Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

1

Chapter- 3
Vibration Control
In many mechanical systems, the
unwanted vibrations are induced due to
impulsive forces unbalanced forces these
may lead to lower the efficiency of the
system. In structural system it leads to a
catastrophic failure.

The objective of vibration analysis is to
apply its results to understand how
unwanted vibrations can be eliminated or
reduced. Vibration analysis is used to
develop design principles for isolation
system.

Vibration control is use of vibration
analysis to develop methods to eliminate
or reduce unwanted vibrations or to use
vibrations to protect against unwanted
force or motion transmission.
These are several ways in which vibration
control can be achieved.
1) Control of Excitation
2) Control of system performance
3) Control of system configuration
4) Reduction of force or motion
transmission

1) Control of the Excitation: The external
excitation causing the vibration can be
eliminated reduced in magnitude, or alter
in some way or the other.

Consider a machine with an unbalanced
reciprocating component here its steady
state amplitude of response in proportional
to amplitude of excitation, a reduction in
magnitude of unbalance force leads to
reduction in the steady state amplitude.
Thus improved balancing leads to
reduction in vibration.
A change in excitation frequency of a
harmonic excitation will also lead to
change in steady state amplitude.

2. Control of system parameters: The
steady state amplitude of response of one
degree of freedom

X =
F

K
M(r, )
=
F

K

1
(1 -r
2
)
2
+(2r)
2

r =
m
m
n
=
_
M
K
m
=
c
mk
2


Here is function of C,
M and K. If there is any
change is above
parameters like C, M, &
K leads to change in
steady state amplitude.
By increasing the damping ratio leads to
decrease in steady state amplitude.

3. Change of system configuration : An
alternative to altering stiffness, increases,
inertia, or damping
parameters of
system to achieve
vibration control is
to change the
configuration of
system.
For ex: By
attaching the
vibration absorber is to the single spring
mass system to converting into 2 degree of
freedom. If absorber is designed correctly,
the natural frequency of 2 degree of
freedom system are away from excitation
frequency.

4. Reduction of force or motion
trasmision: Fig , illustrate the use of a
vibration isolator between two component
of machanical system. If desined correctly,
an isolator can reduce the trasmission of
force between machine and its foundation.
2


VIBRATION ISOLATION THEORY:
1) Foundations and mounting are protected
against large forces
produced in
equipment.
For ex: protecting
foundation from a
large inertia force
generated by
reciprocating
machines and protecting foundation from a
large impulsive force produced by drop
hammer.

A model one degree of freedom shown in
fig. The differential equation governing
the displacement of mass is...

x +2
n
x +
n
2
x=
P(t)
M


n
= _
k
m
and =
c
2Mo
n

Therefore, force transmitted to foundation
through the spring and viscous dampers is,
F
1
(t) = Kx +Cx
2) Equipment is protected against motion of
its foundation:
For ex: protecting a computer on ship
from sudden motion due to waves and
rough seas.

The differential equation governing the
relative displacement between the mass
and its foundations.

Z

+2
n
Z

+
n
2
Z = -y
Z = x-y
The acceleration transmitted to the mass
due to its motion of the base is given by,
x = z +y = -(2w
n
z + w
n
2
z)
= -
KZ +CZ

H

F
T
= - Mx
In the either cases vibration control
involves minimizing the max.
Transmittance force F
Tmax
and maximum
displacement X
max
or both.

VIBRATION ISOLATION THEORY
FOR HARMONIC EXCITATION
General theory:
If the machine as
shown in fig were
bolted to floor and
subjected to
harmonic excitation
of form.
F(t) = F
o
sin t
Then the floor is subject to weight of with
static component load equal to weight of
machine and a harmonic component of
magnitude F
o
and frequency . The
harmonic component can lead to fatigue
damage of the bolts and the structure and
cause unwanted noise. This harmonic
force applied to floor can also induce
vibration of structure that may affect
operation of neighboring machines.
The magnitude of harmonic component of
transmitted force can be reduce by
isolating the floor from the machine by
placing the machine on an elastic
foundation modeled as spring in parallel
with viscous damper as in fig. The steady
state response of machine is,

3

x(t)= x sin (t )
F
T
(t) = F
Tmax
sin (t- )
F
Tmax
=F
o
T (n),
F
1
F
o
= I (n )
T (r. ) = _
1+(2 n
2
)
(1-
2
)
2
+ (2)
2

The non-dimensional functional function
is called transmissibility. If
transmissibility < 1 the magnitude of
repeating force transmitted to floor is less
than one. The magnitude of excitation
force when this occurs vibration are said to
be isolated.
Fig. shows the transmissibility as a
function of frequency ratio for different
values of damping ratio. Isolation occurs
only when r> 2.

FREQUENCY: - SQUARED
EXCITATION.
A special case occurs when the amplitude
of excitation is proportional to the square
of the excitation frequency. As for the
harmonic excitation due to rotating
unbalance. Since the maximum allowable
force transmitted to the foundation is
independent of frequency excitation, the
percentage of isolation required varies
with the frequency.

FT
Moeo
2
=T(r.)

P1
Moc
n
2
= r
2
T(r.)=R(r.)
R (r. ) =r
2
_
1+(2{)
2
(1-
2
)+(2{)
2

R(r.) is plotted is fig T
1. R(r.) is asymptotic to the line
f(r)=2r for large r, that is
lim

R(r. ) = 2r.
2. For <_
2
h
=o.35h, R(r.) increases
with increasing r, from 0 at r=0 and
reaches a maximum.







