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This chapter provides an overview ofelements that systematically influence pipeline design
tllrough to constmction, operation, and maintenance. Subsequent chapters provide detailed
infonnatIon on these topics.
Pipelines atIect daily lives in most parts ofthe world. Modero people's lives are based
00 (In environment in which energy plays a (predominant) role. Oil and gas are major
parlicpants in the supply of energy, and pipelines are Ihe primary means by which they are
transported. lt is no coincidence that an extensive pipeline network goes hand-in-hand with
a high standard of living and teehnological progress.
Among other uses, oil and gas are utilized lo generate electrical power. Using
clectricity/oil and gas directly, houses are heated. meals are cooked, and a comfortable
living cnvironmcnt is created. Petrochemical processes also use oil and gas to make useful
To fulfil the oil and gas demand for power gcncration, recovcry processcs, and other
j"Ldines are utilized to Iransport the supply from their source. These pipclines are
,nl.';!!Y buried and opcrate without disturbing normal pursuits. Thcy carry large volumes of
n"il':al gas, cm de oil, and other products in continuous streams.
:onstruction procedures for most pipeline systems can be adapted to consider specific
:, ,n mental conditions and are tailored to cause mnimal impact on the environment.
Unattended pumping stations move large volumcs of oil and pctroleum products under
high pressure. Similarly, natural gas transmission systems, supported by compressor
stations, dcliver large volumes of gas to various consumers.
Many tactors huve to be considcreo in thc engineering and design of long-distance
plpclmcs, including the naturc and volume of fluid lo be transported, Ihe length ofpipe\ine,
the types of terrain traversed, and Ihe environmental conslraints,
To obtuin optimum results for a pipeline transmission system, complex cconomic and
cngineering studies are necessary to decide on the pipeline diameter, material, comprcssionl
pumping power requirements, and location of the pipeline route.
Major factors influencing pipeline system dcsign are:
Fluid properties
Design conditions
Supply and demand magnitude/locations
eodes and standaros
Route, topography, and access
Environmental impact
"" : !ydrological impact
Seismic and volcanic impacts
2 Pipeline Design and Construction: l\ Practical Approach
Long-term Integrity
The properties oftluid to be transported have significant impact on pipeline system designo
Fluid properties are either gven for the system design or have to be determined by the
design engineer. The following properties have to be calculated for gas at a specific pressure
and temperature:
Specific vo/umes
Super compressibiIity factor
Specific heat
Joule-Thompson coefficient
Isentropic temperature change exponent
For liquid (such as oil or water):
Specific heat
The environment affects both below- and above-ground pipeline designo For below-ground
pipelines, the foIlowing properties have to be determined during system design:
Ground temperature
Soil conductivity
Soil density
Soil specific heat
Depth of burlaI
In most cases, only air temperature and air velocity have a significant impact on the design
of above-ground facilities.
For both below- and above-ground pipelines, ground stability influences pipeline
design/the pipeline support system. Significant variations in ground elevation particularly
affect liquid pipeline designo
Elements of Pipeline Design 3
Temperature and pressure influence all fluid properties. A temperature rise is generally
beneficial in liquid pipelines as it lowers the viscosity and density, thereby lowering the
pressure drop. A temperature rise lowers the transmissibility of gas pipelines due to an
increase in pressure drop. This results in a net increase in compressor power requirements
for a given flow rate. The value of absolute (dynamic) viscosity for gas increases with an
increasc in pressure and temperature. Such an increase will result in an increase in frictional
loss along the length of the pipeline .
. ,,'Iine temperature also impact<; the environment. For example, heated liquid Unes
that are not insulated can cause crop damage in farmland during summer seasons, as
shown in Figure 1-1 (Mohi tpour t 991). In winter, the cold soil temperature can affeet the
pip': and the fluid being transported. Cooling of nonnsulated liquid pipelines by frozen
ground inereases liquid viseosity and density, thereby requiring greater pumping power.
Figure 1-2 shows the temperature pattem around a buried pipeline during the eold
Liquids that have a constant shear rate with respeet to shear stress at any given
temperature are termed Newtonian fluids (e.g., water, crude oil), and the viscosity is a
function of temperature only, increasing with deereasing temperatures. Non-Newtonian,
fluids sueh as bitumenhave viscosites that are not only a funetion of temperature, but also
of shear rate (Figure 1-3) and, in some cases, time (i.e., shrinkage) (Kung and Mohitpour
1987; Withers and Mowll 1982).
Therc are a number of ditTerent fluids that can exhibit Non-Newtonian behaviour.
1;;.Jude dilutants (e.g., starch, water, quicksand), pseudoplastic fluids (e.g., lime
;:ol'illi) and Bingham plastics (Lestor 1958).
In, Non-Newtonian fluids, the viscosity has to be earefully considered. Since the
:hCl 1 changes with different fluid veloeities, the viscosity curve of a specifie fluid
,;. at a known fluid veloeity along the fluid temperature profile of a
Typical Flow Equations
The interrelationship of pressure, temperature, and other parameters for liquid and gas
pipeline design can be summarized by the review of typical relevant flow equations. The
following equations explain the relationships of pressure and temperature, pipe
characteristies sueh as diameter and pipe roughness, flow rate, pipeline length and
elevation profiles, and the properties ofthe fluid to be transported. They will be described in
further detail later on in this book.
Liquid Pipelines
Equation for steady state isothermalliquid tlow in a pipeline (ASCE 1975):
6 f1Ir 2.5 [Pi
- C
G(h -hd)]05
Q ::::C x 10 vI/id (1 1 )
4 Pipeline Design and Construction: A Practical Approach
2200 mm
Figure 1-1. Temperature isotherms around a buried pipeline after 30 days (summer season)
Friction factor I fOT a fully turbulent flow is given by the ColebTOok-White equation:
r;- [( 1.25 k) 1IIi]
(I 2)
viiI =410g 3.7d + Re x vii!
Elements of Pipeline Design 5
Dis!ance (km)
0,0 2,0 4,0 6,0 8,0 10.0 12,0 14,0 16,0 18.0 20,0 22,0 25,0



