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Ethics, culture & the Christian community Teachers College

Human cloning

By Sonianto kuddi
40420060017
1EMB1
Human cloning 2

HUMAN CLONING

Introduction

Technology developed very fast, technology was created by human for their goodness.

Technology becomes the important thinks in all aspects of human life. Biotechnology lately

becomes good target to be explored by scientist. Cloning is one of the biotechnologies. Generally

clone means making of copies of molecules, cells, tissues, and even entire animals. (Hui, 2002,

p. 235).

In this paper I will concern about human cloning. I choose this topic because I want to

know more about human cloning, challenge me as a biology teacher and answer my curious

when I was senior high school. In cloning there are so many props and cons. This props and cons

occur depend on their philosophy, what they believe and the reality.

Human cloning is creating a genetically human being by copying a single mature cell.

Many scientists describe human cloning divided into to three general categories: gene cloning:

genes are multiplied to generate extra genetic, cell cloning: differentiated or undifferentiated

cells from embryos are multiplied to specific biology, embryo cloning: nucleus is removed from

an ovum and replaced with the nucleus another cell. (Hui, 2002, p. 238).

1. A BRIEF STATEMENT OF ETHICAL ISSUE

The ethics of human cloning has become a great issue in the past few years. The

advocates for both sides of the issue have many reasons to clone or not to clone. This is an

attempt to explore the pros and cons of human cloning and to provide enough information of

both sides of the arguments in order for the reader to make their own informed decision on

whether human cloning is ethical or not. Some people support it and should to be allowed. They

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have many reasons to support human cloning include: human development, creativity, social and

personal benefit. Some people again against and said should not to be allowed. It is all about

human right, human dignity, between human with God, social and individual harm. In the other

hand, some of the religion in this world support human cloning and the rest against. So this topic

is good to be investigated. Followed by that, a discussion of the facts and opinions that support

cloning will be presented and then the same against cloning.

2. INDENTIFCATION OF RELEVANT BIBLICAL PASSAGES AND/OR PRINCIPLES

(NEED NOT BE EXHAUSTIVE)

Human cloning can be done within a moral right to reproductive freedom. Is there a

moral right to use human cloning? Individual free to use human cloning if they choose and if

their do, it would not cause significant harms to others. Human cloning would relieve the

infertility some persons, enable individuals to clone someone who had special meaning, such as a

child who had died and duplication human who have great talent, genius, character, or other

exemplary qualities. Human created a life to lave a life and healthy for human itself. Human

cloning advances scientific knowledge, for example about human development (Brock, 2005, p.

7).

On the other hand, contrary suggest that human cloning seems to be a violation of moral

or human right/human dignity. The risk is some significant individual or social harm, human

identity, and the effects of human cloning. Most of the religions in the world disagree with

human cloning, because it is relate to the relationship between human and God as creator.

Sexual reproduction is a determination from God in creation. (Hui, 2002, p. 249).

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God created Ave as partner of Adam for that reason and they are obligated to multiply

through the earth. Genesis 4: 1 said “Adam lay with his wife Eve and she become pregnant and

gave birth to Cain. She said “With the help of the Lord I have brought forth a man”.

3. DISCUSSION OF RELEVANT THEOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES

Cloning in Christian viewpoint violate the basic human dignity. (Hui, 2002, p. 244).

Human dignity in arises from the relational pole of human personhood, express in giving and

receiving in human existential. Human dignity is derived and given trough the relationship

between human and God first in creation.

Talk about human cloning in Christian theology, humanity is theologically rooted in

creation of human being in the image of God. Genesis 1: 27-28 clearly said “God created man in

his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them”.

Interpretations of the moral meaning of the God’s image depend in part on prior convictions

about the nature of God and those characteristics of God human beings are believed to image.

Nevertheless, it is possible to identify several implications of significance to the questions of

human cloning. Human beings are bestowed with the gift of freedom and moral agency. Moral

agency is inherent in the human self and creates logical and correlative moral responsibilities.

Human beings are created in God’s image, but they are not God. They are finite and

fallible, with limited capacities to predict and direct the course of actions they initiate, or to

assess accurately the outcomes of these actions. Human are equal. This equality transcends

differentiation between persons made on the basis of gender, race, class, ethnicity, etc. Human

beings are relational and social creatures. They are created in and for relationship with God, for

community with other persons, and with creation. The image of God is reflected in human

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diversity, involving but not limited to gender diversity. The differentiation of the sexes provides a

divine warrant for procreation and the sacredness of sexuality. (Campbell, 2005, p. 11).

Human beings bear the image of God through the exercise of their creative capacities and

potential. This includes creative ways of exercising dominion over the natural world.

(Campbell, 2005, p. 11). It is not about how human or scientist design and free determine the

new baby that they want to. God full involve in baby creation. Human cloning risks children as

products of technology achievement rather than created in love (Campbell, 2005, p. 7).

Christian performs their primary responsibility for future generation through procreation

and care for children. Every child will have parents and they take responsibility to protect, keep

and care their child. Human cloning is made from a single cell or asexual production. These

humans will loss one of parents because they come from a single cell. Maybe they will not have

father and disruption of the parent child relationship. As we know in father and mother as a team

to develop child character, emotional and education.

4. OTHER PRINCIPLES OR CONCERNS OF RELEVANCE TO ISSUE, IF ANY

Buddhist scholars generally agree that the process children are born into the world makes

no difference. Individuals can begin their lives in many ways, not limited to human sexual

reproduction. Cloning is understood as a method generates new human life and continuous with

other methods. One Buddhist ethicist has supported use of reproductive technology, as long as it

benefits to the couple who wish to have a child and not bring pain or suffering. However, few of

Buddhist scholars not really agree because according to them human cloning an impoverished to

procreation. It is will decrease creativity and diversity (Campbell, 2005, p. 23).

