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Submarinecommunicationscable

01April2013 4:28PM

cablelaidontheseabedbetweenlandbasedstationstocarrytelecommunicationsignalsacrossstretchesof ocean. Thefirstsubmarinecommunicationscables,laidinthe1850s,carriedtelegraphytraffic. Moderncablesuseopticalfibertechnologytocarrydigitaldata,whichincludestelephone,Internetandprivate datatraffic. Asof2010,submarinecableslinkalltheworld'scontinentsexceptAntarctica. Duetotemperaturesof80Caswellasmassivestrainfromiceflowingupto10metersperyear firsttransatlantictelephonecabletouseopticalfiberwasTAT8,whichwentintooperationin1988 Asof2006,overseassatellitelinksaccountedforonly1percentofinternationaltraffic,whiletheremainderwas carriedbyunderseacable. reliabilityofsubmarinecablesishigh etotalcarryingcapacityofsubmarinecablesisintheterabitspersecond,whilesatellitestypicallyofferonly megabitspersecondanddisplayhigherlatency. transoceanicsubmarinecablesystemcostsseveralhundredmilliondollarstoconstruct Environmentalimpact: majorityofcableliesinthebenthiczoneoftheoceans Recentstudies(in2003and2006)haveindicatedthatcablesposeminimalimpactsonlifeinthese environments thecablesprovidedanattachmentpointforanemonesthattypicallycouldnotgrowinsoftsedimentareas IMEWE IndiaMiddleEastWesternEurope 13,000kilometre(8,100mi)submarinecommunicationscablesystembetweenIndiaandFrance. designcapacityis3.84Terabitspersecond. operationalsince2009. includesaterrestriallinkconnectingthecitiesofAlexandriaandSuezinEgypt comprisesthreeopticalfibrecablepairsand2trunklines fundedbyaconsortiumof9companiesfromacrosstheworld TataCommandBhartiAirtelfromIndia 9landingstations 2inIndiainMumbai SEAMEWE3 SouthEastAsia MiddleEast WesternEurope3 longestintheworld,completedinlate2000. ledbyFranceTelecomandChinaTelecom,andisadministeredbySINGTEL Consortiumisformedby92otherinvestorsfromthetelecomindustry 39,000kilometres(24,000mi)inlengthandusesWavelengthDivisionMultiplexing(WDM) Ithas39landingpoints 2inIndia MumbaiandKochi. twofibrepairs,eachcarrying(asofMay2007)48wavelengthsof10Gbit/stotaling480Gbps basedonthesuccessoftheearliershortercableSeaMeWe2, Commissionedin1994and18,751kmlong twosinglenodefibrepairswithacombinedcapacityof1.1Tbit/s

FiberOpticLinkAroundtheGlobe(FLAG) 28,000kilometerlongsubmarinecommunicationscablecontainingopticalfiberthatconnectstheUnited Kingdom,Japan,andmanyplacesinbetween operatedbyIndia'sFlagTelecom,afullyownedsubsidiaryofRelianceCommunications runsfromtheeasterncoastofNorthAmericatoJapan aslaidinthemid1990s&launchedinSeptember1997 speedof10Gbit/sandusessynchronousdigitalhierarchytechnology twoterrestrialcrossings,oneinEgyptandtheotherinThailand FALCONpartofFLAG,connectingIndiaandseveralcountriesinthePersianGulf. EuropeIndiaGateway(EIG) 15,000kilometreslong Speedof3.84terabitspersecond firstdirecthighbandwidthopticalfibresystemfromBritaintoIndia. Operatedbyaconsortiumof18companies.

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LandingatMumbaiinIndia. SEAMEWE4 intendedtobeacomplementto,ratherthanareplacementfor,theSEAMEWE3cable. 18,800kilometreslong,andprovidestheprimaryInternetbackbonebetweenSouthEastAsia,theIndian subcontinent,theMiddleEastandEurope dividedintofoursegmentswithseventeenlandingpoints S1 TuastoMumbai S2 MumbaitoSuez S3 SueztoCairo S4 CairotoMarseille developedbyaconsortiumof16telecommunicationscompanies projectwascompletedon13December2005 SEAMEWE4isusedtocarrytelephone,internet,multimediaandvariousbroadbanddataapplications EAMEWE3andtheSEAMEWE4cablesystemsareintendedtoprovideredundancyforeachother Usesdensewavelengthdivisionmultiplexing(DWDM)

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