Inloi Frll
Temp 10 oC


Figure 1-2.
-1 2

8 1--

( )

Ground Surtace Temperature
10 cm Below Suriace
50 cm Below Suriace
90 cm BeJow Surlace
Liquid Front
Outlet Temperature 2 oC
Uquid Front
10 cm BeIow Pipe
20 cm Below Pipe
50 cm Below Pipe
Temperature along a buried pipeline (winter season)
Gas Pipelines
The equation for steady state isothermal tlow of a compressible fluid in a pipeline is written
as (ASeE 1975, Katz et al., 1959):
(1 - 3)
For 1'ully turbulent flow, Nikuradse rough pipe flow law for the determination of
friction factor is applicable:
VI!! 4 log C:d)
( 1 4)
where Ql flow rate (turbulent region)
f= friction factor
k =pipe roughness
d=pipe internal diameter
Pd= downstream or outlet pressure
1 1'''1
inlet or upstream pressure
11 :1 ,
G=specfic gravity 01' fluid
hd=downstream elevation

h=upstream elevaton
LlU=pipe segment length
- I)/s
Re= Reynolds Number
6 Pipeline Design and Construction: A Practical i\pproach

(Represenls Different Fluid Velocities)
s 10 20 30 40 50 60
Typical Bitumen
Typical Bitumen -Dilutent Blend
Figure 1-3. Viscosity characteristics for typical non-newtonian fluids
e=2.718 ... , naturallogarthm base
s=gas density factor (lo allow for elevalion change) C
( ~ L - ) G
1 fa Z a
, Pb=base temperaturc and pressure
flow temperature (average for segment)
Za""compressibility factor (average for segment)
, e
, C
, C
The expression J1TJ is also sometimes referred to as the transmission factor, F.
From the analysis of Equation (1 1), applicable to liquid hnes, it can be inferred that for
constant mction and elevation, pressure 10ss (Pi - P d) is directly proportional to flow. Such a
pressure loss (converted to head) when plotted on a distance elevation scale will represent a
straight line called the hydraulic gradient. In pipeline design, the hydraulic gradient must
never cross the pipeline elevation pro file, else the Iiquid will not be able to clear the
eIevation high point.
The analysis ofgas pipeline Equation (1-3) indicates that for constant mction factor the
pressure los s and flow do not have a linear relationship.
Elements of Pipeline Design 7
Friction Factor Retative Aoughness

