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I.

Hospitality Industry

OVERVIEW OF HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

Hospitality is the cordial and generous reception and entertainment of guests or strangers, either socially or commercially. The Hospitality Industry is comprised of those businesses, which practice the act of being hospitable; those businesses which are characterized by generosity and friendliness to guests. A. Characteristics of Hospitality Industry a. b. c. d. e. Inseparability Perishability Labor-intensive Repetitive Intangibility

B. Components of Hospitality Industry a. Lodging Operations -such as hotels, resorts, motels etc. b. Transportation/ Travel Services -such as taxi, train, and cruise ships, etc. c. Food and Beverage Operations -such as restaurants, bars, etc. d. Retail Stores -such as souvenir shops, etc. e. Activities -such as recreations, festivals, etc. C. Brief History on the Development of Lodging Industry

Can be traced back to the civilizations of Sumeria, Ancient Egypt, Ancient


Greece, Rome and Biblical Times.

Two possible explanations why people in ancient times felt required to be


hospitable: they felt that hospitality to strangers were necessary to their religious well-being and having superstitious belief.

The more logical in our modern thinking explains that providing


hospitality was a result of a give and take philosophy.

The need for a place to stay away from home is as old as the first nomadic
traveler. Trading between two cultures created the need for groups of people to travel often-great distances. 1

Along these trade routes, certain stopping points became favored out of
necessity. These stopping points became known as junction points that grew into trading centers and eventually evolved into cities.

Journey segment is the maximum reasonable distance traveled in one day


along trade and caravan routes. At these journey segments, lodging facilities became a need. They were called relay houses in China, khans in Persia, and tabernas in Rome.

Innovations began to emerge as the history of lodging unfolds. At some


point, innkeepers began to incorporate food and beverage service in their operations.

Another development was the Roman network of roads that crisscrossed


Europe and parts of Asia and Africa. These roads provided fast and safe routes for travelers.

The concept of hospitality was changed in 1282 in Florence, Italy. The


innkeepers created a guild or associations that formed hospitality into business.

The industrial revolution of the mid-1700s created new modes of


transportation that further changed the way people traveled.

The emergence of railroads and later the automobile played large roles in lodgings history because both dramatically increased the lengths of journey segments for a traveler. As the evolution of lodging continued, new facilities began to emerge as an option for travelers. The wealthy and landed aristocracy of the world began to view the many spare rooms in their castles and estates as sources of revenue. The best example of this can be traced back to the English and colonial inns of the 1700s. The significant difference between the two was that colonial inns offered rooms to anyone who could afford to pay, whereas English inns were most often reserved for the aristocracy. Another difference between the two was that English inns rented out individual sleeping rooms, whereas colonial inns regularly offered large rooms with several beds inside. This meant that English inns could offer 2

private guest rooms, whereas colonial inns were better suited for communal accommodations. The word hotel is the Anglicized version of the French hotel garni, which translates into large, furnished mansion. The first lodging facility that can be directly considered a precursor of the modern hotel was the 73 rooms City Hotel built in New York in 1794. It is a significant milestone in the evolution of lodging because its sole purpose was to house guests. All the previous inns were homes first and lodging facilities second. In 1829, Tremont House was built in Boston. This property was another milestone in the early revolution of hotels. It was considered as the first five-star hotel. Highly trained staff, French Cuisine, and luxurious appointed rooms combined to give guests the finest hotel experience available ever to that point in time. Amenities offered by the Tremont House include in-room water pitchers and free soap that was considered revolutionary.

D. Classification of Hotels 1. According to Size: a. Small Scale (under 150 rooms) b. Medium Scale (150 to 299 rooms) c. Large Scale (300 and above) 2. According to Target Market: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. Commercial Hotels Airport Hotels Suite Hotels Residential Hotels Resort Hotels Bed and Breakfast Hotels Time-Share and Condominium Casino Hotels Conference Centers Convention Hotels Alternative Lodging Properties

3. According to Levels of Service / Price a. World-Class Service b. Medium-Range Service c. Economy / Limited Service 4. According to Type of Ownership and Affiliation a. b. c. d. e. Owner-operated Owner-managed Independent Franchised Management-contract

5. Reasons for Traveling a. b. c. d. Business Travel Pleasure Travel Group Travel Buying Influences

6. According to Quality Ranking a. b. c. d. Deluxe First Class Standard Economy

7. According to Location a. b. c. d. e. Center City Suburban Resort Airport Highway

E. Hotel Organization Mission Statement Defines the unique purpose that sets one hotel or Hotel Company apart from others. It expresses the underlying philosophy that gives meaning and direction to hotel policies. A hotels mission statement should address the interests of three diverse groups: guests, management, and employees. Objectives Are those ends an organization must achieve to effectively carry out its mission. An objective is more specific than a mission; it calls for levels of achievement, which can be observed and measured. Goals Define the purpose of a department or division; they direct the actions of managers and employees and the functions of the department or division towards fulfilling the hotels mission. Strategies Are the methods a department or division plans to use to achieve its goals. Organizational Chart A schematic representation of the relationships between positions within the organization. It shows where each position fits in the overall organization as well as where divisions of responsibility and lines of authority lie. Solid lines on the chart indicate direct-line accountability. Dotted lines indicate relationships that involve a high degree of cooperation and communication, but not direct reporting relationship.

F. Classification of Functional Areas: 1. Revenue vs. Support Centers a. Revenue Centers - those that sells goods or services to guests, thereby generating revenue for the hotel (front office, food and beverage outlets, room service and retail stores). b. Support Centers - these do not generate direct revenue, but provide important backing for the hotels revenue centers (housekeeping, accounting, engineering and maintenance, and human resources division). 2. Front-of-the-house vs. Back-of-the-house a. Front-of-the-house - areas that involves guest and employee interaction (front office, restaurants, and lounges). b. Back-of-the-house - areas where interaction between guests and employees is less common (housekeeping, engineering and maintenance, accounting, and human resources). G. Hotel Divisions:

Food and Beverage Division Sales and Marketing Division Accounting Division Engineering and Maintenance Security Division Human Resource Division Rooms Division Front Office Housekeeping Other Divisions: Retail Outlets Recreation Casino

II.

HOUSEKEEPING ORGANIZATION

Housekeeping refers to the upkeep and maintenance of cleanliness and order in a house or a lodging establishment. Efficient managed housekeeping department ensure the cleanliness, maintenance, and aesthetic appeal of lodging properties. The housekeeping department not only prepares, on a timely basis, clean guestrooms for arriving guests, it also cleans and maintains everything in the hotel so that the property is as fresh and attractive as the day it opened for business. Housekeeper one who is responsible for administering housekeeping maintenance, insuring that everything is on order and that all occupants are made comfortable, safe and protected from disease-causing bacteria. A. Types of Housekeeping: 1. Domestic Housekeeping refers to housekeeping maintenance in a house. Areas covered by domestic housekeeping: bedroom, living room, entertainment room, kitchen, comfort room and others that consist of a convenient house. 2. Institutional Housekeeping applies to housekeeping maintenance in commercial lodging establishments like hotels, resorts, inns, and apartels. Institutional Housekeeping usually covers the following areas: 1. Guest rooms 2. Hallways and corridors 3. Lobby 4. Public rooms and restaurants 5. Offices 6. Stairways 7. Windows 8. Stores and concessionaire shops 9. Grounds 10. Linen and Laundry area B. Scope of Housekeeping Maintenance: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Guestroom maintenance. Maintenance of public areas. Maintenance of linen and laundry service. Washing, issuance, repair and inventory of employees uniform. Installation, cleaning and maintenance of fixtures and facilities.

6. Provision of special services like baby-sitting, polishing shoes, etc. C. Objectives of Housekeeping Department: 1. To provide a clean, safe and comfortable environment, which gives a feeling of security and reassurance to guests. 2. To conform to sanitation requirements of health laws. 3. To protect and maintain the original beauty of the building finishes, fabrics and furnishings. 4. To extend friendly and courteous service to all guests and to all staff members of the hotel. 5. To operate with a conscious and cooperative effort towards the company. 6. To train staff members of the hotel in housekeeping services. D. Major Responsibilities of Housekeeping Department: 1. Maintaining of guestrooms on a high standard of cleanliness. 2. Reporting any repairs needed and seeing that these repairs are made as promptly as possible. 3. Being alert to safety hazards and eliminating the condition, which could cause injury to the guest. 4. Practicing sanitation methods, which fulfill health law requirements and furnishing protection for the guests. 5. Disposing of trash neatly and safely. 6. Keeping all public areas clean and inviting. 7. Coordinating pest control services. 8. Furnishing adequate supplies of linens, uniforms, cleaning aids and printed materials. 9. Making sure that services and employees areas are kept clean and orderly. 10. Keeping all corridors clean, safe, and free from obstruction. 11. Cleaning light fixtures and using right wattages. 12. Properly using and maintaining all equipment needed. 13. Practicing cleaning methods that help retain the original beauty of the hotel. 14. Providing records that are necessary for efficient operation. 15. Promoting business for the hotel through courteous service to the guest. 16. Controlling expenses to assist the hotel in operating profitably. 17. Keeping all office areas neat, clean and inviting. 18. Securing and keeping accurate records on lost and found items. E. Main Functions of the Housekeeping Department: 1. 2. 3. 4. Cleaning and maintenance. Training of its personnel. Requisition and control of necessary supplies and equipment. Paperwork.

Favorable Workers Behavior:


Enthusiastic Caring Flexible Sensitive Encouraging Positive Open Non-Judgmental Communicator Team Player Innovative Dependable Fair Organized Patient Facilitator Respectful Adaptable Ethical

Takes Charge Pro-Active Assertive Self-Motivated Service-Oriented Meticulous Not Superstitious Does not Discuss Controversial and Issues Willing to Accept Challenges Credible Does Not Take Personally Tactful Creative Ability to Make Quick Decisions Ability to Influence Diplomatic Ability to Work Under Pressure

III.

