS-Outgoing is a template, you cannot change it. Instead, you must make a copy and use it for your policies. The default name for the cloned policy is DNS-Outgoing.1.

6. In the Name text box, type a new name for this action. For example, type DNS-Outgoing-Deny-Yahoo-Messenger. 7. Click OK to clone the template.
The proxy action appears in the New Policy Properties dialog box in the Proxy action drop-down list.

8. Click OK to close the New Policy Properties dialog box.

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About the TCP-UDP Proxy

9. Click Close to close the Add Policy dialog box.


The DNS-Outgoing-Proxy policy appears in your policy list.

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Exercise 2:

Configure an FTP-Server Proxy Action

In this exercise, the Successful Company administrator uses Policy Manager to edit the predefined FTP-Server proxy action to restrict the types of FTP connections to the Successful Company FTP server. Specifically, the administrator will: Make sure that users cannot delete a file from the Successful Company FTP server. Restrict the type of files that users can upload to the FTP server to text files only, to help prevent abuse of the Successful Company FTP server.

Deny the Delete Command


1. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policies.
The Add Policies dialog box appears.

2. Expand the Proxies folder and double-click FTP-proxy.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears.

3. In the Name text box, type FTP-Proxy-Server. 4. From the Proxy action drop-down list, select FTP-Server. Click
The FTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box appears.

5. From the Categories list, select Commands. 6. Click Change View.


The Rules (advanced view) page appears. In the advanced view, you can change command order as well as add, remove, enable, and disable individual commands.

7. Select the Allow DELE * list item. Click Edit.


The Edit Command Rules dialog box appears for the DELE* rule.

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About the TCP-UDP Proxy

8. From the Action drop-down list, select Deny.

9. Click OK to close the Edit Commands Rule dialog box.


The FTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box appears again, with the Deny DELE* check box enabled. This rule tells the device to deny any FTP connections that try to delete a file from the FTP server.

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Restrict FTP File Uploads to Text Only


Now you configure settings to allow a user to save a text file to the Successful Company FTP server.

1. In the Categories list, select Upload. 2. In the Pattern text box, type *.txt. Click Add.
The .txt item appears in the Upload list. This enables the device to allow text files to be uploaded to the FTP server.

3. Click OK to close the FTP Proxy Configuration dialog box.


The Clone Predefined or DVCP-created Object dialog box appears. Because FTP-Server is a template, you cannot change it. Instead, you must make a copy and use it for your policies. The default name for the cloned policy is FTP-Server.1

4. In the Name text box, type a new name for this action. For example, type FTP-Server-Deny-Delete-Upload-TXT. 5. Click OK to clone the template.
The proxy action appears in the New Policy Properties dialog box in the Proxy action drop-down list.

6. Click OK to close the New Policy Properties dialog box. 7. Click Close to close the Add Policies dialog box.
The FTP-Proxy-Server policy appears in Policy Manager.

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About the TCP-UDP Proxy

Exercise 3:

Set Access Controls on H.323 Connections

The Successful Company has recently invested in some VoIP devices as part of a network expansion. These devices use the H.323 protocol. However, some employees in the Sales department have installed their own VoIP software on their computers, and this has led to network congestion and other problems. In this exercise, the administrator creates an H.323 ALG that allows a few employees to start or receive VoIP calls, and prevents all other employees from using H.323 VoIP devices.

1. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policies.


The Add Policies dialog box appears.

2. Expand the Proxies folder and double-click H323-ALG.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears with the Policy tab selected.

3. In the Name text box, type H323-VoIP-Limited. 4. From the Proxy Action drop-down list, make sure H.323-Client is selected. 5. Click
.
The H323-ALG Action Configuration dialog box appears.

6. In the Categories list, select Access Control. 7. Select the Enable access control for VoIP check box. 8. In the Address of Record text box, type jsmith@example.com. 9. From the Access level drop-down list, select Start and receive calls. 10. Click Add.
jsmith@example.com appears in the Access Levels list. The Log check box is selected by default.

11. Repeat Steps 89 and add sjones@example.com and hwatkins@example.com to the Access Levels list.

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12. Click OK to close the H323-ALG Action Configuration dialog box.


The Clone Predefined or DVCP-created Object dialog box appears. Because H323-Client is a template, you cannot change it. Instead, you must make a copy and use it for your policies. The default name for the cloned policy is H323-Client.1

13. In the Name text box, type a new name for this action. For example, type H323-Client-VoIP-Limited. 14. Click OK to clone the template.
The proxy action appears in the New Policy Properties dialog box in the Proxy action drop-down list.

15. Click OK to close the New Policy Properties dialog box


The H323-VoIP-Limited ALG appears in Policy Manager.

16. Click Close to close the Add Policies dialog box.

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Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. Fill in the blank: To protect your DNS server from attacks, you configure a DNS-proxy policy with the _____________ proxy action. 2. What is the function of a DNS server? (Select one.)
A) B) C) D) E) Distribute IP addresses to computers when they connect to a network Assign domain names to individual networks Translate numeric IP address into readable Internet addresses Distribute MAC addresses to computers when they connect to a network Connect IP addresses to their associated MAC addresses

3. What is the best pattern match to block FTP uploads of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets? (Select one.)
A) B) D) E) *.xls *XLS .*ls *.x*

4. True or false? An Application Layer Gateway (ALG) is the same as a packet filter policy. 5. What are some reasons to create a TCP-UDP-proxy? (Select all that apply.)
A) B) C) D) E) Examine DNS traffic that is not sent over TCP port 53 Examine HTTP traffic that is not sent over TCP port 80 Block instant messaging and peer-to-peer applications Block email viruses in SMTP and POP3 traffic Filter FTP traffic sent through data channels

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ANSWERS 1. DNS-Incoming. 2. C 3. A 4. False An ALG is similar to a proxy policy and also manages some network connections used by that protocol. 5. B and E

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Fireware XTM Basics

Email Proxies
Work with the SMTP and POP3 Proxies
What You Will Learn
Your XTM device uses two proxy policies to control email traffic: SMTP and POP3. In this training module, you learn how to: Restrict the types of connections to an SMTP server Modify the allowable message size Allow and deny different content types and filenames Restrict email by attachment filename Deny incoming SMTP traffic by domain Restrict outgoing POP3 traffic and lock attachments

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module. For more information about the protocols used for email and controlled by the SMTP and POP3 proxies, see the RFC Archives: SMTP RFC 821 at http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc821 POP3 RFC 1939 at http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1939.html

Control the Flow of Email In and Out of Your Network


WatchGuard System Manager includes two proxy policy templates to manage email: SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) and POP3 (Post Office Protocol). There are significant differences between the two protocols, so most organizations rely on either one or the other rather than using both in the same network. For example, you can deny or quarantine SMTP messages. With POP3, however, you can only strip or lock attachments but not stop the delivery of a message. This makes POP3 slightly less secure.

SMTP Rulesets
SMTP is a protocol used to send email messages between servers, or between clients and servers. The default port for SMTP traffic is TCP port 25. You can use the SMTP-proxy to control email messages and email content. The proxy scans SMTP messages and compares their contents to the rules in the proxy configuration. The SMTP-proxy checks the message for harmful content and RFC compliance. It examines the SMTP headers, message recipients, senders, and content, as well as any attachments. The SMTP-proxy can restrict traffic from specific user names or domains. It can also strip unwanted or dangerous SMTP headers, filter attachments by filename or MIME content type, or deny the email based on an address pattern. The ability to strip header information is particularly valuable to many network administrators. The SMTP-proxy requires no additional configuration for either your email server or your network clients.

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When you create an SMTP-proxy policy, you can choose from two default proxy actions: SMTP-Incoming This proxy action includes rulesets to protect your SMTP email server from external traffic. SMTP-Outgoing This proxy action includes rulesets to control outgoing SMTP connections from users on your trusted and optional networks.

POP3 Rulesets
POP3 is a protocol that moves email messages from an email server to an email client. The POP3 protocol operates on TCP port 110. Most Internet-based email accounts use POP3. With POP3, an email client contacts the email server and checks for any new email messages. If it finds a new message, it downloads the email message to the local email client. After the message is received by the email client, the connection is closed. When you create a POP3-proxy policy, you can choose from two default proxy actions: POP3-Server This proxy action includes rulesets to protect your POP3 email server from external traffic. POP3-Client This proxy action includes rulesets to control outgoing POP3 connections from users on your trusted and optional networks to public POP3 servers. You can use the default settings for the SMTP and POP3 proxy actions, or you can modify the proxy action settings to match the needs of your organization. In this module, we will show you how to modify the incoming and outgoing proxy action rulesets.

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Exercise 1:

Use the SMTP-Proxy to Protect Your Mail Server

Successful Company is growing. With all the new employees, incoming email is increasingly a potential vector for malware. In this exercise, we use Policy Manager to configure an incoming SMTP-proxy policy to protect their SMTP server.

Add an Incoming SMTP-Proxy Policy


In the NAT training module, we added an incoming SMTP-proxy policy so that we could use network address translation (NAT) to protect the Successful Company SMTP server. If you did not complete that exercise, you may need to add an SMTP-Incoming proxy policy.

1. Open the configuration file you are editing for these exercises. If you want to use the policy you created in the NAT training module, open that configuration file, double-click the SMTP-proxy policy to edit it, and continue with Step 5. 2. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policy.
The Add Policies dialog box appears.

3. Expand the Proxies folder. 4. Select SMTP-proxy and click Add.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears with the Policy tab selected.

5. In the Name text box, type SMTP-Incoming-Proxy. 6. From the Proxy Action drop-down list, select SMTP-Incoming. 7. In the To section, click Add.
The Add Address dialog box appears.

8. Click Add SNAT.


The SNAT dialog box appears.

9. Click Add.
The Add SNAT dialog box appears.

10. In the SNAT Name text box, type SMTP-Incoming-SNAT. 11. Make sure the Static NAT option is selected. 12. Click Add.
The Add Static NAT dialog box appears.

13. In the Internal IP Address text box, type 10.0.1.25.


This is the IP address of the Successful Company SMTP server on the trusted network.

14. Click OK to close the Add Static NAT dialog box.


The new Static NAT entry appears in the SNAT Members list.

15. Click OK to close the Add SNAT dialog box.


The SMTP-Incoming-SNAT entry appears in the SNAT list.

16. Click OK to close the SNAT dialog box.


The SMTP-Incoming-SNAT entry appears in the Selected Members and Addresses list.

17. Click OK to close the Add Address dialog box.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears.

18. Adjacent to the Proxy action drop-down list, click


The SMTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box appears.

19. In the Description text box, type Modified policy for email inbound.

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Decrease Maximum Message Size


Encoding can increase the length of files by up to one-third.

The default maximum email message size is 10 MB. In the past, Successful Company employees used email to exchange files with outside vendors. Now that Successful Company has a protected FTP server, the network administrator wants to discourage using the email server for large attachments. In this exercise we will reduce the maximum email size to 5 MB (5,000 kilobytes). In the SMTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box:

1. In the Categories list, expand General and select General Settings.


The General Settings page appears.

2. In the Limits section, select the Set the maximum email size to check box. In the adjacent text box, type 5000.

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Control the Flow of Email In and Out of Your Network

Allow and Deny Content Types and Filenames


Successful Company employees complain that they cannot receive certain email attachments that they need to do their jobs. By default, the SMTP incoming proxy is highly secure and allows very few types of email attachments. Because the network administrator does not have a comprehensive list of the MIME types that his organizations employees use on a regular basis, he decides to turn content type filtering off but continue to filter email attachments by filename. He can do this until he understands better what content types are used. He understands this is a temporary reduction in security, but he accepts the business risk. At the same time, the Successful Company network administrator realizes that it is very important to carefully restrict email attachments by filename. He accepted the default list of filenames denied by the SMTP-Incoming ruleset. Now he must make two changes to meet the needs of his organization. He must configure the XTM device to allow Microsoft Access database files to go through the SMTP-proxy. He must also configure the device to deny MP4 files because of a recent vulnerability announced by Apple. In the SMTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box:

1. In the Categories list, expand Attachments and select Content Types.


The Content Types page appears with the Rules tab selected.

2. In the Actions to take section, from the None Matched drop-down list, select Allow.
This allows all content types through device to the SMTP server. After Successful Company is able to make a list of the specific content types they want to allow, they set this parameter to strip all content types that do not match their list of allowed content types.

3. In the Categories list, expand Attachments and select Filenames.


The Filenames page appears.

4. To switch to Advanced View, click Change View.


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5. In the Filenames list, double-click .mdb.


The Edit Filenames Rule dialog box appears for the .mdb filename extension. This filename extension is for Microsoft Access databases.

6. From the Action drop-down list, select Allow. Click OK.


The SMTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box appears.

7. Click Add.
The New Filenames Rule dialog box appears.

8. In the Rule Name text box, type mp4. 9. In the Rule Settings text box, type *.mp4. 10. In the Action drop-down list, select Strip. Click OK.
The SMTP proxy action is now configured to deny all files with the Apple iTunes .mp4 file extension sent to the SMTP server.

Control Mail Domain Use for Incoming Traffic


Another way to protect your SMTP server is to restrict incoming traffic to only messages that use your company domain. In this example, we use the example.com domain. In the SMTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box:

1. In the Categories list, expand Address and select Rcpt To.


The Rcpt To page appears.

2. In the Pattern text box, type *@example.com. Click Add.


*@example.com appears in the Rules list. This denies any email messages sent to an address that does not match the company domain.

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3. Click OK to close the SMTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box.


The Clone Predefined or DVCP-created Object dialog box appears. Because SMTP-Incoming is a template, you cannot change it. You can only make a copy and use it for your policies.

4. In the Name text box, type SMTP-Incoming-Email. 5. Click OK to clone the template.
The New Policy Properties dialog box appears, with SMTP-Incoming-Email in the Proxy action drop-down list.

6. Click OK to close the New Policy Properties dialog box. 7. Click Close to close the Add Policies dialog box.
The SMTP-Incoming-Proxy policy appears in your policy list.

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Exercise 2:

Control Outgoing SMTP Connections

A network administrator at Successful Company has reviewed the default rulesets that are included with the SMTP-Outgoing proxy action and wants to make these three changes: Remove the restriction on email size Make sure that all outgoing email is from the Successful Company domain Prevent users from sending email with Microsoft Windows screensavers attached

Add an Outgoing SMTP-Proxy Policy


To configure all outgoing SMTP traffic, the Successful Company first adds an outgoing SMTP-proxy policy.

1. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policy.


The Add Policies dialog box appears.

2. Expand the Proxies folder and double-click SMTP-proxy.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears.

3. In the Name text box, type SMTP-Server-Outgoing. 4. In the From list, select Any-External. Click Remove.
Any-External is removed from the From list.

5. Click Add.
The Add Address dialog box appears.

6. Click Add Other.


The Add Member dialog box appears.

7. In the Value text box, type 10.0.1.25. 8. Click OK to close the Add Member dialog box.
The IP address appears in the Selected Members and Addresses list.

9. Click OK to close the Add Address dialog box.


The IP address appears in the New Policy Properties dialog box in the From list. The Successful Company SMTP server on the trusted network is now added to the policy.

10. In the To section, click Add.


The Add Address dialog box appears.

11. In the Available Members list, double-click Any-External.


Any-External appears in the Selected Members and Addresses list.

12. Click OK.


The policy now controls all traffic from the SMTP server to any computer on the external networks.

13. From the Proxy action drop-down list, select SMTP-Outgoing.

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Control Email Message Size


Successful Company management requests that there not be limits on the size of outgoing email. To configure this setting, we will update the outgoing SMTP rulesets. In the New Policy Properties dialog box:

1. On the Policy tab, adjacent to the Proxy action drop-down list, click 2. In the Categories list, expand General and select General Settings.

The General Settings page appears. The setting changes made for the SMTP incoming proxy do not appear here. This policy controls only outgoing SMTP traffic.

3. In the Limits section, clear the Set the maximum e-mail size to check box.
This removes any restrictions on email size.

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Control Mail Domain Use for Outbound SMTP


In this exercise, we use the example.com domain.

Successful Companys network administrators want to make sure that only mail sent from addresses in their domain is allowed out through the XTM device. This protects their mail server from abuse as a relay. Another way to keep your server from being used as a relay is to use the Rewrite Banner Domain and Rewrite HELO Domain options included in the SMTP-proxy action General Settings. This enables your XTM device to change the From and To components of your email address to a different value. This feature is also known as SMTP masquerading. In the SMTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box:

1. In the Categories list, expand Address and select Mail From. 2. In the Pattern text box, type *example.com. Click Add.
*example.com appears in the Rules list. This denies any email messages with a Mail From address that does not match the company domain.

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Control the Flow of Email In and Out of Your Network

Restrict Email by Attachment Filename


The Successful Company network administrators are aware that Windows screensavers are sometimes associated with viruses and have no positive effect on their business. These screensavers, with a filename extension of .scr, are denied by default in the SMTP-Incoming proxy action. To make sure that their users do not accidentally send out a virus-infected email message, and to make sure that no virus forwards infected messages with the SCR filename as an attachment, they want to deny the .scr file extension for outgoing email. They also want to make sure they are notified by email if anyone tries to send a Windows screensaver with the .scr file extension. In the SMTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box:

1. In the Categories list, expand Attachments and select Filenames.


The Filenames page appears.

2. In the Pattern text box, type *.scr*. Click Add.


*.scr* appears in the Rules list. The asterisk at the end of the pattern makes sure that Windows screensavers with a trailing filename extension (such as *scr.txt) are also blocked.

3. From the If matched drop-down list, select Strip.


This removes any attachment with .scr in the filename extension, but allows the rest of the email through.

4. Adjacent to the If matched drop-down list, select the Alarm and Log check boxes.

5. In the Categories list, select Proxy and AV Alarms.


The Proxy and AV Alarms page appears.

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6. Select the Send Notification check box and the Email option.

7. Click OK to close the SMTP Action Proxy Configuration dialog box.


The Clone Predefined or DVCP-created Object dialog box appears.
You can export custom proxy configurations from one configuration to an XML file, and then import the ruleset to another XTM device configuration file. You can see the Import and Export functions when you look at a proxy ruleset in the Advanced view.