Figure 1-4. Moody diagram fnction factor for flow offluids in pipelines [Moody 1944]
Re";ewing Equations 1 l through 1-4, it is also significant to note the interrelationship
bct\vcen friction factor and pipe roughness, diameter, and Reynolds Number (Re), which is
rclatcd to fluid Viscosity (/1.), density (p) and flowing velocity (V). Such a relationship is
\Vell dericted by the Moody diagram (Moody 1944) shown in Figure 1-4.
Changes in elevation alter the flow velocity. Also, changes in temperature along the
pipeline alter viscosity and density. The rcsult in each case is that the friction changes. It is
important not to confuse friction with pipe roughness. Roughness is the pbysical
charactenstic of a pipe and is generally constant at any given time and location, but it is
friction that changes within the pipeline.
Supply and delivery points, as well as demand buildup, affect the ovcrall pipeline system
designo The locations of supply and delivery points determine the pipeline route and the
locations of facilities and control points (e.g., river crossings, energy corridors, mountain
passes, heavily populated arcas). The demand buldup determines the optimum pipeline
facilities size, location, and timing requirements.
Following the identification of supply and delivery points, and as a prelude to pipeline
design, a preliminary route selection is undertaken. Such a preliminary mute selection is
generally undertaken as follows:
l. ldentification of supply and delivery points (1 :50000 map).
2.. inentification of control points on the map.
8 Pipeline Design and Construction: A Practical Approach
3. Plot of.shortest route considering afeas ofmajor concem (high peaks, waterlogged
terrain, lakes, etc.).
4. Plot of tbe seJected route 00 aerial photographs and analysis of the selected route
using a stefeoscope to ascertain vegetation, relative wetness, suitability of terrain,
construction access, and terrain slopes, etc.
5. Refinement of the selected route to accommodate better terrain, easier crossings,
This preliminary route selection is ofien examined by aerial reconnaissance and on-ste
vists to ensure me pipeline route and potential facility 10catons are feasible prior to
detailed survey. Detennining the pipeline route will influence design and construction in
that it affects requirements for line size (lengtb and diameter), as well as compressor or
pumping facilities and their location. Hydraulics, operational aspects, and the requirement
for special studies in areas where the pipeline traverses unstable ground in highly wet and
corrosive soil are generally established at this stage.
The economically optimum sizes of facilities required for the entire range of possble
flow rates are determined by the supply and demand buildup data. This data also influences
the timing and location of the facilities and whether additional metering stations,
compression/pumping facilities, or looping wiII be required.
Pipelines and related facilities expose the operators, and potentially the general public, to
the inherent risk ofhigh-pressure fluid transmission. As a result, national and intemational
codes and standaros have been deve\oped to limit the risk to a reasonable minimum. Such
standard s are mere guidelnes for design and construction of pipeline systems. They are not
intended to be substitutes for good engineering practices for safe designs.
Major codes affecting pipeline design are listed in Table 1-1. Sorne Federal and other
govemmental authorities have the right to issue regulations defining mnimum requirement !
for the ppeline and related facilities. These regulatons are legally binding for the design, \\
construction, and operation of pipeline system facilities, which are undcr the jurisdicton of I
the relevant authority. \'
There are also a number of other authorities (e.g., utility boards) who have jurisdiction .
over specific concems with regard to pipeline design and construction. These authorities j
have the right to enforce their own regulatons, setting mnimum requirements for pipeline
facilities within their jurisdction.
Envi ronmental
The environmental evaluation of a pipeline route is an integral component of its design and
construction. It requircs special planning to ensure effective and suecessful protecton and
reclamation procedures. InitialIy, resources in the immediate area of the pipeline route are
identified and assessed to determine potental impacts. Although site-specific, resources
that are usualIy considered in an evaluation are wildlife, fisheries, water crossngs, forest
Elements of Pipeline Design 9
TA8lE 1-1. List of majar organization codes and standards affecting pipeline design,
construction and operation
Auonym Organization/topic
ANSI 816.5
ASTM A 350
APIII04 (NAG 100)
ASTM A 333 or ASTM A 106
ANSI B16.9
ASTM A 234 or ASTM A 420
ASTM A 350 or ASTM A 105
ANSI B16.11
ANSI!ASME 13::11.4
ANSI B16.9
ANSI B16.10
DEP 3U801.l0
ANSI B 16.34
ANSI B95.l
Dvsion 1, Rules fOf Constructon of
I'rcssure Vessels
Qualification Standards [or Welding
and 8razing 1'roceourcs, Wclders,
I3razers, Weldng, ano Brazng Op
API RP 520
American Concrete Institute
American Gas Associaton
American NationaJ Standard Institute
American Petroleurn Institute
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Socid.y rOl' Testing Materials
Canadian Standards Association
Desgn Engineering Practce
Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers
Institute of Petroleurn
Inslrument Society of America
Intemational Standards Organization
Manufacturers Standardization Society
National Association of Corros ion Engineers
Normas Argentinas de Gas
National Electrical Manufacturing Association
