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We know that with total absence of knowledge on the subject or matter we are dealing with, we will say that it may have such and such outcomes. So in reality, in the subject of probability, we are actually dealing with uncertainty. We observe a random process ( i.e. experiment) which has multiple results ( i.e. outcomes) and we find the possibility for the outcomes to occur. For example, we flip a coin fairly. The word fairly here is crucial; we just flip it honestly without using any tricks to attain any of the outcomes we wished. Besides we also assumed that the coin has a uniformly distributed mass, which means its centre of mass is at the centre and not at some point near some corner which will make it favourable to fall at some end. So when we are dealing with such cases we know for sure there are 2 outcomes which is either heads or tails. In fact to be fair we should consider the fact of the edges! Of course, you will be laughing that from the day you know about the coin flipping game you never encounter such a thing called edge because it would be nearly impossible! ( unless the coin falled in between the small crack on the floor) No doubt it is almost impossible we should always consider the fact that there is still some possibility in it. So we see that the possibility of each outcome would be 1/3. Why is it so? It makes sense because there are only 3 outcomes ( including the so called non-logical edge outcome) and the probability of each outcome to occur would be equally distributed making it 1/3. But lets say we could contact with Mother Nature and She says there is only a probability of 1/8 for the edge outcome to occur. And say Mother Nature wanted to play tricks on us such that we do not know the possibility of the outcome for heads and tails, so it would be sensible that the possibility for each of the both outcomes would be the same. So what should we do? It seems interesting that we must now know reverse our directions and find the sum of all possibility for all the outcomes. Why is it so? Obviously if we find the sum of all possibility and we deduct it by 1/8 we would get the sum of possibility for both heads and tails. This implies that the number we obtained from the subtraction divided by 2 would be the answer for the possibility of either heads or tails. So what is the total sum of probabilities of all the outcomes? So we must come back to the question which I purposely left out earlier on. Why is the probability 1/3. We are dealing with mathematics and not simply any logic! The way how we defined probability is such that:

Observe here I introduced the term events. There are 2 interesting terminology used in mathematics, which is event and also proposition. A proposition can be asserted with a claim that can be either true or false whereas an event doesnt assert anything. ( i.e. it cannot be said to be true or false) In probability theory, an event is a set of outcomes to which a probability is assigned.

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