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Wireless Multimedia Networks

. - Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski email: tonij@feit.ukim.edu.mk

Wireless Multimedia
Introduction

Goal of Wireless and Mobile Networking


People and their machines should be able to access information and communicate with each other easily and securely, in any medium or combination of media voice, data, image, video, or multimedia any time, anywhere, in a timely, cost-effective way.
Dr. G. H. Heilmeier, Oct 1992
Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Heilmeier's Catechism

What are you trying to do? Articulate your objectives using absolutely no jargon. How is it done today, and what are the limits of current practice? What's new in your approach and why do you think it will be successful? Who cares? If you're successful, what difference will it make? What are the risks and the payoffs? How much will it cost? How long will it take? What are the midterm and final "exams" to check for success?
Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Technology Trends

Development and deployment of wireless technology and infrastructure


in-room,

in-building, on-campus, in-the-field, MAN, WAN

Miniaturization of computing machinery . . . -> PCs -> laptop -> PDAs -> embedded computers/sensors
Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

At Home
WiFi

satellite WiFi UWB

WiFi 802.11g

WiFi

bluetooth cellular

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

At Home

Source: http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/science/wireless_interactives.htm Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

At Home: Last-Mile

Many users still dont have broadband

reasons: out of service area; some consider expensive

Broadband speed is still limited


DSL: 1-8 Mbps download, and 100800Kbps upload Cable modem: depends on your neighbors Insufficient for several applications (e.g., highquality video streaming)

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

On the Move

Source: http://www.ece.uah.edu/~jovanov/whrms/
Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

On the Move: Context-Aware

Source: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~aura/docdir/sensay_iswc.pdf Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

On the Road

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Example: Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII)

Establishing a vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside communications system

safety: e.g., intersection collision avoidance/violation warning/turn conflict warning, curve warning mobility: e.g., crash data, weather/road surface data, construction zones, emergency vehicle signal pre-emption commercial benefits

Implementation: a network of 220,000 IEEE 802.11a and 802.11p wireless hot spots
More info: http://www.its.dot.gov/vii/index.htm
Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Collision Avoidance at Intersections

Two million accidents at intersections per year in US

Source: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/its/ruralitsandrd/tb-intercollision.pdf

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Collision Avoidance : V2V Networks

stalled vehicle warning

bland spots

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Disaster Recovery

9/11, Tsunami, Hurricane Katrina, South Asian earthquake Wireless communication and mobile computing capability can make a difference between life and death !

rapid deployment efficient resource and energy usage flexible: unicast, broadcast, multicast, anycast resilient: survive in unfavorable and untrusted environments

http://www.att.com/ndr/

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Habitat Monitoring: Example on Great Duck Island


A 15-minute human visit leads to 20% offspring mortality

Patch Network

Gateway Transit Network

Basestation

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Wireless and Mobile Networking

Driven by technology and vision


wireless

communication technology global infrastructure device miniaturization

The field is moving fast


Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Why is the Field Challenging?

Challenge 1: Unreliable and Unpredictable Wireless Links

Wireless links are not reliable: they may vary over time and space
Reception v. Distance Asymmetry vs. Power Standard Deviation v. Reception rate

What Robert Poor (Ember) calls The good, the bad and the ugly

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Challenge 2: Open Wireless Medium

Wireless interference
S1 S2

R1 R1

Hidden terminals and


S1 R1 S2

Exposed terminal
R1 S1 S2 R2

Wireless security
eavesdropping,

denial of service,
Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Challenge 3: Mobility

Mobility causes poor-quality wireless links Mobility causes intermittent connection


under

intermittent connected networks, traditional routing, TCP, applications all break

Mobility changes context, e.g., location


Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Challenge 4: Limited Resources


Limited bandwidth Limited battery power Limited processing, display and storage
PDA Laptop data simpler graphical displays fully functional standard applications 802.11 battery; 802.11

Sensors, embedded controllers

Mobile phones voice, data simple graphical displays GSM

Performance/Weight/Power Consumption
Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Challenge 5: Changing Regulation and Multiple Communication Standards


cellular phones satellites cordless phones
1980: CT0 1984: CT1 1987: CT1+ 1989: CT 2 1991: DECT

wireless LAN

1981: NMT 450 1986: NMT 900

1983: AMPS

1982: InmarsatA 1988: InmarsatC

1992: GSM

1994: DCS 1800

1991: 1991: CDMA D-AMPS 1993: PDC

1992: Inmarsat-B Inmarsat-M 1998: Iridium

199x: proprietary 1997: IEEE 802.11 1999: 802.11b, Bluetooth 2000: IEEE 802.11a

analogue digital

2000: GPRS

2001: IMT-2000 Fourth Generation (Internet based)