8. (Optional) In the Name text box, type a unique name for the proxy action.
The default name for a clone is SMTP-Outgoing.1. You can also give it a friendly name to help you recognize it.

9. Click OK to clone the template.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears.

10. Click OK to close the New Policy Properties dialog box.


The Add Policies dialog box appears.

11. Click Close.


The new SMTP policy appears in the policies list.

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Exercise 3:

Use a POP3-Client Policy

Successful Companys network policy is to prohibit connections to all external POP3 servers. Unfortunately, the new CFO insists on downloading his personal mail from Impersonal ISP. He says he absolutely cannot do business without this service, and the CEO concurs. However, the CEO insists that the CFO cannot be able to download attachments with his POP3 account. In this exercise, we will use the POP3-proxy to allow the CFO to connect to his service provider. While we cannot quarantine his attachments, we can lock them. There is a small hope that this will prove so inconvenient, the CFO will want to switch to the company Exchange server.

Add a POP3 Client Policy


1. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policy.
The Add Policies dialog box appears.

2. Expand the Proxies folder. 3. Double-click POP3-proxy.


The New Policy Properties dialog box opens.

4. In the Name text box, type POP3-CFO. 5. In the From list, select Any-Trusted. Click Remove.
Any-Trusted is removed from the From list.

6. Click Add.
The Add Address dialog box appears.

7. Click Add Other.


The Add Member dialog box appears.

8. In the Value text box, type 10.0.1.202. 9. Click OK to close the Add Member dialog box.
The Add Address dialog box appears with the IP Address in the Selected Members and Addresses list.

10. Click OK to close the Add Address dialog box.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears. These actions add the Successful Company CFOs desktop computer on the trusted network to the policy.

11. In the To list, select Any-External. Click Remove.


Any-External is removed from the To list.

12. Click Add.


The Add Address dialog box appears.

13. Click Add Other.


The Add Member dialog box appears.

14. From the Choose Type drop-down list, select Host Name (DNS lookup). 15. In the Value text box, type mail.yahoo.com. 16. Click OK to close the Add Member dialog box.
The Add Address dialog box appears. Policy Manager does a one-time DNS lookup for the host name mail.yahoo.com. The IP Address for mail.yahoo.com appears in the Selected Members and Addresses list.

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17. Click OK to close the Add Address dialog box.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears with the IP Address for mail.yahoo.com in the To list. Now the policy controls all traffic from the CFO to the mail servers.

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Configure the POP3 Policy to Lock Attachments


On the Policy tab:

1. From the Proxy action drop-down list, select POP3-Client. 2. Adjacent to the Proxy action drop-down list, click
The POP3 Proxy Action Configuration dialog box appears.

3. In the Categories list, expand Attachments and select Content Types.


The Content Types page appears. By default, Content Type auto-detection is enabled and attachments are allowed.

4. From the If matched drop-down list, select Lock.


This setting enables the CFO to receive locked attachments that match the content types listed. All other attachments are stripped.

5. Click OK to close the POP3 Proxy Action Configuration dialog box.


The Clone Predefined or DVCP-created Object dialog box appears.

6. (Optional) In the Name text box, type a unique name for the proxy action.
The default name for the clone is POP3-Client.1. You can also give it a friendly name to help you recognize it.

7. Click OK to clone the template. 8. Click OK to close the New Policy Properties dialog box. 9. Click Close to close the Add Policies dialog box.
The POP3-CFO policy appears in your policy list.

10. Save the configuration file as EmailProxies-Done.

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Test Your Knowledge


Use the questions below to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. Which of the following can an SMTP-proxy check that an SMTP packet filter cannot? (Select all that apply):
A) B) C) D) E) Source IP Address Content RFC compliance Packet Header Attachment

Use this image to answer questions 24.

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2. True or false? The XTM device will deny uu-encoded attachments. 3. The XTM device will allow up to ____ bytes in one line of an email before it denies the message. 4. True or false? The XTM device will rewrite the Banner Domain. 5. Choose the most appropriate SMTP-proxy action for each task. (Select one.) Task
Protect your company network from the ILOVEYOU virus Reduce the number of very large files sent by email to your users Reduce spam Prevent your network from being used as a spam relay Block pornographic images being sent to your users Keep your users from sending MP3s to their friends

SMTP-Incoming

SMTP-Outgoing

6. True or false? Many free, public email servers use POP3. 7. True or false? You can use the POP3-Client proxy action to deny messages received from a POP3 server.

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ANSWERS 1. B, C, E 2. True 3. 1000 4. False 5. Task Protect your company network from the ILOVEYOU virus Reduce the number of very large files sent by email to your users Reduce spam Prevent your network from being used as a spam relay Block pornographic images being sent to your users Keep your users from sending MP3s to their friends 6. True 7. False SMTP-Incoming SMTP-Outgoing

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Fireware XTM Basics

Authentication
Verify a Users Identity
What You Will Learn
User authentication is a process that allows a device to verify the identity of someone who connects to a network resource. In this training module, you learn how to: Understand authentication and how it works with your XTM device List the types of third-party authentication servers you can use with Fireware XTM Use Firebox authentication users and groups Add a Firebox authentication group to a policy definition Modify authentication timeout values Use the XTM device to create a custom web server certificate

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module. For information about WatchGuard LiveSecurity Alerts & Advice, see: Authentication and the Firebox: http://www.watchguard.com/archive/showhtml.asp?pack=135056 Foundations: Cryptography 101: http://www.watchguard.com/archive/showhtml.asp?pack=1775 In this module, you will configure the XTM device to use third-party authentication servers. If you take this course with a WatchGuard Certified Training Partner, your instructor may provide you with configuration details for authentication servers on a local network. For self-instruction, we encourage you to get the information needed to configure the XTM device for the authentication method used by your organization.

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Monitor and Control Network Traffic by User


Because all traffic into and out of your network passes through the XTM device, you can use its authentication features to monitor and control connections on a user-by-user basis. The XTM device has its own authentication server, and can connect to several types of third-party authentication servers. Authentication is very important when you use dynamic IP addressing (DHCP) for computers on trusted or optional networks. It is also important if you must identify your users before you let them connect to resources on the external network. You can use WatchGuard System Manager to configure authentication differently for each policy. For example, you can force some users to authenticate before they connect to an FTP server, but allow them to browse the Internet without authenticating first.

How Firebox User Authentication Works


A special HTTPS server operates on the XTM device to accept authentication requests. To authenticate, a user must connect to the authentication web page on the XTM device. The address is: https://<trusted or optional device interface IP address>:4100/ The user must type a user name and password. The authentication page sends the name and password to the selected authentication server using a challenge and response protocol (PAP). After the authentication server responds that the user is authenticated, the user is allowed to use approved network resources. The user can close the browser window after authentication is completed. By default, each user stays authenticated for up to two hours after the last connection to a network resource for which authentication is necessary. A user can click Logout on the authentication web page to close their session before the two-hour timeout elapses. If the web page was previously closed, the user must open it again and click Logout to disconnect. To prevent a user from authenticating, you must disable the account on the authentication server. You can also require your users to authenticate to the authentication portal before they can get access to the Internet. You can choose to automatically send users to the portal, or have them manually navigate to the portal. This applies only to HTTP and HTTPS connections.

Use Authentication from the External Network


The primary function of the authentication tool is for outgoing traffic. You can also create policies that require external users to authenticate before they can get access to protected network resources. You must configure the WG-Auth policy to allow users on an external network to authenticate to the XTM device. External users type this URL in their browser to connect to the XTM device for authentication: https://<public IP address of a device external interface>:4100/

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Use Authentication through a Gateway Firebox to Another XTM Device


To send an authentication request through a gateway Firebox to a different XTM device, you must add a policy to allow the authentication traffic on the gateway Firebox. On the gateway Firebox, use Policy Manager to add the WG-Auth policy, which controls traffic on TCP port 4100. Configure the policy to allow traffic to the IP address of the destination XTM device.

Authentication Methods Available with Fireware XTM


Fireware XTM supports multiple authentication servers: Firebox RADIUS SecurID VASCO Generic LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) Active Directory

When you use a third-party authentication server, follow the instructions from the manufacturer to configure it correctly. The server must be accessible from the XTM device, which usually means that it is installed on an optional network for greater security. You can configure a primary and backup authentication server. If the XTM device cannot connect to the primary authentication server after three attempts, the primary server is marked as dead and an alarm message is generated. The device then attempts to connect to the backup authentication server. If the device cannot connect to the backup authentication server, it waits ten minutes, and then tries to connect to the primary authentication server again.

Use the Firebox Authentication Server


You can use the XTM device as an authentication server. This feature is often used by customers who do not have a third-party authentication server and do not need to manage user accounts centrally for multiple applications. You must perform these steps to prepare your XTM device as an authentication server: Divide your company into groups according to tasks people do and information they need Create users for the groups Assign groups and users to policies

About Third-party Authentication Servers


The procedure to configure the XTM device to use a third-party authentication server is similar for each of the supported server types. Before you configure your authentication server: You must have the configuration information for your server such as server port, IP address, and shared secret. If you use Active Directory or LDAP, you must also know the group membership attribute and Distinguished Name (DN) of the Organizational Unit (OU) that contains the user accounts. If it is available, you can configure the XTM device with a backup authentication server to contact if it cannot connect to the primary authentication server. The XTM device must be able to connect to the authentication server(s). You must add the WatchGuard Authentication policy.

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RADIUS Authentication Servers


Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) authenticates the local and remote users on a company network. RADIUS is a client/server system that keeps the authentication information for users, remote access servers, VPN gateways, and other resources in one central database. The authentication messages to and from the RADIUS server always use an authentication key. This authentication key, or shared secret, must be the same on the RADIUS client and server. Without this key, hackers cannot decrypt the authentication messages. Note that RADIUS sends a key, and not the password the user typed, during authentication. For web and Mobile VPN authentication, RADIUS supports only PAP (not CHAP) authentication. For authentication with PPTP, RADIUS supports only MSCHAPv2. To use RADIUS server authentication with the XTM device, you must: Add the IP address of the XTM device to the RADIUS server, as described in the RADIUS vendor documentation. Enable and specify the RADIUS server in your device configuration. Add RADIUS user names or group names to the policies in Policy Manager. VASCO server authentication also uses the RADIUS configuration user interface.

SecurID Authentication Servers


To use SecurID authentication, you must configure both the RADIUS and ACE/Server servers correctly. Each user must also have an approved SecurID token and a PIN (personal identification number). Refer to the RSA SecurID instructions for more information.

LDAP Authentication Servers


You can use an LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) authentication server to authenticate your users to the XTM device. LDAP is an open standard protocol for using online directory services, and it operates with Internet transport protocols, such as TCP. Before you configure your XTM device for LDAP authentication, make sure you check your LDAP vendor documentation to see if your installation requires case-sensitive attributes. When you configure the device to use LDAP authentication, you must set a search base to limit the server directories in which the device searches for an authentication match. The standard format for the search base setting is: ou=organizational unit,dc=first part of distinguished server name,dc=any part of the distinguished server name appearing after the dot. For example, if your user accounts are in an OU (organizational unit) you refer to as accounts and your domain name is example.com, your search base is ou=accounts,dc=example,dc=com.

Active Directory Authentication Servers


Configuring the device to use Active Directory authentication is similar to the process for LDAP authentication. You must set a search base to limit the server directories in which the device searches for an authentication match. The standard format for the search base setting is the same as the LDAP format. You can add multiple Active Directory domains for user authentication, and add a primary and a backup Active Directory server for each domain. If you use Active Directory for your authentication server, you can also configure Single Sign-On (SSO). SSO is a method of network access control that allows a user to enter credentials once to gain access to many resources. The WatchGuard SSO solution includes the SSO Agent, the SSO Client, and the Event Log Monitor. With SSO, when users try to connect to resources outside their own network, your XTM device automatically sends authentication requests to the SSO Agent. The WatchGuard SSO Agent caches the user name and password and then passes it to each network resource as needed. You can install the WatchGuard SSO Agent behind the XTM device on the trusted network.
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When you install the SSO Client software on your client computers, the SSO Client receives the call from the SSO Agent and returns accurate information about the user who is currently logged in to the workstation. If you do not want to install the SSO Client on each client computer, you can instead install the Event Log Monitor on your domain controller, and configure the SSO Agent to get user login information from the Event Log Monitor. This is known as clientless SSO. With clientless SSO, the Event Log Monitor collects login information from domain client computers and from the domain controller for users that have already logged on to the domain and sends them to the SSO Agent. In this training module, we do not go into great detail about how to install and configure the SSO solution. For more information about how to configure SSO for your network, see the SSO topics in the WatchGuard System Manager Help or the Active Directory Authentication advanced training module.

About Authentication Timeout Values


Users are authenticated for a period of time after they close their last authenticated connection. This timeout is set either as a global setting in the Authentication Settings dialog box, or in the Setup Firebox User dialog box. The global setting is used only if no Firebox User timeout value is set. For users authenticated by third-party servers, the timeouts set on those servers also override the global authentication timeouts.
Authentication timeout values do not apply to PPTP users.

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Exercise 1:

Add a Firebox User Group and Add Users

In this exercise, we learn that Successful Company does not yet have an authentication server. The network administrator decides to use the XTM device for authentication. We will use Policy Manager to configure a group for the Marketing department and add four of the department employees.

Create a Firebox User Group


1. Select Setup > Authentication > Authentication Servers.
The Authentication Servers dialog box appears. The Firebox tab is selected by default.

2. In the User Groups section, click Add.


The Setup Firebox Group dialog box appears.

3. In the Name text box, type Marketing. 4. (Optional) In the Description text box, type Marketing Department.

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5. Click OK.
The new group appears in the User Groups list.

Add Firebox Users


An authorized user is someone with access permission to your network. Each user must have a unique user name. When you use the Firebox authentication server, this information is saved in a database that is stored on the XTM device.

1. In the Authentication Servers dialog box, in the Users section, click Add.
The Setup Firebox User dialog box appears.

2. Type this information:


Name Description Passphrase Confirm
allison Allison Grayson allyscomputer allyscomputer

When the passphrase is set, you cannot see the passphrase in plain text again. If the passphrase is lost, you must set a new passphrase. A passphrase must contain a minimum of eight characters.

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3. To add Allison to the Marketing group, in the Available list, double-click Marketing.
Marketing appears in the Member list.

4. Click OK.
Allison is added to the User list.

5. Repeat Steps 14 to add these users to the Marketing group.


Name Description Passphrase joe Joe Uknalis joescomputer tim Tim Warner timscomputer wyatt Wyatt Hare wyattscomputer

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6. After you add all users to the Marketing group, click OK.
The Authentication Servers dialog box should look like this:

7. Click OK to close the Authentication Servers dialog box.

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Exercise 2:

Edit Policies to Use Firebox Authentication

After you have configured at least one authentication server with user names and groups, you can use Policy Manager to add those users and groups to your policies. In this exercise, you give the Marketing group permission to connect to an FTP server on the optional network that Successful Company uses to share files with outside vendors. You also block all FTP connections from other users on the network.

1. Double-click the FTP policy.


The Edit Policy Properties dialog box appears. The default configuration of the FTP proxy policy allows connections from any computer on the trusted or optional networks to any FTP server on the external network.

2. In the From list, select Any-Trusted. Click Remove. Select Any-Optional. Click Remove.
With the Any-Trusted and Any-Optional entries, any user on your optional or trusted network is able to start an FTP connection to the entries on the To list. When you remove these entries, you block FTP connections from your optional and trusted networks.

3. In the To list, select Any-External. Click Remove.


With the Any-External entry, users on your network can connect to any FTP server on the external network.

4. In the From section, click Add.


The Add Address dialog box appears.

5. Click Add User.


The Add Authorized Users or Groups dialog box appears.

6. From the Type drop-down lists, select Firewall and Group.


To open the Authorized Users and Groups dialog box to add more users and groups to the XTM device database, click Add.

7. Select the Marketing (Firebox-DB) group and click Select.


The Add Address dialog box appears with the Marketing (Firebox-DB) group in the Selected Members and Addresses list.

8. Click OK to add the entry to the FTP policy.


The Marketing group appears in the From list.

9. In the To section, click Add.


The Add Address dialog box appears.

10. Click Add Other.


The Add Member dialog box appears.

11. From the Choose Type drop-down, list select Host IP. 12. In the Value text box, type 10.0.2.21.
This is the IP address of the FTP server on the optional network. In a real-world environment, you must activate NAT for external users to be able to connect to this FTP server because it has a private IP address. For more information, see the NAT training module.

13. Click OK to close the Add Member dialog box.


The IP address of the FTP server appears in the To list.

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14. Click OK to close the Add Address dialog box.


You have now configured the FTP policy to allow connections from anyone in the Marketing group to an FTP server on the optional network. The Edit Policy Properties dialog box should look like this:

15. Click OK to close the Edit Policy Properties dialog box.

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Exercise 3:

Set Global Authentication Values

In this exercise, you use Policy Manager to manage the authentication settings that the XTM device uses by default. If you set session and idle timeouts in the Setup Firebox User dialog box or on any third-party server that you use for authentication, these values override the global settings you configure in this exercise.

Set Global Timeout Values


1. Select Setup > Authentication > Authentication Settings.
The Authentication Settings dialog box appears.

2. In the Session Timeout text box, type or select 4. From the adjacent drop-down list, select Hours.
This is the maximum length of time the user can send traffic to the external network. If you set this field to zero (0) seconds, minutes, hours, or days, no session timeout is used and the user can stay connected indefinitely.

3. In the Idle Timeout text box, type or select 10. From the adjacent drop-down list, select Minutes.
This is the maximum length of time the user can stay authenticated when idle (not passing any traffic to the external network). If you set this field to zero (0) seconds, minutes, hours, or days, no idle timeout is used and the user can stay idle for any length of time.

Set Other Global Values


If you use the XTM device as an authentication server, you can allow more than one user to authenticate with the same user credentials, at the same time, to one authentication server. This is useful for guest accounts or in laboratory environments. This feature is enabled by default. But, the Successful Company network administrator does not want users to be able to log in to multiple computers at the same time. Instead, when a user tries to login to another computer, the network administrator wants the first session to be logged off, and the user to be able to log in on the second computer. For more information about how to configure the device for Active Directory authentication, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide. In this exercise, we configure the Active Directory authentication server settings on the XTM device to block concurrent authentication and set the browsers to automatically redirect users to the Successful Company authentication portal and then to the intranet web server.

