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History of Periodic Table

History of Periodic Table History of Periodic Table The earliest classification categorised elements into metals and

History of Periodic Table

The earliest classification categorised elements into metals and non-metals. It was difficult to classify the elements, such as boron, which exhibited the properties of both metals as well as non-metals.

Dobereiner’s law of triads states that, the atomic mass of the middle element of a triad is the arithmetic mean of the atomic masses of the other two elements.

Drawbacks of this law:

All the known elements could not be arranged in the form of triads and it did not hold good for elements with very low or very high atomic mass Newlands Law of Octaves:

The property of every eighth element is similar to that of the first element, similar to the first and the eighth notes in themusical scale. Drawbacks

Not valid for elements having atomic masses higher than calcium. Newly discovered elements could not find a place in Newlands table. Mendeleev’s periodic law states that the physical and chemical properties of all elements are a periodic function of their atomic masses.

Atomic weight and chemical reactivity are the two parameters he chose for classifying the elements:

The main features of Mendeleev’s periodic table are:

The table had 8 vertical columns called groups, and 12 horizontal rows called periods.

In every group, a gradation of physical and chemical properties of elements was observed.

The table provided gaps for undiscovered elements.

The table helped predict the properties of three elements. These elements were named eka-boron, eka-aluminiumand eka-silicon. When these elements were discovered, they were named scandium, gallium and germanium. The properties of these elements were very close to those predicted by Mendeleev.

Merits:

The table helped in the correction of atomic mass for many elements.

It predicted the existence of some elements that have not been discovered at the time the table was created.

Demerits:

The atomic weights of two pairs of elements were reversed.

Alkali metals and coinage metals were placed in the same group.

Lanthanides and actinides were not given proper place in the periodic table.

Isotopes were not placed in the periodic table. The position of hydrogen was not clearly discussed

Modern Periodic Table

Demerits: The atomic weights of two pairs of elements were reversed. Alkali metals and coinage metals

Modern Periodic Table

Atomic number is the basis for modern periodic table. Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus, it is also equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Electronic configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom around its nucleus. The important features ofBohr’s atomic theory are:

Electrons occur in definite electronic shells.

The shells in an atom can be named alphabetically as K,L,M,N and so on. The main features of modern periodic table are:

Elements are arranged in the increasing order of atomic numbers.

There are 7 horizontal rows called periods and 18 vertical columns called groups. Elements are placed in periods based on the number of shells in their atoms. The shortest period is the first period which contains only two elements hydrogen and helium. The second period contains elements from lithium to neon. The third period contains elements from sodium to argon. The fourth period contains elements from potassium to krypton.

The fifth period contains elements from rubidium to xenon. The sixth period contains elements from cesium to radon and seventh period is incomplete. Classification of elements into groups is based on the number of valence electrons in an atom. The first group has hydrogen, lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium. Their general electronic configuration is ns1 and are known as alkali metals.

Beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium and radium are second group elements whose general electronic configuration is ns2 and are known as alkaline earth metals. Boron, aluminium, gallium, indium and thallium are the elements of third group whose electronic configuration isns2np1. They form covalent compounds. Carbon, silicon, germanium and tin are the fourth group elements whose general electronic configuration is ns2np2.Nitrogen, phosphorous, arsenic, antimony and bismuth are the elements of fifth group whose general electronic configuration is ns2np3. Oxygen, sulphur, selenium, tellurium and polonium are the sixth group elements whosegeneral electronic configuration is ns2np4. Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine are the seventh group elements whose electronic

configuration is ns2np5. Helium, neon, argon, krypton, radon and xenon are elements ofeighth group or zero group. Their electronic configuration is ns2np6 . they are also known as inert gas elements

Periodic Table

Mendeleev discovered that on arranging in the increasing order of atomic mass elements with similar chemical properties occur periodically. Mendeleev formulated a periodic law which states that "The properties of elements are the periodic function of their atomic masses ".

A tabular arrangement of the elements based on the periodic law is called periodic table.

Main features of Mendeleev’s periodic table -

The horizontal rows present in the periodic table are called periods. There are seven (7)

periods in the table. Properties of elements in a particular period show regular gradation (i.e. increase

or decrease) from left to right. The vertical columns present in it are called groups. There are nine in number and are numbered from I to VIII and Zero.

Groups I to VII are subdivided into A and B subgroups. Groups Zero and VIII don’t have

any subgroups. All the elements in a particular group are chemically similar in nature. They show regular gradation in their physical properties and chemical reactivities.

