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Adjective Clauses

Here is a brief review of adjective clauses and relative pronouns. An adjective clause is used to describe a noun: The car, which was red, belonged to Young-Hee. A relative pronoun is usually used to introduce an adjective clause: Young-Hee, who is a Korean student, lives in Victoria.

The main relative pronouns are:


Prono un

Use

Example

Hans, who is an Who used for humans in subject position architect, lives in Berlin. Marike, whom Hans knows Whom used for humans in object position well, is an interior decorator. used Which for things and animals in subject or obje ct position Marike has a dog which follo ws her everywhere. Marike is decorating a house that Han s designed.

used for humans, animals and things, That in subject or object position (but see below)

There are two main kinds of adjective clause: 1. Non-defining clauses


Non-defining clauses give extra information about the noun, but they are not essential: The desk in the corner, which is covered in books, is mine. Explanation: We don't need this information in order to understand the sentence. The desk in the corner is mine is a good sentence on its own we still know which desk is referred to. Note that non-defining clauses are usually separated by commas, and that is not usually used in this kind of context.

2. Defining clauses
Defining clauses give essential information about the noun: The package that arrived this morning is on the desk. Explanation: We need this information in order to understand the sentence. Without the relative clause, we don't know which package is being referred to. Note that that is often used in defining relative clauses, and they are not separated by commas. When you are sure that you understand the lesson, you can continue with the exercises.

Examples of Adjective Clauses


Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns, giving a description or more information. An adjective clause is simply a group of words with a subject and a verb that provide a description. The clause starts with a pronoun such as who, whom, that, or which or an adverb such as when, where and why.

Adjective Clauses In Action


Adjective clauses do not change the basic meaning of the sentence. In some cases, when they provide more information into a sentence, they need to be set off with commas. Here are several examples of sentences with the adjective clauses underlined:

Pizza,which most people love, is not very healthy. The peoplewhose names are on the listwill go to camp. Grandpa remembers the old dayswhen there was no television. Fruitthat is grown organicallyis expensive. Studentswho are intelligentget good grades. Eco-friendly carsthat run on electricitysave gas. I know someonewhose father served in World War II. Making noise when he eats is the main reasonwhy Sue does not like to eat with her brother. The kidswho were called firstwill have the best chance of getting a seat. Running a marathon,a race of twenty-six miles, takes a lot of training.

I enjoy telling people about Janet Evanovichwhose latest book was fantastic. The peoplewaiting all night outside the Apple storeare trying to purchase a new iPhone. "Hewho can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in aweis as good as dead." - Albert Einstein Thosewho do not complainare never pitied. - Jane Austen People demand freedom of speech to make up for the freedom of thoughtwhich they avoid. - Sren Kierkegaard Never go to a doctorwhose office plants have died. - Erma Bombeck

Turning Adjective Clauses into Phrases


An adjective clause with a subject pronoun - such as which, that or who - can also be shortened into a phrase. You can shorten an adjective clause in two ways: 1. Omit the subject pronoun and verb. 2. Omit the subject pronoun and change the verb to the form ending in "ing." Here are some examples of how to create an adjective phrase:

Adjective Clause: The books, which are lost, are not really necessary. Adjective Phrase: The books lost are not really necessary. Adjective Clause: The girl who is running is my best friend. Adjective Phrase: The girl running is my best friend. Adjective Clause: His share of the money, which consists of $100,000, was given to him on Monday.

Adjective Phrase: His share of the money, consisting of $100,000, was given to him on Monday. Adjective Clause: Something that smells bad may be rotten. Adjective Phrase: Something smelling bad may be rotten. Remember, the goal of an adjective clause is to add more information to a noun or a pronoun. You can add the information by including a few more words or by changing the adjective clause to a phrase.

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