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In the Authentication Settings dialog box:

1. Select the Limit concurrent user sessions to option and keep the default setting of 1.

2. From the When the limit is reached drop-down list, select Allow subsequent login attempts and log off the first session. 3. Select the Automatically redirect users to authentication page check box.
All users who have not yet authenticated are automatically redirected to the authentication login portal when they try to get access to the Internet. If you do not select this check box, unauthenticated users must manually navigate to the authentication login portal.

4. Select the Redirect traffic sent to the IP address of the XTM device to this host name check box. In the text box, type the host name to use for the XTM device.
Make sure the host name matches the Common Name from the web server certificate and the host name specified in the DNS settings for your organization.

5. Select the Send a redirect to the browser after successful authentication check box. In the text box, type http://10.0.1.80/home.html.
This is the home page of the Successful Company intranet web server, which is located on the trusted network.

You can also choose to redirect traffic sent to the XTM devices IP address to a host name. To do this, you select the Redirect traffic sent to the IP address of the XTM device to this host name check box and type the host name in the text box.

6. Click OK to close the Authentication Settings dialog box.

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Exercise 4:

Enable Single Sign-On for the XTM Device

Successful Company is growing and adding employees. They need to shift to a system that allows them to track users and groups in one location rather than in both the XTM device and their Windows Active Directory server. In this exercise, we use Policy Manager to configure the XTM device to use Active Directory and set the IP address for the server on which the Single Sign-On (SSO) Agent is installed.

1. Select Setup > Authentication > Authentication Servers.


The Authentication Servers dialog box appears.

2. Select the Active Directory tab.

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3. Click Add.
The Add Active Directory Domain dialog box appears.

4. In the Domain Name text box, type the domain name of this Active Directory authentication server in the format <sub domain name>.<root domain name>.
For example, example.com.

5. Click Add.
The Add IP / DNS Name dialog box appears.

6. From the Choose Type drop-down list, select IP Address. 7. In the Value text box, type 10.0.1.89. 8. Click OK.
The IP address appears in the IP Address / DNS Name list.

9. In the Search Base text box, type the location on the Active Directory server to search for user account information in this format: ou= name of organizational unit,dc=first part of the distinguished server name,dc=any part of the distinguished server name that appears after the dot.
For this example, type dc=example,dc=com.

If you add information about your Active Directory server in other places in the device configuration (such as when you configure SSO or Terminal Services), you must make sure to type the domain name exactly as you enter it here. The Active Directory domain name is case sensitive within the device configuration.

10. Click OK.


The domain you added appears in the Active Directory domains list.

11. Click OK to close the Authentication Servers dialog box.


Policy Manager appears.

12. Select Setup > Authentication > Authentication Settings.


The Authentication Settings dialog box appears.

13. Select the Single Sign-On tab. 14. Select the Enable Single Sign-On (SSO) with Active Directory check box.
This enables the settings you use to configure SSO.

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15. In the SSO Agent IP Address text box, type 10.0.1.90.


For instructions on how to install the WatchGuard SSO agent, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help topics on Authentication.

This is the IP address of the server on which the WatchGuard Single Sign-On Agent has been installed. You can also install the SSO Agent on the computer where your Active Directory Server is installed.

Note
If multiple users share the same computer, you must also install the SSO Client software on that computer or install the Event Log Monitor on your domain controller.

16. Click OK to close the Authentication Settings dialog box.

Use a Web Server Certificate


The WatchGuard authentication applet is a web page. If your organization uses a very strict browser security policy, it will verify that the page certificate is from a trusted source. Each time the authentication applet loads, the user is presented with a security alert to let them know that the certificate is not from a trusted source. You can avoid this problem by configuring the XTM device with a certificate to use for all secure HTTP connections. Each user must then import the certificate into their browser or operating system certificate stores. The device can either use the default self-signed certificate, use a third-party certificate, or generate a custom self-signed certificate. In this exercise, we use Policy Manager to configure the device to generate and use a custom self-signed certificate:

1. Select Setup > Authentication > Web Server Certificate.


The Web Server Certificate dialog box appears.

2. Select Custom certificate signed by Firebox. 3. In the Common Name text box, type successfulco.
You should always choose a value that corresponds to your Firebox or XTM device, such as the domain name of the URL.

4. In the Organization Name text box, type Successful Company, Inc.

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5. In the Organization Unit text box, type Corporate Headquarters.


You should always choose a value that helps the user verify that the certificate originates with your organization.

6. Click OK.
The Web Server Certificate dialog box closes.

7. Save the configuration file to the device.


The certificate is not created until you save the configuration file to the device.

8. Save the configuration file as Authentication-Done.

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Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. Which of the following statements are good reasons to set up user authentication? (Select all that apply.)

A)
B) C) D) E) F) G)

Monitor users who connect through your network Restrict who can connect to resources on the Internet Block incoming connections from specific Web sites Identify connections in monitoring tools by IP address Reduce the total number of public IP addresses you need Prevent unauthorized users from accessing network resources All of the above

2. True or false? Fireware XTM supports Windows NT authentication. 3. True or false? You can configure a policy to allow a single user. 4. Which of these Authentication Servers are compatible with the Fireware XTM OS? (Select all that apply.)

A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) I)

Kerberos SecurID Linux Authentication AppleTalk Authorization Windows NT Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Active Directory Firebox Users and Groups RADIUS

5. What is the URL for the Firebox Authentication web page? (Select one.)

A) B) C) D)

https://auth.watchguard.com:4100/ http://ip address of device interface:411/ https://gateway IP address of Firebox:4000/ https://<trusted or optional device interface IP address>:4100/

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5. D 4. B, F, G, H, I 3. True 2. False 1. A, B, F ANSWERS

Fireware XTM Basics

Blocking Spam
Stop Unwanted Email with spamBlocker
What You Will Learn
You can use the optional WatchGuard spamBlocker service to block unwanted email messages at your Internet gateway. In this training module, you learn how to: Activate and configure spamBlocker Specify the actions to take when spam is detected Exclude email messages from certain sources Monitor spamBlocker activity

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module. In this module, you will configure an optional feature of your XTM device. To view these settings, you must first purchase a license key for spamBlocker. To activate the license key you must have access to an XTM device. If you take this course with a WatchGuard Certified Training Partner, your instructor will provide you with both an XTM device and a license key.

Stop Unwanted Email at the Network Edge


Unwanted email, also known as spam, fills the average Inbox at an amazing rate. A large volume of spam decreases the bandwidth available to other applications, degrades employee productivity, and wastes network resources. The WatchGuard spamBlocker service uses industry-leading anti-spam technology from Mailshell to block spam at your Internet gateway. spamBlocker looks for patterns in spam traffic, instead of the contents of individual email messages. Because it uses a combination of rules, pattern matching, and sender reputation, it can find spam in any language, format, or encoding method.

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WatchGuard spamBlocker works with SMTP and POP3 proxy policies to examine up to 20,000 bytes of each inbound email message. You can configure the XTM device to take any of the following actions when spamBlocker determines that an email message processed by the SMTP proxy is spam: Deny Stops the spam email message from being delivered to the mail server. The XTM device sends this message to the sending email server: Delivery not authorized, message refused. Add subject tag Identifies the email message as spam or not spam and allows spam email messages to go to the mail server. See the subsequent section for more information on spamBlocker tags. Allow Allows spam email messages to go through the XTM device without a tag. Drop Drops the connection immediately. Unlike the Deny option, the XTM device does not give any SMTP error messages to the sending server. Quarantine Sends the message classified as spam to a Quarantine Server. If you use spamBlocker with the POP3 proxy, you have only two actions to choose from: Add Subject Tag and Allow. You cannot use the Quarantine Server with the POP3 proxy. You must configure at least one DNS server so the XTM device can resolve the IP addresses of the Mailshell servers. If you do not do this, spamBlocker will not operate.

spamBlocker Tags
The XTM device can add spamBlocker tags to the subject line of the email message. You can also configure spamBlocker to customize the tag that it adds. This example shows the subject line of an email message that was classified as spam. The tag added is the default tag: ***SPAM***.
Subject: ***SPAM*** Free auto insurance quote

Here are some examples of other possible spamBlocker tags:


Subject: (SPAM) You've been approved! Subject: [POSSIBLE SPAM] Save 75% Subject: [JUNK EMAIL] Free shipping Subject: *SPAM/BULK* 10 lbs in 10 days!

spamBlocker Categories
spamBlocker puts potential spam email messages into two categories based on the classification of the mail envelope by the Mailshell classification server:
Versions of Fireware XTM prior to 11.7.2 also included a Bulk category.

Confirmed Spam Includes email messages that come from known spammers. We recommend you use the Deny action for this type of email if you use spamBlocker with the SMTP proxy, or the Add subject tag if you use spamBlocker with the POP3 proxy. Suspect Includes email messages that could be associated with a new spam attack. Frequently, these messages are legitimate email messages. We recommend that you use the Allow action for this type of email or the Quarantine action if you use spamBlocker with the SMTP proxy.

spamBlocker Exceptions
The XTM device might sometimes identify a message as spam when it is not spam. If you know the address of the sender, you can configure the device with an exception that tells it not to examine messages from that source address or domain.

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Global spamBlocker Settings


You can use global spamBlocker settings to optimize spamBlocker for your own installation. Because most of these parameters affect the amount of memory that spamBlocker uses on the XTM device, you must balance spamBlocker performance with other device functions. To configure these settings, click Settings in the spamBlocker dialog box. Maximum file size to scan In the Maximum file size to scan text box, you can set the number of bytes of an email message that will pass to spamBlocker to be scanned. Usually, 2040K is sufficient for spamBlocker to correctly detect spam. However, if image-based spam is a problem for your organization, you can increase the maximum file size to block more image-based spam. Cache size In the Cache size text box, type or select the number of entries spamBlocker caches locally for messages that have been categorized as spam and bulk. A local cache can improve performance because it reduces network traffic. Usually, you do not have to change this value.
spamBlocker does not detect spam in outgoing SMTP email. To prevent spam from originating from your network and conserve network resources, you should disable email relay functionality on your email server and enable email relay protection to inbound email using the incoming SMTP proxy action. Policy Manager also has spamBlocker settings for Virus Outbreak Detection (VOD) and Proactive Patterns. These settings are not used by v11.7.2 and other newer versions of Fireware XTM OS. These settings enable Policy Manager to configure spamBlocker for devices that use older versions of Fireware XTM OS.

Use an HTTP Proxy Server


To configure spamBlocker to use an HTTP proxy server to connect to the Mailshell server through the Internet:

1. Select the HTTP Proxy Server tab. 2. Select the Contact the spamBlocker server using an HTTP proxy server check box. 3. In the remaining fields on this tab, select the parameters for the proxy server.
This includes the address of the proxy server, the port the XTM device must use to contact the proxy server, and the authentication credentials the XTM device uses for proxy server connections (if required by the proxy server).

Adding Trusted Email Forwarders


The spam score for an email message is calculated in part using the IP address of the server from which the message was received. If an email forwarding service is used, the IP address of the forwarding server is used to calculate the spam score. Because the forwarding server is not the initial source email server, the spam score can be inaccurate. To improve spam scoring accuracy, you can add one or more host names or domain names of email servers that you trust to forward email to your email server. With this feature, spamBlocker ignores the trusted email forwarder in the email message headers. The spam score is then calculated using the IP address of the source email server.

Configure Spam Thresholds


Email messages are assigned a spam score from 1 to 99. A high score indicates an email message is more likely to be spam. There are two spam thresholds that determine how spamBlocker categorizes email messages based on the spam score. If you think that spamBlocker categorizes messages as spam too stringently or not stringently enough, you can modify the spam thresholds. To change the spam thresholds:
The default spam thresholds are set at values that are a good choice for most organizations. We recommend that you use spamBlocker with the default thresholds first, before you decide to modify them.

1. Select the Spam Thresholds tab. 2. In the Confirmed spam threshold text box, type or select the threshold score to categorize a message as confirmed spam. The default threshold is 90. 3. In the Suspected spam threshold text box, type or select the threshold score to categorize a message as suspected spam. The default threshold is 60.

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Exercise 1:

Configure the Quarantine Server

The Successful Company network administrator decides to start putting suspected mail into quarantine rather than simply locking and tagging it. He would also like to automatically remove messages from the SpamKing domain that he knows produces nothing but spam.

Configure Quarantine Server Rules


You can install the Quarantine Server as an option when you install WatchGuard System Manager.

1. In the system tray, right-click

and select Open WatchGuard Server Center.

The Connect to WatchGuard Server Center dialog box appears.

2. Type the Username and Administrator Passphrase.


The WatchGuard Server Center appears.

3. From the Servers tree, select Quarantine Server.


The Quarantine Server page appears.

4. Select the Rules tab. 5. From the Enable Rules list, select the Auto-Remove messages from specific domains check box.
The Rule description appears. Notice the blue underlined text.

6. In the Rule Description text, click the blue underlined text: specific domains.
The Edit Auto-Remove Rule dialog box appears

7. In the Enter text to match text box, type SpamKing.com. Click Add.

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8. Click OK.
The blue underlined text in the Rule Description changes to SpamKing.com.

9. Click Apply to save your changes.

Configure the XTM Device to Use the Quarantine Server


The XTM device must be able to connect to the Quarantine Server. If the Quarantine Server and the management computer are not on the same network, you must use Policy Manager to create a policy that allows access from the management computer to the Quarantine Server.

1. Select Subscription Services > Quarantine Server.


The Quarantine Server dialog box appears.

2. In the IP Address text box, type the workstation IP address.

3. Click OK. 4. Save the configuration file to the XTM device.


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Exercise 2:
You must have the spamBlocker feature key saved to the XTM device before you can do this exercise. For more information, see Add a Feature Key to the XTM Device on page 87.

Activate spamBlocker

Successful Company decides to invest in spamBlocker to manage all the unwanted email its employees are receiving. In this exercise, we use the spamBlocker Wizard in Policy Manager to activate the spamBlocker service.

1. Select Subscription Services > spamBlocker > Activate.


The Activate spamBlocker Wizard appears.

2. Click Next.
If you are working through the training modules sequentially, or taking the class with an instructor, you should have three email proxy policies configured.

3. Clear the POP3-CFO and SMTP-Server-Outgoing policy check boxes. Click Next. 4. Click Finish.
If you do not have an SMTP or POP3 proxy policy, the wizard prompts you to create one.

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Exercise 3:

Configure the spamBlocker Service

After you complete the Activate spamBlocker Wizard, you need to configure the spamBlocker settings in your email proxy. In this exercise, you configure the spamBlocker service for SMTP. The procedure to configure spamBlocker for POP3 is the same.

Determine What Happens to spam Email


In this exercise, the Successful Company network administrator is new to this type of service and is a little nervous about losing valid messages. He decides to quarantine confirmed spam and tag the rest as spam, but still send it to the intended recipients.

1. Select Subscription Services > spamBlocker > Configure.


The spamBlocker dialog box appears. The spamBlocker Policies list includes the current policies and whether spamBlocker is active for each policy.

2. Select SMTP-Incoming-Proxy. Click Configure.


The spamBlocker configuration dialog box appears.

3. From the Confirmed Spam drop-down list, select Quarantine.


All email that spamBlocker confirms as spam will now be held in quarantine. The network administrator will have to review these messages before they go to the final recipient.

4. From the Suspect drop-down list, select Add subject tag.


The text ***SUSPECT*** appears. You can replace this with any short text phrase.

5. Clear the Send a log message for each message classified as not spam check box.
This is a useful tool for troubleshooting, but receiving a log message for each email message sent to your employees can significantly increase the size of your log database.

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Add spamBlocker Exceptions


The network administration team at Successful Company all subscribe to the Security Now podcasts from TWIT.tv. However, like many companies that send useful newsletters and announcements to their customers, TWIT uses a bulk mail application. In this exercise, we configure the Successful Company spamBlocker service to allow these messages as an exception. In the spamBlocker Configuration dialog box:

1. Select the Exceptions tab.


spamBlocker is already configured to allow bulk messages from the WatchGuard LiveSecurity service. This ensures that you can receive important announcements, security alerts, and threat responses.

2. Click Add.
The Add Exception Rule dialog box appears.

3. From the Action drop-down list, select Allow. 4. In the Sender text box, type *@twit.tv. 5. In the Recipient text box, type *.
This will exclude all messages that originate from the TWIT.tv domain from spamBlocker actions.

6. Click OK to close the Add Exception Rule dialog box. 7. Click OK to close the spamBlocker Configuration dialog box.

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Exercise 4:

Monitor spamBlocker Activity

You can use Firebox System Manager to monitor spamBlocker activity.

1. In WatchGuard System Manager, connect to the XTM device you want to monitor. 2. Click . Or, select Tools > Firebox System Manager.
Firebox System Manager appears.

3. Select the Subscription Services tab.


The statistics for spamBlocker appear in the third section on this tab.

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Test Your Knowledge


1. The actions spamBlocker can take when you configure spamBlocker to work with SMTP are (select all that apply):
A) B) C) D) E) F) Deny Tag Ignore Allow Drop Quarantine Stop the spam message without a reply Add a spam tag to the email subject line and allow spam messages to go to the recipient Do not send the email to spamBlocker to process Let spam messages go through the XTM device without a tag Drop the connection immediately and send no error messages back to sending email server. Isolate the email on a Quarantine Server

2. True or false? The Confirmed Spam category includes email messages that come from known spammers. 3. Which proxy works with spamBlocker (select all that apply):
A) B) C) D) HTTP SMTP POP3 FTP

4. True or false? When you use spamBlocker with the POP3-proxy, the XTM device can deny, drop, allow, or add a subject tag to any suspected spam message. 5. True or false? You must configure a Quarantine Server to use spamBlocker.

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5. False The Quarantine Server is optional. 4. False Only the SMTP proxy can deny a message.

WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

3. B and C 2. True 1. A, B, D, E, F ANSWERS

Fireware XTM Basics

Web Traffic
Manage the Web Traffic Through Your Firewall
What You Will Learn
The HTTP-proxy policy can protect your private and public web servers. It can also be used to protect your users from viruses and restrict unauthorized Web use. In this module, you learn how to: Create a log message for each HTTP client connection Block HTTP client connections by URL path Allow files through the HTTP-proxy by type Customize the deny message a user receives Strip headers that specify a certain type of authentication Use HTTP-proxy exceptions to allow software updates Activate WebBlocker Select categories of web sites to block Override WebBlocker rules for specific sites

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module.

Control Web Traffic Through Your Firewall


HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a protocol used to send and display text, images, sound, video, and other multimedia files on the Internet. The WatchGuard HTTP-proxy is a high-performance content filter. It examines web traffic to identify suspicious content, which can be spyware, malformed content, or another type of attack. It can also protect your web server from attacks from the external network using protocol anomaly detection rules to identify and deny suspicious packets. The HTTP-proxy operates between a web server and a client web browser. It processes each HTTP packet from the server for any potentially harmful content before sending it to the client. It can also act as a buffer between your web server and potentially harmful web clients by enforcing compliance with the HTTP protocol and preventing potential buffer overflow attacks. When you add an HTTP-proxy policy to your XTM device configuration, you get access to two sets of rules that are included with the product: an HTTP-Server proxy action and an HTTP-Client proxy action. You can use the default proxy actions, or you can modify them. This module shows you how to customize the settings in these two proxy actions. HTTP-Client The HTTP-Client proxy action is configured to give comprehensive protection to your network from the content your trusted users download from web servers. HTTP-Server The HTTP-Server proxy action is configured to allow most HTTP connections through to your public web server, but stops any attempts to upload or delete files.

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To further protect your network, both the HTTP-Client and HTTP-Server proxy actions can use these optional services: WebBlocker Controls the web sites trusted users are allowed to browse to at different times of the day. WebBlocker is only available for the HTTP-Client proxy action. Gateway AntiVirus (Gateway AV) Scans HTTP traffic and can stop viruses before they connect to the client computers and HTTP servers on your network. Reputation Enabled Defense (RED) Sends requested URLs to a cloud-based WatchGuard reputation server, that returns a reputation score. The HTTP-proxy uses the reputation score to determine whether to drop the traffic, allow the traffic and scan it locally, or allow the traffic without a local scan.

Control Outgoing HTTP Requests


You can control outgoing HTTP connections from HTTP client applications to prevent your user community from downloading many of the dangerous file types that hackers use to introduce viruses, trojans, and worms to your network.

The HTTP-Client proxy settings give you complete control over the HTTP connections of your trusted users. You can strip files by file name or MIME content type. You can also restrict the use of cookies, ActiveX, Java, and other potential sources of infection.

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Protect Your Web Server


Web servers are popular targets for attackers. Although vendors try to patch web server applications quickly, attackers have a window of vulnerability between the time an attack is discovered and the opportunity you have to patch it. You can use the HTTP-Server proxy action as a way to prevent the attack until a patch is available. If you have a public web server, you must also make sure that people can still get access to it after you configure it to protect it against attacks. The default HTTP-Server ruleset allows most types of connections through the XTM device while it blocks the most common attacks.

HTTP-Proxy Action Rulesets


The HTTP-Client and HTTP-Server proxy actions have the same sets of rules, but the default settings are different. These rulesets appear in the Categories list in the HTTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box. HTTP Request General Settings Use this ruleset to control the idle time out and maximum URL length HTTP parameters. You can configure the XTM device to create a log message with summary information for each HTTP connection request. Select the Enable logging for reports check box to see bandwidth usage information in HostWatch and Report Manager. You can also enforce the strictest Safe Search settings for web browser search engines. Request Methods The Request Method ruleset lets you control the types of HTTP request methods allowed through the XTM device as part of an HTTP request. Some applications, such as Google Desktop and Microsoft FrontPage, require additional request methods. webDAV is used for collaborative online authoring and has a large number of additional request methods. The HTTP-proxy supports webDAV request method extensions by default, according to the specifications in RFC 2518. URL Paths Use the URL Path ruleset to filter the content of the host and path of a URL. For best results, use URL path filtering together with file header and content type filtering.
Many web pages get information from site visitors, such as location, email address, and name. If you disable the POST command, the XTM device denies all POST operations to web servers on the external network. This feature can prevent your users from sending information to a web site on the external network.

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Usually, if you filter URLs with the HTTP request URL path ruleset, you must configure a complex pattern that uses regular expression syntax configured in the Advanced View of a ruleset. It is easier and better to filter header or body content types than it is to filter URL paths.

Header Fields This ruleset supplies content filtering for the full HTTP header name and its value. By default, the XTM device uses exact matching rules to strip Via and From headers, and allows all other headers. The Via header can be added to a client request by a proxy server to track message forwards and avoid request loops. Stripping the Via header can protect client privacy. The From header passes the client users' email address to the server, which can be harvested by bulk mail recipient lists. Stripping this header helps reduce the chance of receiving spam and maintains client anonymity and privacy. Authorization This ruleset sets the criteria for content filtering of HTTP Request Header authorization fields. When a web server starts a WWW-Authenticate challenge, it sends information about which authentication methods it can use. The proxy puts limits on the type of authentication sent in a request. With a default configuration, the XTM device allows Basic, Digest, NTLM, and Passport 1.4 authentication. HTTP Response General Settings Use this ruleset to configure basic HTTP response parameters, including idle time out, maximum line length, and maximum total length of an HTTP response header. If you set a value control to zero (0) bytes, the XTM device ignores the size of HTTP response headers. Header Fields This ruleset controls which HTTP response header fields the XTM device allows. Response headers can be used to specify cookies, supply modification dates for caching, instruct the browser to reload the page after a specified time interval, and for several other tasks. Content Types This ruleset controls the types of MIME content allowed through the XTM device in HTTP response headers. By default, the XTM device allows some safe content types and denies MIME content that has no specified content type. This is a common way of restricting the types of files that users can download from web sites. Cookies Use this ruleset to control cookies included in HTTP responses. The default ruleset allows all cookies. HTTP cookies are used to track and store information about users who visit particular sites. Body Content Types This ruleset gives you control of the content in an HTTP response. The XTM device is configured to deny Java applets, ZIP archives, Windows exe/dll files, and Windows cab files by default. It is a good idea to examine the file types used in your organization and allow only necessary file types. Use Web Cache Server If you have an existing HTTP caching proxy server on your network, you can forward HTTP requests from the XTM device to your proxy server. For more information, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide. HTTP-Proxy Exceptions All traffic to or from a domain listed in this ruleset will bypass the proxy completely. Only trusted sites that supply needed files that would be denied by other parts of the HTTP-proxy should be listed here. By default, the Microsoft Windows Update web sites are ignored by the HTTP-proxy. WebBlocker See the subsequent section for more information on how to restrict Web access with a WebBlocker profile.

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Antivirus This ruleset sets the actions necessary if a virus is found. Although you can use the proxy definition screens to activate and configure Gateway AntiVirus, it is easier to use the Tasks menu in Policy Manager to do this. For more information, see the Signature Services training module. Reputation Enabled Defense If you have purchased the Reputation Enabled Defense Service, this ruleset enables you to immediately block URLs that have a bad reputation, and bypass any configured virus scanning for URLs that have a good reputation. You can also change the Good and Bad reputation thresholds. Deny Message Use this feature to customize the default deny message that your trusted users will see if the XTM device denies HTML content. Proxy and AV Alarms This ruleset lets you define the type of alarm that is sent any time a notification is triggered by an HTTP ruleset.

Monitor Secured HTTP Traffic with the HTTPS-Proxy


The HTTPS proxy allows you to manage and filter secure HTTP (HTTPS) traffic on TCP port 443 to protect your network clients, or an HTTPS server on your network. By default, the HTTPS proxy only allows or denies connections to web sites you specify when the Issued To name on the sites HTTPS certificate matches an item in the Certificate Names list. You can also specify a WebBlocker profile for HTTPS traffic. You can enable deep inspection of HTTPS content to decrypt secured HTTP traffic. When you enable this feature, the rules of the HTTP-proxy action you specify are applied to that traffic. This means that you can use all of the same features for HTTPS traffic that you already use in an HTTP-proxy, or create a new proxy action specifically for HTTPS. After your XTM device examines the traffic and determines that it can be allowed, it is re-encrypted, re-signed with a new certificate, and sent to its original destination. Because the HTTPS-proxy configuration is considered an advanced feature, detailed configuration options for the HTTPS-proxy are not covered in this module. To use the deep content inspection feature, you must configure the XTM device and either your network clients or your HTTPS server to trust the same certificate. For more information, see the Certificates section in the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help system or User Guide.

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Restrict Web Access with WebBlocker


WebBlocker uses a database of web sites, organized into categories based on their content. You configure WebBlocker to control which web site categories your users can see. When a user on your network browses the Internet, the XTM device automatically checks the WebBlocker Server to see if the site is allowed. If the site is on the block list, the user receives a message that the site is not available.

WebBlocker Server Options


When you configure WebBlocker, you have two options for the type of WebBlocker database the XTM device uses to filter web content. Websense cloud with Websense categories Websense cloud is a URL categorization database with over 120 categories, provided by Websense. The Websense cloud option does not use a locally installed WebBlocker server. When you enable WebBlocker for the first time, Websense cloud is selected by default. The Websense cloud option is available only for XTM devices that use Fireware XTM v11.7 and higher. URL categorization queries to the Websense cloud are sent over HTTP. WebBlocker Server with SurfControl categories The WebBlocker Server is a WatchGuard server that uses a URL categorization database with 54 categories, provided by SurfControl. If you use WebBlocker with the WebBlocker Server on any XTM device other than an XTM 2 Series or XTM 33, you must first set up a local WebBlocker Server on your management computer. XTM 2 Series and XTM 33 devices can use a web a WebBlocker Server hosted and maintained by WatchGuard or a locally installed WebBlocker Server. URL categorization queries to the WebBlocker Server are sent over UDP port 5003. To use WebBlocker you must: Install and set up the WebBlocker Server (only if you want to use the SurfControl categories) Activate a WebBlocker license Configure an HTTP-proxy policy to use WebBlocker

WebBlocker Categories
When you configure WebBlocker, you select the server to use for WebBlocker lookups and you select the content categories you want WebBlocker to block. The list of content categories you can configure depends on which type of server you choose. Both the Websense and SurfControl databases contain content categories such as News, Drugs, Gambling, or Adult/Sexually Explicit. The Websense database has more granular categories than the SurfControl database. After you select the type of WebBlocker server to use, you select which content categories you want to block. To see a description of any content category, click the category name in the WebBlocker configuration.

WebBlocker Exceptions
To override a WebBlocker action, you can add an exception to the WebBlocker categories to allow or deny a particular web site. The exceptions are based on IP addresses, a pattern based on a URL, or a regular expression. To match a URL path on all web sites, the pattern must have a trailing /*. The host in the URL can be the host name specified in the HTTP request, or the IP address of the server.

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To create a WebBlocker pattern match exception, you can use of any part of a URL. You can set a port number, path name, or string that must be blocked for a special web site. For example, if it is necessary to block only www.sharedspace.com/~dave because it has inappropriate photographs, you type www.sharedspace.com/~dave/*. This gives users the ability to browse to www.sharedspace.com/~julia, which could contain content you want your users to see. To block URLs that contain the word sex in the path, you can type */*sex*. To block URLs that contain sex in the path or the host name, type *sex*. Such broad wildcards should be used cautiously, however, since a rule like this would also unintentionally block access to a web site for the City of Middlesex. You can also block ports in a URL. For example, for http://www.hackerz.com/warez/ index.html:8080, the browser uses the HTTP protocol on TCP port 8080 instead of the default method that uses TCP 80. You can block the port by matching *8080. Note
Regular expressions are more efficient, in terms of CPU usage on the XTM device, than pattern matches. If you add many WebBlocker exceptions you can improve performance by configuring your WebBlocker exceptions as regular expressions rather than pattern matches. You can create a regular expression that is equivalent to a pattern match. For example, the regular expression ^[0-9a-zA-Z\-\_]\.hostname\.com. is equivalent to the pattern match *.hostname.com/*. For more information about regular expressions, see the WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide.

The web sites you block with WebBlocker exceptions apply only to HTTP traffic (not HTTPS). They are not added to the Blocked Sites list.

WebBlocker Local Override


If you want to allow certain users to temporarily override the WebBlocker rules, you can enable the WebBlocker local override feature. WebBlocker local override allows end-users to see a web site blocked by WebBlocker if they know the override passphrase. This feature operates only with HTTP-proxy policies. In the WebBlocker configuration advanced settings, you can enable local override, and configure a local override passphrase and inactivity timeout. When WebBlocker local override is enabled, if a user navigates to a web site that is blocked by WebBlocker, the WebBlocker request denied page includes a place the user can type the WebBlocker override password.

If the user types the correct password, WebBlocker allows access to the override destination. The user can also edit the override destination using wildcards to allow override access to more than one site, or to more pages in a site. You can use wildcards can in an override destination in the same way you use them to define a WebBlocker exception. In effect, WebBlocker local override allows the user to define a temporary WebBlocker exception. WebBlocker enables access to the override destination until the WebBlocker local override inactivity timeout is reached or until the user logs out, if the user was authenticated. The default inactivity timeout for local override is five minutes.
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WebBlocker Schedules
You can set an operating schedule for a set of WebBlocker rules. You use time periods to set rules for when to block different web sites. For example, you can block sports web sites during usual business hours of operation, but allow users to browse at lunch time, evenings, and weekends. To do this, you add a schedule to the HTTP-proxy policy that WebBlocker is assigned to. You can also configure two HTTP policies, but create a schedule for only one of them. Each policy uses one of the HTTP-proxy actions. Each of these HTTP-proxy actions points to one of at least two WebBlocker actions.

WebBlocker Server
If you want to configure WebBlocker to use a WebBlocker Server with SurfControl, you must install a WebBlocker Server. If you use the Websense cloud for WebBlocker lookups, WebBlocker does not use a local WebBlocker Server. You install the WebBlocker Server when you install WatchGuard System Manager (WSM). If you did not originally install the WebBlocker Server when you installed WSM, you can do so at any time. Run the WSM installer again and select the check box for WebBlocker. Then, continue installation. After you first install the WebBlocker Server, you must download the full WebBlocker database to the WebBlocker Server. The WebBlocker Server automatically updates the WebBlocker database once per day.

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Exercise 1:

Configure HTTP Connections from Trusted Users

Successful Company network administrators are now ready to configure the XTM device to enforce the companys policy on browsing the Web. In this exercise, you use Policy Manager to edit the predefined HTTP-Client ruleset to limit the types of HTTP connections that Successful Company employees can start. Specifically, you will: Enable logging for HTTP client requests Block HTTP client connections to YouTube Enable the web download of Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint documents, as well as ZIP files Customize the message that users see when some of the content in their web requests is denied

Add an HTTP Client Proxy Policy


The HTTP packet filter cannot meet all the Successful Company web policy criteria. First, we use Policy Manager to add a HTTP-Client proxy policy.

1. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policy.


The Add Policies dialog box appears.

2. Expand the Proxies folder. 3. Select HTTP-proxy and click Add.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears, with the Policy tab selected.

4. In the Name text box, type HTTP-Employees.


By default, the HTTP-proxy policy is outgoing and controls traffic from any trusted network to any computer on the external network.

5. In the Proxy action drop-down list, select HTTP-Client.

Enable a Log Message for Each HTTP Client Connection


Successful Companys network administrator wants to make sure that the XTM device records each HTTP connection initiated by an employee. He plans to use this data to prove internal compliance with the companys Internet usage policy. It can also help to troubleshoot bandwidth problems if they occur in the future. In the default HTTP-Client proxy action, as in other proxy rulesets, allowed connections do not create log entries unless you activate the log option. If you do not activate the option to send a log message for each HTTP client connection, you do not see any allowed HTTP traffic in the log file or in reports. You also do not see HTTP connections in HostWatch. On the Policy tab:

1. Adjacent to the Proxy action drop-down list, click


The HTTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box appears.

2. Select the Enable logging for reports check box.

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Block HTTP Client Connections by URL Path


Because of concerns about employee productivity and bandwidth use, Successful Companys network administrator was asked to have the XTM device stop all HTTP client connection requests to YouTube. To block all client connections that include youtube.com in the URL path: In the HTTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box:

1. In the Categories list, expand HTTP Request and select URL Paths.
The URL Paths page appears. The default configuration for the HTTP-Client proxy action allows all URL paths.

2. In the Pattern text box, type *.youtube.com. Click Add.


*.youtube.com appears in the URL Paths list.

3. In the If matched drop-down list, select Deny. 4. To send a log message when this rule denies a connection, select the Log check box.

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Allow Microsoft Office Documents and ZIP Files Through the HTTP-Proxy
Sometimes, Successful Company users must download certain Microsoft Office documents. Also, employees often use their browser to download files compressed in the ZIP file format, even though it is a security risk. After their network administrator educates users on the types of zipped files to avoid, they decide to allow zipped content through the HTTP-proxy as well. To allow these types of content, you must edit two of the HTTP Response rulesets: In the HTTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box:

1. In the Categories list, expand HTTP Response and select Content Types.
The Content Types page appears. The list of content types allowed by default includes PDF, XML, Flash, text, and image files.

To see some of the common MIME types, click Predefined. To find the MIME type for some of the content you want to allow or deny through the device, see your vendor documentation or go to http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/.

2. Click Change View.


The Content Types Rules (advanced view) page appears.

3. Click Add.
The New Content Type Rule dialog box appears.

4. In the Rule Name text box, type Excel. 5. In the Rule Settings text box, type application/ms-excel. 6. In the Action drop-down list, select Allow. 7. Click OK.
Excel data sheets are now allowed by the HTTP-proxy.

8. Repeat Steps 27 for Microsoft PowerPoint (PPT) files. Use application/mspowerpoint as the pattern.
PowerPoint presentations are now allowed by the HTTP-proxy.