HOUSEKEEPING ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

For Large Establishments: Executive Housekeeper or Housekeeping Manager

Roomskeeping Supervisor Roomboy

Public Area Supervisor Houseman/ Utility/Maintenance Pest Control Technician Gardener/ Grounds Maintenance

Linen & Laundry Supervisor Linen Attendant

Chambermaid

Laundry Attendant

Mini-Bar Attendant

Valet Runner Steam Presser/ St Ironer

For Smaller Establishments: Housekeeping Supervisor

Assistant Housekeeping Supervisor

Room Attendant or Roomboy and Chambermaid

Houseman and Powder Girl

Linen and Laundry Attendant

Gardener and Grounds Maintenance Crew

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Distribution of Housekeeping Responsibilities: Housekeeping tasks are distributed to housekeeping personnel who are designated to perform the following functions and responsibilities: I. Executive Housekeeper or Housekeeping Manager Basic Function: Responsible for maintaining a smooth and efficient flow of operations in the Housekeeping Department, sees to it that housekeeping maintenance is carried out in accordance with prescribed standards and policies. A. Planning and Problem-Solving Functions: 1. Determines the operational requirements of his/her department and coordinates with the Purchasing Department for the procurement for the said items; 2. Formulates goals and targets as well as plans and strategies geared towards goal attainment; 3. Prepares and submits operations budgets and monitors consumption against budget; 4. Analyze variances against targets and deviations from standards and take corrective action; 5. Take corrective action for any problem affecting the operation in his department attends to customer complaints coordinates with department concerned for remedial action; 6. Calls for and presides over operations meetings with supervisors to discuss and resolve operational problems. B. Organizational Functions 1. Organizes the flow of housekeeping operations: Identifies tasks to be done and distributes them to his staff Review/upgrades job description and job procedures Reviews/upgrades operational policies as needed 2. Delegates side duties to subordinates. C. Leading and Directing Functions 1. Conducts job orientation and training of housekeeping personnel; 2. Regularly conducts spot checks and routine inspection to ensure that housekeeping standards are complied with;

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3. Prepares and submits reports required by management such as critical incidents reports, budget variance report, inventory report and other documents; 4. Boost employee morale and motivation through the effective use of motivational techniques; 5. Provides supervision and coaching to section heads; 6. Coordinates periodic inventory of housekeeping items and supplies, keeps track of losses and breakdown of equipment; 7. Maintains par stock requirements, initiates requisition as needed; 8. Coordinates closely with Front Office on room status and room bookings as well as changes in room assignments and reservations; 9. Coordinates with the Facilities and Maintenance Section on matters requiring repair or trouble shooting of equipment and room facilities. D. Controlling Function 1. Controls and monitors expenses against the budget; takes appropriate action against excessive consumption; 2. Sees to it that house rules and housekeeping policies are carried out by the respective units under him; 3. Evaluates subordinates performance and conducts appraisal interview 4. Enforces disciplinary action against erring employees; conducts corrective interview as needed; 5. Looks after the wear and tear of equipment; looks after their proper use, storage and maintenance. E. Guest Relations 1. Checks customer satisfaction, solicits feedback and attends to customer needs; 2. Handles guest complaints and takes corrective action; 3. Performs other related functions as maybe assigned by superior. II. Rooms Maintenance Supervisor Basic Function: Directs and controls rooms keeping activities including room make up, installation of mini-bar and other room amenities, ensures conformity to prescribed Roomskeeping standards and policies. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. Conducts routine inspection to check the quality of room make up; makes sure that the rooms are installed with standard room

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amenities and that the area is free of safety hazards. Also checks if there is anything that needs repair or corrective action; 2. Checks rooms status during room check, prepares and distributes room status report to Front Desk and to room attendants; 3. Looks after the proper use, storage and maintenance of linen and cleaning equipments as well as housekeeping tools and supplies; 4. Regularly checks the condition and maintenance of housekeeping equipment. Have them cleaned regularly. Initiates service request for defective items; 5. Checks and maintains par stock. Makes requisition whenever needed; 6. Initiates and supervises the weekly inventory of room supplies and other Housekeeping items entrusted to his unit. Reports losses and damages and takes corrective action against reckless use of equipment; 7. Sees to it that his superior is informed of all unusual incidents and accidents in his area of responsibility; 8. Trains, coaches and supervises room boys and chambermaids; 9. Attends to the performance evaluation of his subordinates; conducts appraisal interview; 10. Personally attends to VIP guests and their requirements; 11. Attends to guest complaints. Inquiries and requests; 12. Coordinates with Front Office regarding changes in room status and bookings; with Maintenance Unit regarding requests for repairs or maintenance; 13. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior. III. Head Houseman or Public Area Supervisor Basic Function: Directs and controls all activities concerning public area maintenance and ensures conformity to prescribed housekeeping standards and policies. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. Maintain quality housekeeping in all public areas paying special attention to cleanliness, orderliness and safety in all covered areas; 2. Conducts regular inspection of the different public areas; checks the quality of cleaning and maintenance and ensures that the area is free of safety hazards. Also checks if there is anything that needs repair or corrective action; 3. Checks order in all areas and makes sure that fixtures and furnitures are installed in the right location; 4. Monitors and supervises the proper use, storage, and maintenance of cleaning equipment as well as housekeeping tools and supplies;

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5. Checks equipment regularly for their condition. Have then cleaned regularly and repaired when out of order; 6. Checks and maintains par stock requirements. Makes requisition to replenish supplies. 7. Initiates and supervises weekly inventory of cleaning supplies and other housekeeping items allocated to his unit. Reports losses and damages and takes corrective action against reckless use of equipment; 8. Reports to management all unusual incidents and accidents in the public areas, safety hazards and items needing repair or replacement; 9. Trains, coaches, and supervises his staff; 10. Evaluates the performance of his subordinates and conducts appraisal interview; 11. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior. IV. Roomboy, Chambermaid, or Room Attendant Basic Function: Attends to the maintenance and upkeep of all guestrooms and service areas assigned to him/ her. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. Looks after the maintenance of cleanliness, orderliness and sanitation in his assigned guestrooms: Clean walls, carpets, fixtures following standard cleaning procedures; Sanitizes toilets and bathrooms using sanitizing chemicals; Changes/ empties waste baskets or garbage cans; Collects all used/ soiled linen and replenishes them with fresh ones; Looks after the orderly make-up of the room, bed and the bathroom; Checks the condition of all guestroom facilities and fixtures and reports any defect to supervisor for corrective action; Installs and replenishes standard room amenities in their appropriate location; 2. Performs turn-down service if scheduled for the second shift; 3. Looks after the proper use, maintenance and storage of cleaning equipment. Reports damages to supervisor for corrective action; 4. Attends to the needs and additional requests of house guests; 5. Reports all unusual incidents and complaints of house guests, unauthorized entry of suspicious persons in guestrooms as well as guests who are sick or in critical condition; 6. Reports and surrenders all lost and found items to supervisor; 7. Assists in the inventory of guestroom supplies and linens; 14

8. Prepares and submits daily accomplishment and consumption report to his/ her supervisor; 9. Assists his supervisor in conducting room check; 10. Conducts fumigation of assigned guestrooms as needed; 11. Performs other related duties as may be assigned by his or her supervisor. V. Mini Bar Runner/ Mini Bar Attendant Basic Function: Responsible for performing mini bar installation, listing, replenishing, inventory taking, stocking, requisitioning and other related functions. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. Maintains par stock of mini bar items; initiates requisition to replenish used stocks; 2. Records mini bar consumption per room and prepares a sales report; 3. Assists in the promotion of mini bar items; 4. Monitors sales and movement of stocks, informs supervisor of slow moving and non-moving items; 5. Conduct mini-bar inventory; 6. Cleans and dusts mini-bar bottles in vacant guestrooms; 7. Checks and collects mini0bar receipts in all guestrooms; 8. Assists in the inventory of stocks in housekeeping stockroom as well as in all vacant, occupied and check-out rooms; 9. Promptly prepares billing of mini-bar consumption giving priority to rooms occupied by guests who are about to check out within the day; 10. Coordinates with Front Office Cashiers for the billing of late charges; 11. Coordinates also with other staff like Bell Service in collecting bills of guests and hotel skipper; 12. Explores to the incoming attendant all un-replenishment minibars in guestrooms to make sure that all scheduled replenishments for the day will be accomplished as scheduled. 13. Determines availability and non-availability of mini-bars stocks and updates accordingly the individual receipts distributed in guestrooms; 14. Collects empty or consumed mini-bar bottles, cans, etc., from different floors/guest areas, pantries, and guestrooms; 15. Checks sales records from time to time to determine accuracy of records, inventories and billing; 16. Takes note of salable and non-salable items to have a more accurate basis for requisition and ordering of stocks;

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17. Double checks the expiration dates of items for prompt replenishment; 18. Returns spoiled stocks before the end of each month and submits report to supervisor or the Cost Control section; 19. Coordinates closely with Front Office regarding rooms on cash-basis to be able to pull out mini-bar stocks and also to obtain the check-out list for each day; 20. Performs other duties as may be assigned. VI. Houseman Basic Function: Responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of cleanliness and orderliness in public areas assigned to him. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. Secures cleaning supplies, materials and equipment and looks after their proper use, storage and maintenance. 2. Checks the location, condition and arrangement of fixtures in his area of responsibility, sees to it that they are clean and properly installed; 3. Cleans and sanitizes public comfort rooms under his area, following standard cleaning procedures; 4. Replenishes guest supplies in public comfort rooms like paper towels, toilet tissues, soap, etc.; 5. Cleans and sanitizes all areas assigned to him following standard cleaning procedures: a. Vacuums/shampoos carpets and upholstered furniture; b. Sweeps/ scrubs/ polishes floors and walls; c. Polishes/ dusts of all fixtures; d. Cleans ceilings, exhaust and glass panels; e. Collects and disposes garbage and litters; f. Changes/ cleans ashtrays; g. Disinfects toilet bowls, urinals, etc. 6. Reports all noted damages and out-of-order facilities in his area of responsibility including defective cleaning equipment, busted bulbs, torn carpets, cracks on walls, defective sinks, and toilet bowls, clogged floor drain, ceiling leaks, defective locks. 7. Conducts fumigation in the absence of a pest control technician; 8. Reports guest complaints to his supervisor as well as suspicious objects or persons; turns-over to him all lost-andfound articles; 9. Prepares daily accomplishment report and submits them to supervisor; 10. Performs other related duties as may be assigned by superior.

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VII.

Powder Girl Basic Function: Responsible for the cleaning, care and maintenance of ladies comfort rooms and locker rooms. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. Maintains a par stock of cleaning supplies and makes requisition to replenish stocks; 2. Regularly cleans ladies comfort rooms and locker rooms following standard cleaning procedures: Disinfects toilet bowls; Scrubs, cleans, wipe dry floor and wall tiles; Polish chrome and metal fixtures like faucets; Fumigate the area as needed; Dispose garbage, wash and dry garbage bins 3. Replenish toilet amenities like toilet paper, soap, paper towels, etc. 4. Checks the condition of fixtures and toilet facilities, checks for leaking faucets, defective tiles, shower, etc. and reports any defect to her supervisor; 5. Retouches the cleaning of comfort rooms from time to time; 6. Regularly checks trash and empties garbage bins from time to time; 7. Assists in other cleaning or housekeeping job when not loaded; 8. Assists in the issuance of linens if available; 9. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior.

VIII. Gardener and Grounds Maintenance Crew Basic Function: Responsible for maintaining the grounds including the plants and landscape. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Performs daily sweeping and cleaning of grounds following standard cleaning procedures; Maintains supplies for plants and grounds maintenance and makes requisition to replenish stocks; Looks after the care of plants, prunes leaves, apply fertilizer, weed out dried leaves, etc.; Maintains the landscape, insures that everything is in order; Performs cultivation of plants through planting and other techniques; scouts for new ornamental plants; 17

6. 7. IX.

May perform side duties like maintenance of cleanliness of the pool area, fountains, faade, gardens, motorpool and other related areas; Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior.