National Fire Protection Association
Standard s Institute of Sweden
Steel Structures Painting Councl
Pipe Flanges and F1anged Fittings
Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Material
Standard Marking Systern for Valves, Fittngs, Flanges, and Unions
Steel Pipe Line Flanges
API Specitications for Line Pipe
Specifications for Pipeline Valvcs, End Closures, Connectors. ami
Welding of Pipeline and Relateu Facilities
Materials for Surface Installations Piping
Butt Welding ElbowsiTees
l3utt Welding Elbows/Tees .\t1atcrals
Forged Fttings<NPS 2 Material
Forged Fttngs<NPS 2
Pipeline Transportation Syslems for Liqud lIy(lrocarhons and other
Gas Transmission and Distribution Pping Systcms
Factory-Made Wrougnt Steel Buttwelding Fittings
Factory-Made and End-to-End Dimensions of Fcrrous Valves
Piping Classes and Rasis of Design
Steel Valves, Flanges ami Buttwelding End
Unified Screwed Threads
Termnology for Pressure Relief Dcvices
ASME Boilcr 3nd Pressure Vessel Code SectioTl VIII
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section IX
Quality Standard for Strel Castings and Forgngs fm Valves, Flangcs
and Fittings, and other Piping Components, Magnctc Partcle
Examination Method
Qualty Standard ror Steel Castings and Forgings for Vulves, Flanges
and Fttings, and other Pipng Components, Radiographic Exarninution
Quality Standard for Steel Castings for Valves. Flanges and Fttings,
and other Pping Components (Visual Method)
Specificaton for High Test Wrought Buttweldng Fittings
Recommended Practice for Fire Test for Val ves
Dimensions for Spiral Wound Gaskets
Recommended Practice for the Design and Installaton of Pressure
Relieving Systems in Refineries
F1anged Steel Safety Relief Valves
Commercial Seat Tightness of Safety Relief Valves with Metal-to
Metal Seats
Searnless Carbon Steel Pipe for High Ternperature Service
10 Pipeline Design and Construction: A Practical Approach
TABLE 1-1. (Continued)
Acronym Organization/topic
CAN/CSA 2662
CANJCSA Z245.20-M92
CANICSA Z245.21-M92 and DIN
30670IDlN 30671
SIS 05-5800-1967
ASTM G8-72
NACE RP-05- 72
NACE RP-02-86
NACE RP-02- 74
IP Part I
TP Part 15
ANSI B40.1
IP Part J
_. ASTM-D2049
ISO 9001
Pipe Fittings of Wrought Carbon SleeJ and A1I0y Sleels for Moderate
and Elevated Teml'el1l.tures
Forging, Carbon and Alloy Steel. for Pipe Flanges, Fttings and Valves,
and Parts for High-Pn:ssure Transmission
Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Boltng Materals for High-Temperature
Carbon and Alloy Stee\ Nuts and Bolts for High-Pressure and High
Temperature Service
Methods and Defiotioos for Meehanical Testing of Sleel Producls
Test Method for Microhardness of Malerials
Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems
External Fusion Bond Epoxy Coaled Steel Pipe
External Polyethylene and Thermoplastic Coating for Une Pipes
Recomrnended Practice ror Internal Coating of Line Pipe tor Gas
Transmission Service
Surface Preparation - Solvent Cleaning
Surface Preparaton Specification No. 10, Near-White Blastcleaning
Pietoral Surface Preparaton for Paintea Surfaees
Pictoral Surface Preparaton Standard for Pantng Steel Surfaces
Power Tool Cleaning as per Steel Structure Painting Council
Standard Test Methods for Cathodic Disbonding of Pipeline Coatings
Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Piping
Design, Installaton, Operation, and Maintenance of Impressed Current
Deep Groundbed
Mitigation of Altemating Currenl and Lightning Effeels on Metallic
Structures and Corrosion Control
Mitigaton of Altemating Current and Lightning Effects on Metallie
Structures and Control
llgh Voltagc Electrieal Inspection of Pipeline Coatings Prior to
Model Code of Safe Plactice, Electrical Safety Code
Arca Classification Code for Petrolcum Installalion
Electrical Enginecrng Guideline
Hazardous Area Classification
Measurement of Gas by Orfiee Meters
Determination of Supereompressibility Factors for Natural Gas
Mcasurement of Gas by Turbine Mctcrs
Gauges and Pressure Indicating Dal Type, Elastic Element
Model Code of Safe Praclice, Eleclrical Ch. 3 Instl1lmentation
Standards and Praenees for Instl1lmcntaton
Struetural Steel Manual of Steel Constrnction
Speciflcalon for Cold-Orawn Sleel Wire lor Concrete Renforcement
Specificatons for Fabricated Deformed Steel Bar Mats for Concrete
Specitkaton for Welded Sleel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforce
Specification for Sleel Wire, Defonned, for Concrete Reinforcemenl
Specification for Deforrned and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete
Specification for Concrete Aggregates
Test for Cornpressive Strength of Cylindrcal Specimens
Specfication for Ready-Mixed Concrete
Test for Sieve or Screen Analyss of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
Specification for Portland Cernent
Method of Samp1ing Freshly Mixed Concrete
PartieTe Size Analysis ofSoil
Moisture Density Relations of Soil and Soil Aggregate Mixtures Usng
5.5 lb. Rarnmer
Test for Moisture-Density Relations of Soils and Sol Aggregate
Mixtures Using 10 lb. Rammer and 18 in Orop
Standard Method ofTest for Relalive Densty of Coheson Soils
Test for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and lndex of Soil
for DesignlDevelopment Production, Installation,
11 Elernents of Pipeline Oesign
('()Ver, and archaeological and palaeontological resources. A soil and vegetation evaluation
:i also conducted to detennine soil handling and reclamation procedures.
Land use in the immediate area of dJe pipeline route is also identified and evaluated to
llsure that conflcts do not alise with other companes or individuals. Protecton procedures
are based upon these resource assessments and are then integrated into the design