9. Repeat Steps 27 for Microsoft Word (DOC) files. Use application/msword as the pattern.
Word documents are now allowed by the HTTP-proxy.

10. Repeat Steps 27 for zip archive (ZIP) files. Use application/zip as the pattern.
Zip archives are now allowed by the HTTP-proxy.

11. In the Rules (advanced view) list, select application/*. Click Edit.
The Edit Content Type Rule dialog box appears.

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12. From the Action drop-down list, select Deny. Click OK.
All other content types not specifically allowed are denied by the HTTP-proxy.

13. In the Categories list, expand HTTP Responses and select Body Content Types.
The Body Content Types page appears.

14. Click Change View.


The Rules (advanced view) page appears.

15. Select ZIP Archive. Click Edit.


The Edit Body Content Type Rule dialog box appears.

16. From the Action drop-down list, select Allow. Click OK.
This action allows zip archives as a body content type.

Customize the Deny Message


When a user on your network tries to browse to a web site or to download a file that the HTTP-proxy blocks, that user sees a Deny Message. The default message includes the reason, method, host, and path. You can also add the XTM device name and serial number to the body of the Deny Message. In this exercise, you edit the message to also include the email address for the Successful Company help desk. In the HTTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box:

1. In the Categories list, select Deny Message.


The Deny Message page appears. The Deny Message uses HTML. The device accepts most valid HTML code.

2. In the Deny Message text box, select the WatchGuard HTTP proxy phrase. 3. To replace the selected phrase, type Successful Company firewall. 4. At the end of the <b> Path: </b> %(url-path)% </p> line, click to place your cursor and press Enter on your keyboard. 5. On the new line, press the space bar to align the new text with the text in the previous line.

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6. On the new line, type:


<p>For more information, contact Dustin and Nandi at <a href="mailto:itsupport@example.com">itsupport@example.com</a>.<p>

7. Click OK to close the HTTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box.


The Clone Predefined or DVCP-created Object dialog box appears.

8. (Optional) In the Name text box, type a unique name for the proxy action.
The default name for a clone is HTTP-Client.1. You can also give it a friendly name to help you recognize it.

9. Click OK to clone the template.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears.

10. Click OK to close the New Policy Properties dialog box. 11. Click Close to close the Add Policy dialog box.
The HTTP-Employees policy appears in your policy list.

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Exercise 2:

Use HTTP-Proxy Exceptions to Allow Software Updates

Frequently, software companies configure their software to contact one of their servers for software updates. This traffic can occur over HTTP. The update session can include many content types, file names and other properties that could cause the HTTP-proxy to deny the traffic. At Successful Company, many employees use the Mozilla Firefox browser. To allow the clients to update their browsers automatically, we use Policy Manager to add the Firefox servers to the list of HTTP-proxy exceptions. All traffic to a domain listed in the HTTP Proxy Exceptions list is not examined by the HTTP-proxy policy.

1. Double-click the HTTP-Employees policy.


The Edit Policy Properties dialog box appears, with the Policy tab selected.

2. Adjacent to the Proxy action drop-down list, click

The Edit HTTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box appears.

3. In the Categories list, select HTTP Proxy Exceptions.


The HTTP Proxy Exceptions page appears. The list already includes the domains used by Microsoft Windows to distribute updates to their software.

4. In the text box below the HTTP Proxy Exceptions list, type *.mozilla.com and click Add.
*.mozilla.com appears in the list

5. Click OK to close the Edit HTTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box. 6. Click OK to close the Edit Policy Properties dialog box.

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Exercise 3:

Configure an HTTP-Server Proxy Action

Successful Company has a web server on the optional network at 10.0.2.80. Initially, their network administrators find the default settings of the HTTP-Server ruleset sufficiently robust to protect their server. Later we will learn that sometimes you need to change that ruleset to provide additional protection.

Add the HTTP-Server Proxy Policy


First, we will protect the Successful Company public web server. We will use Policy Manager to configure it to accept connections from both the trusted and external networks. This policy will use static NAT.

1. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policy.


The Add Policies dialog box appears.

2. Expand the Proxies list and select HTTP-proxy. Click Add.


The New Policy Properties dialog box appears, with the Policy tab selected.

3. In the Name text box, type HTTP-Public Server.


It is useful to have a separate policy for each web server on your network.

4. In the To list, select Any-External. Click Remove. 5. In the To section, click Add.
The Add Address dialog box appears.

6. Click Add SNAT.


The SNAT dialog box appears.

7. Click Add.
The Add SNAT dialog box appears.

8. In the SNAT Name text box, type a name for this SNAT action. 9. Click Add.
The Add Static NAT dialog box appears.

10. In the Internal IP Address text box, type 10.0.2.80. 11. Click OK to close the Add Static NAT dialog box.
The new Static NAT entry appears in the SNAT Members list.

12. Click OK to close the Add SNAT and the SNAT dialog boxes.
The IP address appears in the Add Address dialog box in the Selected Members and Addresses list.

13. Click OK to close the Add Address dialog box.


This restricts the policy to the Successful Company public web server on the optional network. The New Policy Properties dialog box appears.

14. In the From section, click Add.


The Add Address dialog box appears.

15. Double-click Any-External.


Any-External appears in the Selected Members and Addresses dialog box.

16. Click OK.


Any-External appears in the From list. This expands the policy to include connections from the external as well as the trusted network.

17. From the Proxy action drop-down list, select HTTP-Server.


Because we are going to accept the default ruleset, we do not need to edit the proxy action.

18. Click OK. Click Close to close the Add Policies dialog box.
The HTTP-Public-Server policy appears in the policy list.

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Create a New Proxy Policy Ruleset


Successful Company recently received a LiveSecurity alert that describes a vulnerability to Passport 1.4 authentication. In this exercise, you edit the HTTP-Server ruleset based upon this hypothetical LiveSecurity alert. Use the HTTP-Server proxy action rulesets to strip headers that specify Passport 1.4 authentication. This additional precaution can remain on the server until the network administrator applies and tests the patch the vendor provided, which was also described in the LiveSecurity Alert. First, we use Policy Manager to clone the HTTP-Server ruleset and modify it to block the Passport 1.4 authentication. Then we apply it to our public server policy.

1. Select Setup > Actions > Proxies.


The Proxy Actions dialog box appears. This is a list of all the template rulesets available.
The first portion of the list is in blue text and consists of the default policies. The second portion of the list is in black text and includes the templates we created during our exercises.

2. Select HTTP-Server and click Clone.


The Clone HTTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box appears.

3. In the Name text box, type HTTP-Server-BlockPassport. 4. In the Categories list, expand HTTP Request and select Authorization.
The Authorization page appears.

5. Click Change View.


The Rules (advanced view) page appears. In this view, we can change the settings for each rule rather than apply a global setting to all of them.

6. In the Rules list, select Passport 1.4. Click Edit.


The Edit Authorization Rule dialog box appears.

7. From the Action drop-down list, select Strip. Select the Log check box.
This rule strips all headers that include Passport1.4 authentication requests and sends a log message.

8. Click OK to close the Edit Authorization Rule dialog box.


The Clone HTTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box Authorization page appears. The updated rule appears in the Rules list.

9. Click OK to close the Clone HTTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box.
The Proxy Actions dialog box appears with the cloned proxy action in the list.
This enables us to quickly apply this ruleset again in the future. You now have a ruleset which strips Passport 1.4 authorization requests.

10. Click Close. 11. Double-click the HTTP-Public-Server policy.


The Edit Policy Properties dialog box appears, with the Policy tab selected.

12. From the Proxy Action drop-down list, select HTTP-Server-BlockPassport.

13. Click OK to close the Edit Policy Properties dialog box.


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Exercise 4:

Selectively Block Web Sites with WebBlocker


You must have a WebBlocker feature key to complete these exercises.

Successful Company is pleased with the results of their purchase of spamBlocker. The network administrators decide to purchase the WebBlocker feature to enforce HR restrictions on what web content can be viewed during work hours.

Add a WebBlocker Action


You can use Policy Manager to activate WebBlocker in three ways. The first is directly from the Actions menu. The second is from within the HTTP-proxy settings. The third is with the Activate WebBlocker Wizard. In this exercise, we use the first method to configure the WebBlocker policy for the Successful Company network.

1. Select Setup > Actions > WebBlocker.


The WebBlocker Configurations dialog box appears.

2. Click Add.
The New WebBlocker Configuration dialog box appears, with the Servers tab selected.

3. In the Name text box, type General Employees. 4. In the Description text box, type Everyone but the Executives and IT.
The WebBlocker action uses the Websense cloud by default, so no other server configuration is necessary.

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Select Categories to Block


Successful Company is very strict about sexual harassment, and about bias or intolerance regarding race, religion, or political beliefs. Obviously, the network administrator should block the sexual and hate speech categories, however, sites that belong to other categories might be a problem for the company as well.

1. Select the Categories tab. 2. Select the Adult Material check box.
This blocks all the subcategories in the Adult Material list.

3. Select the Racism and Hate check box. 4. Scroll through the categories and select any others you think might be blocked at your company.
For example, you can also block Spyware and Malicious Web Sites to help protect your network from malware.

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Create an Exception
A web site about advertising principles that has a section on Ravels Bolero is in the Adult Content category. However, this is a useful site for the Successful Company Marketing department. The network administrator wants to create a WebBlocker exception for this site. In the New WebBlocker Configuration dialog box:

1. Select the Exceptions tab. 2. Click Add.


The New WebBlocker Exception dialog box appears.

3. In the Match Type drop-down list, keep the default setting. 4. From the Type drop-down list, select Host IP Address. 5. In the Host IP Address text box, type 203.0.113.223.
The Directory text box is automatically populated with /*. This unblocks all sites with the selected address.

6. Click OK.
The new exception appears in the list. WebBlocker now allows access to this site even though its IP address is in the Adult Content category.

7. Click OK to close the New WebBlocker Configuration dialog box.


The new configuration appears in the WebBlocker Configurations dialog box.

8. Click Close to close the WebBlocker Configurations dialog box.


Policy Manager appears. You can now apply the WebBlocker action to any policy that uses the HTTP-proxy. You can apply the same WebBlocker action to more than one policy, or create different sets of WebBlocker rules for different groups in your organization.

9. Select Setup > Actions > Proxies.


The Proxy Actions dialog box appears.

10. Select HTTP-Client.1. Click Edit.


The Edit HTTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box appears. In this exercise, we will add the General Employees WebBlocker action to our primary HTTP-Client ruleset.

11. In the Categories list, select WebBlocker.


The WebBlocker page appears.

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12. From the WebBlocker drop-down list, select General employees.

13. Click OK to close the Edit HTTP Proxy Action Configuration dialog box.
The Proxy Actions dialog box appears.

14. Click Close to close the Proxy Actions dialog box.


The change is automatically applied to all policies which use the HTTP-Client.1 proxy action ruleset.

15. Save the configuration file with the name WebTraffic-Done.

Enable WebBlocker Local Override


Successful Company has an employee who has a legitimate need to connect to web sites that are blocked by the corporate WebBlocker policy. The network administrator decides to enable WebBlocker local override and give this user the local override password.

1. Select Setup > Actions > WebBlocker. 2. Select the General Employees WebBlocker configuration you created. Click Edit. 3. In the Edit WebBlocker Configuration dialog box, select the Advanced tab.

4. Select the Use this passphrase and inactivity timeout to control WebBlocker local override check box. 5. Type and confirm the local override Passphrase.
The local override passphrase must be between eight and 32 characters.

6. Click OK to close the Edit WebBlocker Configuration dialog box. 7. Click Close to close the WebBlocker Configurations dialog box. 8. Save the configuration file.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions


Can I get a report of HTTP traffic on my XTM device? Yes. In the General Settings category for the HTTP-proxy, select the Enable logging for reports check box. The XTM device creates a log message for each HTTP transaction. You can use Log and Report Manager to get detailed reports on HTTP traffic.

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Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. Circle the proxy action to use for each task:


A) B) C) D) E) F) Prevent users from downloading batch (*.bat) files from the Internet Strip .zip files from email messages Block incoming HTTP GET requests Apply WebBlocker to prevent users from browsing to web sites with nudity Configure the message users see when they attempt to browse to blocked URLs Resolve domain names for web sites HTTP-Client | HTTP-Server | Other HTTP-Client | HTTP-Server | Other HTTP-Client | HTTP-Server | Other HTTP-Client | HTTP-Server | Other HTTP-Client | HTTP-Server | Other HTTP-Client | HTTP-Server | Other

2. Fill in the blank: For better security, place your public web server on the __________ network. 3. In the screen shot below, all of the URL Path entries are set to Deny if matched.

With this configuration, which web sites will the XTM device block? (Select all that apply.)
A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) I) J) K) terrificsex.com allthemusic.bittorrent.com sex.thegoodstuff.com www.trumpets.org prevent.pornography.org www.microsoft.com/porno/msupdate.asp www.microsoft.com/patches/porno.exe www.bittorrent.com singing.napster.com napster.communication.net troubleshootingwinxp.hardcore.com

4. True or false? WebBlocker adds URL filtering to the SMTP-proxy. 5. How does the XTM device contact the Websense cloud server for URL categorization lookups?
A) B) C) D) UDP HTTP SSL PPTP

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6. True or false? An exception to the WebBlocker rules allows a site that is normally blocked to be viewed, or a site that is normally viewed to be blocked. 7. Employees can view the web site 10.0.1.19, except for its pages on politics. If the sites pages on politics all have the word politics somewhere in the path, what do you type in the Pattern text box? 8. True or false? You can create new WebBlocker categories. 9. True or false? You can create a WebBlocker exception that blocks a specific port in a URL. 10. True or false? You can allow a user to bypass the WebBlocker restrictions.

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ANSWERS 1. A. HTTP-Client; B. Other; C. HTTP-Server; D. HTTP-Client E. HTTP-Client; F. Other 2. Optional (also known as a DMZ) 3. B, C, E, F, G, H, I, K 4. False 5. B 6. True 7. 10.0.1.19/*politics* 8. False 9. True 10. True

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Fireware XTM Basics

Threat Protection
Defend Your Network From Intruders
What You Will Learn
Firewalls provide both signature-based and default threat protection measures. In this training module, you learn how to: Understand the different types of intrusion protection available for the XTM device Configure Fireware XTM default packet handling options to stop many common attacks Block IP addresses and ports used by hackers to attack your network Automatically block IP addresses that send suspicious traffic

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module.

Default Threat Protection Measures Block Intruders


You can use Policy Manager to configure your XTM device to have strict control over access to your network. While a detailed access policy helps to keep hackers out of your network, it cannot defeat some other types of attacks. An Intrusion Prevention Service (IPS) detects attacks from hackers. With Fireware XTM, you can use your XTM device as an IPS device to detect and prevent attacks automatically. There are two categories of IPS defenses: Firewall-based IPS With this type of IPS defense, the XTM device combines protocol anomaly detection with traffic analysis to proactively block many common attacks. Protocol anomaly detection is the examination of a packet for compliance with RFC guidelines. Attackers can make packets that are different from RFC standards in ways that allow them to bypass standard packet filters and get access to your network. If you block non-compliant packets, you can also block the attack. This allows your XTM device to proactively protect you against attacks that are as yet unknown. Traffic pattern analysis examines a series of packets over time and matches them against known patterns of attack. For example, when an attacker launches a port space probe, they attempt to send packets through each port number until they identify which ports your firewall allows. If you can identify this pattern, you can block the source of the probe.

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A firewall-based IPS can also protect your network from a zero-day threat. In other words, before the network security community is even aware that the vulnerability exists, broad categories of attack types are automatically identified and blocked by a strong firewall-based IPS.

Signature-based IPS You can configure this type of IPS defense (such as the Fireware XTM Intrusion Prevention Service) to compare the contents of packets against a database of character strings that are known to appear in attacks. Each unique character string is called a signature. When there is a match, the XTM device can block the traffic and notify the network administrator. To remain protected, you must regularly update the signature database. Signature-based approaches use less computer processing time than firewall-based IPS options, however, to keep them current the database must be updated regularly. As a result, signature-based IPS is good for maintaining efficient, high performance protection while firewall-based IPS catches the zero-day threats. The rest of this training module focuses on the firewall-based IPS options available with Fireware XTM. For more information on signature-based options, see the Signature Services training module.

Use Default Packet Handling Options


Default packet handling is a set of pattern analysis rules to help protect your XTM device from attacks, and to show the XTM device how to process packets when no other rules are specified. With default packet handling, a firewall examines the source and destination of each packet it receives. The firewall looks at the IP address and port number and monitors the packets for patterns that show your network is at risk. If there is a risk and the device is properly configured, it automatically blocks the possible attack. The default configuration of the default packet handling options stops attacks such as SYN flood attacks, spoofing attacks, and port or address space probes. We do not recommend that you change the default packet handling settings in your XTM device configuration file. The default settings are carefully chosen to maximize security. If a particular setting interferes with the function of your network, or you want a more stringent defense, like that available with the Block source of packets not handled option, you can change your device packet handling settings.

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Default Threat Protection Measures Block Intruders

Default packet handling: Rejects packets that could be used to get information about your network Automatically blocks all traffic to and from a source IP address when a configured limit is reached Adds an event to the log file Sends an SNMP trap to the SNMP management server (when configured) Sends a notification of possible security risks (when configured)

Unhandled Packets
Packets that are denied by the firewall because they do not match any of the firewall policies are blocked as unhandled packets. The Default Packet Handling options give you the tools to block the source of any unhandled packet. This is an extremely aggressive security setting and is not enabled by default.

Automatically Block the Source of Suspicious Traffic


The Blocked Sites feature helps stop network traffic from systems that you know or think are a security risk. After you identify the source of suspicious traffic, you can block all the connections to and from that IP address. You can also configure the XTM device to send a log message each time that source tries to connect to your network. A blocked site is an IP address that cannot make a connection through the device, even if the IP address is usually allowed to connect as part of your policy configuration. If a packet comes from, or is sent to, a system that is blocked, it does not get through the device. There are two types of blocked IP addresses: Permanent Blocked Sites These are IP addresses that you manually add to your device configuration file because you want all connections to and from the IP address blocked. If an IP address consistently and repeatedly tries to violate your security policies, you can add it to the Permanent Blocked Sites list. Auto-blocked sites These are IP addresses that the device adds to, and removes from, a list of sites that are temporarily blocked based on the packet handling rules specified in your device configuration. These IP addresses are blocked for a period of time you select. This feature is known as the Temporary Blocked Sites list. For example, if you configure the auto-block option for a policy set to deny traffic, the device can add the denied IP addresses to the Temporary Blocked Sites list. If a connection is blocked by your default packet handling rules, the source IP address is also added to the Temporary Blocked Sites list. You can use the Temporary Blocked Sites list and your log messages to help make decisions about which IP addresses to permanently block.