Basic Buddhist teachings present an ethic of responsibility, centered on the values of non-

injury and the relief of suffering of sentient beings, compassion, the “no-self,” the moral

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authority of intuition, and reincarnation. These values offer some elements of a Buddhist

response to reproductive and genetic technologies, including cloning. (Campbell, 22-23).

From Islam perspective: use of cloning research for fertility in bounds of marriage would

be supported by Islamic scholar and tradition. Some Islam traditions assert that ensoulment

occurs at fertilization; other traditions indicate ensoulment occurs at the end of the fourth month

or 120 days after fertilization. Beside those, there are traditions becomes possible to argue for

research of human pre-embryo for purposes of human health. Moreover, if the embryo is not

accorded personhood, then embryo destruction is permissible. (Campbell, 2005, p. 28).

The preamble of UNESCO’s proposed Universal Declaration on the Human Genome

and the Protection of Human Rights recalls the universal principles of human rights as found in

the international instruments and recognizes that:

“Research on the human genome and the resulting applications open up vast prospects
for progress in improving the health of individuals and of humankind as a whole, but
emphasiz[es] that such research should fully respect human dignity and individual rights,
as well as the prohibition of all forms of discrimination based on genetic
characteristics.” (Knoppers, 2005, p. 4).
UNESCO emphasize to the protection of human dignity and human right.

5. IMPLICATIONS OF ISSUE FOR THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY

Direct or indirect, human cloning will give impact to the Christian community. This

community began to though the answer (their perspective) and how they can face this challenge.

They will find the difficulty to adaptive with growth of era especially human cloning. The

member of community will struggle to make decision if they are faced in the difficult situation

where they have to choose cloning or lost.

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There are many impact of human cloning for Christian community involve; integrity of

the family, the nature of parenthood, the role of marital sexuality and procreation, and the

identity of a child. (Campbell, 2005, p. 7).

Human cloning cause practical reasoning involves application of the moral and humanity

norms of the faith to generate ethical of human cloning. For example, perhaps the common norm

of western theological anthropology engage the discussion of human cloning is that human

beings are created in the image of God. This concept very rich in ethical content then is applied

by religious reasoning to provide a perspective on human cloning general or the theological and

moral status. For example, a clone as an ensouled with full claims as a person. (Campbell, 2005,

p. 6).

Human created in sanctification and doing human cloning is violating human dignity and

uniqueness of human. This matter wills possible and potential break Christian theology. This is

the big challenge that Christian community should pass. It is will possible confusing for the

members of Christian community.

6. A BRIEF CASE STUDY RELATED TO OR BASED UPON THE ISSUE UNDER

CONSIDERATION

A couple that had been married for only two years was in a terrible car accident. The

wife walked away with a few cuts and bruises. The husband, however was unconscious when

the paramedics arrived. He went into a coma shortly after arriving at the nearby hospital. He

came out of the coma but was never to be the same again. It turns out that when he was in the

accident he had severe head trauma, and would be a vegetable the rest of his life. He could not

take part in the reproduction of children. The wife is now distraught because they will never

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have children together. She heard about the possibility of cloning and believes that it is the only

way that she will ever have children. Is it so?

Do you agree with this wife’s decision? Why or why not? What are the significant moral

considerations in this case? What consideration is decisive for you?

CONCLUSION

Religious perspectives on human cloning differ in fundamental premises, modes of

reasoning, and conclusions. As a result, there is no single religious view on human cloning. The

ethical pros and cons of human cloning, as I see them at this time, are sufficiently balanced and

uncertain that there is not an ethically decisive case either for or against permitting it or doing it.

Human cloning can be brought within a moral right to reproductive freedom, but the

circumstances will have significant benefits appear at this time to be few and infrequent. It is not

a central component of a moral right to reproductive freedom, and it serves no major or pressing

individual or social needs. On the other hand, contrary to the pronouncements of many of its

opponents, human cloning seems not to be a violation of moral or human rights. But it does risk

some significant individual or social harm, although most are based on common public

confusions about genetic determinism, human identity, and the effects of human cloning.

Because most moral reasons against doing human cloning remain speculative, they seem

insufficient to warrant at this time a complete legal prohibition of either research on or later use

of human cloning. Legitimate moral concerns about the use and effects of human cloning,

however, underline the need for careful public oversight of research on its development, together

with a wider public debate and review before cloning is used on human beings. (Brock, 2005, p.

20-21).

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References
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USA.

Macer, D. R. J. (2006). A cross-cultural introduction to bioethics. Eubios Ethics Institute 2006:


Bangkok.

Worthing, M. W. (2004). When choice matters: an introduction to Christian ethics. Pantaenus


Press: Millswood, South Australia.

Plomer, A. (2005). The law and ethics of medical research: international bioethics and human
rights. Cavendish Publishing: Great Britain.

Campbell, C. S. (2005). Cloning human beings: Religious perspectives an human cloning.


Oregon state university.

Brock, D. W (2005). Cloning human beings: An assessment of the ethical issues pro and con.
Brown University.

Knoppers, B. M. (2005). Cloning human beings: An international comparative overview.


University of Montreal.

Farnsworth, J. (2001). To clone or not to clone: the ethical question. Rusia. Retrieved January
20, 2009 from: http://thefarnsworths.com/science/cloning.htm.

Hinman, L. M. (1994). Bioethics, cloning & reproductive technologies. University of San Diego.
Retrieved January 20, 2009 from: http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Applied/Bioethics/index.asp.

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