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The Future of HVDC in the UK

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Damien Culley Technology Projects Team, National Grid

Contents
Introduction HVDC Technology VSC HVDC Applications UK Grid Development Multi-Terminal HVDC and DC Grids

Our Electricity Transmission business - UK


National Grid owns the transmission system (>275kV) in England and Wales National Grid is the System Operator for entire GB transmission network

The Times They Are A-Changin

UK Environmental Targets

2020
15% of UK energy to be sourced from renewable generation; 30% of electricity from renewable sources; 12% of heat from renewable sources; 10% transport from renewable resources; a 30% cut in emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020, compared with 1990 levels; a 20% cut in energy consumption, by improving energy efficiency.

2050
an 80% cut in emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050, compared with 1990 levels.

Generation Mix 2010 vs. 2020


2010/11 Generation Mix
2010/11 Generation Capacity Total installed - 85GW

2020/21 Generation Mix


2020/21 Generation Capacity Total installed - 100GW

Coal Coal (CCS) Nuclear Gas Oil Pumped Storage Wind Interconnectors Hydro Biomass Marine

Coal Coal (CCS) Nuclear Gas Oil Pumped Storage Wind Interconnectors Hydro Biomass Marine

Generation Type Coal Wind Gas Nuclear Other

Percentage 33% 5% 37% 13% 12%

Generation Type Coal Wind Gas Nuclear Other

Percentage 15% 27% 35% 11% 12%

Offshore Wind Farm Developments Seabed Allocation Rounds


Round 1
18 projects totalling approximately 1 GW of installed generation capacity

Round 2
15 projects totalling approximately 7.2 GW of installed generation capacity

Round 1 and Round 2 Extensions


Extension of 1.5 GW of installed generation capacity

Round 3
9 development zones totalling approximately 32 GW of installed generation The aim of Round 3 is to deliver a quarter of UK electricity needs by 2020.

Scottish Territorial Waters (STW)


Scottish Territorial Waters: Exclusivity agreements have been granted by The Crown Estates to install up to 5 GW of generation.
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GB Outline

Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Scottish Territorial Waters

Limitations of AC cable
1000 900 800 700 600 400kV 50/50 400kV 70/30 400kV 100/0 275kV 50/50 275kV 70/30 275kV 100/0

MW

500 400 300 200 100 0 0 50 100 km 150 200

Maximum real power transfer in 275 kV and 400 kV cables with 100/0, 50/50 and 70/30 reactive compensation split between onshore and offshore (1000 mm2 copper cross section) 9

HVDC Technology

HVDC transmission system

AC system

AC system

Rectifier

DC system

Inverter

Converter at sending end acts as rectifier and converts AC to DC Converter at receiving end acts as inverter and converts DC to AC The DC connection may be cable, overhead line or back-to-back
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Advantages of HVDC
The ability to: control power flows on the HVDC connection for all system backgrounds transmit power in either direction improve AC system stability through controllable power flow, improved damping, AC voltage control increase power flow into AC system without increasing fault level transmit power over long distances without technical limitations particularly important for cable circuits interconnect networks that are asynchronous or that operate at different frequencies
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Line Commutated Converter (LCC) HVDC


Thyristor valve based technology Established pedigree (>70 installations worldwide) Installed ratings worldwide of <100MW up to 7200MW Cannot be used with XLPE cable Requires connection to strong network not suitable for wind farm connections Consumes reactive power Ratings Currently up to 800kV 7200MW Costs
All costs are given in millions of British Pounds.

Specifications 1000 MW 400 kV 2000 MW 500 kV 3000 MW 600 kV

Unit Cost 70 90 130 160 170 200

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LCC - 12-pulse bridge

YY

YY

Y Y

Resulting waveform requires filtering


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Voltage Source Converter (VSC) HVDC


IGBT based technology Relatively new 1st installation in 1997 Presently lower ratings than LCC Potential for multi-terminal applications Ratings Maximum Installed Rating: 400MW 150kV Maximum Planned Rating: 1000MW 320kV Bipole 715MW 500kV Monopole Near Term Achievable Rating: 2200MW 600kV (by 2017) Costs
All costs are given in millions of British Pounds.

Specifications 500 MW 300 kV 850 MW 320 kV 1250 MW 500 kV 2000 MW 500 kV

Unit Cost 65 80 85 105 105 130 125 170

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VSC - Multi-level converter


A number of VSC topologies exist The present generation of HVDC applications employ a topology based on a large number of switched capacitor modules arranged in a chain Each module is switched so that its capacitor is either in circuit or bypassed The modules are switched individually to produce a sequence of voltage steps approximating to a sine wave at the AC terminal

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VSC - Multi-level converter


+

UC

Switched capacitor module Three phase converter arms comprised of switched capacitor modules Resulting sine wave requires little or no filtering

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VSC HVDC applications

VSC projects
Maximum power by year of commissioning
1200 1000
Borwin 1, Cross Sound Terranora Gotland Estlink Trans Bay Dolwin1, BorWin2 France -Spain

Power (MW)

800 600 400 200 0 1996 1998

East-West Link

2000

2002

2004

2006 Year

2008

2010

2012

2014

2016

Clear increasing trend; 1 GW available in 2014 No theoretical barrier to the development of 2 GW VSC HVDC has been identified Rating achievable by incremental development, no step change necessary
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VSC projects: BorWin 1


BorWin 1 platform in the North Sea Image courtesy of ABB

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VSC HVDC offshore converters