Merits of Mendeleev’s periodic classification -

He could classify all the 63 elements known at that time on the basis of similarities in

properties. Prediction of new elements - Mendeleev’s periodic table had some blank spaces in it.

These vacant spaces were for elements that were yet to be discovered . He predicted the properties of those yet to be discovered elements and thus, helped in the discovery of other elements later on.

Defects in Mendeleev’s periodic classification-

Position of Hydrogen -

Hydrogen resembles alkali metals ( forms H + just like Na + ) as well as halogens ( forms H - similar to Cl - ). Therefore, it could neither be placed with alkali metals (group I ) nor with halogens (group VII ).

Position of isotopes -

Different isotopes of same elements have different atomic masses, therefore, each one of

them should be given

a

different

position

in

the

periodic

table.

On

the

other

hand,because they are chemically similar, they had to be given same position. On the other hand, because they are chemically similar, they had to be given same position.

Anomalous pairs of elements -

At certain places, an

element of

higher

atomic

mass has

been

placed before an

element of lower atomic mass. For example, Argon (39.91) is placed before potassium (39.1) and Cobalt (atomic mass 58.9) appeared before nickel (atomic mass 58.7) .

The Modern Periodic Table (Modern classification) -

Henry Moseley, an English physicist discovered in the year 1913 that atomic number, is the most fundamental property of an element and not its atomic mass. Atomic number (Z), of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of its atom. The number of electrons in the neutral atom is also equal to its atomic number.

Modern periodic law -

The Modern Periodic Law states “The chemical and physical properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic numbers” ,The periodic table based on the modern periodic law is called the Modern Periodic Table .

Main features of modern periodic table -

Groups -

There are 18 vertical columns in the periodic table. Each column is called a group.

1 . The groups have been numbered from 1 to 18 (in Arabic numerals) from left to right. Group 1 on extreme left position contains alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr) and group 18 on extreme right side position contain noble gases ( He,Ne,Ar,Kr,Xe and Rn ). All Elements in a group have similar chemical and physical properties because they have the same number of

outer

electrons.

You can see in case of group 1 (alkali metals) and group 17 (Halogen) elements that as one moves down in a group more and more shells are added.

Element

Electronic

Cofiguration

Element

Electronic Cofiguration

Li

2,1

F

2,7

Na

2,8,1

Cl

2,8,7

K

2,8,8,1

Br

2,8,8,7

2.Elements present

in

groups

3

to

12

in

the

middle of

the periodic table

are

called transition elements.In the transition elements valence electrons, or the electrons they use to combine with other elements, are present in more than one shell.With a few minor exceptions, the electronic structure of transition metal atoms can be written as [ ]ns 2 (n-1)d m , where the inner d orbital has more energy than the valence-shell s orbital.

3.

Group

18

on

extreme

right side

of

the periodic table contains noble

gases.

Their outermost shells contain 8 electrons except He as its outermost shell is K shell and it can hold only a maximum of 2 electrons .

4. Inner transition elements :14 elements with atomic numbers 58 to 71 (Ce to Lu) are called lanthanides and they are placed along with the element lanthanum (La), atomic number 57 in the same position (group 3 in period 6) because of very close resemblance between them. However, for convenience sake they are shown separately below the main periodic table .

5.

14 elements

with atomic

numbers 90 to103 (Th

to

Lr)

are

called actinides* and

they are placed along with the element actinium (Ac), atomic number 89 in the same

position (group 3 in period 7) because of very close resemblance between shown also separately below the main periodic table along with lanthanides.

them. They are

Periods -

There are seven(7) periods in periodic table. In periodic table horizontal rows are used to

represent periods .In a period the

number of valence electrons and the nuclear charge

increases from left to right. It increases the force of attraction between

them.

Merits of modern periodic table over Mendeleev’s periodic table -

The modern periodic table is based on atomic number which is more fundamental property of an atom than atomic mass .

This is free from main defects of Mendeleev’s periodic table.

Position of isotopes -

All isotopes of the same elements have different atomic masses but same atomic number. Therefore, they occupy the same position in the modern periodic table which they should have because all of them are chemically similar.

Anomalous pairs of elements -

When elements are arranged in the periodic table according to their atomic numbers the anomaly regarding certain pairs of elements in Mendeleev’s periodic table disappears.

For example in the case of Ar and K with atomic number 18 and 19 Argon comes before K

although

Ar

has

greater

atomic

mass

in

comparison

to

K.

Periodic Properties -

Valency -

The valency of an element is determined by the number of valence electrons present in the outermost shell of its atom.