parameters of the pipeline construction and specitlcations.
Timing for pipeline construction is also taken into consideration in the evaluation of
resources, as seasons can eftect lhe se/ection of the most appropriate mitigative procedures.
( 'ntlstruction techniques that are effective during the summer may not be appropriate or
in the winter.
Alternatively, dealing with site-specitlc resource impacts may create conflicting timing
) with those of proposed construction schedules.
Specialized techniques to reclaim the construction right-of-way are implemented
:llowing mainline construction. Every attempt is made to match existing species for
".'\ purposes to ensure successful reclamation of noncultivated lands and to retum
ullvated lands to their previous agricultural productivity.
Durng construction of the pipeline, environmental inspection is ongoing to ensure
. 'l1plinnce with environmental desgn and protection procedures, and to maintain
""istl'Ocy with various regulatory approvals. Problems that are identif1ed during the
H'n :md construction phase of the project are reviewed internally and may initiate
envronmental research, which in tum may rnodifY future design critera.
In <;clecting a pipeline right-of-way (ROW) that is economical and complies with
,;I\vironmcntal regulations, an cnvironmental impaet assessment is usually undertaken for
!It' purposc of detennining/developing environrnental quality management guidelincs for
pipeline construction and operation. These guidelines usually inelude the following:
Legislation compliance
11 EnvironmentaI guideline compliance
Environmental coordnation, audt, and trainng
Recommendation by volcanologst/geotcchnical/sesmic consultants
2. Guidelincs ror enviro!1mcntal protection
3. Guidelines for soil eros ion protection
Erosion process and types
Erosion risk assessment
Erosion protection
4. Guidelincs for water quality protection
8aselne water quality
Site selection
Water analysis/quality index
Impact and mitigation measures
5. Guidelines for archeological heritage protection
Historical resources
Archeological studies
6. Environmental protection resources and methods
ROW preparation and pipe installation
ROW width during construction
Rip rap
12 Pipeline Design and Construction: f\ Practical Approach
Sand plugs
Temporary eover
Volcanic afeas (if applicable)
Permanent physical eros ion control method
50ft plugs
Drainage system
Ditch roam plugs
Agronomic erosion control
Revegetation measures schedule
Procedures and methods
Revegetation plan
A pipeline may be subjeet to buoyant forces due to water mgration and floodng or watcr
crossings. The design must consider the potential for damage to the pipeline due to flood
plans and the neeo for dredging of watercrossings, scounng, or channel shifting in order to
determine the correct pipeline design and instaIlation teehnique. The design may need to
consider the determination of pipe depth, buoyancy control, pipeline installation, and
construetion methodology in arcas of hydrological coneern. Usually facilitics are designed
such that thcy will not sustain any unantieipated oamage from al: 100 year 1100d, and will
fulIy and continually operate under 1:50 year flond conditions. lIydrologieal conditions and
scouring evaluations should be undertaken for major river erossings with established 1 :50
years and 1:100 ycars flood plnins.
Thc cconomes of transportng fluids by pipelines affeet almost all design and
construction parameters. For any pipeline project, the objective of economic analysis is
to determine which of the altematve design and construction solutions offers thc best
economic advantage (Mohitpour 1977). Economic analysis is carried out to determine the
optimum choice between size of pipelines (diameter, wall thickness, and material) and
compressionlpumping power requirements. An economc analysis is also needed for
utility purposes, to define tariffs that have to be charged for the transmission of fluid to
achieve a stipulated economic performance of a pipeline system investment (Mohitpour
and McManus 1995).
The economic feasibility of a pipelinc project is usually established before any
optimization takes place. One criterion that is ofien used for acceptance or rejection of a
projeet is the expected rate ofretum on the invested capital. Once the feasibility is proven,
Elements of Pipeline Design 13
optifllum choices between line size and pumping/compression requirements are
dctermincd. Timing eonsiderations may be optmized and tariffs may be determined
(rnostly lor utility companies).
Estimates have to be made for the overall investment requirement and associaled
operating costs ofthe proposed pipeline system. These are the two principal components of
awning and operating a pipeline system. The relevant eosts for a pipeline projeet have to be
eardully considered, covering all phases from planning to operatng and maintaining the
pipeline over the course 01' its life. Elements that influence the cost estimate and therefore
the cconomic analysis are outlined in the following subsections.
Oireet costs cover expenditure directly related to the design, construction, and operation of
a pipeline system, including the following:
Line pipe
~ CompressionJpumping facilities
Meter stations
Yalve and fittings
Protection facilities (coating plus cathodic protection)
Scrapingleleaning facilities if any
Pressure reduction facilities
Power generation (if applieable)
Construction casts
.) Engineering eosts
o Survey costs
) ('ost of ancllary facilities
) [,,:gal and land costs (ROWacquisition)
} I )ocks, wharves
:ak detecton system
~ Lugistie eosts (thosc assoeiated with material and equipment transportation)