Pest Control Technician Basic Function: attends to the prevention and control of pests through preventive and corrective techniques. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. Searches for areas where pests and insects proliferate and perform the necessary fumigation; 2. Looks for patches or holes and other entry points of insects and takes corrective action; 3. Maintains stocks for pest control and looks after their safekeeping; 4. Checks possible sources and causes of the proliferation of pests and insects, makes report and recommendations to remedy the situation; 5. Performs fumigation in accordance with prescribed procedures; 6. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior.

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IV.
1.

HOUSEKEEPING TERMINOLOGIES

Acute Hazard - something that could cause immediate harm. For example, a chemical that could cause burns on contact with the skin is an acute hazard. Amenity - a service or item offered to guests or placed in guestrooms for convenience and comfort, and that at no extra cost. Area Responsibility Plan- a document that geographically defines physical areas of a facility and assigns responsibility for cleaning among the various departments of a hotel or hospitality organization, usually developed from the division of work document. Bed and Bath Linen - items such as sheets, pillowcases, hand towels, bath towels, washcloths, and cloth bath mats. Bedding - all bed linens such as sheets and pillowcases, and all blankets, shams, dust ruffles, pillow quilts, comforters, coverlets, mattress pads, and bed spreads. Buffing - the act of polishing the surface of a floor with a low-speed (175-350 rpm) floor machine. Burnishing - the act of polishing the surface of a floor with a high-speed (350+ rpm) floor machine to achieve an extremely high gloss (wet look) surface. Chronic Hazard - something that could cause harm over along period; for example, a chemical that could cause cancer or organ damage with repeated use over a long period. Daily Work Assignment Sheet - form that indicates special work tasks required for a given day and are assigned to a specific worker. Damp Mopping - the use of a damp (not wet) mop for spot cleaning of spills and overall cleaning of light dirt from floors. This technique is not intended to remove heavily embedded dirt or old floor finish. Deep Cleaning - intensive or specialized cleaning undertaken in guestrooms or public areas. Often conducted according to a special schedule or on a special project basis. Involves moving heavy furniture, high dusting, turning mattresses, vacuuming draperies and curtains, and other cleaning functions

2. 3.

4. 5.

6. 7.

8.

9. 10.

11.

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not normally performed in the day-to-day servicing of a guestroom. Synonymously with general cleaning. 12. Dilution Ratio - comparison of the amount of water that is, or must be, added to a specific cleaning agent that is recommended for a specific cleaning task. For example, a 20:1 dilution ratio means 20 parts water to a 1 part cleaning agent. 13. Double Locked - an occupied room for which the guest has refused housekeeping service by locking the room from the inside with a dead bolt. Double-locked rooms cannot be accessed by room attendant using a standard pass key. 14. Early Makeup - a room status term indicating that the guest has reserved an early check-in time or has requested his/her room to be cleaned as soon as possible. Emergency Key - a key which opens all guestroom doors, even when they are double-locked. Face Fibers - yarns which form the pile of the carpet. Face Weight - the measure of a carpets pile. Equal to the weight of the face fibers in one square yard of a carpet. Finish - a liquid applied to floors that dries to a protective coating and enhances the appearance of the floor. Finishes come in waxbased or polymer types. Floor Par - the quantity of each type of linen that is required to out-fit all rooms serviced from a particular floor linen closet. Guest Essentials - guest supplies that are essential in guestrooms but that the guest would not normally be expected to use up or remove upon departure. Examples include water glasses, ice buckets, and cloth hangers. Guest Expendables - guest supplies that guests would normally be expected to use up or take away upon departure. Examples include stationery, toilet tissue and soap. Guest Loan Items - guest supplies not normally found in a guestroom but available upon request. Examples include hair dryers, razors, ironing boards, and irons. Guest signs a receipt and specify a time that the item may be picked up by the housekeeping department.

15. 16. 17. 18.

19. 20.

21.

22.

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23.

Guest Request - any special request not normally included in the regular servicing of a guestroom, such as for extra towels, hair dryers, razors roll-away bed or baby crib. Guestroom Key- a key which opens a single guestroom door if it is not double-locked. Guest Supplies - supplies specifically needed because guests are staying in a hotel. Hand Caddy - a portable container for storing, holding, and transporting cleaning supplies. Typically located on the top shelf of the room attendants cart. Hard Floor - floors made from natural stone or clay. These floors are among the most durable of all floor surfaces, but also the least resilient. Types of hard floors include concrete, marble, and terrazzo, ceramic tile, and other natural stone. HAZCOMM Standard (Hazard Communication Standard) - OSHAs regulation requiring all employers to inform employees about possible hazards related to chemicals they use on the job. Housekeepers Report - a report made daily to the front desk by the housekeeping department and signed by a manager indicating the correct status of all guestrooms. Compilation of all results obtained from afternoon room checks conducted on the entire guestroom. Specifies what rooms are ready for occupancy, occupied by guests, and/or on-change, etc. House Rule - any published company-wide rule for which violation can result in immediate discharge. House Setup - the total number of each type of linen that is needed to outfit all guestrooms one time. Also referred to as one par of linen. Housekeeping Status Report - a report prepared by the housekeeping department which indicates the current housekeeping status of each room, based on a physical check. Linen Room - area in a hospitality operation which is often considered the headquarters of the housekeeping department. This is the area where the employee typically reports to work, receives room assignments, room status reports, and keys; assembles and organizes cleaning supplies; and checks out at the end of his/her shift.

24. 25. 26.

27.

28.

29.

30. 31. 32.

33.

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34. 35.

Maintenance Checklist - document used as a guide in the performance of a maintenance inspection. Maintenance Work Request Form - a three-part document used for repairs; is transmitted to the engineering department. Form allows for the control and processing of work and the recording of man-hours and materials involved in the repairs performed. Master Key - a key which opens all guestroom doors which are not double-locked. Mitering - a method for contouring a sheet or blanket to fit the corner of a mattress in a smooth and neat manner. The results are sometimes referred to as square corners or hospital corners. MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) - a form containing information about a chemical that is supplied by the chemicals manufacturer. Occupancy Report - a report prepared each night by a front desk agent which lists rooms occupied that night and indicates those guests expected to check out the following day. OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) - a broad set of rules that projects workers in all trades and professions from a variety of unsafe working conditions. Padding - a layer of material placed under carpet to increase resiliency. It can be made from a number of natural and synthetic materials. pH Scale - a scale that measures the acidity or alkalinity of a substance to the scale, a pH of 7 is neutral, acids have values of less than 7 to 0, and alkalies have values of more than 7 to 14. Pile - the surface of a carpet; consists of fibers or yarns that form raised loops that can be cut or sheared. Pile Distortion - face fiber condition such as twisting, pilling, flaring, or matting caused by heavy traffic or improper cleaning methods. Preventive Maintenance - a systematic approach to maintenance in which situations are identified and corrected on a regular basis to control costs and keep larger problems from occurring. Preventive maintenance consists of inspection, minor corrections, and work order initiation.

36. 37.

38.

39.

40.

41. 42.

43. 44. 45.

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46. 47.

Primary Backing - the part of the carpet to which face fibers are attached and which holds these fibers in place. Resilient Floors - a type of floor that reduces noise and is considered easier to stand or walk on. Types of resilient floors include vinyl, asphalt, rubber, linoleum, and wood. Room Attendants Cart - a lightweight, wheeled vehicle used by room attendants for transporting cleaning supplies, linen, and equipment needed to fulfill a block of cleaning assignments. Room Inspection - a detailed process in which guestrooms are systematically checked for cleanliness and maintenance needs. Room Status Discrepancy - a situation in which the housekeeping departments description of a room status differs from the room status information at the front desk. Room Status Report - a report which allows the housekeeping department to identify the occupancy condition of the propertys rooms. Generated daily through a two-way communication between housekeeping and the front desk. Rotary Floor Machine - floor care equipment that accommodates both brushes and pads to perform such carpet cleaning tasks as dry foaming cleaning, mist pad cleaning, rotary spin pad cleaning, or bonnet and brush shampoos. On hard floors, these machines can be used to buff, burnish, scrub, strip, and refinish. Routine Maintenance activities related to the general upkeep of the property that occur on a regular (daily or weekly) basis, and require relatively minimal training or skills to perform. These activities occur outside of a formal work order system and include such tasks as sweeping carpets, washing floor, cleaning guestrooms, etc. Scheduled Maintenance - activities related to the upkeep of the property that are initiated through a formal work order or similar document. Secondary Backing - the part of a carpet that is laminated to the primary backing to provide additional stability and more secure installation. Spray Buffing - the application of a finish solution while polishing a floors surface to retouch worn spots and to restore a glossy look to the floors surface.

48.

49. 50.

51.

52.

53.

54.

55.

56.

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57.

Turndown Service - a special service provided by the housekeeping department which a room attendant enters the guestroom in the early evening to restock supplies, tidy the room, and turn down the guest bed.

V.

CLEANING SUPPLIES, TOOLS, CHEMICALS AND EQUIPMENT

Good housekeeping requires high standard of cleanliness or the absence of dirt, and its sanitation as well, or the absences of disease-causing organisms like bacteria. All housekeeping tasks need the use of the right tool for the right job. Familiarization on the following cleaning supplies, tools and equipment will help the hospitality provider an utmost service to its guests and therefore attaining its goal and objectives. Cleaning supplies and small cleaning equipment items are part of the nonrecycled inventory in the housekeeping department. These supplies are consumed or used up in the course of routine housekeeping operations. Controlling inventories of all cleaning supplies and ensuring their effective use is an important responsibility of the executive housekeeper. The executive housekeeper must work with all members of the housekeeping department to ensure the correct use of cleaning materials and adherence to cost-control procedures. Cleaning Material: Uses and characteristics when

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Brooms: Soft Broom Stick Broom Push Broom Corn Broom

Mop Buckets

purchasing: The role of a broom is to remove large particles of soil from hard and resilient floors. Good push brooms will have two rows of bristles. The front row will have heavy-duty bristles designed to remove stubborn, large particles of dirt and debris. The second row will have fine, split tip, bristles designed to remove fine particles of dirt and debris. Many good push brooms have a steel brush hood that allows the operator to change worn brushes. Buckets are made out of three basic materials galvanized steel, stainless steel, and structural foamed plastic. Plastic buckets do not rust and they are the most inexpensive to make, but they scratch, and dirt builds up in the scratches, making them permanently grungy. Stainless steel buckets are the most expensive. Mop buckets range in size from 16 quarts up to 50 quarts. The most popular sizes are 26 quarts and 35 quarts. Round buckets track in a straight line when pushing them down hallways while oval buckets tend to wander. Well-designed buckets have threeinch casters and rubber bumpers to protect furniture and walls. The best have no seams. For washing and rinsing a two-bucket system saves valuable labor costs. Mop wringers squeeze in one or two directions, sideways and downward. Downward wringers are better, but more expensive. Wringers are made out of either

Wringers

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steel or plastic. Plastic is less expensive, but it wears out much faster than the metal wringers. Wringers can be purchased by size or in a one-size fits all size. Wet Mops Mop heads can be made of cotton, rayon, or a rayon/cotton blend. Cotton is the best for scrubbing and is the most economical material. Rayon is best for the application of floor finishes. Rayon/ cotton blends are an excellent compromises. Choose mops that are loop-end rather than cut-end. Loop-end mops hold liquids better, are more durable, and do not lint. All quality mops have a tailband that helps the mop to spread evenly and retain its shape. Wash wet mops after each use and do not apply bleach to the mop; bleach will speed the disintegration of the fibers. Wet mops can be purchased in a variety of colors for color-coding purposes. Dust mops are meant to be used daily to remove dust and small particles of soil from the floor. Daily dusting helps to protect the floors finish by removing small abrasive particles that erode the finish. Dust mops range in size from 12-inch to 60-inch widths. Dust mops can be made of cotton or synthetic yarns. Cotton mops are normally treated with chemicals that attract and hold particles. Oil treatments should be avoided because they can strain stone and wood floors. Dust mops should be treated at the end of the job, not the beginning, in order to allow the treated mop to dry.