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Wireless and Mobile


Towards Wireless IP

The Wireless World


Speeds and Distances for Major Alternatives
Wireless Wide-Area Networks

1G

2G

2.5G

3G
802.20 Mobile-Fi

4G
IEEE 802.16a WiMAX (fixed), 802.16e (mobile)

WMAN
Wireless MetropolitanArea Networks

WLAN
Wireless Local-Area Networks

IEEE 802.11 b, a, g Wi-Fi 802.15.4 802.15.1 Zigbee


NFC

IEEE 802.11n
IEEE 802.15.3a UWB WiMedia

WPAN
Wireless PersonalArea Networks

Bluetooth

10 kbps

100 kbps

1 Mbps Current

10 Mbps Emerging

100 Mbps Future

1 Gbps

Legacy

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

802.21 Inter-Network Handoffs

WWAN

Wireless Technology Evolution to 3.9G


CDMA
2G CDMA (IS-95A)

GSM/UMTS
GSM TDMA IS-136

IEEE Cellular
IEEE 802.16

IEEE LAN
IEEE 802.11

2.5G

CDMA (IS-95B)

GPRS

802.11g

3G

cdma 2000

E-GPRS EDGE

WCDMA FDD/TDD

TDSCDMA LCR-TDD Fixed WiMAX 802.16d Mobile WiMAX 802.16e

802.11a

3.5G

1xEV-DO Rev 0/A/B

HSDPA FDD/TDD

HSUPA FDD/TDD

WiBRO

802.11g

3.9G

UMB 802.20

LTE E-UTRA

HSPA+

802.11n

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Towards an All-IP Mobile Network


2G(+) BTS BSC BTS BSS 3G Node B RNC Node B RAN FutureG All-IP core network RAN 3G core network Internet GSM/GPRS core network

IP connectivity

Evolution towards an all-IP mobile network


Source: Toni Janevski, Traffic Analysis and Design of Wireless IP Networks, Artech House Inc, Boston, USA, 2003.

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

All-IP Wireless Network Concept


Portal

Content servers

2G / 2G+

Application Service servers creation User terminals

All-IP core network

3G

All-IP RAN

Telephony operator

Network operator

Content provider

Wireless LAN
Application provider Trusted provider

Broadband RAN

All-IP mobile network concept

Scenario for operators in wireless and mobile networks beyond 3G

Source: Toni Janevski, Traffic Analysis and Design of Wireless IP Networks, Artech House Inc, Boston, USA, 2003.

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Wireless and Mobile Overview

Wireless networks today:


Cellular

Mobile Networks (2G, 2G+, 3G, HSPA) Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (e.g., WiMAX) Wireless LANs (e.g., IEEE 802.11 family) Wireless Personal Networks (e.g., Bluetooth) Trends: 4G mobile, Ad-hoc networks

Common adopted technology: IP


Trend:

toward all-IP wireless networks Common characteristic: heterogeneity


Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Key Players in Wireless Battle

Driving forces for wireless technologies development and spectrum allocation are:

Governments

Spectrum management is powerful tool Military and Police need communications Level of technology development Market triggers development and changes Research and Development (R&D) The ones who pay for the commercial service Citizens pay taxes, which may be used for R&D, for military and police communications, or for free communications services
Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Industry and Operators


Wireless Standards

Academia

Users or Citizens

Spectrum Management Models


Maximize Value! Economists Property Rights
(a.k.a. the MARKET)

Avoid Interference! Regulators Engineers Licence-free


(a.k.a. the COMMONS)

Command & Control - Gov. knows best

- Market knows best - Auctions/2ndary trading - High flexibility - Pro Big Business

- first come, first served - Beauty Contests - Low flexibility - Pro Government

Nobody knows best - No Legal Protection - Technical Protection - High flexibility - Pro- Innovation

Source: Frame and Perspectives of Radio Spectrum Policy in the European Union for Future Wireless Networks and Services, R.Niepold, European Commission, Paris, April 2004.