Operating and maintenanee eosts (those associated with local taxes, fuel, energy,
material, and labor costs)
'9 Uther costs (Iine fiJl, working capital required lo operate the pipeline, etc.)
Indirect Costs
lndirect costs affeet the financing of a pipeline project, and inelude costs associated
with the acquisition of necessary funds to cover the purchase of m*rials and cons
tmction. Indirect costs also cover the interest on money borrowed to friance the pipeline
Economic Analysis
Oil and gas producing companies may use an economC analysis to justify a pipeline
project over to altemative solutions. Oil can be transported by road or rail. Gas may be
fed into an existing pipeline network owned by a utility company. In the latter case, a
triff for self-ownership is determined and compared to the tariff charged by the utility
company for transportation of gas to the delivery point. The system design is influenced
i h ~ cconomic analysis snce a number of technical solutions are nvestigated by varying
14 Pipeline Design and Constructjon: A Practical Approach
pipeline size, pumping or compression facilities, and the timing of the facility expansion or
Utility companies are interested in establishing the appropriate tariff lo charge a
customer for transporting the cuslomer's fluid in fue company's Iines. For a selecled
pipeline size, given ibat the volume of fluid lo be transported can have an upward trend
(as a result of demand buildup), the tariff generaIly decreases as the throughput inereases
(Figure 1-5). If the pipeline design or operating conditions are changed, the tariff wi1\
ehange. As a result, it is at the design stage that a pipeline economic study is undertaken
lo determine the viability of the pipeline system configuration [or all modes ofvolumetric
When the economic viablity of a pipeline project is established, the analysis is usually
reron using the optimal technical configuration and the most refined cost infonnation
available. The following additional cost parameters nero to be considered:
Equity investment as a portion of total investment (Ioan-equity ratio)
Interest on borrowed capital
Duration of borrowed capital (i,e" repayment schedule)
Depreciation rate of facilities investmcnt for book purposes
Depreciation for tax purposes
Escalation rate of operation and maintenance cost
Required rate of retum on investment
Escalation rate on tariff
Expected Jife of the pipeline until abandonment
After evaluation ofall the aboye paramcters, the factor by which the economic viability
of a pipeline system is measured is the rate of retum. The higher the rate of retum, the more
attractive the project is trom an investment point ofview, Calculation ofinvestment mte of
TABlE'1-2. Relationship between cost parame!er and cost componen! for cost of service
Item Descripton
(iross Facilti.:s COSi
Allowance filr FunJ During Construction (AFUOC)
Rate of Retum (RR)
Net Base Rate
ncome Tax
Taxable locome
Interest Expenses (scrvice cost)
Capital Cost Allowance (CCA)
Operalion and Maintenance (O&M) Cost
Annnal COSI of Service
Accumulated Cost of Servce (ACOS)
Present Value of Cost of Service (PVCOS) or
'\vl:rage Discounted Unit Cost ofServce (ADUCS)
based on volume
Capital Cost + AFUDC + Working Capital
RR x (month ( 12) x Construction Cost
(Debt%) x Debt Interest + (Eqnity%) x Equity
(Original Cost - Salvage Cost )/Project Life
Gross Facilities Cost Accumulated Depreciation
[Tax Rate/(I . Tax Rate)] x Taxable Income
Retum + Depreciation Interest Expenses Capital
Cost Allowance (CCA)
(Embedded Cost of Debt) x Debt% x Rate Base
(Gross Facilities CasI Accumulated Depreciation
AFUDC) x CCA rate
Adrninistration and General + Actual Operation
Depreciation + O&M + Taxes + Retum
CurnuJative Cost of ServceJProject Life
where i = Discount Rate and
AVOL = Accumulated Volume
n = Life of
15 Elernents of Pipeline Design
E \ NPS 12
NPS 24
. ~ .._ ..---JIIOO- Throughput
Figure 1-5. TarifTvs. throughput
retum is based on computing relevant cash streams for each calendar year and discounting
accordingly. This type of computation is best suited for computer applications due to the
repetitive nature of the ca\culations.
Table 1-2 depicts some of the major cost parameters and their nter rclationships with
cost componcnts (Asante et al. 1993). Typical results of such an analysis for a liquid
pipeline system are shown in Figure 1-6.
For long-distance pipeline systems, (he significant cost in terms ofcapital investment is the
cost ofthe pipe material and installation. Pipeline pressure, grade, installation location, and
technque affect the cost and design (Mohitpour and McManus 1995).
Pipe materiaVgrade affect (he wall thiclmess and determine the choice of and limit on
the welding/installation technique. For a given desgn pressure and pipe diameter, the wall
thickness decreases with a higher grade material. However, higher grades of steel are
usually accompanied by cost premiums and more stringent construction techniques, which
translate nto higher costs (Figure 1-7).
The location ofthe pipeline or surrounding environment determines allowable material
(e.g., Category 1 versus Category II) and labor/equipment, including construction materials
requiremen ts.
16 Pipeline Design and Construction: A Practical Approach
Cost Parameters:
Debt lmerest Rate 11.00%
Percentage Debt 55.00%
Retunl (Jft Equity 16.00%
Percentage Equity 45.00%
RequimI Rate of Retum 13. 25%
Long Tenn Debt Service 6.66%
Disawmt Rate (nominal) 15.00%
AFDUC Rate 10.00%
Wot'i.lllg Capital as
() percent of Capital Cost 1.40%
. ~
O&M Escalation Rate 5.00%
Capital Investment US $132 M (1997)
5M (2003)
2 58M (2008)

