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EXAMPLE: Water Flow in a Pipe P 1 > P 2 Velocity proﬁle is parabolic (we will learn why it is parabolic later, but since friction comes from walls the shape is intu- itive)

The pressure drops linearly along the pipe.

Does the water slow down as it ﬂows from one end to the other?

Only component of velocity is in the x-direction.

v = v x i

v y = v z = 0

Incompressible Continuity:

∂v x

∂x

∂v x

∂x

+ ∂v y + ∂v z

∂y

∂z

= 0

= 0 and the water does not slow down.

EXAMPLE: Flow Through a Tank V = constant (always full)

Integral Mass Balance: S ( v · n)dA = 0

v 1 A 1 = v 2 A 2 Q

Constant volumetric ﬂow rate Q.

EXAMPLE: Simple Shear Flow satisﬁed identically

v y = v z = 0

v x = v x (y)

· v v ∂x x

+ ∂v y + ∂v z

∂y

∂z

= 0

NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS (p. 1)

(in the limit of slow ﬂows with high viscosity)

Reynolds Number:

ρ = density

η = viscosity

v = typical velocity scale D = typical length scale

R e ρvD

η

(1-62)

For R e 1 have laminar ﬂow (no turbulence)

ρ v

P + ρ g + η2 v

=

∂t Vector equation (thus really three equations)

The full Navier-Stokes equations have other nasty inertial terms that are important for low viscosity, high speed ﬂows that have turbulence (airplane wing).

NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS (p. 2)

ρ v = ∂t

ρ v ∂t

=

P + ρ g + η2 v

v

∂t

= acceleration

ρ =

mass

unit volume

force

unit volume

( F = m a)

Newton’s 2 nd Law

Navier-Stokes equations are a force balance per unit volume

What accelerates the ﬂuid?

ρ g = Gravity

η2 v = Flow (ﬂuid accelerates in direction of increasing velocity gradient.

GENERAL SOLUTIONS FLUID MECHANICS

Navier-Stokes equations + Continuity + Boundary Conditions

Four coupled diﬀerential equations!

Always look for ways to simplify the problem!

EXAMPLE: 2D Source Flow Injection Molding a Plate 1. Independent of time

2. 2-D v z = 0

3. Symmetry Polar Coordinates

4. Symmetry v θ = 0

Continuity equation

·

v = 1 dr (rv r ) = 0

r

d

rv r = constant

v r = constant

r

Already know the way velocity varies with position, and have not used the Navier-Stokes equations!

EXAMPLE: Poiseuille Flow between Parallel Plates (important for injection molding) (P. 1) Independent of time

v y = v z = 0

Cartesian coordinates

Continuity:

∂v x

∂x

= 0

Navier-Stokes equation:

v x = v x (y)

P = P(x)

∂P

∂x

v x = v x (y)

+

µ 2 v x ∂y 2

= 0

P

∂y

= ∂P

∂z

∂P

∂x

=

µ 2 v x ∂y 2

= 0

How can f (x) = h(y)? Each must be constant!

∂P

∂x

B.C.

= C 1

P = C 1 x + C 2

x = 0 x = L

P = P 1 Px

P = P 1 C 2 = P 1

P = P 2 C 1 = P/L

L

where : ∆P P 1 P 2

EXAMPLE: Poiseuille Flow between Parallel Plates (important for injection molding) (P. 2)

2 v x

µ

∂y 2

= C 1 = P/L

2 v x

∂y 2

∂v x

=

∂y

P

=

µL

y + C 3

P

µL

v x = 2µL P y 2 + C 3 y + C 4

B.C. NO SLIP

top plate

bottom plate

y = d/2

v x = 0

y = d/2

v x = 0

0

0

= P

8µL

= P

8µL

C 3 = 0

v x = P 2µl

d 2

4

y 2

d 2 + C 3

d 2 C 3

d

2

d

2

+

+

C 4

C 4

C 4 = Pd 2

8µL

Parabolic velocity proﬁle

EXAMPLE: Poiseuille Flow between Parallel Plates (important for injection molding) (P. 3)

Where is the velocity largest?