Multi-frequency and general
periodic excitation
Vibration isolation for multifrequency
excitation can be difficult if the lowest
frequency value is low.

Consider a system subjected to an
excitation composed of n harmonics.

F(t)= F

n
=1
sin (

t+

)
The principal of linear super position is
used to calculate the total response of the
system. The transmittance force is given
by
F
1
(t)= I(r

n
=1
. )F

sin (w

t +i -z)
r

=
w
i
o
n

Since the harmonic terms of above
equations are out of phase. Their maxima
occur at different times. The closed forms
of equation are difficult to attain. So the
following is used as upper bound.
F
1
< F

n
=1
I(r

.)
0 1 2
1
2

1
0

8

6
4

Above equation gives the upper bound of
natural frequency. If natural frequency is
less than the calculated upper bound, the
repeating force transmittance to floor is
always less than the allowable force.

Practical aspects of vibration
isolation
Vibration isolation is required as variety of
military and industrial applications.
Isolation is required to reduce the force
transmitted between a machine and its
foundation during ordinary operation or to
isolate a machine from vibrations of its
surroundings.

A large vibration amplitude can lead to
ineffective operation of machinery. Large
amplitude vibration of machine which
must be properly aligned with devices that
feed materials to the machine can lead to
improper alignment and improper
operation. Many machine tools require a
rigid foundation.
The different ways to reduce the vibration
are.
1. The amplitude and resonant amplitude
can be reduced during operation by
increasing the mass of the isolation
system.
There are three class of isolator generally
used are.
1. Helical coil steel spring are used an
isolators. When large static deflection
is required and flexible foundation is
acceptable. This occurs when good
isolation is required at low operating
speeds.
2. Elastomers are used an isolation where
small static deflection are used. If used
for large deflection these elastomers
are subjected to creep, reducing their
effectiveness after time. It cannot be
used high temperature environment.
3. Pads made of materials such as cork,
felt or elastomeric resin is often used to
isolate large machines. Pads to isolate
a specific machine can be cut large
pads.

SHOCK ISOLATION:
Short duration process:
If the forge hammer is rigidly mounted
to foundation ,
the foundation
is subjected to
large impulsive
force when
hammer impacts
the anvil.
An isolation
system modeled
as a spring and viscous damper in parallel
can be designed to reduce the magnitude
of the force to which the foundation is
subject.

If the duration of a transient excitation
F(t) is small say to < T/S ,T is natural
period of the system , then the system
response can be adequately approximated
by the response due to an impulse of
magnitude.

I = _ F(t) Jt
t
0
0


If system is at rest in equilibrium , when
a pulse of short time duration is
applied the principle of impulse-
momentum is used to calculate the
velocity impacted to mass as
V = I / M
Impulse provides external energy to
initiative vibrations. Time is measured
beginning immediately after excitation is
removed.
x ( t) =

o
n
c
-o
n
t
sin
d
t
Mass displacement occurs at a time
t
m
= tan
-1
_
1-
2

]
5

X
max
=

o
n
> 1 _-

1-
2
tan
-1
_
1-
2

]_
Formulas:
V = 2gb
Velocity by impulse method.

V=
I
m
=
M
h
v
c
muss

H
h = muss o] hummc

S() =
P
TMAX
X
MAX
12m
2

Natural frequency of isolator

n
=
P
TMAX
m cos ()

K = m
n
2

Long term pulses: If pulse duration
> T/S then they are called long term pulse.
In long term duration, it is possible that
maximum displacement transmitted force
could occur while the excitation is
being applied.
Shock spectra are often calculated only
for undamped systems. Algebraic
complexity usually prevents analytical
determination of shock spectra for damped
systems.

The shock spectrum involving maximum
value of transmitted force is useful. In
y-axis we plot FT/F0 transmittance to
excited force ratio and when system is
undamped F
1
= F
0

FT = F0.
There are many pulse shape of
displacement and force or acceleration
spectra . The spectra are obtained by
Runge-Kutta method.

The force spectra for the rectangular
pulse ,triangular pulse, sinusoidal pulse ,
versed pulse show that shock isolation
can only be achieved by small natural
frequencies.
DYNAMIC VIBRATION ABSORBERS

UNDAMPED ABSORBERS: Large
amplitude vibrations of one degree of
freedom system subject to a harmonic
excitation occurs when an excitation
frequency is near natural frequency. The
amplitude of response is reduced when
the system properties are changed such
that natural frequency is away from
excitation frequency.
A vibration absorber is an auxiliary
spring mass system that when correctly
tuned and attached to vibrating body
subject to harmonic excitation causes
steady state motion of the point to which
it is attached to cease.

6

Here mass M
2
and spring stiffness K
2

are added to existing system to avoid
the vibration transmittance.
K
1
X
1
F
0
=
r -r
2
2
r
1
2
r
2
2
-r
2
2
-(1 -)r
1
2
+1

Steady state amplitude of primary mass
DAMPED VIBRATION ABSORBERS:
Here viscous damping is added in
parallel to elastic element of vibration
absorber to limit the amplitude for
lower natural frequency is passed
during system start up and stopping or
to increase the effective operating range
The steady state amplitude are non-
dimensional


P
0
= G(r, q, , )







VIBRATION DAMPERS : A
vibration damper is an auxiliary system
composed of a inertia element and viscous
damper that is connected to primary
system as a mean of vibration control.

These dampers are used in vibration
control of rotating devices engine crank
shafts.





=
m
2
m


r
1
=
_
m

r
2=

_
m
2