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1 INTRODUCTION Energy is needed in different forms: Light bulbs and heaters - electrical energy Fans and rolling miles - mechanical energy Need for energy converters

Figure 1.1 DC generator supply current to the load DC motor need current from the supply AC electric supply - AC machines (synchronous and asynchronous) DC electric supply - DC machines Advantages of DC Machine (i) Adjustable motor speed over wide ranges (ii) Constant mechanical output (torque) (iii)Rapid acceleration or deceleration (iv) Responsive to feedback signals

Figure 1.2 : DC machine Construction 1.2 GENERATION OF AC SIGNAL Generator needs something to rotate or move itself. It is called the prime mover. The shaft of the prime mover will be coupled to the shaft of the generator so that the generator can rotate once the prime mover rotates. In a big system, they normally used 3-phase induction motor. But, in small scale machine, they can use a mechanism to rotate the generator which then generated electricity. coil

carbon brush

Slip ring:used to generate ac signal Carbon brush: used to collect output voltage (ac signal)

Figure 1.3: Physical Arrangement of AC Generating Method

Figure 1.4 : Emf generated at various instant (angle position) 1.3 GENERATION OF DC SIGNAL The generating of DC signal can be done by replacing the slip ring with commutator so that rectification process can happen. Commutator can generate dc signal. This is done through rectification or commutation process; which converts ac signal into dc mechanically. Therefore a commutator is called a mechanical rectifier.

Carbon brush

commutator:used to generate dc signal Carbon brush: used to collect output voltage (dc signal)

commutator Figure 1.5 : Physical Arrangement of DC Generating Method

Figure 1.6: AC is converted into DC Signal through Commutation Process 1.4 EMF GENERATED ON DC MACHINE The EMF generated:EMF = 2 zNP c60


z = no of conductors in the armature circuit c = no. of parallel path N = speed in rpm = flux/pole (Wb) P = no. of pole pair

Figure 1.7 : Permanent Magnet Dc Machine

Example 1 If the no-load voltage of a separately excited generator is 135 V at 850 rpm, what will be the voltage if the speed is increased to 1000 rpm? Assume constant field excitation. Solution
EMF = 2 zPN c60 2 zP K = c60 Therefor , E1 = KN 11 E 2 = KN 22

Constant field excitation:- i1 = i2 , 1 = 2 E1 KN 11 N = = 1 E2 KN 22 N2 EN 1000rpm(135V ) E2 = 1 2 = = 158.8V N1 850rpm Example 2 A separately excited generator has no-load voltage of 140 V when the field current is adjusted to 2 A. The speed is 900 rpm. Assume a linear relationship between the field flux and current. Calculate: (i) the generated voltage when the field current is increased to 2.5 A. Assume N1=N2. (ii) the terminal voltage when the speed is increased to 1000 rpm with the field current set at 2.2 A. Solution
V1 = 140V , I F 1 = 2 A, N 1 = 900rpm



I F 2 = 2.5 A E1 KN 11 I = = F1 E2 KN 22 IF2

E2 =

E1 I F 2 140( 2.5) = = 175V I F1 2


N 2 = 1000rpm, I F 2 = 2.2 A, V2 = ?

E1 KN 11 N I = = 1 F1 E2 KN 22 N2IF2 E2 = E1 N 1 I F 2 140(1000)(2.2) = = 171.11V N 2 I F1 (900)2


rotor/armature pole

Figure 1.8 : DC Machine Construction DC motor principles DC motors consist of rotor-mounted windings (armature) at the rotor side and stationary windings (field poles) at the stator side.

In all DC motors, except permanent magnet motors, current must be conducted to the armature windings by passing current through carbon brushes that slide over a set of copper surfaces called a commutator, which is mounted on the rotor. The commutator bars are soldered to armature coils. The brush/commutator combination makes a sliding switch that energizes particular portions of the armature, based on the position of the rotor. This process creates north and south magnetic poles on the rotor that are attracted to or repelled by north and south poles on the stator, which are formed by passing direct current through the field windings. It's this magnetic attraction and repulsion that causes the rotor to rotate.

Figure 1.9 : DC Machine Construction

1.6 MACHINE WINDINGS Machine winding can be divide into 2:(i) armature winding (rotor side) (ii) field winding (stator side)

Machine Winding

Field winding

Armature Winding

Separately excited
-no direct connection between armature circuit and the field circuit

**Self excited
-direct connection between armature circuit and the field circuit

Series excitation

Shunt excitation

Compound excitation

Figure 1.10: Winding Connection in DC Machine SELF-EXCITED FIELD WINDING In self-excited dc machine, there are three types of excitation method namely: (i) Series Excitation: the field winding is connected in series with the armature circuit. (ii) Shunt Excitation: the field winding is connected in parallel with the armature circuit. (iii) Compound Excitation: the field winding are connected in series and parallel with the armature circuit. The schematic diagrams for the three types of these machines are illustrated in Figure 1.11. The difference between dc motor and dc generator is in terms of the current direction. In dc generator: armature current, Ia is supplied by the armature. In dc motor: armature current, Ia is received by the armature.