Maximum at v x

= 0 = P y

µL

∂y

maximum at y = 0 centerline

What is the average velocity?

v ave =

v ave = A v x dA

A dA

=

A A

1

v x dA

zd z

1

0

d/2

d/2 v x dydz =

1

d

d/2

d/2

v ave =

P 2µLd d 2

4

y

y 3

3

d/2

d/2

A = zd

P 2µL d 2

4

= Pd 2

12µL

y 2 dy

EXAMPLE: Poiseuille Flow in an Annular Die (important for blow molding) (P. 1) Navier-Stokes equation:

∂P

∂z

= µ

f (z) = g(r) = a constant

P 1 > P 2

Independent of Time

Cylindrical Coordinates

v r = v θ = 0

v z = v z (r)

Continuity: v z

∂z

1

r ∂r r ∂v z

∂r

= 0

Split into two parts - Pressure Part:

∂P

∂z

= C 1

P = C 1 z + C 2

B.C.

z = 0 P = P 2 C 2 = P 2

z = L P = P 1 C 1 = ∆P/L

P

= P 2 + P z

L

where : ∆P P 1 P 2

P = P 2 + P z analogous to Poiseuille ﬂow between parallel plates.

L

EXAMPLE: Poiseuille Flow in an Annular Die (important for blow molding) (P. 2)

B.C. NO SLIP

subtract

0 =

µ

1

r ∂r r ∂v z

∂r

= P

L

r ∂v z ∂r

∂v z

∂r

=

=

P 2µL r 2 + C 3

P 2µL r + C 3

r

v z = 4µL P r 2 + C 3 ln r + C 4

at

at

0

0

P

4µL (R

2

0

r

i , r = R 0 ,

=

R

v z = 0 v z = 0

=

=

P

2

i

4µL R

P

4µL R

2

0

+ C 3 ln R i + C 4

+ C 3 ln R 0 + C 4

R

2

i

) + C 3 ln R 0

R

i

C 3 = P(R

2

0

R

2

i

)

4µL ln(R 0 /R i )

C 4 =

P 4µL R

2

0

(R

2

0

R

2

i

) ln R 0

ln(R 0 /R i )

EXAMPLE: Poiseuille Flow in an Annular Die (important for blow molding) (P. 3)

v z =

4µL r 2 (R

P

2

0

R

2

i

)

ln(R 0 /R i )

ln r R

2

0

+

2

0

v z = PR

4µL

1 +

r 2

R

2

0

r < R 0 always, so v z < 0

(R

2

0

R

2

i

)

ln(R 0 /R i )

(R

2

0

R

2

i

)

ln(R 0 /R i )

ln(r/R 0 )

Leading term is parabolic in r (like the ﬂow between plates) but this one has a logarithmic correction.

What is the volumetric ﬂow rate?

R 0

Q = A v z dA =

R

i

v z 2πrdr

4

0

Q = πPR

8µL

1 +

R 0 4 + (1 (R i /R 0 ) 2 ) 2

R

i

ln(R 0 /R i )

GENERAL POISEUILLE FEATURES OF FLOW NEWTONIAN

Parallel Plates:

Q

= Pd 3 W

12µL

Circular Tube:

Q = πPR 4

8µL

Q = πPR

4

0

Annular Tube:

f(R i /R 0 )

8µL

Q = Pd 3 w

Rectangular Tube:

12µL

All have the same general form:

Q

Q

Q

P

1

1/L

Q R 4 or d 3 w

Weak eﬀects of pressure, viscosity and ﬂow length

Strong eﬀect of size.

In designing and injection mold, we can change the runner sizes.

NON-NEWTONIAN EFFECTS EXAMPLE: Poiseuille Flow in a Circular Pipe

Newtonian Velocity Proﬁle:

v z = PR 2

4µL

1 (r/R) 2

Shear Rate:

γ˙ = v ∂r z

= Pr

2µL

Apparent Viscosity: Viscosity is lower where γ˙ is higher

Real Velocity Proﬁle:

Lower η a increases v z non-parabolic    