Dust Mops

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Synthetic yarns do not need to be treated and may be the best alterative in many instances. Disposable mops last for approximately 100,000 square feet. Mop Handles Mop handles can be made from wood, metal, and plastic and come with a variety of features. Quick change clamps are one welcome options. Handles are available in 54-inch, 60-inch, and 63-inch lengths. Used to remove excessive water from the surface and corners. It also speeds up the drying process. Floor squeegees have a much heavier rubber than window variety. Window squeegees come with a number of attractive features, from telescoping handles that enable a worker to clean a third story exterior window without the aid of scaffolding or a ladder, to U-joints that allow a worker to squeegee a window at an angle. Floor machines and burnishes use floor pads, bonnets, and brushes. Pads are made from either natural or synthetic fibers. Floor pads have a universal color code so that users can tell at a glance if they are using the right pad for a particular application. Bonnets are made of yarn and are intended to be used on a floor machine to spray clean carpets. Floor machine brushes are used to shampoo carpets. The fibers are synthetic. Used for stocking cleaning supplies and chemicals so as to make cleaning easier and faster. The housekeepers cart is a most

Squeegees: Floor Squeegee Window Squeegee

Pads, Bonnets and Brushes

Housekeepers Cart

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significant piece of equipment. There should be one cart for each section of rooms. These cart must be large enough to carry all of the supplies that the section housekeeper might readily be expected to use in the workday (repeated trips to the main or satellite linen room for two extra sheets or three more glasses is distracting and will decrease work efficiency.) Since the cart is large and may be heavily loaded, it must be maneuverable and capable of being pushed by some one weighing less than 100 pounds. Quality housekeepers carts are maneuverable with fixed wheels at one end and castered wheels at the opposite end. The solution lies in quality caster and ball-bearing wheels. Carts should have three deep shelves, facilities to handle soiled linen sacks and rubbish sacks that are detachable, storage for a maids vacuum, and a top that is partitioned for small items. There should be a bumper guard that surrounds the cart that will protect the corridor walls and door casings. These bumpers should not leave unsightly marks if they come in contact with walls. Used to eliminate loose dirt and dust particles from carpet surface, upholstered furniture and even hard surfaces. This machine can scrub floors, strip floor finishes, spray buff floors, sand wood floors, polish floors, and shampoo carpets. Machines are available in 17, 18,

Vacuum

Single-Disk Floor Machine

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Burnishers or Ultra-High-Speed Buffers

19, 20 and 21-inch models. These machines will accommodate pads, brushes, and bonnets. When selecting a standard singledish scrubber, do not select too small a scrubber. A large machine will cover an area faster, thus reducing labor costs. A single-dish floor machine will operate between 175 rpm to 350 rpm. Resembles like a single-disk floor machine, but they operate between 350 rpm and 2,500 rpm. They were developed to polish the new harder floor finishes that had been recently introduced into the market. Unlike single-disk floor machines, the pad of a UHS buffer does not rest entirely upon the floor. Only the front part of the pad comes into contact with the floor; the rest of the weight is distributed to the wheels. Many models have caster wheels in the front of the machine to distribute the weight. UHS buffers operate in a straight line, while traditional scrubbers operate from side to side. There are battery and propane models that enable the operator to cover vast areas without the need for troublesome electric cords. Propane models are noisy, they create noxious fumes, and they present a possible fire hazard. Another piece of equipment used by the section housekeeping aide is some sort of conveyor whereby rubbish and other materials may be moved from various sections of the hotel to a disposal area.

Trash-Handling Equipment

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Carpet Sweeper

Carpet Extractor

Scouring Pads

Dusting Cloths

Used to pick-up dirt and particles from the carpet, just press the handle and push towards the dirt to vacuum sweep the carpet. It is designed to dry foam shampoo the carpets. It removes dirt that sticks to or penetrates into the carpet layers. Color coded pads that is used to scrub (green) and clean painted surfaces, mirrors, marbles, and porcelain (white). For dusting wooden and painted parts of the area. Used for drying bathroom walls and floor tiles after they are cleaned. For polishing metal surfaces like bathroom fixtures. For brushing away dusts from rough surfaces such as rattan, wickerwork, etc. Also used for cleaning tiles. For cleaning toilet bowls. For picking up dirt and cigarette buffs on ashtrays. Used to underline garbage containers so that wet garbage does not penetrate into the corners or surfaces, a situation that causes odor and proliferation of bacteria. For cleaning fine surfaces. Used with mops for cleaning floors, walls and other parts of the building. To polish wood surfaces, leather and imitation leather surfaces.

Cleaning Towel

Polishing Cloths

Hand Brushes

Toilet Bowl Brush Tongs

Trash Bags

Sponges Buckets

Wood Polish/ Furniture Cleaners and Polishes

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Insecticides

Normally wax or oil-based products that contain antistatic compounds. The best polishes contain lemon oil, which serves to replenish the moisture that is lost from the wood. For fumigation to eliminate insects/pests. For polishing all glass surfaces such as mirrors, windows, etc. Used to remove foul odor in guestrooms, comfort rooms or any area with foul odor. For stain or spot removal on carpets. Used to disinfect toilet bowls, urinals, sink, and other areas that are most vulnerable to bacterial contamination. For polishing brush copper and metal surfaces. Used to remove lacquer or paint from hard surfaces. To be used only for removing cement or plastic remains from floors. This is not advisable for toilet bowls since it is very strong and it can damage the tiles. Dilution will depend on the thickness of cement or plastic remains. Formulated to break up, loosen and strip off tough old waxes. Formulated to remove grease, oil, dirt, carbon, ink, mildews, soils,

Methylated Spirit

Deodorizers / Air Freshener

Carpet Stain Remover

Disinfectant

Metal Cleaners and Polishes Lacquer or Paint Thinner Muriatic Acid

Wax Stripper

Degreaser

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and waxes. Emulsion Wax A buffable wax used for resilient floors like vinyl, linoleum, and rubber tile and for concrete floors and marble. A non-buffable wax that is highly recommended for wooden floors. A kerosene base wax used for wooden floors. For polishing stone floors, wood and resilient floors. To expedite draining of clogs. Used to remove soil from a surface through a chemical action. A multi-purpose agent designed for several different cleaning tasks depending upon the dilution ratio applied. Normally contain a detergent combined with bleach and an abrasive (usually silica, a quartz dust that can scratch glass). Used to clean surfaces that are badly soiled by grease, tar, or oil. Solvents are made from pine oils, kerosene, and alcohols. Alkalies in cleaning agents boost the cleaning ability of detergents. They also have disinfecting powers. Alkalies in all-purpose cleaners typically have a pH between 8 and 9.5. Used to remove mineral deposits

Polymer Sealer

Solvent Wax Paste Wax

Drain Cleaners Detergents

All-Purpose Cleaners

Abrasive Cleaners

Solvent Cleaners

Alkalies

Delimers

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that can dull, scale, and/or discolor surfaces.

VI.
1. Cleanliness

STANDARDS OF IDEAL HOUSEKEEPING

All areas are immaculately clean, corner-to-corner, top to bottom, including surfaces. Closets, cabinets and storage areas are also kept clean. Furnitures and fixtures are properly dusted; doorknobs and metal fixtures are polished with the right metal polishing chemical. Windows and glass panels are dusted and polished. Floors are vacuumed, polished or shampooed when necessary. Grounds are free of liters and dirt.

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2. Orderliness Facilities and fixtures are properly arranged and installed in appropriate location. Room amenities are properly installed in appropriate location. Linens are neatly folded. Beds are made up properly, linen are mitred and wrinkle free.

3. Sanitation The whole area is free from all sources of bacterial contamination such as undisposed garbage and left-over, stagnant water, etc.; Wet garbage is properly underlined with plastic, covered and disposed regularly; All items for personal use of guest and which come in contact with the body like linen, cutleries, glasses, etc. are sanitized with sanitizing detergents to protect guests from possible bacterial contamination; Glasses and water jug that are installed in guestrooms are covered; Area is protected from pest infestation, regularly fumigated to eliminate pests.

4. Guests Comfort Rooms are properly ventilated and lighted; Guests are not disturbed by noise and other forms of distractions; There are sufficient amenities for the comfort of guests like linen, toiletries, drinking glass, etc.

5. Eye Appeal Ambiance is soothing to the eyes, not dim or dull; Suitable interior design is provided for; there is proper blending of colors; No eyesore can be found in guest-contact areas; Wall decors and TV sets are posted at eye level.

6. Safety The rooms, function rooms and public areas are free from any safety hazards like open electrical outlet, dangling wires, damaged tiles, slippery floors, broken chairs, etc.; Building is provided with all required safety facilities like ventilated fire exits, emergency alarm, fire extinguishers/hoses; luminous safety signs, etc. safety standards prescribed for building maintenance by the government are strictly enforced;

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Safety instructions during emergencies are available in all rooms; The hotel is prepared for any emergency, has a well organized safety or emergency procedures and emergency brigade; All staff are trained on emergency procedures, including the use of safety equipment; Trained roving guards are available to check movements in guestrooms and to insure the protection of guests.

7. Materials Control and Preventive Maintenance There is a designated budget for supplies and materials; Consumption of supplies is always monitored and excessive consumption is determined and reported; Par stock requirements are always maintained; regular requisitions are made; All tools and equipment are stored safely in appropriate storage compartments right after use; Chemicals are diluted properly and used sparingly; Supplies and materials are consumed within the limits of the budget; All appliances and equipment are regularly checked for any damage and maintained in safe working condition to avoid accidents; Losses, damages and equipment breakdown are properly reported, documented and accounted for, given appropriate action; There is regular inventory of supplies and materials; Effective control measures are designed and enforced to prevent losses and pilferages; Regular cleaning and check-up of equipment is undertaken; Staffs are trained on the proper use and maintenance of equipment.