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Block Ports Commonly Used by Attackers


Another method you can use to protect your network is to block all traffic on ports commonly used by attackers. As attackers become more creative, this method has become less effective, however, it can still be used to protect against some of the most obvious vulnerabilities. Because a blocked port overrides all other service configurations, it can protect you from errors in your device configuration. It can also be used to make independent log entries for probes against sensitive services. The default configuration of the device blocks some destination ports. This is a basic configuration that you usually do not have to change. It blocks TCP and UDP packets for these ports:

Port(s)
0 1 111 513, 514 2049 60006005 7100 8000

Service
NONE TCPmux RPC rlogin, rsh, rcp NFS X Window System X Font Server

Reason
XTM device always blocks this port and you cannot override this default. Block to make it more difficult for port scanning tools. Used by RPC Services to find out which ports an RPC server uses. These are easy to attack through the Internet. Because they give remote access to other computers, many attackers probe for these services. New versions of NFS have important authentication and security problems. Client connection is not encrypted and dangerous to use over the Internet. X Font Servers operate as the super-user on some hosts. Used by many vendors whose software is vulnerable to a variety of attacks.

(infrequently)

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Default Threat Protection Measures Block Intruders

Exercise 1:

Configure Default Packet Handling Options


This is sometimes known as the Digg effect.

Successful Company just signed a sponsorship of the popular podcast Diggnation. Surprisingly, the publicity generates an unusually high volume of traffic to their public web server. So high in fact that the XTM device mistakenly interprets the requests as a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. In this exercise, we use Policy Manager to increase the Per Server Quota threshold to prevent this problem.

1. Select Setup > Default Threat Protection > Default Packet Handling.
The Default Packet Handling dialog box appears.

2. In the Distributed Denial-of-Service Prevention section, in the Per Server Quota text box, type or select 200.

This doubles the amount of connections that the XTM device allows before it triggers a DDoS block on additional connections.

3. Click OK.

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Exercise 2:

Block Potential Sources of Attacks

The network administrator at Successful Company is more and more confident that his XTM device configuration policy is strong, strict, and effective at blocking most access to their network. However, the log files suggest that more can be done to reduce the impact of direct attacks on the performance of the firewall. He starts with blocking the potential sources of attacks.

Block a Site Permanently


The Successful Company network administrator has been overwhelmed by a script kiddy using addresses in the 192.136.15.0/24 network to run probes of the Successful network. In this exercise, we use Policy Manager to permanently block all connections from that network.

1. Select Setup > Default Threat Protection > Blocked Sites.


The Blocked Sites Configuration dialog box opens.

2. On the Blocked Sites tab, click Add.


The Add Site dialog box opens.

3. In the Choose Type drop-down list, select Network IPv4. 4. In the Value text box, type 192.136.15.0/24. 5. (Optional) In the Description text box, type a description.
The member type shows if this is an IP address or a range of IP addresses. When you type an IP address, type all the numbers and the periods.

6. Click OK.
The entry appears in the Blocked Sites list. With this configuration, the XTM device blocks all packets to and from the 192.136.15.0/24 network range.

Create Exceptions to the Blocked Sites List


An exception is an entry for which all other rules do not apply. For blocked sites, an exception is an IP address or network address that is never blocked. The automatic rules do not apply for this host. The rule also takes precedence over the manually blocked sites list.
Many XTM device users add the IP address of their own DNS servers to the Blocked Sites exception list to make sure connections are not blocked by traffic patterns that look like an attack.

In this exercise, we will add an exception to the 192.136.15.0/24 network we blocked in the previous exercise. We will configure the XTM device to allow connections to and from the single IP address: 192.136.15.22. In the Blocked Site Configuration dialog box:

1. Click the Blocked Sites Exceptions tab. 2. Click Add.


The Add Site dialog box appears.

3. In the Choose Type drop-down list, select Host IPv4. 4. In the Value text box, type 192.136.15.22.

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5. In the Description text box, type Joes home IP.


The Description is optional but it can be helpful to you (and other network administrators) when you later try to figure out why an exception was made.

6. Click OK.

7. Click OK again to close the Blocked Sites Configuration dialog box.

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Exercise 3:

Block Sites Automatically

After reading a LiveSecurity Foundations article, the Successful Company network administrator decides to deny all RSH (Remote Shell) connections. In addition, he would like to automatically block the source of any incoming attempts to use RSH.

1. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policy.


The Add Policies dialog box appears.

2. Expand the Packet Filters folder and select RSH. Click Add.
The New Policy Properties dialog box appears.

3. In the RSH Connections are drop-down list, select Denied. 4. Configure the policy to deny connections: - In the From list, add Any-External - In the To list, add Any-Trusted, Any-Optional, Any-BOVPN

5. Select the Properties tab. 6. Select the Auto-block sites that attempt to connect check box.

7. Click OK.
The XTM device now automatically adds the IP address of any source of RSH packets to the Blocked Sites list. With a default configuration, the IP address stays on the Blocked Sites list for 20 minutes.

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Test Your Knowledge

Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. True or false? A firewall-based IPS maintains a database of character strings that match known viruses and worms. 2. Select the type of intrusion prevention measure for each Fireware XTM feature:
A) B) C) D) E) Gateway AntiVirus Default Packet Handling Blocked Sites IPS Service Blocked Ports Firewall-Based | Signature-Based Firewall-Based | Signature-Based Firewall-Based | Signature-Based Firewall-Based | Signature-Based Firewall-Based | Signature-Based

3. Which of these actions can the XTM device perform when it looks for patterns that show if your network is at risk? (Select all that apply.)
A) B) C) D) E) Looks for packets which are not RFC compliant Automatically blocks all traffic to and from a source IP address Sends a log message to the Log Server Sends a notification of possible security risks All of the above

4. True or false? An unhandled packet is a packet that does not match any rule created in Policy Manager. 5. Fill in the blank: To block all traffic to and from a network, you add the address to the Blocked ________ list.

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ANSWERS 1. False A signature-based IPS maintains a database. 2. Gateway AntiVirus Signature; Default Packet Handling - Firewall; Blocked Sites - Firewall; IPS Service - Signature; Blocked ports - Firewall 3. All the above 4. True 5. Sites

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Fireware XTM Basics

Signature Services
AntiVirus, Intrusion Prevention, and Application Control
What You Will Learn
WatchGuard Gateway AntiVirus, Intrusion Prevention Service (IPS), and Application Control are signature-based services that identify and stop possible viruses and intrusions, and enable you to monitor and control application usage on your network. In this module, you learn how to: Understand how signature services work to protect your network Set up and configure Gateway AntiVirus Set up and configure the Intrusion Prevention Service Set up and configure Application Control

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module. In this module, you will configure optional features of the XTM device. To configure these services, you must first purchase a feature key for Gateway AntiVirus, Intrusion Protection Service, and Application Control. In addition, to activate the key you must have access to an XTM device. If you take this course with a WatchGuard Certified Training Partner, your instructor will provide you with both an XTM device and a feature key to enable these services.

Identify and Stop Viruses at the Edge of Your Network


In the Threat Protection training module, we learned that the XTM device includes methods to secure your network from zero-day threats using tools such as blocked sites, blocked ports, and default packet handling options. Often, these threat protection measures protect your network, but at the cost of closing off an entire port and protocol. In our example, we turned off all RSH traffic to protect the Successful Company network from an RSH exploit. While this method is very effective, it is not generally a good long term solution. Yet, it may be weeks, even months, before a vendor builds a patch to fix the vulnerability. In the interim, you can use a signature-based service to identify and block the exploit code while otherwise allowing the traffic. Signature-based protection services are much quicker for a vendor to update because they do not require a fix to the vulnerability itself. All an engineer must do is identify a unique string of text or code that marks the exploit and then block it.

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WatchGuard Gateway AntiVirus and Intrusion Prevention Service protect against two categories of threats: AntiVirus Identifies viruses and trojans brought into your network through email, web browsing, TCP connections, or FTP downloads. IPS Identifies direct attacks on your network applications or operating system.

AntiVirus Scans User Traffic for Viruses and Trojans


WatchGuard Gateway AntiVirus scans different types of traffic according to which proxy or proxies you use the feature with: Email With the SMTP or POP3 proxy, Gateway AntiVirus finds viruses encoded with frequently used email attachment methods. These include base64, binary, 7-bit, 8-bit encoding, and uuencoding. Web With the HTTP proxy, Gateway AntiVirus scans web pages and any files that are downloaded from web pages for viruses. TCP With the TCP proxy, Gateway AntiVirus can scan HTTP traffic on dynamic ports. It recognizes that traffic and forwards it to the default or user-defined HTTP proxy to perform antivirus scanning. FTP With the FTP proxy, Gateway AntiVirus finds viruses in uploaded or downloaded files.

Configure Gateway AntiVirus Actions


When you enable Gateway AntiVirus, you must set the actions to be taken if a virus or error is found in an email message (SMTP or POP3 proxies), web page (HTTP or TCP proxies), or uploaded or downloaded files (FTP proxy). The options for antivirus actions are: Allow Allows the packet to go to the recipient, even if the content contains a virus. Deny (FTP proxy only) Denies the file and sends a deny message to the sender. Lock (SMTP and POP3 proxies only) Locks the attachment. A file that is locked cannot be opened by the user. Only the administrator can unlock the file. The administrator can use a different antivirus tool to scan the file and examine the content of the attachment. For more information, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager User Guide.

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WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Identify and Stop Viruses at the Edge of Your Network

Quarantine (SMTP proxy only) If you use the SMTP proxy, you can send email messages with a virus or possible virus to the Quarantine Server. Remove (SMTP and POP3 proxies only) Removes the attachment and allows the message and any other safe attachments to go to the recipient. Drop (not supported in POP3 proxy) Drops the packet and drops the connection. No information is sent to the source of the message. Block (not supported in POP3 proxy) Blocks the packet, and adds the IP address of the sender to the Blocked Sites list. In addition, Gateway AntiVirus can scan traffic that matches rules in several categories in each proxy. In the Proxy Configuration dialog box, in the Categories list, click one of these categories to get access to the ruleset:

FTP Proxy
Download Upload

SMTP Proxy
Content Types File names

POP3 Proxy
Content Types File names

HTTP Proxy
Requests: URL Paths Responses: Content Types Responses: Body Content Types

TCP-UDP Proxy

(HTTP on dynamic ports)

Requests: URL Paths Responses: Content Types Responses: Body Content Types

Use Gateway AntiVirus with Compressed Files


In the Gateway AntiVirus configuration settings, you can select the number of compression levels to scan in a file during a virus scan. If you enable decompression, we recommend that you keep the default setting of three levels, unless your organization must use a larger value. If you specify a larger number, your XTM device could send traffic too slowly. Gateway AntiVirus supports the scanning of up to six compression levels. If Gateway AntiVirus detects that the archive depth is greater than the value set in this field, it generates a scan error for the content. The XTM device cannot scan encrypted files or files that use a type of compression that we do not support, such as password-protected ZIP files.

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Intrusion Prevention Service Blocks Direct Attacks


An intrusion occurs when someone launches a direct attack on your computer. Usually the attack exploits a vulnerability in an application or operating system. These attacks are intended to cause damage to your network, get sensitive information, or use your computers to attack other networks.
XTM 2 Series models use the standard set of IPS signatures. Other XTM devices use an extended set.

The Intrusion Prevention Service includes a set of signatures associated with specific commands or text found in commands that could be harmful. You configure the Intrusion Prevention Service globally, and then you can enable or disable it for individual policies in your configuration.

IPS Scan Modes


IPS can operate in one of two modes. Full Scan IPS scans all packets for traffic handled by policies with IPS enabled. This is the default mode. Fast Scan IPS scans fewer packets to improve performance. This option greatly improves the throughput for scanned traffic, but does not provide the comprehensive coverage of Full Scan mode. The mode you choose is based on a trade-off between performance and security. We recommend that you use Full Scan mode, unless you have a specific performance issue.

IPS Threat Levels and Actions


IPS groups intruder threats into five threat levels: Critical, High, Medium, Low, and Information. When you enable IPS, you can configure the action that the XTM device takes for content that matches IPS signatures at different threat levels. The actions IPS can take for each threat level are: Allow Allows the content, even if the it matches an IPS signature. Drop Drops the content and drops the connection. No information is sent to the sender. Block Blocks the packet, and adds the source IP address to the Blocked Sites list. By default, IPS drops and logs all traffic that matches an IPS signature at the Critical, High, Medium, or Low threat level.
XTM 21, 22, and 23 devices do not support scanning of HTTPS content.

IPS and Policies


When you enable IPS, it is enabled for all policies by default. You can selectively disable it for specific policies, if needed. You can also configure exceptions, if an IPS signature blocks content that you want to allow. If you enable IPS for an HTTPS proxy policy, you must also enable deep inspection of HTTPS content in the HTTPS proxy action, in order for IPS to scan the HTTPS content.

Get Information About IPS Signatures


To get information about IPS signatures and the threats they protect against, you can look up the IPS signature on the WatchGuard Intrusion Prevention Service (IPS) Security Portal at http://www.watchguard.com/SecurityPortal/ThreatDB.aspx. On the IPS Security Portal you can search for a signature by name or ID, and see links to additional information about the threat.

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Control and Monitor Application Usage on Your Network


Application Control is a subscription service that enables you to monitor and control the use of web-based applications on your network. Application Control uses signatures that can identify and block over 1800 applications, organized by category. The Application Control signatures are updated frequently to identify new applications and to stay current with changes to existing applications. With Application Control, you can decide which applications to allow or block. You can block the use of specific applications, and you can report on application usage and usage attempts. For some applications, you can configure Application Control to selectively allow some application behaviors (such as chat), but block others (such as file transfer). When Application Control blocks HTTP content that matches an Application Control action, the user who requested the content sees an Application Control deny message in the browser. The deny message says that the content was blocked because the application was not allowed. The message is not configurable. For HTTPS or other types of content blocked by Application Control, the content is blocked, but the deny message is not displayed.
XTM 2 Series models use the standard set of Application Control signatures. All other device models use an extended set.

Application Control Actions and Policies


You configure Application Control globally, but it is not used by a policy unless you enable it. You can define several Application Control actions, then apply each Application Control action to one or more policies in your configuration. The flexibility offered by policy-based Application Control enables you to exercise granular control over the use of applications on your corporate network. For example, you can: Block YouTube, Skype, and QQ Block P2P applications for users who are not part of the management team Allow the marketing department to use social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter Allow use of Windows Live Messenger for instant messaging, but disallow file transfer over Windows Live Messenger Limit the use of streaming media application to specific hours Report on the use (or attempted use) of applications by any individual in the company In addition to the per-policy Application Control actions, you also define a Global Application Control action that can be the default Application Control action if traffic does not match the Application Control action applied to a policy. In this way, you can implement a tiered Application Control strategy, with the Global Application Control action acting as the fall-back action to set policy for applications that do not match another specific Application Control action.

Configure Application Control


When you define an Application Control action, you select which applications or application categories to control. Then you select an action for each application, and a default action to use if Application Control detects an application that does not have an action configured.

Per-Application Action
For each application or application category selected in an Application Control action, you can select one of these actions: Drop Block the use of the selected application. Allow Allow the use of the selected application.

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Default Action
In each Application Control action, you also define a default action, to take if the application does not match the applications configured in the Application Control action. Those actions are: Drop Block the connection. Allow Allow the connection. Global Use the Global Application Control action. When you set the default action to Global, if traffic does not match the applications specified in the Application Control action, Application Control compares the traffic to the applications specified in the Global Application Control action. If the traffic does not match the applications in the Global Application Control action, Application Control uses the default action in the Global Application Control action.

Apply the Application Control Action to a Policy


After you define your Application Control actions, you must apply it to one or more policies. You can assign one Application Control action per policy. The specific policies you must apply an Application Control action to depend on which policies exist in your configuration, and which types of applications you want to block. To control many applications that use HTTP, you should apply the Application Control action to an HTTP policy. To block application that you know uses FTP, you must apply the Application Control action to the FTP policy. We recommend that you enable Application Control for these types of policies: Any outbound policy that handles HTTP or HTTPS traffic VPN policies that use 0.0.0.0/0 routes (default-route VPNs) Any outbound policy if you are not sure how the policy is used Policies that use the Any protocol Policies that use an Any-* alias, for example Allow Any-Trusted to Any-External, on a specific port/ protocol

It is not necessary to enable Application Control for a policy if you control the network on both sides of a traffic flow the policy handles. Some examples of these types of policies include policies that handle traffic for POS systems, Intranet web applications, or internal databases and traffic in a DMZ. It also usually unnecessary to enable Application Control for policies that are restricted by port and protocol and that only allow a known service. Some examples of these types of policies: Default WatchGuard policies DNS traffic RDP VoIP SIP and H.323 application layer gateways

If you enable Application Control for an HTTPS proxy policy, you must also enable deep inspection of HTTPS content in the HTTPS proxy action. This is required for Application Control to detect applications over an HTTPS connection. Application Control scanning of HTTPS content is not supported on XTM 21, 21-W, 22, 22-W, 23, and 23-W devices.

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Monitor Application Usage


When you enable Application Control for a policy, the XTM device always identifies and creates a log message for applications dropped due to an Application Control action. If you want to monitor all application use, you must configure the XTM device to create a log message for all identified applications, even those that are not blocked. To do this, you must configure the policy to send a log message for allowed packets. After Application Control and logging of allowed packets have been enabled in your policies for a period of time, you can use Log and Report Manager to run Application Control reports that summarize information about the applications used on your network. WatchGuard recommends that you first use Application Control to monitor application use for a period of time to help you understand which applications are used on your network. Then you can decide which applications you want to block.