Valency in a period

The number of valence electrons increases in a period. In normal elements it increases from 1 to 8 in a period from left to right. It reaches 8 in group 18 elements (noble gases) which show practically no chemical activity under ordinary conditions and their valency is taken as zero.

Valency in a group

All the elements of a group have the same number of valence electrons. Therefore, they

all have the same valency. Thus valency of all group 1 elements, alkali metals, is 1.

Similarly valency

of

all

group

17

elements,

halogens,

is

1 with respect to hydrogen and 7 with respect to oxygen.

Atomic Radius -

A number of physical properties like density and melting and boiling points are related to the sizes of atoms. Atomic size is difficult to define. Atomic radius determines the size of an atom. For an isolated atom it may be taken as the distance between the centre of atom and the outermost shell. Practically, measurement of size of an isolated atom is difficult; therefore, it is measured when an atom is in company of another atom of same element. It is defined as one- half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms when they are linked to each other by a single covalent bond. In a period, atomic radius generally decreases from left to right. Atomic radii increase in a group from top to bottom.

Electron Affinity -

It is the energy change when an electron is accepted by an atom in an isolated gaseous state. By convention, it is assigned a positive value when energy is released during the process.The electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule to form a negative ion.

X + e - --->X -

Electronegativity -

It is a measure of the tendency of a bonded atom to attract the bond-electrons towards itself.

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a

functional group

to

attract

electrons

An atom's electronegativity is affected by both

(or

electron

density)

towards

itself.

its atomic number and

the distance that its

valence electrons reside from the charged nucleus. The higher the associated electronegativity number, the more an element or compound attracts electrons towards it.

Ionization energy -

It is the minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron from an isolated gaseous atom in its ground state to form a gaseous ion .The ionization energy is the amount of energy it takes to detach one electron from a neutral atom.

The closer and more tightly bound an electron is to the nucleus, the more difficult it will be to

remove,

and

the

higher

its

ionization

 

energy

will

be.

The first ionization energy is the energy required to remove one electron from the parent atom

denoted

by

I 1 -

Na --> Na + + e

-

The second ionization energy is the energy required to remove a second valence electron from

the

univalent

ion

to

form

the

divalent

ion,

and

so

on

denoted

by

I 2 -

Na + --> Na 2+ + e

-

Successive ionization energies increase. The second ionization energy is always greater than the first ionization energy. Ionization energies increase moving from left to right across a period (decreasing atomic radius). Ionization energy decreases moving down a group (increasing atomic radius). Group I elements have low ionization energies because the loss of an electron forms a stable octet.

Periodic Trends in periodic table:

How

physical

and

chemical

properties

of

elements

vary

along

group

and

modern periodic table is shown through figure below

periods

in

valence electrons reside from the charged nucleus. The higher the associated electronegativity number, the more an

Blocks in modern periodic table:

A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.The respective highest- energy electrons in each element in a block belong to the same atomic orbital type. Each block is named after its characteristic orbital; thus, the blocks are:

s-block

p-block

d-block

f-bolck

Blocks are sometimes called families .

The following is the order for filling the "subshell" orbitals, according to the Aufbau principle, which also gives the linear order of the "blocks" (as atomic number increases) in the periodic table:

1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p, ..

The s-block of the periodic table consists of the first two groups,namely the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals.

These elements have their valence electrons occupying s orbitals .Hydrogen(H) and Helium(He) also come in this category.In an atom of an s-block element,the last electron enters the s-orbital of the outermost electron shell.

The p-block of the periodic table of the elements consists of the last six groups except helium (which is located in the s-block). In the elemental form of the p-block elements, the highest energy electron occupies a p-orbital. The p-block contains all of the nonmetals (except for hydrogen and helium which are in the s- block) and semimetals, as well as the post-transition metals.

The d-block is the portion of the periodic table that contains the element groups 3-12. These groups correspond to the filling of the atomic d-orbital subshell of the second outermost shell (inside an outermost shell only containing 1 or 2 s-orbital electrons) with electron configurations ranging from s 2 d 1 (Group 3) to s 2 d 10 (Group 12). There are some irregularities in the sequence; for example Cr is s 1 d 5 (not s 2 d 4 ) and the Group 11 metals are s 1 d 10 (not s 2 d 9 ),

The d-block elements are often also known as transition metals or transition elements.

The f-block of the periodic table of the elements consists of those elements whose atoms or ions have valence electrons in f-orbitals. The elements are also known as inner transition elements, although that term is normally taken to include lutetium and lawrencium as well, which are part of the d-block.