8. Guest Relations Guest requests and concerns are given prompt and proper attention; Staff exhibit a warm and pleasant disposition in dealing with guests; Tact and diplomacy is observed in dealing with complaints and difficult situations; Customer feedback is solicited to determine guests satisfaction; Customer feedback and concerns are logged down and discussed for corrective action during meetings; Staff expresses warm appreciation and gratitude for guest patronage; Customer needs and concerns are anticipated and attended to immediately; Inquiries of guests are given accurate and appropriate response; Staff do out of their way to render extra service to guests; Guests with special problems like the sick, intoxicated pones, etc, are given the necessary assistance and support by the Housekeeping staff. 35

Cleaning Standards: Sweeping All swept floors do not have dust streaks nor does show mark where dirt was picked up. No dirt left on corners, behind doors, under carpets or furnitures.

Mopping

Water is used sparingly. Cleaning solutions are rinsed quickly and the floor is dried at once.

Floor Cleaning

Swept or vacuumed, carpet is shampooed as necessary. Cemented or vinyl floor is scrubbed or polished. Floors are free of obstructions. All floors, after thorough stripping/ scrubbing are applied with a thin, smooth and even finish.

Floor Finishing Floor finishes are not allowed to build up in corners, baseboards, or underneath furniture. Stripping and removal of old floor finish is done whenever necessary to avoid yellowing and build-up in corners, baseboards, or under furniture.

Wall Washing Streaks and lap marks are not visible. Corners and areas difficult to reach are cleaned with soft cloth to remove smudges. Walls are spot free. Water does not run on floors and fixtures. Vacuuming

All carpeted areas/ upholsteries are kept clean, free of dust. All spots are removed upon discovery.

Dusting

All surfaces are dust-free. Corners are vacuumed.

Window Cleaning

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Window glasses do not have smudges or watermarks. Window frames and channels are free of dust.

Cleaning Glass Panels, Mirrors

Thoroughly cleaned, no visible streaks, scratches or spots.

Waste Disposal, Garbage Containers


Emptied of trash, garbage, and dirt; disposed daily. Cleaned as often as necessary. Containers are underlined with plastic.

Cleaning of Ashtrays

Emptied of soil and cigarette butts, washed and wiped dry.

Cleaning of Drinking Fountain


Kept clean and sanitary. Fixtures are wiped dry to avoid retention of water that causes watermarks.

Bathroom and Washroom Cleaning


Toilet bowls, urinals are sanitized with sanitizing chemicals. Bowls are clean inside and out. Refuse is totally removed. Bathroom walls are properly scrubbed, free of watermarks and spots, wiped dry. No soap film is allowed to remain on fixtures. Floor is mopped, sanitized and dried. There is no sign of marks or streaks on walls, fixtures, doors, door handles and other surfaces. All metal fixtures and hardwares are cleaned and polished with metal polish. Bathroom mirror is well polished and wiped dry, no marks. Sinks are clean and sanitized with sanitizing chemical; free of foul odor. Bathroom supplies are replenished and installed according to standard arrangement. Shower curtains are properly brushed and wiped dry.

Dusting/ Cleaning of Furnitures and Fixtures


Thoroughly dusted, all surfaces are free of dirt and spots. Appliances are properly arranged and installed in their appropriate location. Upholstered chairs are shampooed or vacuumed. Furnitures have no damages or defects.

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Ceiling Cleaning

Ceiling is free of cobwebs and dirt. Ceiling fan and fluorescent are thoroughly dusted.

Grounds Maintenance

All walkways, parking spaces, planted areas are clean, free of littered objects. Cemented/concrete pavements are free from spots, scrubbed regularly and dust free. Plants are watered regularly, pruned, trimmed periodically and as necessary. Soil is regularly cultivated, fertilized periodically, planted to prevent eroding. Plant pests are eradicated; fumigation is conducted on regular schedule or upon detection of presence of pests in the area. Pool flooring is cleaned, scrubbed as scheduled and whenever necessary to prevent the growth of algae. Plants (in boxes) are maintained and replaced as needed.

VII. SAFETY AND SECURITY


Safety and security are two responsibilities of hotel managers. Guests expect to sleep, meet, dine, and entertain in a facility that is safe and secure and are entitled to reasonable care under law. Housekeeping personnel can help meet this guest expectation and, in some cases, make the difference in the propertys safety and security system. Safety

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A term that pertains to discussing disaster preparedness, fire prevention and protection, protection devices, and conditions that provide for freedom from injury and damage to property. The two hotel departments most likely to have the largest number of accidents and injuries are maintenance and housekeeping. One basis for this frequency is the sheer labor-intensity of these two departments. In many operations, housekeeping and maintenance employ more people than any other department. Another reason lies in the fact that working in housekeeping or maintenance involves physical activities and equipment use both of which increase the risks of accident and injury. To reduce safety risks, the executive housekeeper must be aware of potential safety hazards and develop procedures to prevent accidents. Safety should be a top priority. Ongoing safety training programs help ensures that safe conditions are maintained in all work areas. To develop programs, management must be aware of the laws that regulate the work environment and more specifically, how those laws affect housekeeping personnel. Employee Morale and Management Concerns Unsafe working conditions have a negative effect on employee morale. If employees are preoccupied with hazardous conditions in the work place, they will not be able to perform the best of their ability. For most part, it is difficult to motivate employees until unsafe conditions are corrected. One of managements top concerns should be for the health and welfare of employees. Employees are one of the most important assets a hotel has. If managers want employees to provide quality service, they must treat employees fairly and with respect. Respect for an employees right to work in a safe and hazard free environment is a good place to begin. Potentially Hazardous Conditions Accidents and injuries do not have to occur. By following three simple rules, employees can contribute to a safe, accident-free work environment:

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Take adequate time Correct unsafe conditions immediately Do it safely the first time

Lifting: Housekeeping tasks often involve lifting heavy objects. Employees may also be required to move furniture in order to complete a thorough cleaning task. Incorrectly lifting heavy objects such as bags, boxes, and containers may result in strained or pulled muscles and back injury. In turn, these injuries can result in loss of work and long-term pain and suffering. Employees can also incur cuts and scratches when lifting items such as trash or dirty linens which contain pointy objects or broken glasses. In all instances, employees should know what conditions to look for and the special precautions to take. Some guidelines for safe moving and lifting:

Inspect the object before lifting. Do not lift any item that you cannot get your arms around or that you cannot see over when carrying. Get help if it is too heavy. Look for any protrusions, especially when lifting trash or bundles of linen. Quite often, these items contain pointy objects or broken glass. Exercise special care to avoid injury. When lifting, place one foot near the object and the other slightly back and apart. Keep well balanced. Keep the back and head of your body straight. Because the back muscles are generally weaker than the leg muscles, do not use the back muscle to lift the object. Bend slightly at the knees and hips but do not stoop. Use both hands and grasp the objects using the entire hand. Lift with the leg muscles. Keep the object close to the body. Avoid twisting your body. When setting an object down, do not use your back muscles. Use the leg muscles and follow the procedures used to lift objects. When tucking in sheets, picking up a laundry or cleaning a tub, bend with the knee and not on the back, nor on the waist to prevent back injury. Use your body weight in pushing and pulling the vacuum, not just your arms and shoulder. To avoid slipping and tripping, hold the cord and coil as you go. Wear the right shoes. Working shoes should be slip resistant, with a closed toe and fit to give you the best comfort. Watch where you are going to prevent slips and fall. Use door stopper and not linens or objects that could cause a slip or fall. Turn on lights and look all sides before entering any room. There may be spills or broken glasses on the floor that need to be cleared.

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If a broken glass is found, sweep the floor and place the glass in a container separate from the trash. To push the room attendants cart easily, check if it has sticking wheels. Without it, it will be harder to push and could injure the user. Remove sticking thread on the wheels. Be careful with loose screw or sharp edges as they could catch on ones clothing and cause cuts. When pushing the cart, lean forward into the cart, rely on ones legs and feel not unto ones back or across the body. Keep the cart close, use feet and legs and not arms and shoulders. In case a cart falls down, do not try to stop or stand it up by alone. It is heavier than you think and can cause accidents. Ask for help. Do not overload laundry cart to make it easier to pull. When reaching for something, especially in the tub, never stand on the edge of a toilet bowl. You might loose your balance and fall.

Ladders: Ladders can be used when cleaning areas on or near the ceiling or for such tasks as changing light bulbs. When selecting a ladder for a particular cleaning job, its condition, height and footing should be inspected. Check the ladder for stability and examine crosspieces for sturdiness. If the ladder is broken or defective, do not use it. Rather, tag the ladder, place it out of service, and report it to the appropriate housekeeping supervisor or the maintenance department An aluminum or metal ladder should never be used when working near or on electrical equipment. Ladders with rubber footings should be used on tile floors or in kitchen areas to prevent slipping. In all instances, the floor should be dry and clean. A ladder must be high enough so that an attendant can stand on it and do the job without overreaching. Never stand on the top step of a ladder. If the area cannot be reached while standing on the step below the top step, the ladder is too short for he job. Ladders should be placed so footing is at least one fourth of the ladder length away from the wall. Never place a ladder against window or an uneven surface. Before climbing, test the ladder for stability; it should be well balanced and secure against the wall and floor. Always be sure to face a ladder when climbing and have a clean and dry hands and feet. Do not hold any items or tools that may prevent the use of one or both hands. Mark the area underneath the ladder with caution signs so that guests or employees do not walk under the ladder. Machinery: Employees should be authorized and trained in the use of machinery and equipment before operating such devices. Most equipment, machineries, and power tools come with instructions.

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Some employees may need additional training and supervised practice before operating equipment and machinery on the job by themselves. Many power tools and other machineries are equipped with protective guards or shields. These safety guards should never be removed. Employees may also be required to wear protective eye goggles or gloves. All protective gear should be worn per instructions. Equipment and machineries should never be left unattended while in use. When not in use, all tools and equipment should be turned off and stored in the proper place. Never use a piece of equipment or machinery that is not operating correctly. Contact the appropriate supervisor or the maintenance department to have it repaired as soon as possible. Electrical Equipment: Extra care must be taken when operating electrical equipment. Even one of the most common housekeeping appliances like a vacuum cleaner can be harmful or deadly if operated improperly or in unsafe conditions. An employee should never operate electrical equipment when standing in water or when hands or clothing are wet. It is also unsafe to operate electrical equipment near flammable liquids, chemicals, or vapors. Sparks from electrical equipment could start a fire. Equipment that sparks, smokes, or flames should be turned off immediately. If it is possible and safe to do so, the equipment should be unplugged. In no instance should an attendant attempt to restart the equipment. The malfunction should be reported to the appropriate housekeeping supervisor or the maintenance department. Equipment wires and connections should be checked periodically. Equipment with loose connections or exposed wires should not be used. An appliance should never be unplugged by pulling or yanking the cord. This will loosen the connection between the cord and the plug and cause sparks and shorts. Equipments should be unplugged by grasping the plug and pulling it gently away from the outlet. When using electrical equipment, the cord should be kept out of traffic areas such as the center of hallways or cross doorways. This is not always possible, particularly with such tasks as vacuuming corridors. In such situations, keep the cord close to the wall and post caution signs in the work area. If the appliance will be stationary and in use for a lengthy period, tape the cord to the floor and place caution signs over the taped cord. Extension cords are sometimes required particularly when an electric outlet is not located near the work areas. Extension cords should be inspected for exposed wire before use just like any other electrical cord. There are many types of extension cords; not all are acceptable for use in a hospitality operation. The local fire department can pinpoint which types of cords meet the local fire codes and regulations.