1997 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012
Figure 1-6. Example of cost of service curve
Depending on the application (Mohitpour 1987), the material requirements, as
ndicated by the notch toughness, are divided into three categories:
Category 1 Requirement: No notch toughness requirement.
Typical application: Low vapor pressure fluids (water, crude oil,
Category II Requirement: Notch toughness in the form ofcnergy absorption and
fracture appearance.
Typical application: Buried and above-ground pipelines (_5C to
-45C). high vapor pressure (HVP).
Category 1II Requirement: Proven notch toughness in the forro of energy
absorption only.
Typical applcation: High vapor pressure liquids.
--_._-_...... ----------------------------------
The conditions under which a pipeline operates are set at the design stage (Stuchly 1977;
Mohitpour and Kung 1986). The design stage should also determine the most stringent
conditions the pipeline would operate under and provide for facilities to prevent faHure,
including line rupture. An example of the latter is sudden valve c10sure in liquid pipelines
where val ves are located downstream in a downhill terrain. Such an example is shown in the
paper by Kung and Mohitpour (1986) enttled "Non-Newtonian Liquid Pipeline Hydraulics
Design and Simulation Using Micro computers." Sudden valve closure at such a location

Elements of Pipeline Design 17
(NPS 16, design pressure 10200 kPa)


., Price per kilometer


-c: 900


a. .;::
<1> o..




, .
, .
, .
'......... .