Project
BorWin1 Dolwin1 Borwin2 Helwin1 Sylwin1 Dolwin2

Power (MW)
400 800 800 576 864 900

DC voltage (kV)
150 320 300 250 320 320

Year of commissioning
2010 2013 2013 2013 2014 2015
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The future in the UK

GB Outline

Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Scottish Territorial Waters

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GB Radial Design Accelerated Growth 2030

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GB Integrated Design Accelerated Growth 2030

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Design Options and Staged Development


Radial
Radial - point to point connection from offshore substation to onshore substation.
1GW cables to shore 1GW cables to shore 1GW cables to shore

1GW cable to shore

Radial +

Radial Plus - point to point connection of multiple groups of offshore generation by utilising anticipated technology (2 GW converter stations and high capacity offshore cables). Integrated - AC and HVDC interconnection between offshore platforms and development zones using the same advanced technology as Radial Plus. Optimised for an economically efficient design.
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2GW cable to shore

2GW cable to shore

2GW cables to shore

2GW cables to shore

Integrated/ Coordinated

2GW cable to shore

2GW cables to shore AC cables HVDC cables

2GW cables to shore AC platform DC platform

2GW cables to shore

Multi-Terminal HVDC and DC grids

ENTSO-E North Sea Conceptual design for 2030


Scotland Shore Line (5 GW)
Norway Shore Line Scotland 9 GW Norway 1 GW
NordLink
SK1-3 SK4

+8GW

Denmark 4 GW

England Shore Line (24 GW)

Dogger Bank 13 GW
NorNed 2 NorNed

Hornsea 4 GW Norfolk 7 GW
BritNed Nemo

(7 GW Interface Capacity)

England Rounds 1&2 (5.5GW)

Netherlands (12 GW)

+7GW

Belgium 4 GW

Belgium Shore Line (3.5 GW)

Netherlands Shore Line (10 GW)


HVDC Transmission AC Transmission In Flight or current

Ge rm an y (20 Shor GW e Li ne )

h t r o N

a e S

A RB CO

Germany (24 GW)

+11GW

Denmark Shore Line (3.5 GW)

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Multi-Terminal HVDC A
AC ~ =

B D
AC ~ = = ~

AC

= ~

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VSC HVDC: Management of dc fault


+

R Y

As dc voltage collapses fault current is conducted by free wheeling diodes The half cell is unable to block fault current (other topologies similar)

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VSC HVDC: Management of dc fault

DC fault clearance by circuit-breakers on the ac side Necessary and achievable fault clearance times? Protection of semiconductors and capacitors?
~ = = ~

AC

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VSC HVDC: Management of dc fault


Propagation of voltage collapse on dc circuit
c c

v=

v=

The voltage collapse propagates through the HVDC cables at approx 1.5 x 108 ms-1 Collapse of voltage penetrates rapidly throughout HVDC system Time to travel 100 km ~ 0.7 ms

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VSC HVDC: Management of dc fault A AC


For multi-terminal HVDC, All converters are affected Entire system is tripped to clear fault
~ =

B
= ~

D AC

~ =

Compliance with SQSS infeed loss risk limits may restrict the design of the system

AC

= ~

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VSC HVDC: Management of dc fault A AC


Restore operation of the unfaulted part of the system
~ =

B
= ~

D AC
Detection of fault

~ =

Identification of faulted line Reconfigure system with faulted line isolated Restart unfaulted part of system

AC

= ~

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Example: ABB solution


In the ABB solution, the main dc breaker is normally bypassed by a low-loss auxiliary breaker
Fast disconnector Auxiliary dc breaker

Current limiting reactor

Residual dc current breaker Main dc breaker

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VSC HVDC: Management of dc fault A


AC ~ =

Fault clearance by dc circuit-breaker Unfaulted part of system remains in service

B
= ~

D AC
New to the market

~ =

Application issues to be understood Specifications and standards required

AC

= ~

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VSC HVDC: Management of dc fault A AC


Fault clearance by dc circuit-breaker
= ~ =

B
~

Achieving compliance with SQSS infeed loss risk limits

1.8 GW

C
= ~

1.8 GW

AC

= ~

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VSC HVDC: Management of dc fault A AC


Fault clearance by dc circuit-breaker
= ~ =

B
~

Achieving compliance with SQSS infeed loss risk limits

1.8 GW

C
= ~

1.8 GW

AC

= ~

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Conclusion HVDC is central to meeting network challenges Multi-terminal HVDC will ensure economic solutions

Research is key to the future

HVDC Circuit Breakers will enable extensive DC grids


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Want to read more?


Offshore Development Information Statement (ODIS) 2011 http://www.nationalgrid.com/uk/Electricity/OffshoreTransmission/ODIS/CurrentStateme nt/ Offshore Transmission Network Feasibility Study (OTNFS) http://www.nationalgrid.com/uk/Electricity/OffshoreTransmission/OffshoreApproach/ Security and Quality of Supply Standards (SQSS) http://www.nationalgrid.com/NR/rdonlyres/784F2DFC-133A-41CD-A624952EF4CCD29B/45776/NETSSQSS_v21_March2011.pdf OFGEM http://www.ofgem.gov.uk/Pages/OfgemHome.aspx DECC http://www.decc.gov.uk/ The Crown Estates http://www.thecrownestate.co.uk/

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Careers at National Grid


Graduate Development Programme
18 month programme comprising of 3 x 6 month placements: The Graduate Development programme is an opportunity for you to get a broad overview of the company before beginning a more permanent role in your first post.

Direct Entry roles also available www.nationalgridcareers.com


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Thank you

Any Questions?

GB Outline

Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Scottish Territorial Waters

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