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When cleaning guestrooms, room attendants should check electric lamps, appliances, and other fixtures for frayed wires, loose connections and loose plugs. Exposed electrical wire may result in shock, injury, or even death when touched. Outlet and switch covers should be checked to ensure that they are covered properly and not cracked or broken. If any of these conditions are found, the room attendant should not attempt to fix them, rather, potential problems should be reported to the appropriate housekeeping supervisor or to the maintenance. Chemicals: Many housekeeping employees are exposed to dangerous chemicals in their daily work routines. These chemicals are powerful cleaners, and, when used properly with proper protective gear, are relatively harmless. However, when used improperly, these same helpful chemicals can cause nausea, vomiting, skin rashes, cancer, blindness, and even death. Chemicals are used to clean all areas of a lodging property including bathrooms, kitchens and floors. Potentially hazardous chemicals are also used to kill insects and rodents. Some housekeeping situations require employees to handle toxic substances to unstop clogs in toilets and other plumbing fixtures. Often the use of such hazardous and toxic chemicals cannot be avoided. Continual training in chemical safety is necessary for two reasons: First, misused chemicals can cause serious injury in a short period. Second, new employees especially in properties with high employee turnover need to be trained immediately. Handling Chemicals Safely:

Read the labels and the material safety data sheet. Wear personal protective equipment like goggles and hand gloves for protection from spills and splashes. To use the chemical correctly, follow the direction of the label. Use only one chemical for its intended purpose. Be sure the correct chemical goes in a properly labeled container when refilling spray bottles. Cap of bottles/ containers should be tight and the broken nozzles must be replaced to prevent drips. Never mix chemicals the result can be potentially deadly like fumes created by mixing bleach with ammonia. Use the right amount of chemicals. Excessive amount may damage surfaces. If a chemical spills, block the surface. A minor spill can be cleaned up. If not sure of how to clean up a spill, ask the supervisor.

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If a chemical spill blocks your skin, rinse as directed in the material safety data sheet If your eyes are exposed and contaminated by a spill, rinse it with a clean water and get immediate medical assistance. Handle potentially contaminated items as little as possible. Use proper container for disposal of items. Clean contaminated areas. Thoroughly wash hands after using chemicals.

Security Security refers to the freedom from fear, anxiety, and doubt involving ourselves, as well as to the protection and defense against the loss or theft of guest, employee, and company property and prevention of other emergencies. Security Committees: Security committee should consist of key management personnel including departmental heads. Supervisors and selected hourly employees can also contribute important security information and add to the committees effectiveness. Committee Responsibilities:

Development of security handbook and the design of training and awareness programs. Monitoring, analyzing, and suggesting solutions for returning security problems. Maintaining records on such incidents as theft, vandalism, and on-site violence. Conducting spot security audits and property inspections. Investigating security incidents. Maintain open lines of communication with the local police department.

Theft: Guest theft: most hotels assume that guests will take items such as matches, pens, shampoo, ashtrays, and sewing kit. For most part, these items are provided for the guests convenience and are actually a form of advertising used by the hotel. However, towels, bathrobes, trash bins, and pictures are not part of the marketing strategy and are not meant to be taken by guests. When these items turn up missing, it can add up to a large expense for a hospitality operation.

To reduce the theft of these items, some properties keep count of the number of amenities inside the room. When the guest request for additional item, it is noted at the

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front desk. The room attendant, too, notes how many items are in the room, when cleaning the next day. The room attendants ability to spot missing item may allow the hotel time to charge the guest for items that have been taken. Another strategy, some hotels place items such as towels, bathrobes, and leather stationery folders and the like are on sale in their gift shops. This may reduce the likelihood of theft since guests have the option of purchasing these items. Also, having these items on sale helps set a standard price that can be levied against guests for a missing item. Other helpful ideas to reduce guest theft:

Use as few monogrammed items as possible. Keep storage rooms closed and locked Affix or bolt guestroom items and fixtures to appropriate surfaces. Secure windows.

Employee theft: it is up to the management to set the standards for reducing employee theft and to act as a good example. A manager who takes hotel steaks home to barbeque will not be effective when asking employees not to steal food, linen, and other hotel property. Management should also detail explicit rules and regulations concerning employee theft. The employee handbook should spell out the consequences of stealing hotel property. Managers should screen applicants before making a job offer. A through background check should be conducted, including a check for any criminal convictions. Before asking any questions or making inquiries, check local laws to ensure that the selected screening techniques are not illegal or prohibited. Good inventory control procedures can also help control theft. Detailed records that note any unusual or unexplained fluctuations should be kept of all items in stock. It is a good practice to conduct a monthly inventory of all housekeeping supplies including toilet paper, amenities, and linens. If the items in storage do not match the usage rate, or if too little stock is on the shelves, it may be an indication of employee theft. Employees should be aware of the results of monthly inventories especially when shortages are discovered. In addition to keeping records of items in stock, records should be kept of stolen or missing items- including those from guestrooms. The record should include the name of the room attendant and any other hotel employees who had access to the room. Keep all storeroom doors locked. Storerooms should be equipped with automatic closing and locking devices. Locks on storerooms should be changed periodically to reduce the opportunity of theft. Management should designate employee entrances and exits. These entrances should be well-lighted, adequately secured, and provided with round-the-clock security.

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Employee entrance may include a security staff office which monitors arriving and departing employees. Employees should know what items they may bring onto or remove from the property. Management may establish a claim-checking system for bringing items onto the premises and a parcel-pass system for taking items off the premises. If an employee has permission to remove hotel property, he/she should be issued a signed permit from the supervisor or an appropriate manager before doing so. Restricting employee parking to a carefully selected area can also help control losses. Keeping the area well-lighted reduces the temptation to steal and also makes the lot safer for employees who leave work after dark. The employee parking area should not be so close to the building that it allows employees to easily and quickly transfer stolen property to their cars. If the hotel is large or has a very high turnover rate, employee are less likely to know their fellow workers. In such cases, identification badges may be required to prevent strangers who pose as employees to gain admittance to the property. Bomb Treats: Housekeeping procedures for handling bomb treats should be part of the propertys security manual. Housekeepings role usually consists of helping in the search for any suspicious objects that could be bombs. Where and how the search is conducted will depend on the way the property received the bomb threat. Information from the caller or letter may give clues on where personnel should search and on what type of bomb or object to look for. Searches often include stairways, closets, ashtrays, trash containers, elevators, exit areas, and window sills. It may be helpful to take a flashlight to inspect areas with little light. Search team employees look for objects that are normally not found in an area. Housekeeping personnel have an advantage since their daily routines promote familiarity with many hotel areas. If a suspicious looking object is found, it should not be touched or moved; notify the person in charge of the search team or an appropriate supervisor immediately. Notification is best done face-to-face or over the telephone. Avoid using radios, walkie- talkies, or beepers. Some bomb devices are sensitive to these sound waves and may go off. If nothing is found after completing the search, all teams should regroup in a designated area. An all-clear sign should be given after all search procedures have been

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performed and management is satisfied that the guests, employees, and property are not under by real threat. Quite often, guests are not notified when bomb threats are received. This is because many bomb threats are just that threats. However, bomb threat emergency procedures should still be followed just in case it is a real emergency. Generally, these procedures do not include notifying guests until a search is completed. If a guest does ask an employee what he/she is doing during a search, the employee should respond in a way that does not arouse unnecessary suspicion or fear. The safety and security manual should include evacuation plans in case a bomb should actually be found or explode on the premises. It should also include provisions for emergency medical services. In these instances, housekeeping employees should follow procedures to assist in rescue efforts. The local police should be notified of all bomb threats. If police respond to such calls, the hotel should follow the directions laid out by police personnel. Fires: Fires are grouped into four classifications based on the different products of combustion. Many hotel fires are fueled by a combination of combustibles. It is very likely that a fire started by Class A combustibles could grow to include Class B and C materials. Fires start for many reasons. Some fires may be caused by an accident or mechanical malfunction. Others may be the result of arson. Mission: To save lives and property

Fire Behavior:
Burning, also called combustion, is a simple chemical reaction. It is described as a rapid, persistent chemical change that releases heat and light and is accompanied by flame, especially the exothermic oxidation of a combustible substance.

Accident Prevention: An accident can be defined as the result of a series of events and conditions that lead to an unsafe situation resulting in injury and/or property damage. Accident chain, a series of events and conditions that can lead to an accident.

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Classifications:

Environment Human factors Equipment Event Injury

Environment:
Included here are physical surroundings such as weather, surface conditions, access,

lighting, and physical barriers. Human Factors:


This includes human and social behaviors, training (lack of training), fatigue,

fitness, and attitudes. Equipment:


Included here are apparatus, maintenance, and serviceability, proper application,

and equipment limitations. Event:


The event is the intersection of the foregoing components. Something or someone

had to bring those components together in such a way to create the unsafe situation. Injury:
Deals with the actual injury (or property damage) associated with the accident. A

near miss or close call is an accident without injury or physical damage. Fire Safety Rules and Principles:

When you discover a fire, call out your discovery, sound the fire alarm and summon help. Never pass the fire to get an extinguisher. A dead-end passageway could trap you. If you must enter a room to combat the fire, keep an escape path open. Never let the fire to get between you and the door. If you enter a room and your attack with a portable extinguisher fails, get out immediately. Close the door to confine the fire. Your knowledge of the situation will aid those responding. Fight the fire with the wind or the wind coming from your back.

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Never use and direct a solid stream of water on liquid fire as it will cause splashes and make the fire more difficult to handle. Never use foam and water on electrical fire, as this will cause electrocution. When entering an enclosed space, see to it that the space is gas-free and with sufficient oxygen. Regular training and drills are very necessary so that each member learns his duties and the order in which they must perform. To be successful in firefighting, adequate preparation is very much required. Well-planned actions for every emergency will surely achieve firefighting operations safely, efficiently and effectively. One of the priorities that should be given due attention is the escape route. Be curious enough to know all the shortest possible ways to escape from a fire zone to a safe place in order not to be trapped. Smoke is a visible product of fire that aids to the problem of breathing. Rooms filled with thick smoke, there will be great possibility of suffocation because oxygen content of the room will be reduced to a minimum.