Grade (API) 5L GRB X42 X56 X65 X70
. WT Ir\lm) 14.3 12.7 9.5 8.7 7.1
Figure 1-7. Typical pipeline grade cost
could cause pipeline pressure to exceed the maximum design pressure set by the pipe
strength and wall thickness. Without surge-mitigating facilities the pipeline couId rupture,
resulting in environmental and mantenance implications.
Sudden valve closure n liquid pipclines (e.g., crude oil) may create a low- pressure
stuaton that in extreme cases can lead to vapor pockets in the lineo Snce the collapse of
vapor pockets can damage the pipeline, this condition has to be avoided.
External Protection
Buried pipelines are subject to external corros ion caused by the action and composition of
the soils surrounding them. During the design stage, the available types of externa' coating
material and cathodic systems required to protect the pipeline from external corrosion are
18 Pipeline Design and Construction: A Practical Approach
evaluated. The coating and cathodic protection are chosen according to economics and
ability to pnoct the pipeline.
External coating is usually a plastie material that is wrapped or extruded onto the pipe
or fusion-bonded to the surface. Externa! coatings have to be designed to serve as a
corrosion banlcr and to resist damage during transportation, handling, and backfilling.
Therefore, in sorne cases corrosion protection coatings are combined with other external
coatings, such as insulation, rockshield, or concrete.
Internal Protect1oo
Fluids containing corrosive components such as salt water, hydrogen sulphide (H
S), or
carbon dioxide/monoxide can cause internal corrosion. Many of the internal corros ion
problems can be corrected in the design stage. This is done by proper design and
selection of materials appropriate for the fluid to be transported. An example is the
pipeline transportation of sour gas. The typcs of corrosion that can occur in sour gas
pipelines are:
Hydrogen-induced corrosion
Hydrogen-induced cracking
Sulphide stress cracking (hydrogen embrittlement)
Pitting corrosion
General corros ion
Erosion corros ion
Hydrogen-induced cracking such as blistcring has been observed in both low- and
high-yield-strength steels under both stressed and nonstressed conditions. Hydrogen
blistering and cracking results from the diftuson of atomic hydrogen, produced by the
corrosive eIcmcnts in a we! H2S environment, into the stecl, where it is absorbed in
laminations or nclusions in the pipe walL
The atomc hydrogen changes to nondiffusible molecular hydrogen, building up high
localized pressures that cause blisters or cracKs in Ihe pipe waUs. The design wilI set the
stage tor the protection of the pipe against such a failure by specfying the lmits on the
Quantites 01' eerium or other rare eartb metal s to spheroidize manganese sulphides
Leve! of sulphur content
Level 01' copper content (up to 0.3%) to reduce the hydrogen absorpton properties of
the slrel
The exact mechanism 01' sulphide stress cracking or hydrogen embrittlernent is not
c1earIy understood; however, it is generally agreed that it is influenced by three
environmental, metallurgical, and stress-related. Environmental factors include pH, H2S
concentration and temperature. Metallurgical variables inelude strength or hardness,
ductility, compositon, heat treatment, and microstructure. The susceptibility of a steel to
sulphide stress cracking ncreases with increasing hardness and stress and also with
decreasing pH level of Iiquids. Sulphide stress cracking is evidenced as a reduction in the
normal ductility and the embrittlement of steeL
A specification for the line pipe material developed at the design stage ensures that the
pIpe produced is suitable for the operating temperature that will be encountered and is not
Elements of Pipeline Design 19
::Ilsecptible to hydrogen-induced corrosion. Pitting corrosion results from chemical attack at
luw points where fluids settle and accumulate in the piping system. Sulphate-reducing
bacteria may also cause pitting corrosion.
General corros ion results from chemical attack and usually occurs on the upper half of
tlle pipe wall adjacent to low arcas where the pipe wall is altemately wet and dry. The use of
corrosion inhibtors has proven to be the only effectve method to mtigate intemal
curros ion in wet sour gas pipelines. On-stream piggng facilities are generalIy incorporated
inlo the design of the system to permit the removal of lquid accumulation on a schedule.
UIl::;tream pigging also improves the distributon of the corrosion inhbitors and is a
valuable aid in the mitigation of intemal corrosion.
Erosion corrosion results from impingement of fluids/chlorides on the pipe surface at
1 1 1 ! ~ h tlowing velocities. Piping is generally sized to limit flowing velocities below the
critical velocity at which corroson erosion will begn to occur. Critical velocity is defined
as the point at which velocity is a significant factor in the removal of inhibitor films or
corros ion products.
"'>1 PElI" r: F,.\ ffGRITY MONITORI NG
No matter how well pipelines are designed and protected, once in place they are
subjected to environmental abuse, extemal damage, coating disbondment, soil movementJ
jnstability (Wong et al. 1988) and third-party damage. Figure 1-7 ilIustrates an example
01' a type of damage recordcd on transmission lines in the United States (Crouch et al.
The goal of any pipeline integrity program is to prevent structural integrity problems
'mm having a significant effect on public safety, the environment, or business operations
" tm,en
Malerials and
OulSide Force.
Figure 1-8. Pipeline incidents related to line pipe

20 Pipeline Design and Construction: A Practical Approach
by identifying and petfonning the most efl'ective inspection, monitoring, and repair
Integrity Assessment Methods
There are several tcchniques available to assess lhe integrty ol' the pipeline once it's in
place. These are surnmanzed as l'ollows:
Visual inspccton
Oepth ol' cover survey
External nondestructive testing (NOT)
Magnetic particle testing
Oye penetrant inspection
Ultrasonic inspection
Cathodic protection monitorng
Coatng disbondment and damage survey
Hydrostatc testing
Geometry in-line inspection (TU) tools
Calper pig
x, y, z geometry (inertial guidance) tool
Ultrasonic in-lne inspection tools
Conventional magnetic tlux
High-resolution magnetic flux (30)
Utilization of high-resolution tools facilitates an accurate prediction ol' external anei
internal corros ion areas (Grimes 1992).
Risk Assessments
Risk assessment is an integrity management tool and its purpose is to identify and quantify
the risks associated with pipeline operation. such that remedial action can be performed in a
timely manner. This is achieved through the ranking of potential rsk to safety, environment,
and operations.
Several risk assessment methods are used by the industry. The most common are
failure probability mcthods and ranking systems. The most approprate method depends
upon several l'actors, including system complexity, availabi!ity of historcal data, and rigor
required by the analyss (Trefanenko et al. 1992).
Pipeline integrity and management decisions are made much easier by the risk
assessment and prioritization process, which establishes a firm, documented basis for
determining expenditures and schedules (U rednicek et al. 1991).
Pipeline Repairs
Once an integrity assessment method establshes a requirement for pipeline repair, there are
severa! methods that are cornmonly used by the industry to restore pipeline integrty:
Local coating repairs
Coating rehabilitation
Sleeve repair
Cutout repairs
Elements of Pipeline Design 21
Use of each repair system depends on Ihe extent of damage or corrosion problem, but
repairs are carried out lo restore the integrity of the pipeline to assure its intended
operational capacity.

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