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Need for Speed


10.000.000.000 1.000.000.000 100.000.000 10.000.000 1.000.000 100.000 10.000 1.000 100 1960 Source: http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/rraj/G250Projects/NachiketMehta.ppt

4G More bits/sec per Hertz are required because spectrum is scarce 2.5G 2G 3.5G 3G

bps

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

What Next ?
The future path has fractured into a number of possibilities The Wireless Battle is not over!
2.5G & WLAN 3G & WLAN & Brdcst 3G & WLAN & Ad-hoc 4G & WLAN & Brdcst 4G & 3G+ & WLAN & WLAN & Ad-hoc Ad-hoc 4G & WLAN

3G & WLAN

3G+ & WLAN

GPRS/ EDGE (2.5G) GSM (2G) W-CDMA (3G)

3G+

4G

1990

2000

2010
Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Source: http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/rraj/G250Projects/NachiketMehta.ppt

Overall
Unified wireless IP network

Personal wireless networks

Wireless Local Area Networks

Cellular mobile networks

High-speed wireless networks

Source of the Figure: Toni Janevski, Traffic Analysis and Design of Wireless IP Networks, Artech House Inc, Boston, USA, 2003.

Future mobile and wireless networks should provide adaptive personal communication with direct IP connectivity, allowing migration of users, devices and services between heterogeneous wireless networks ranging from GSM to wireless LAN and WiMAX and broadband mobile access networks such as 3G-HSPA, LTE, or LTEAdvanced, supporting different applications and using multimode mobile terminals to exploit different spectrums for different underlying wireless technologies.
Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Mobile Users
Challenges

User challenges vs. research challenges


Are we addressing real user needs?

Engineering vs. sports

Guesses
ease of use

no manual

reliability
integration

no re-entry no duplication

cost

phishing data loss

limited risk

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Example: Email configuration


Application configuration for (mobile) devices painful SMTP port 25 vs. 587 IMAP vs. POP TLS vs. SSL vs. secure authentication Worse for SIP...

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Mobile whys

Not research, but examples of real irritation Why does each mobile device need its own power supply? Why do I have to adjust the clock on my camera each time I travel? Why do I have to know what my IMAP server is and whether it uses TLS or SSL? Why do I have to type in my address book? Why do I have to synchronize my PDA? Why do I have to manually update software? Why is connecting a laptop to a projector a gamble? Why do we use USB memory sticks when all laptops have 802.11b?

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Consumer wireless & mobile devices


Car key Garage door opener

Water leak alarm

wireless door bell

MSN Direct weather

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Philosophy transition
One computer/phone, many users
mainframe era home phone party line PC era cell phone era

One computer/phone, one user Many computers/phones, one user


~ ubiquitous computing

anywhere, any time any media

right place (device), right time, right media

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

The mobile everywhere challenge


Mobile phone

Mobile Internet access

Interconnected devices
Internet of things

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

What do we need?

Standards, new technology? Radio connectivity


802.11a/b/g/n, 802.15.4 better discovery of networks

Location information everywhere Discovery: devices & services


network-local discovery (multicast DNS) missing: location-based discovery

Advanced mobility: session, personal, service Event notification Data formats location, sensor events, ...

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Examples of invisible behavior


MP3 player in car automatically picks up new files in home server A new email with vcard attachment automatically updates my cell phone address book The display of my laptop appears on the local projector

without cable or configuration without exchanging business cards

I can call people I just met My car key opens my front door My cell phone automatically turns itself off during a lecture My camera knows where the picture was taken (e.g., Nokia N95 knows in which country picture or video was taken)

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

An interconnected system
opens doors

incoming call

updates location

time, location

address book alert, events


any weather service school closings

acoustic alerts Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Beyond User Mobility

Application-layer mobility

Terminal mobility
one

terminal, multiple network addresses person, multiple terminals user, multiple terminals in sequence or in parallel move with user

Personal mobility
one

Session mobility
one

Service mobility
services

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Session mobility

Walk into office, switch from cell phone to desk phone

call transfer problem SIP REFER

related problem: split session across end devices


e.g., wall display + desk phone + PC for collaborative application assume devices (or stand-ins) are SIP-enabled third-party call control

Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

How to find services?

Two complementary developments:


smaller devices carried on user instead of stationary devices devices that can be time-shared

large plasma displays projector hi-res cameras echo-canceling speaker systems wide-area network access

Need to discover services in local environment

SLP (Service Location Protocol) allows querying for services


find all color displays with at least XGA resolution slp://example.com/SrvRqst?public?type=printer

SLP in multicast mode SLP in DA (Directory Agents) mode, besides UA (User Agents) and SA (Service Agents) is there a camera in the meeting room? SLP extension: find remote DA via DNS Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski

Need to discover services before getting to environment


Session mobility
Local Devices Transcoder

Internet

SLP DA

SLP SA SIP SM SIP UA

SLP UA

SIP UA

Correspondent Node (CN)

SIP SM

SIP UA

SLP SIP RTP

SLP UA

Mobile Node (MN) Wireless Multimedia Networks, Prof. Dr. Toni Janevski