Safe Practices:
Smoke only at the designated area. Raise the fire alarm promptly upon discovery of a fire. Know how to extinguish fire correctly with the use of portable extinguishers and

other methods. Know how to recognize fire hazards and to take the necessary steps to prevent fire. Fire Triangle and Tetrahedron:

The combustion process was once depicted as a triangle with three sides. Each side represented as essential ingredient for fire:

Heat Fuel Oxygen

As researched, it became evident that a fourth ingredient was necessary. That fourth element was the actual chemical combustion. Thus the name fire tetrahedron

The Burning Process:


The process of burning occurs in clearly defined stages:

Ignition Growth Fully developed Decay

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Growth Stage:
From the point of ignition, fire begins to grow. Starting out as a spark or a small flame, other combustibles heat up, liberate

flammable gases, and ignite, spreading the chain reaction to other flammables and resulting in an increase in size. Several factors in the growth of fire:

Oxygen supply the amount of oxygen will have a direct effect on the speed of growth and the size of the fire. Fuel size of the fire will naturally depend on the amount of fuel available to burn. Container size in a structure, the container would be the surrounding walls and obstructions. A large container would permit dissipation of heat and slow the growth of fire. Insulation heat that is radiated back into unburned areas will accelerate growth.

Fully Developed Stage:


This stage is recognized as the point in which all contents within the perimeter of

the fires boundaries are burning. Decay Stage:


When the point at which all fuel has been consumed is reached, the fire will begin

to diminish in size.
Ultimately, the fire will extinguish itself when the fuel supply is exhausted.

Modes of Heat Transfer:


Heat is a by-product of combustion that is of significant importance to the fire

fighter.
The three modes by which heat transfers its energy from one substance to another

are through: Conduction Convection Radiation Conduction:


When a hot object transfer its heat, conduction has taken place. The transfer could be to another object or to another portion of the same object.

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Convection:
Air that is hotter than its surroundings rises, air that is cooler than its surroundings

sinks. Radiation:

When combustion occurs, light is produced. Light travels by way of light waves. These light waves range from ultraviolet to infrared. Fire produces infrared light waves, and with enough concentration, can permit fire to jump from the source to a distant object, heat it up again, and if intense enough, cause it to ignite.

Classes of Fire:

Class A type made up of ordinary combustibles such as cellulose, rubber, or plastic. Combustibles such as paper, wood, cloth, rubber and other organic solids including petro-chemical solids (plastics) make up this class. Class B type are fueled by liquids, gases, or grease-type fuels. Oil, gasoline, alcohol, and other liquids are more common types found in this class of fuel. Class C type are basically fueled by electricity. In this case, the electricity is actually the heat source that propagates the fire and often communicates to other fuels of the class A or B type to sustain the burning process. Class D type a less common fire type, is fueled by metals. A particular class of heavy metals, which can be identified on the periodic table of the elements and found mostly in the alkali metal group, will burn. Most metals in the group are magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, and potassium, thorium, plutonium, hafnium, lithium, zinc, uranium, and calcium.

Fire Extinguishment:

Class A fire, is extinguished by cooling the fire. The application of water cools the fire by absorbing as water is converted to steam. When enough of the heat is removed, the temperature of the fire is lowered below the ignition temperature of the substance and thereby collapses the fire pyramid. Class B fires, the application of smothering agent is used to prevent oxygen from getting to the fuel and propagating the chain reaction of fire by removing the oxygen leg of the fire pyramid. In this case, the fire collapses due to a lack of oxygen.

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Class C fires, fueled by electricity, is overcome by removal of the flow of electric current. In this case, the removal of fuel, electricity, is the action taken to break down the fire pyramid and put the fire out. Class D fires, combustible heavy metals differ somewhat in their reactions under fire. In some cases, the mere presence of water will cause a violent reaction, releasing heat and brilliant light. In other cases, the mere presence of air will cause the reaction. Each metals characteristics should be evaluated on its own merits.

Fire extinguisher classification symbols:

Classes of fire should be identified primarily to determine the type of fire extinguisher that would be used. Fire extinguisher classification symbols are displayed by shape, color and letter for flexibility of the user for better recognition, identification and utilization. Class A fire extinguishers will put out fires in ordinary combustibles such as wood and paper. The numerical rating for this class of fire extinguishers refer to the amount of water the fire extinguisher holds and the amount of fire it will extinguish. Class B fire extinguishers should be used on fires involving flammable liquids such as grease, gasoline, oil, etc. The numerical rating for this class of fire extinguisher states the approximate number of square feet of a flammable liquid fire that a nonexpert person can expect to extinguish. Class C fire extinguishers are suitable for use on electrically energized fires. This class of fire extinguishers does not have a numerical rating. The presence of the letter C indicates that the extinguishing agent is non-conductive. Class D fire extinguishers are designed for use on flammable metals and are often specific for the type of metal in question. There is no picture designator for Class D fire extinguishers. These extinguishers generally have no rating nor are they given a multi-purpose rating for use on other types of fires.

How to use fire extinguishers? P ull the pin This unlocks the operating lever and allows you to discharge the extinguisher. A im the base of the flame Point the extinguisher nozzle of hose at the base of the flame S queeze the lever This discharge the extinguishing agent. Releasing the lever will stop the discharge

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S weep from side to side Moving carefully toward the fire keep the extinguisher aimed at the base of the flame and sweep back and forth until the flames appear to be out. Personal Protective Equipment:

Helmet Goggles SCBA (Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus) Coat and pants Boots Hood Gloves Radio Flashlight PASS Device (Personal Alert Safety System) Pocket tools

Four Main Types of Automatic Fire Detectors:

Smoke detectors all fire emits smoke and gases, often long before open flames are visible. The smoke detector can therefore be activated before the actual outbreak of a fire. Flame detectors the flame detector is activated when it is hit by the varying infrared or ultraviolet rays from the flames. Heat detectors (thermal contact) is, as the name implies, affected by heat. The alarm is usually activated when the room temperature rises to about 70oC. Differential detectors is activated by an abnormally rapid rise in room temperature, e.g. 3oC in 20 seconds.

Key Control Proper key control procedures are important for guest security and privacy. Key control also protects the property by reducing the possibility of guest and property theft. Housekeeping is primarily concerned with four categories of keys:

Emergency key Master key Storeroom key Guestroom key

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Emergency keys open all doors in the property even those that guests have double locked. These keys should be kept in a secure place. Some properties also keep an emergency key off the premises. Distribution and use should occur only in emergency situations such as a fire or when a guest or employee is locked in a room and needs immediate assistance. Most housekeeping personnel do not use emergency keys on a dayto-day basis.

Master key also open more than one guestroom. Master keys are separated into three levels of access. The highest level is the grand master. This key opens every hotel room and, many times, all housekeeping storage rooms. If the guest has turned the dead bolt, master keys will not open the door. Master keys can be used in emergency situations when it is vital for an employee to enter some or all areas of a hotel. Master keys are kept at the front desk for such emergency purposes.

The next level of master key is the section master. This type of master key opens rooms in one area of a hotel. An inspector may be issued more that one key of this type because he/she may be required to inspect the work of more than one room attendant. The lowest level of master key is the floor key. Generally, a room attendant is given this key to open the rooms he/she is assigned to clean. If the employee has rooms to clean on more than one floor or area, he/she may need more than one floor key. Floor keys typically open the storeroom for that floor unless the room is specially keyed or is accessed by another master key. Guestroom key are those keys distributed to guests. This type of key opens a single guestroom and, in some cases, other locked areas such as the pool. Guestroom keys are stored at the front desk when not in use.

Key Control Procedures: A log can be used to monitor the distribution of master keys. This log should include the date, time and the name of the person who signed for a particular key. Every time an employee receives or returns a master key, he/she should be required to initial or sign the log. The person issuing the key should also initial or sign the log for each master key transaction. In large properties, the linen room attendant distributes and secures the keys for the room attendants. At smaller properties, the executive housekeeper or the front desk may assume this function. Employees issued keys should keep the keys on their person at all times. Key belts, wrist bands, or neck chains are recommended devices for keeping track of master keys. Master keys should never be left on top of a housekeeping cart, in a guestroom or in an unsecured area. An employee should never loan the key to a guest or to another employee. The room attendant who signed for the master key is the employee who is responsible for it and should never leave the property.

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Finally, a room attendant should never use a master key to open a room for a guest. If a guest asks an employee to unlock a room, the employee should politely explain the hotels policy and direct the guest to the front desk. Room attendants are also responsible for retrieving guestroom keys if the guest leaves the key in the room. Many hotels provide key lock boxes on the room attendants cart to store guestroom keys. If no lock box is available, room keys should be kept in a secured area not on top of the cart until returned to the front desk. If a room attendant finds a room key in the hallway or public area, the front desk should be notified immediately. The key should be returned to the front desk or placed in the lock box. Lost and Found: Many times, the housekeeping department handles the lost and found function. Lost and found items should be stored in an area that is secure and has limited access. One employee per shift should be assigned to handle the lost and found as part of his/her job. In large hotels, the linen room clerk may handle the lost and found procedures. In smaller properties, the task may be delegated to the executive housekeeper or front desk personnel. When an employee finds an item left behind by a guest, he/ she should immediately turn it over to the lost and found. In no instance should lost and found items be left in an unsecured spot such as on top of a room attendants cart. Items should be tagged, logged, and secured after they have been turned over to the lost and found. Tags may be numbered or used to identify the item. A log should be used to record the date, time, where the item was found, and by whom. The log should also have space to record if and when the item was recovered by it owner. All lost ad found property should be kept for at least 90 days. If items are not claimed after 90 days, it is up to the management to decide how to dispose of the items properly. Many hotels donate unclaimed lost and found items to local charities. It is important to ensure that the lost and found policy of the hotel complies with local laws. Guestroom Cleaning: Security in guestroom areas is important to maintain for the safety of the guests and employees. Room attendants should respect guest property and should not open guest luggage or packages, snoop in dresser drawers or closets. Some hotels even have a policy that forbids room attendants to move guest property. In these instances, room attendants are instructed to clean around guest objects. Since guests sometimes hide valuables and belongings in pillowcases or between mattresses, room attendants must be extra careful when removing linens. Other favorite hiding places for guest valuables include the top of closets and under lamps. If room

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attendants notice any of the following while cleaning, they should immediately contact their supervisor, security, or the front desk:

Guns or weapons of any kind Controlled substances or drugs Unauthorized cooking or unsafe electrical appliances Foul odors Unauthorized pets Ill guests Large amounts of cash or valuable jewelry

When cleaning, the room attendant should always keep the door open and the cart rolled in front of the entrance to block access from the outside. If a guest wants to enter the room while the attendant is cleaning, the attendant should politely ask the guest his/her name and ask to see a room key. This ensures that the room being cleaned is that the guests room. If the guest does not have a key, the attendant should tell him/her to contact the front desk. A guest should never be allowed to enter a room just to look around. Again, the attendant should explain that this if the hotels policy and is enforced for the guests safety and security. A room should never be left unattended with the door open. If an employee must leave the room while cleaning, he/she should lock the door on the way out. This procedure should be followed even if the employee is out of the room for only a few minutes. After cleaning the room, all windows and sliding glass doors should be locked. The guestroom door should also be checked to see that it is locked. Unfortunately, guests often point the finger at the room attendant if an item comes up missing from the guestroom. This is just one more reason for room attendants to be considerate of guest property and to protect the guests room for many possible thefts. For most part, an employee who is alert and careful can contribute to the overall guests safe and troublefree stay.