(a) DC Series machine

Rf Ra
1.0 k

DC loa d

Rf Ra
1.0m 5.0 1.0 k

IL dc supply VT



+ -




Generator: Eg = VT + Ia(Ra + Rf)

Motor: Ec = VT - Ia(Ra + Rf)

(b)DC Shunt machine

If Ia

DC loa d

1.0 m 1.0 k


1.0 m 1.0 k 5.0

If Ia Ec Rf

IL dc supply VT



Generator: Eg = VT + IaRa

Motor: Ec = VT - IaRa

(c) DC Compound machine

Rf2 Ra


1,0m D CM1 1,0m





Generator: Eg = VT + Ia(Ra + Rf 2)

Motor: Ec = VT - Ia(Ra + Rf 2) Figure 1.11


Eg = generated emf Ec = counter emf 9

1,0m 1,0m DCM1


D Cload




dc supply VT

1,0 1,0m


Power flow diagram is normally represented as a fish bone.

Input Power = Output + Losses Losses can be divided into 2:(i) Copper losses (Armature copper loss , Pca) and (Field copper loss,Pcf) (ii) Iron losses, P (friction, stray, windage,mechanical losses)

For DC Generator: For DC Motor:

Pin = Pout + Total losses where Pout = VTIL Pin = Pout + Total losses where Pin = VTIL

Total losses = Pca + Pcf + P



DC SERIES P Pcf Pin Pca Pout= VTIL

DC SHUNT P Pcf Pin Pca DC COMPOUND P Pcf1 Pin Pca Pcf2 Pout= VTIL Pout= VTIL


POWER FLOW DIAGRAM FOR DC MOTOR DC SERIES Pca P Pm Pin=VTIL Pcf DC SHUNT Pca P Pm Pin=VTIL Pcf DC COMPOUND Pca Pcf2 Pin = VTIL Pcf1 1.8 MOTOR TORQUE For load torque@shaft torque@net torque@output torque:
To = 60 Pout 2N 60 Pm 2 N



Pm P


For mechanical torque:

Tm =

For loss torque:

TL = 60 P 2 N


1.9 EFFICIENCY Generally efficiency is:

Pout Pin

For dc generator:
Pout VTIL = Pin VTIL + Losses

For dc motor:
Pout Pm P = Pin VTIL

Example 3 A short-shunt compound generator delivers 50 A at 500 V to a resistive load. The armature, series field and shunt field resistances are 0.16, 0.08 and 200 , respectively. Calculate the generated EMF and armature current, if the rotational losses are 520 W, determine the efficiency of the generator. Solution

0.08 ohm 0.16 ohm




50 A 500V
1,0m 1,0m 1,0m D CM1

200 ohm Eg

P = 520W Pout = VI = 500(50) = 25000W

500V = 2.5 A 200 I a = I F + I L = 2.5 + 50 = 52.5 A IF =



E g = VT + I a ( Ra + R f ) E g = 500 + (52.5)(0.08 + 0.16) = 512.6V

Pin = Pout + Ploss Ploss = Pca + Pcf + P = (52.5 2 )(0.16) + (52.5 2 )(0.08) + ( 2.5 2 )(200) + 520 = 2431.5W

Pout 25000 = x100% = 91.13% Pin 25000 + 2431.5

Example 4 A 150 V shunt motor has the following parameters: Ra = 0.5 , Rf = 150 and rotational loss 250 W. On full load the line current is 19.5 A and the motor runs at 1400 rpm. Determine: (i) the developed power/developed mechanical power (ii) the output power (iii) the output torque (iv) the efficiency at full load Solution IL = 19.5A N = 1400rpm (i)
Pm = E c I a

Ia = IL IF I L = 19.5 A IF = VT 150 = =1 RF 150

I a = 19.5 1 = 18.5 A E c = VT I a Ra = 150 18.5(0.5) = 140.75V Pm = E c I a = (140.75)(18.5) = 2603.88W

OR :- Pm = Pin Pca Pcf 2 2 Pm = VT I L I a Ra I F RF

Pm = 150(19.5) (18.5 2 )(0.5) (12 )(150) = 2603.88W


Pout = Pm P = 2603.88 250 = 2353.88W



To =

60 Pout 60( 2353.88) = = 16.06 Nm 2N 2 (1400)


Pout P 2353.88 = out = = 80.47% Pin VT I L 150(19.5)

Tutorial 1 1. A 300 V compound motor has armature resistance 0.18 , series field resistance 0.3 and shunt field resistance 100 . The rotational losses are 200 W. On full load the line current is 25 A and the motor runs at 1800 rpm. Determine: (i) (ii) the developed mechanical power the output power 15

(iii) (iv)

the output torque the efficiency at full load

2. A 120 V series motor has 0.2 field resistance. On full load, the line current is 16.5 A. The output power is 1500 W and rotational loss is 150 W. Find the value of armature resistance. 3. Briefly explain the difference between motor and generator of DC machine. 4. A compound DC motor rated at 415 V, 6 HP, 2000 rpm has armature resistance 0.18 , series field resistance 0.3 and shunt field resistance 100 . The rotational losses are 200 W. The full load line current is 40 A. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Find the developed mechanical power. Find the output power. Find the load torque. Find the efficiency of the motor. Draw the power flow diagram for this type of motor.

5. A DC series generator delivers 100 kW at 10 kV to a load. The armature resistance is 20 and the field resistance is 50 . Calculate: (i) (ii) the generated emf, Eg the input power if the stray and friction losses are 400 W.