Get Information About Applications


When you configure Application Control, or when you look at Application Control reports, you might see application names you are not familiar with. To see information about any application that Application Control can identify, you can look up the application on the WatchGuard Application Control Security Portal at http://www.watchguard.com/SecurityPortal/AppDB.aspx.

Application Control Actions and Proxy Actions


Application Control actions and proxy actions both can control access to application content. If there is a conflict between the action specified for application content in the Application Control action and the proxy action, the more restrictive action controls whether the application traffic is blocked. For example: If you configure an Application Control action to block an application, and you create a proxy action Content Types rule to allow the content type for that application, the content is blocked by Application Control. If you configure an Application Control action to allow an application, and you create a proxy action Content Type rule to drop or deny that content type, the content is blocked by the Content Type rule in the proxy action.

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Exercise 1:
You must have the Gateway AntiVirus feature key saved to the XTM device before you can do this exercise. For more information, see Add a Feature Key to the XTM Device on page 87.

Set Up Gateway AntiVirus

The Successful Company CIO decides to invest in signature-based intrusion prevention measures. The network administrator recommends WatchGuard Gateway AntiVirus and IPS. Because the services are both cost effective and the WatchGuard system is familiar, the expense is approved. In this exercise, we will activate Gateway AntiVirus and configure it to automatically get updates.

Activate Gateway AntiVirus


After the network administrator adds the feature key and saves it to the XTM device, he opens Policy Manager to activate the service.

1. Select Subscription Services > Gateway AntiVirus > Activate.


The Activate Gateway AntiVirus Wizard appears.

2. Click Next.
If you are completing the training modules sequentially, or taking the class with an instructor, you should have several email, web, and FTP policies configured.

3. Clear the check box adjacent to the HTTP-Public-Servers policy. Click Next. 4. Click Finish.

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Configure Gateway AntiVirus


Now, we enable decompression and configure the Gateway AntiVirus signature update settings.

1. When the wizard is complete, select Subscription Services > Gateway AntiVirus > Configure.
The Gateway AntiVirus dialog box appears and shows your proxy policies and whether Gateway AntiVirus is enabled.

2. Click Settings.
The Gateway AV Decompression Settings dialog box appears.

3. Select the Enable Decompression check box. 4. Make sure the number of Levels to scan to is set to 3.

5. Click OK. 6. Click Update Server.


The Update Server dialog box appears.

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7. Select the Enable automatic update check box. By default, the XTM device automatically updates signature database files every hour. Increase the Interval to 2 hours.

8. Select the Gateway AntiVirus Signatures check box to enable automatic updates for Gateway AV. 9. Click OK. 10. Click OK to close the Gateway AntiVirus dialog box.
You must save your changes to the XTM device before they take effect.

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Exercise 2:

Configure the SMTP-Proxy Policy for Gateway AntiVirus

Now that the Gateway AntiVirus service is activated for all email proxies and the signature database is set to update every two hours, we must configure each of the actions we want the XTM device to take when an exploit is detected. If you have more than one proxy policy, you must configure each policy. In this exercise, we will configure the Successful Company SMTP-Incoming-Proxy policy to: Drop email message attachments that contain viruses Allow attachments that cannot be scanned Enable the automatic content type detection feature Before you begin, open Policy Manager and make sure there is an SMTP proxy policy present in your configuration. If not, select Edit > Add Policies to add an SMTP proxy policy to your configuration.
Automatic content type detection can improve virus detection rates. Often, the content type value that appears in an email header is set incorrectly by email clients. With this feature enabled, the SMTP proxy tries to verify the content type of email attachments itself.

1. Select Subscription Services > Gateway AntiVirus > Configure.


The Gateway AntiVirus dialog box appears.

2. Select the SMTP-Incoming-Proxy policy. Click Configure.


The Gateway AntiVirus Configuration of Policy: SMTP-Incoming-Proxy dialog box appears.

3. From the When a virus is detected drop-down list, select Remove. 4. From the When a scan error occurs drop-down list, select Allow. 5. Select the adjacent Alarm check box.

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6. In the Categories list, select Attachments > Content Types.


The Content Types settings appear.

Because hackers often try to disguise executable files as other content types, we recommend that you enable content type auto detection to make your installation more secure.

7. Make sure the Enable content type auto detection check box is selected.
If you do not select this check box, the SMTP proxy uses the value stated in the email header, which clients sometimes set incorrectly. For example, an attached PDF file might have a content type stated as application/ octet-stream. If you enable content type auto detection, the SMTP proxy recognizes the PDF file and uses the actual content type, application/pdf. If the proxy does not recognize the content type after it examines the content, it uses the value stated in the email header, as it would if content type auto detection were not enabled.

8. From the If matched drop-down list, select AV Scan. 9. Click OK to close the Gateway AntiVirus Configuration dialog box. 10. Click OK to close the Gateway AntiVirus dialog box.

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Exercise 3:

Configure the Intrusion Prevention Service

Now the Successful Company network administrator is ready to enable IPS in the device configuration.

Enable Intrusion Prevention


1. Select Subscription Services > Intrusion Prevention.
The Intrusion Prevention Service dialog box appears.

2. Select the Enable Intrusion Prevention check box.


By default, IPS uses Full Scan mode, and drops and logs all traffic that matches an IPS signature at the Critical, High, Medium, or Low threat level.

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3. Select the Policies tab.


The IPS column shows that IPS has been automatically enabled for all policies.

4. Select the Settings tab. 5. Click Update Server.


Automatic updates are already enabled for Gateway AntiVirus Signatures signatures. So we just need to enabled the IPS signature updates.

6. Select the Intrusion Prevention and Application Control Signatures check box. Click OK. 7. Click OK to close the Intrusion Prevention dialog box.

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Exercise 4:

Configure Application Control

The Successful Company network administrator is dismayed to learn that employees accidentally downloaded a nasty bot virus through the file sharing features of the Yahoo messenger client. In this exercise, we configure the Global Application Control action to block the use of Yahoo messenger and several other instant messaging applications. Then we apply this action to the HTTP-proxy policy. Note
The list of applications you can control is based on a set of signatures that Application Control uses to identify the applications. To make sure that Policy Manager has the most recent Application Control signatures from the XTM device, connect to your device with WatchGuard System Manager before you use Policy Manager to edit or update Application Control actions.

If you are completing the training modules sequentially, or taking the class with an instructor, you should have several DNS, email, HTTP, and FTP policies configured.

Configure the Global Application Control Action


1. Select Subscription Services > Application Control.
The Application Control Actions dialog box appears.

The Global Application Control action is a predefined action. You configure the Global action to block applications you do not want to allow for all or most users. In this example, we want to block instant messaging applications for all users.

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2. Select the Global action. Click Edit to edit the Global action.
The Application Control Action (predefined) dialog box appears. By default all applications you can control appear in the application list.

You can use the radio buttons to show all applications, or show only applications that have an action configured.
The Search feature is the quickest way to find a specific application by name. You can also use the Category drop-down list to filter the list by category, such as Instant Messaging. Search is generally quicker, since each category contains many applications, and some application may not be in the category you expect.

3. To search for the Yahoo Messenger application by name, in the search text box, type messenger.
The application list shows all applications that contain the word messenger.

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4. Select the Yahoo Messenger application. Click Edit.


The Application Control Configuration dialog box appears.

5. For this exercise, the administrator wants to block all use of the Yahoo Messenger application. Click OK to set the action for all behaviors to Drop.
The Drop action appears in the action column for this application.

To allow the use of Yahoo Messenger for instant messaging, but block file transfers, you could select the Set the action for specific behaviors radio button. Then set the action for the Transfer behavior to Drop.

6. Click OK.
The Global Application Control action now blocks Yahoo Messenger.

You can optionally repeat the steps above to add any other applications to the Global Application Control action. Or, you can click Select by Category to set the action for all applications in an application category. To remove the action configured for an application, select the configured application in the list and click Clear Action.

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Apply the Global Application Control Action to Policies


After we define the Global Application Control action, we must apply this action to one or more policies. In this part of the exercise, we apply this Application Control action to the HTTP policies.

1. In the Application Control Actions dialog box, select the Policies tab.
If you are completing the training modules sequentially, or taking the class with an instructor, you should already have created the HTTP policies used in this exercise.

2. Select both of the HTTP policies.


Use the Ctrl key to select multiple policies.

3. From the drop-down list, select the Global action.


The Global action is applied to the selected policies.

4. Click OK. The Global Application Control action is now applied to the HTTP policies.

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Exercise 5:

Use Different Application Control Actions for Different Policies

After the Successful Company administrator blocked Yahoo Messenger in the Global Application Control rule, the management requested that employees be allowed to use Yahoo Messenger for chat, but not for file transfers. In this exercise, we create a new Application Control action to control specific application behaviors. Then we apply that Application Control action to the HTTP-Employees policy. You created the HTTP-Employees policy in the Web Traffic training module. The HTTP-proxy policy controls traffic from any trusted network to any computer on the external network.

1. Select Subscription Services > Application Control.


The Application Control Actions dialog box appears.

2. Click Add to add a new Application Control action.


The New Application Control Action dialog box appears.

3. Double-click the Yahoo Messenger application to set the action.

4. Select Set the action for specific behaviors. 5. Select the Transfer check box. From the adjacent drop-down list, select the application behavior.
The default action is Drop.

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6. Click OK.
The Action for Yahoo Messenger is set to Drop, just for the Transfer application behavior.

7. From the When application does not match drop-down list, make sure Use Global action is selected. This is the default. 8. Click OK.
The new Application Control action appears in the Application Control Actions dialog box.

9. Select the Policies tab.

10. For the HTTP-Employees policy, change the Action to the new action you just created. 11. Click OK.

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With this configuration: The HTTP-Employees policy uses the AppControl.1 Application Control action as the primary action to control application usage. For these users, Yahoo messenger application traffic is not controlled, except for file transfer traffic, which is dropped. If HTTP traffic handled by the HTTP-Employees policy does not match the applications listed in the AppControl.1 action, the HTTP-Employees policy uses the Global Application Control action to determine whether to allow or drop the application traffic. For HTTP traffic handled by the HTTP-proxy policy, the Global Application Control action is used to control application usage.

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Test Your Knowledge


1. Match the proxy action with the correct description of the XTM device action:
A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) Allow Lock Remove Drop Block Send Deny Quarantine Delete the attachment, send nothing to the sender or recipient, and add the sender to the Blocked Sites list. Delete the attachment, send nothing to the recipient, and send nothing to the sender. Do not accept the file and notify the sender. Let the attachment go to the recipient even if it contains a virus. Remove the attachment and delete it while sending the message to the recipient. Encode the attachment so that the recipient cannot open it without a network administrator. Send the message to the Quarantine Server. Not a Fireware proxy action

2. True or false? Gateway AntiVirus can detect viruses in uuencoded email. 3. True or false? Gateway AntiVirus can detect viruses in password-protected ZIP files. 4. True or false? The Intrusion Prevention Service is only compatible with the HTTP and TCP proxies. It cannot detect possible intrusions in the SMTP, POP3, DNS, or FTP proxies. 5. True or false? When you enable the Intrusion Prevention Service, IPS is automatically enabled for all policies. 6. True or false? The Global Application Control Action applies to all policies in your configuration. 7. True or false? If you want to report on the usage of applications that are not blocked, you must enable logging of allowed packets in each policy that has Application Control enabled.

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6. False 5. True 4. False 3. False 2. True 1. A) Allow Let the attachment go to the recipient even if it contains a virus B) Lock Encode the attachment so that the recipient cannot open it without a network administrator. C) Remove Remove the attachment and delete it while sending the message to the recipient. D) Drop Delete the attachment, send nothing to the recipient and send nothing to the sender. E) Block Delete the attachment, send nothing to the sender or recipient, and add the sender to the Blocker Sites list. F) Send Not a Fireware proxy action. G) Deny Do not accept the file and notify the sender. H) Quarantine Send the message to the Quarantine Server. ANSWERS

True

Fireware XTM Basics

Reputation Enabled Defense


Improve the Performance and Security of Web Access
What You Will Learn
WatchGuard Reputation Enabled Defense is a service that improves the performance and security of web browsing for users on your network. In this module, you learn how to: Understand how Reputation Enabled Defense protects your network Set up and configure Reputation Enabled Defense See status and reports for Reputation Enabled Defense Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module. In this module, you will configure an optional feature of the WatchGuard XTM device. To use this feature, you must first get a feature key for the Reputation Enabled Defense service, which is included in the UTM bundle. To activate the key you must have access to an XTM device. If you take this course with a WatchGuard Certified Training Partner, your instructor will provide you with both an XTM device and a feature key.

How Reputation Enabled Defense Works


In the Signature Services training module, we learned how the Gateway AntiVirus service scans web pages and any files downloaded from web pages for viruses. When you enable the Reputation Enabled Defense (RED) service, you can further improve performance and security of web browsing for users on your network. WatchGuard RED uses cloud-based WatchGuard reputation servers that assign a reputation score between 1 and 100 to every URL. When a user goes to a web site, RED sends the requested web address (or URL) to the WatchGuard reputation server. The WatchGuard server responds with a reputation score for that URL. Based on the reputation score, and on locally configured thresholds, RED determines whether the XTM device should drop the traffic, allow the traffic and scan it locally with Gateway AV, or allow the traffic without a local Gateway AV scan. This increases performance, because Gateway AV does not need to scan URLs with a known good or bad reputation. The reputation score for a URL is based on feedback collected from devices around the world. It incorporates scan results from three leading anti-malware engines: MacAfee, Kaspersky and AVG. Reputation Enabled Defense uses the collective intelligence of the cloud to keep Internet browsing safe and to optimize performance at the gateway.

Reputation Scores
The WatchGuard reputation server assigns every URL a reputation score from 1 to 100. A reputation score closer to 100 indicates that the URL is more likely to contain a threat. A score closer to 1 indicates that the URL is less likely to contain a threat. If the RED server does not have feedback about a web address, it assigns a neutral score of 50.

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These factors can cause the reputation score of a URL to increase, or move toward a score of 100: Negative scan results Negative scan results for a referring link These factors can cause the reputation score of a URL to decrease, or move toward a score of 1: Multiple clean scans Recent clean scans Reputation scores change over time. For increased performance, the XTM device stores the reputation scores for recently accessed web addresses in a local cache.

Reputation Thresholds
There are two reputation score thresholds you can configure: Bad reputation threshold If the score for a URL is higher than the Bad reputation threshold, the HTTP proxy denies access without any further inspection. Good reputation threshold If the score for a URL is lower than the Good reputation threshold and Gateway AntiVirus is enabled, the HTTP proxy bypasses the Gateway AV scan.

If the score for a URL is equal to or between the configured reputation thresholds and if you have enabled Gateway AV, the content is scanned for viruses.

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Reputation Lookups
The XTM device uses UDP port 10108 to send reputation queries to the WatchGuard reputation server. Make sure this port is open between your XTM device and the Internet. UDP is a best-effort service. If the XTM device does not receive a response to a reputation query soon enough to make a decision based on the reputation score, the HTTP proxy does not wait for the response, but instead processes the HTTP request normally. In this case the content is scanned locally if Gateway AV is enabled. Reputation lookups are based on the domain and URL path, not just the domain. Parameters after escape or operator characters, such as & and ? are ignored. For example, for the URL:
http://www.example.com/example/default.asp?action=9&parameter=26
If the response comes back late, it is possible you will see the reputation score assigned as -1 in the Traffic Monitor.

the reputation lookup is:


http://www.example.com/example/default.asp

Reputation Enabled Defense does not do a reputation lookup for sites that have been added to the HTTP Proxy Exceptions list of the HTTP proxy action.

Reputation Enabled Defense Feedback


When you enable Reputation Enabled Defense, you can choose if you want to send the results of local Gateway AV scans to the WatchGuard server. You can also choose to upload Gateway AV scan results to WatchGuard even if Reputation Enabled Defense is not enabled or licensed on your device. All communications between your network and the Reputation Enabled Defense server are encrypted. We recommend that you enable the upload of local scan results to WatchGuard to improve overall coverage and accuracy of Reputation Enabled Defense.

Monitor Reputation Enabled Defense


The Subscription Services tab of Firebox System Manager includes current statistics about Reputation Enabled Defense activity that occurred after the last device restart. The statistics include reputation score thresholds (based on your configuration settings) for each message type in these categories: Local bypass (good) The number and percentage of URL requests that bypassed local Gateway AV scanning because they have a reputation score lower than the Good reputation threshold. The number of URLs blocked (bad) The number and percentage of URL requests that were blocked without scanning because they have a reputation score higher than the Bad reputation threshold. Normal processing (inconclusive scores) The number and percentage of URL requests that were processed normally, because they have a reputation score equal to or between the Good reputation and Bad reputation thresholds. Local cache hits The number and percentage of URL requests for which the reputation score was found in the local cache, so no request to the Reputation Enabled Defense server was required. Reputation lookups The total number of reputation lookup attempts since the last system restart. If you have installed Report Manager, you can also see a summary of Reputation Enabled Defense actions in the Reputation Enabled Defense Summary report. This report shows a graphical representation of the percentage of URLs that were bypassed, blocked or required local scanning.

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Exercise 1:

Set Up Reputation Enabled Defense

Successful Company has been using Gateway AV, and now wants to install Reputation Enabled Defense to further improve the performance and security of web browsing for their users. In this exercise you enable Reputation Enabled Defense on the Successful Company XTM device. Before you begin this exercise: Make sure your device has a Reputation Enabled Defense feature key. Make sure the device has at least one HTTP proxy policy configured. After the network administrator adds the feature key and saves it to the XTM device, he opens the device configuration in Policy Manager to enable the service.

1. Select Subscription Services > Reputation Enabled Defense.


The Reputation Enabled Defense dialog box appears.

2. Select an HTTP-proxy policy and click Enable.


Reputation Enabled Defense is enabled for this policy, with the default settings.

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3. Click Configure.
The Reputation Enabled Defense settings for the selected policy appear.

When you enabled Reputation Enabled Defense for this policy, the Immediately block URLs that have a bad reputation check box and the Bypass any configured virus scanning for URLs that have a good reputation check box were both automatically selected.

4. Click Advanced.

5. Click OK to accept the default reputation thresholds. 6. Click OK.


The Reputation Enabled Defense dialog box closes. You must save your changes to the XTM device before they take effect.

You can change the reputation thresholds, but we recommend that you keep them at the default values initially. After you have used Reputation Enabled Defense for a period of time., you can adjust the thresholds, if you find that either setting is too aggressive.

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Exercise 2:

See Reputation Enabled Defense Statistics

Successful Company has enabled Reputation Enabled Defense and wants monitor its effectiveness. In this exercise you look at the statistics that show Reputation Enabled Defense activity since the last system restart. Make sure your XTM device can do queries over UDP port 10108 to the WatchGuard reputation server in the cloud.

1. In WatchGuard System Manager, click

to connect to your XTM device.

2. Type your XTM device trusted IP address and the status passphrase. Click OK.
The Firebox System Manager Front Panel tab appears.

3. Select the Subscription Services tab.


The Subscription Services statistics page appears. Reputation Enabled Defense statistics appear at the bottom.

In this example, we can see that 91% of all requested URLs had a good reputation score, and did not require local scanning by Gateway AV. We can also see that 67% of the URLs visited had a reputation score stored in the local cache. This means that the RED service did not need to request the score from the WatchGuard reputation server. If Gateway AV is enabled, it scans the content of web sites that have an inconclusive reputation score. Those scan results are then sent to the Reputation Enabled Defense server as input for updated reputation scores for those URLs. This increases the likelihood that these URLs will have a more clearly good or bad reputation score in the future. In this example, you can see that the total number of Reputation lookups is greater than the combined total number of URLs with good, bad or inconclusive scores. This is because the Reputation lookups statistic counts all lookup attempts, even if a response was not received in time to avoid a local AV scan. If The HTTP proxy does not receive a timely response to a reputation lookup request, it scans the content locally. When this happens, the lookup is added to the Reputation lookup total, but is not added to the total of good, bad, or inconclusive scores. You can also see that the percentages shown in this example for good, bad and inconclusive scores do not add up to 100%. This is because these scores are calculated as a percentage of the total number of reputation lookups. Note
If your statistics show that the number of good, bad and inconclusive scores are zero, but the number of Reputation lookups is high, this means that the reputation lookup attempts did not result in timely responses from the WatchGuard reputation server. Make sure your XTM device can send queries over UDP port 10108 to the WatchGuard reputation servers.

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Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. True or false? You must install a Reputation Enabled Defense server to use the Reputation Enabled Defense service. 2. The reputation score for a URL is based on which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
A) B) C) D) E) Results from Kaspersky anti-virus scans. Results from AVG anti-virus scans. Feedback from devices around the world. URLs on the Reputation Enabled Defense black list. Results of local Gateway AV scans on your XTM device.

3. Which of the following URL reputation scores indicates that a site is most likely to contain a threat? (Select one.)
A) B) C) 95 50 5

4. True or false? Local Gateway AntiVirus scans are only done for URLs that have an inconclusive reputation score (not good or bad). 5. Which of these factors can cause the reputation score of a URL to increase toward a score of 100? (Select all that apply.)
A) B) C) D) Negative scan results No scan results. Negative scan results for a referring link All of the above.

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ANSWERS 1. False WatchGuard hosts the reputation server in the cloud. 2. A, B, C, E 3. A 4. True 5. A and C

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Fireware XTM Basics

Web UI
Explore Fireware XTM Web UI
What You Will Learn
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI for many monitoring and management tasks. In this training module, you learn: How to log in to the Web UI How to change the port the XTM device uses for the Web UI The limitations of the Web UI How to manage timeouts for web UI management sessions

Before you begin these exercises, make sure you read the Course Introduction module.

Introduction to Fireware XTM Web UI


With Fireware XTM Web UI, you can monitor and manage any device running Fireware XTM OS without installing any extra software on your computer. The only software you need is a web browser with the Adobe Flash Player v9 or later installed. This means you can manage your XTM device from a computer running Windows, Linux, Mac OS, or any other platform. Fireware XTM Web UI is a real-time management tool. This means that when you use the Web UI to make changes to a device, the changes you make generally take effect immediately. The web UI does not let you build a list of changes to a locally-stored configuration file so you can save many changes to the device all at once. This is different from Fireware XTM Policy Manager, which is an offline configuration tool. Changes you make to a locally-stored configuration file with Policy Manager do not take effect until you save the configuration to the device. If you are familiar with Policy Manager, you can easily find what you need and understand how the configuration options work in Fireware XTM Web UI.
Adobe notes that 98-99% of all computers have Flash installed. If your browser does not have the Flash player installed, you will see a message with a link to the Adobe Flash download site when you try to connect to the Web UI.

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Limitations of the Web UI


Before you make changes to your XTM device configuration, you should know that there are several device configuration changes you cannot make with the Web UI. Some of the things you can do with Policy Manager, but not with the Web UI include: View or change the configuration of a device that is a member of a FireCluster Add or remove static ARP entries from the devices ARP table Change the name of a policy Change the logging of default packet handling options Enable or disable notification for BOVPN events Add a custom address to a policy Use Host Name (DNS lookup) to add an IP address to the From or To section of a policy Create a .wgx file for Mobile VPN with IPSec client configuration (You can get only the equivalent, but unencrypted, .ini file) Export certificates stored on the device, or see their details (You can only import certificates) Some of the logging and reporting functions provided by HostWatch, Log Manager, Report Manager, and WSM are also not available in the Web UI.

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Connect to the Web UI

Connect to the Web UI


Connections to the Web UI are always encrypted with HTTPS, the same high-strength encryption used by banking and shopping web sites. You must use https instead of http when you type the URL in the address bar of your web browser. By default, the port used for the Web UI is 8080. The default URL used to connect to the Web UI is: https://<device-ip-address>:8080 The <device-ip-address> segment of the address is the IP address assigned to the trusted or optional interface. When you make this connection, the Login page appears:

About Certificate Warnings


When you connect to Fireware XTM Web UI, you can see a warning from your web browser. This is the warning you see with Internet Explorer 9:

You can safely click Continue to this website if you know that the IP address shown in your browser address bar is correct.

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This is the warning you see with Mozilla Firefox 13:

If you know that the IP address shown in the browser address bar is correct, you can safely click I Understand the Risks and follow the prompts to add a certificate exception. This certificate warning appears because your browser does not trust the certificate. There are two reasons for this:

1. Your browser does not trust the entity that signed the device certificate.
Fireware XTM Web UI uses a self-signed certificate. Your browser trusts only certificates signed by a trusted Certificate Authority, and certificates that you explicitly import into the browser as trusted certificates.

2. The Common Name on the certificate does not match what you typed into the browser address bar.
For a certificate to be trusted automatically, its common name must match the server name.

To correct both problems you can manually import the certificate. For more information, see the documentation from your browser or operating system vendor. To avoid these warnings for all users, replace the certificate used by Fireware XTM Web UI with a certificate trusted by all of your network clients. This could be a certificate you purchase from a commercial vendor such as VeriSign or Thawte, or one you generate from a local CA used in your organization such as Microsoft Certificate Services on a Windows server. You can also create a custom certificate signed by the XTM device. This certificate can have multiple names on it, so that users can type the device IP address or a domain name (if the domain name has a record in the DNS system that resolves to the device IP address). Users must still import the certificate into their operating system or browser certificate store, however, because this is a self-signed certificate. For more information on this process, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide.

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Navigate the Web UI


At the left side of the Web UI is a navigation bar that you can use to move between different configuration areas. The heading items shown by default in this area automatically expand to show additional options when you select them. You can select any item beneath a heading to see the available configuration settings.

Get Help
There are two ways to get to the Help system from the Web UI: The header at the top of each page has a link that takes you to the main page of the Fireware XTM Web UI Help.

For help with specific configuration tasks, each page in the Web UI has its own Help link.

These Help links take you directly to the help topic that matches your current configuration page.

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About the Status and Admin Accounts


When you log in to Fireware XTM Web UI, there are two options in the Username drop-down list: status Use this account to log in to the Web UI when you want to only monitor the device status or see connection information. Multiple users can log in to the Web UI with the status account at the same time. You cannot make changes to the device configuration file with this account. The passphrase for this account is the devices status, or read-only, passphrase. You can also use this passphrase to connect to the device with Policy Manager.
When someone is logged in to the Web UI with the admin account, Fireware XTM does not allow changes to the device configuration from any other connection, including Policy Manager or the Command Line Interface.

admin Use this account only when you want to make changes to the device configuration file. Only one user at a time can log in to the Web UI with this account. This prevents different users from modifying the same property at the same time. The passphrase for this account is the devices configuration, or read-write, passphrase. You also use this passphrase to save your configuration file to the device with Policy Manager. The header section of the Web UI interface shows which account you used to log in:

To log out of the Web UI, at the top of the page, click Logout. Note
Because there are only two system accounts for the Web UI, status and admin, you must be careful about who gets access to these accounts. We recommend that you give the configuration passphrase only to trusted and authorized device administrators.

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About Timeouts for Management Sessions


While the admin account is logged in to the Web UI, Fireware XTM prevents all other users from making read-write connections to the device. Specifically, other users cannot: Log in to the Web UI with the admin account Save configuration changes to the device with Policy Manager Update the OS on the device Log in to the CLI with the admin account; this includes console connections with the serial port and SSH connections on port 4118

When you try to do any of these tasks when another user is logged in with the admin account, you see a message that shows the IP address of the current admin user. Policy Manager:

Web UI:

CLI:

There are two timeout settings that control administrator account access. These settings help make sure the admin account is not locked for a large amount of time.

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To change these timeout settings in the Web UI, select Authentication > Settings.

Or, from Policy Manager, select Setup > Authentication > Authentication Settings. The timeout settings for management sessions include: Session Timeout The maximum amount of time that an administrator session can last. Idle Timeout The amount of time with no activity in the Web UI. Activity means that you do something in the browser that causes the browser to get data from the XTM device, or causes the browser to send data to the XTM device. The Web UI sends a keep-alive message to the device every 20 seconds. If the device does not receive this message from your browser for over 60 seconds, the device closes your session. However, the keepalive message does not reset the idle timeout timer for management sessions. This lets the device close a management session quickly if you close the browser without first logging out of the Web UI. The device will keep a management session open for the full idle timeout if you keep the browser open but you do nothing with it.

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Control Access to the Web UI

Control Access to the Web UI


By default, the XTM device allows connections to the Web UI from any computer on a trusted or optional network. Access to the Web UI is controlled by the WatchGuard Web UI policy. This policy is automatically added to your device configuration when you run the Quick Setup Wizard. To see the policy:

1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies:

2. To edit the WatchGuard Web UI policy, select the policy and click Or, double-click the WatchGuard Web UI policy.
The policy appears.

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You can restrict or expand access to the Web UI by adding or removing entries in the From list: You can allow access to the Web UI from external networks by adding the Any-External alias (or an appropriate IP address). You can restrict access to the Web UI from internal locations by removing the Any-Trusted and Any-Optional aliases. Make sure to keep at least one IP address from which you want to allow access so that you can manage the XTM device from that computer. You can remove all IP addresses and aliases, and replace them with user names or group names. When you do this, you force users to authenticate before they are allowed access to the Web UI. To see which port and protocol the WatchGuard Web UI policy controls, select the Properties tab.

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About the Port for the Web UI


You can change the port that Fireware XTM uses for the Web UI. The port controlled by the WatchGuard Web UI policy is automatically changed if you change the port for the Web UI. Note
If you change this port, the URL you use to access the Web UI also changes. For example, if you change the port to 8888, to connect to the Web UI, type https://<device-ip-address>:8888 in your browser address bar.

In Policy Manager:

1. Select Setup > Global Settings.


The Global Settings dialog box appears.

2. In the Web UI Port text box, type or select the port.

3. Click OK.

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In the Web UI:

1. Select System > Global Settings. 2. In the Web UI Port text box, type or select the port.

3. Click Save.

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Exercise 1:

Connect to the Web UI with the Status Account

In this exercise, you connect to the Web UI with read-only permissions.

1. From a computer on the Trusted network, open a web browser and go to https://<device-ip-address>:8080.
Replace <device-ip-address> in the address with the IP address of your XTM device.

2. If a certificate warning appears: - For Internet Explorer, click Continue to this website. - For Mozilla Firefox, add an exception as previously described.
The Web UI login dialog box appears.

3. From the Username drop-down list, select status. 4. In the Passphrase text box, type the status (read-only) passphrase. Click Login.
The Fireware XTM Web UI Dashboard System page appears.

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5. In the navigation bar, select Firewall > Firewall Policies.


The Firewall Policies configuration page appears.

Note that at the top of the page, the Disable button is not available.

6. Place your cursor over the Disable button.


A tooltip appears to tell you that you have read-only privileges.

7. Navigate to other pages in the Web UI and note that you cannot change any settings. 8. At the top of the Web UI, click Logout.
You are logged out of the Web UI and the login dialog box appears again.

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Control Access to the Web UI

Exercise 2:

Change the Port for the Web UI

By default, Fireware XTM devices listen on port 8080 for Web UI connections. It is possible you have a network policy or firewall that blocks connections on this port. It is also possible that you use port 8080 in your network and you need to forward it from the external network to an internal Web server. If this is the case, you cannot use port 8080 for connections to the Web UI from the external network. The XTM device cannot listen for port 8080 connections and forward connections from external networks on the same interface. In this exercise, you connect to the Web UI, change the port for the Web UI, and use the new port to connect to the Web UI again. Note
Remember that when you change the port for the Web UI, you must use the new port the next time you connect to the device.

From a computer on a trusted network:

1. Open a web browser and go to https://<device-ip-address>:8080.


Replace <device-ip-address> in the address with the XTM device trusted interface IP address.

2. If a certificate warning appears: - For Internet Explorer, click Continue to this website. - For Mozilla Firefox, add an exception as previously described.
The Fireware XTM Web UI Login page appears.

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3. From the Username drop-down list, select admin. In the Passphrase text box, type the configuration passphrase.
The Fireware XTM Web UI Dashboard System page appears.

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4. In the navigation bar, select System > Global Settings.

The Global Settings page appears.

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5. In the Web UI Port text box, type or select 8081. Click Save.
A warning message appears to explain that you must use the new port when you log in again.

6. Click Yes.
The logon prompt appears again with a message to log in again.

7. Click OK.

8. In your browser address bar, type https://<device-ip-address>:8081.


Replace <device-ip-address> in the address with the IP address of the XTM device trusted interface.

9. Accept the certificate warning (Internet Explorer) or add an exception (Firefox) and log in again with the admin account credentials. 10. In the navigation bar, select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall Policies area appears.

11. Double-click the WatchGuard Web UI policy to view its properties. 12. Select the Properties tab.
The port for the policy was automatically changed to 8081.

13. Repeat Steps 45 to change the Web UI port back to 8080.

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Control Access to the Web UI

Exercise 3:

Configure an XTM Device for Remote Web UI Administration


This exercise is very useful in situations where an instructor must connect to a student XTM device during a classroom presentation. If you are self-instructed and do not need to remotely manage your XTM device, you can skip this exercise.

When you configure a WatchGuard XTM device with the Quick Setup Wizard, a policy is created automatically that allows you to connect to the Web UI from any computer on the trusted or optional networks. If you want to manage the XTM device from a remote location (any location on an external network), then you must change your configuration to allow connections to the Web UI from that location. Before you change a policy to allow connections to the XTM device from a computer external to your network, it is a good idea to consider these alternatives: Is it possible to connect to the XTM device with a VPN? This greatly increases the security of the connection. If you can connect with a VPN, then you do not need to allow other connections. If it is not possible to connect to the XTM device with a VPN, we recommend that you use authentication for additional security. It is more secure to limit access from the external network to the smallest number of computers possible. For example, it is more secure to allow connections from a single computer than it is to allow connections from the Any-External alias. If you decide to allow connections to the XTM device from Any-External, it is especially important that you set very strong status and configuration passphrases. It is also a good idea to change your passphrases at regular intervals. To configure the WatchGuard Web UI policy to allow access to the Web UI from an external computer:

1. From a computer on the trusted network, open a web browser and go to https://<device-ip-address>:8080.
Replace <device-ip-address> in the address with the XTM device trusted interface IP address.

2. If a certificate warning appears: - For Internet Explorer, click Continue to this website. - For Mozilla Firefox, add an exception as previously described.
The Fireware XTM Web UI Login page appears.

Your instructor may ask that you complete these steps. This will enable your instructor to troubleshoot configuration issues from his computer later in the class.

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3. From the Username drop-down list, select admin. In the Passphrase text box, type the configuration passphrase.
The Web UI Dashboard System page appears.

4. In the navigation bar, select Firewall > Firewall Policies.


The Firewall Policies page appears.

5. Double-click the WatchGuard Web UI policy to edit it. 6. In the From section, click Add.
The Add Member dialog box appears.

7. From the Member Type drop-down list, select Alias. 8. Select Any-External and click OK.

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Control Access to the Web UI

Any-External is added to the From list in the policy definition.

9. Click Save at the bottom of the page to apply this change to your device. 10. From a computer on the external network, try to connect to the Web UI. Type https://<device-external-ip-address>:8080 in the browser address bar. You should be able to connect to the device.

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Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. Which account do you use to log in the Web UI to change the configuration? (Select one.)
A) B) C) D) admin status configuration administrator

2. What is the default port for the Web UI? (Select one.)
A) B) C) D) 8100 8088 8080 8000

3. True or false? You can save the XTM device configuration file to a local disk drive from the Web UI. 4. True or false? You must install WSM software to use the Web UI. 5. How many users can simultaneously log in to the Web UI with the admin account? (Select one.)
A) B) C) D) 1 2 4 unlimited

6. How many users can simultaneously log in to the Web UI with the status account? (Select one.)
A) B) C) D) 1 2 4 unlimited

TRAINING www.watchguard.com/training training@watchguard.com

COPYRIGHT 2013 WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. WatchGuard, the WatchGuard logo, Firebox, and Core are registered trademarks or trademarks of WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries.

6. D 5. A 4. False 3. True 2. C 1. A ANSWERS