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VIII. HOUSEKEEPING FORMS REPORTING AND DOCUMENTATION:


Housekeeping Room Status Report (167) The housekeeping room status report is used in conjunction with the Front Office Room Status Information to check and confirm the most current status of all hotel guest rooms. The fundamental objectives in verifying actual room status are: a. To insure adequate guest service, avoid double booking and assigning of out of order rooms. b. Maximize rooms revenue by being able to monitor availability of rooms.

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The report is completed twice each day, once in the morning and once in the afternoon. Basically, it consists of the status of each room as reported from actual inspection and is compiled and sent to the Front Office where it is compared to their own room status information. Any discrepancy is investigated and corrected by both departments. The AM report is most useful in assuring proper room cleaning assignments and cleaning vacant and ready rooms for expected guest arrivals. The PM report is important in determining exactly which rooms are available for guests checking into the hotel, especially when the house is full. Accomplishment Report (45) After accomplishing cleaning assignments, housemen assigned in public areas are supposed to prepare and submit an accomplishment and productivity report. Using a prescribed accomplishment form, they will record their daily accomplishment in their assigned area. After accomplishing the report, head houseman or head of the unit shall acknowledge sign the report, certifying that the tasks are indeed accomplished as stated in the report. With this system, housemen are more inclined to give serious attention to their cleaning assignments because they know that their accomplishments are being monitored. These reports shall be submitted to the Housekeeping supervisor who will use the same I monitoring productivity of housemen and for giving constructive feedback on unaccomplished responsibilities. It will also serve as basis for performance evaluation during the annual performance review.

Productivity and Consumption Report (105) Preparing and submitting productivity report is part of the routine tasks of room attendants. It shall be done at the end of their shift before timing out. Through this report, the supervisor can monitor room attendants productivity and at the same time able to check rooms that have not been made up, deficiency in room amenities, laundry cost, actual consumption as compared to budget, etc. so the proper action can be undertaken. Losses and Damage Report (168) Used to report losses and damages to room amenities in guestrooms. The cost of said losses are billed to the account of guest. This report should reach the Front desk

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clerk/Cashier upon check out of guest. If possible no guest will be allowed to go out of the hotel until he is cleared of possible losses in the room. Maintenance Order or Service Request (169) This is accomplished for the purpose of requesting the Engineering or Building Maintenance Unit to do repair or trouble shooting of defective facilities or amenities like TV, aircon, leaking faucet, etc. The shift engineer shall assign a technician to check and validate the report and then submit status report to Housekeeping. This form shall be accomplished by the supervisor once he receives complaints or reports of defective in guestrooms and in other parts of his assigned area. The report should be acknowledged-received and signed by the secretary or whoever receives it at the Engineering Office. If the Engineering section cannot immediately attend to the service request, the Requesting supervisor should be informed immediately so that he should take appropriate action. If the defect is somewhat serious, the best action is to transfer the guest to another room. If the defect is minor, the guest is advised to wait. Key Endorsement Form (169) For control purposes, this form is used to record the turnover and return of keys from one shift to another. Control Form for Borrowed Items (106) Mini-Bar Requisition (109) Mini-Bar Sales Voucher (109) Daily Sales Summary Report (112) Mini-Bar Spoilage Report (113) Mini-Bar Losses and Damages Report (113) Inventory Count Sheet (189) Storeroom Bin Card (190) Stock Inventory Variance Report (191) Laundry Voucher (126) Inspection Checklist (175) Housekeeping Audit Form (179) Stock Requisition and Issuance Form (187) Laundry Department Damage Advice Form (124)

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IX.

CLASSIFICATION OF GUESTROOMS

A. According to Number of Beds: 1. 2. 3. 4. Single room a room with a single bed, and is sold to only one person. Twin room a room with two single beds, good for two persons. Double room a room occupied by two persons with one double bed. Double-double (also twin double) a room with two double beds or two queen beds, occupied by two or more persons. 5. Triple room a room that can accommodate three people either in one double bed and one roll away bed or two single beds and one roll away bed.

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6. Quadruple room a room that can be occupied by four people. It may have two twin beds or two double beds. 7. Family room a room with at least one double bed, and one or more single beds, designed to accommodate one small family. 8. King room a room with a king-sized bed, maybe occupied by one or two people or one small family. B. According to price, layout and facilities: 1. Economy a room for an economical rate, usually short of standard facilities like air con, television and other amenities. 2. Standard a room sold at moderate rate, equipped with standard facilities and amenities like air con, toiletries, TV, bed, night table etc. 3. Deluxe a more luxurious and spacious with amenities of superior quality, sold a much higher price than standard rooms. 4. Studio a room with a studio bed, which can be converted into a bed. It may also be called an executive room. 5. Connecting room two or more rooms with entrance doors from the outside door between them through which guests can get through each bedroom without going out of their rooms. 6. Adjacent or adjoining rooms rooms located side by side that do not necessarily have a connecting door. 7. Suite a room with a parlor or living room connected to one or more full sized bedrooms, equipped with luxury amenities. Types of Suites: a. Junior suite a room with a bed and a sitting area (usually a small lounge). There maybe a small, separate bed connected to the living room or parlor. It is also called a mini suite. b. Penthouse suite a suite usually located on top floor of the property. c. Executive suite a suite designed for a top executive, with facilities and amenities of superior quality. d. Hospitality suite a suite used for entertaining visitors; serving as function room or a parlor. Intended to be more than a sleeping room. Hospitality suites (for hospos as they are often called) are intended to entertain groups of people. They may include a kitchen and/or bar area. Large tables make them conducive for small group meals or meetings. The rooms themselves may take up the square footage of three or more standard rooms. e. Corner suite a suite that is located in the corner of the hotel building itself. This suite often takes up the same area that two standard rooms would.

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f. Bi-level suite also takes up more square footage than standard rooms. Instead of taking the horizontal square footage of the corner suite, they take up the vertical area of two rooms. These suites span two floors or more to create very high ceilings. g. Presidential suite sometimes called the Chairman suite or the Royal suite. This suite is understood to be the best room in the hotel. It must be the largest room and typically has all the best amenities and services the hotel can offer. It will always carry the highest room rate in the hotel as well, but this suite is a very effective upgrade. Type of beds: a. Single bed a bed approximately 36 inches by 75 inches. b. Double bed a bed that can accommodate a couple or two individuals. It is approximately 54 inches by 75 inches in size. c. Queen bed an extra long, extra wide bed, about 60 inches by 80 inches in size. d. King bed an extra long, extra wide bed, about 78 inches by 80 inches in size. e. Roll-away bed a portable bed with or without wheels also called extra bed. Various Types of Guests: a. Very Important Person (VIP) a well renowned gust like highranking officials, executives, etc., who warrants a special treatment. b. Very, Very Important Person (VVIP) a highly renowned person who deserves special treatment like dignitaries, ambassadors, etc. c. Free Independent Travelers or Foreign Individual Tourist (FIT)) tourists or travelers traveling alone not joining any tour group. d. Joiner person joining another guest in the same room.

List of Room Amenities:


A. Bedroom Amenities:

DND Sign Make Up Sign Closet with at least 6 hangers Beds: Single bed 36 x 75 Double bed 54 x 75

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Queen bed King bed

60 x 80 78 x 80

Bed linen

Bed skirting or flounch Bed pad Bed sheet Size: allocate an allowance of 20-25 inches over bed size (on all sides). This depends on the mattress. Bed cover Pillow with a pillow slip and a pillow case one per occupant two for double and matrimonial beds

Shoehorn and shoe cloth Luggage rack Dresser table with vanity mirror and dresser lamp TV set Night table with night table lamp. On top of the table is a telephone, in-house telephone directory, room service menu, under the table is a safety and security booklet and bible Guest folder or compendium. Contains envelope, stationery, ball pen, post card, directory of hotel services, guest comment survey, and small note pad. Dresser chair Coffee table and two easy chairs, ashtray and match on top of the table Floor lamp Service tray with thermo jug filled with cold water; two covered glasses Side table Room service menu House rules Telephone with in-house telephone directory Safety handbook containing safety tips during emergencies Fire exit directional signs

B. Bathroom Amenities: Bathroom linen (two towels per room for one set, one towel per occupant) Bath towel 25 x 54 500 gm Hand towel 18 x 33 150 gm Face towel 13 x 13 60 gm Bath mat 20 x 30 450 gm Hair shampoo and conditioner Shower cap Soap (must be sealed) one soap per occupant

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Toilet tissue Facial tissue Garbage can, underlined with plastic liner Laundry bag Pressing/ Laundry List Morning kit (small package of toothbrush and toothpaste) Shaving kit (contains shaver and shaving cream) Sanitary bag

C. Luxury Amenities (for deluxe rooms):


Bubble bath gel (if tub is installed) Bath robe Slipper Sewing kit Water heater with two cups and saucer and sachet of coffee, tea, creamer and sugar Hand and body lotion and cologne Body scrub Fruit basket Hair dryer

A. Room Status Codes: During room checking, the housekeeper checks the status of each room using the following codes, then prepares the housekeeping room status report and endorses it in triplicate copy. One for the Front desk, as their reference in assigning rooms, one for the linen room and another copy left on the floor for easy mapping. OCC Occupied HL Heavy Luggage

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VC Vacant and Cleaned VD Vacant and Dirty OR Occupied and Ready OC Occupied and Clean OD Occupied and Dirty CO Check-out OOO Out of Order DND Do Not Disturb V/ O or O/ V Status unclear LO lock Out DO Due Out DNCO Did not checked out VCI Vacant, Cleaned and Inspected

LL Light Luggage NL No Luggage DL Double Lock CL Chain Lock HU House Use NCI Newly Checked-In NS No Show SO Slept Out BLO Blocked V - Vacant MUR Make Up Room VR Vacant and Ready

X.
Preparing to Clean

GUESTROOM CLEANING

In most properties, the room attendants workday begins in the linen room. The linen room is often considered the headquarters of the housekeeping department. It is here that the employee reports for work; receives room assignments, room status reports, and keys; and checks out at the end of his/ her shift. Here too, the room attendant

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prepares for the workday by assembling and organizing the supplies that are necessary for cleaning. Assembling Supplies: A room attendant requires a special tool to do his/her job. For the professional room attendant, these tools come in the form of the various cleaning supplies and equipment, linens, room accessories, and amenities that are necessary for preparing a guests room. In a sense, the room attendant cart could be regarded as a giant tool box stocked with everything necessary to do an effective job. A well-organized and well-stoked cart is a key to efficiency. It enables the room attendant to avoid wasting time looking for a cleaning item or making trips back to the linen room for more supplies. The specific amounts of items loaded onto a cart vary according to the types of rooms being cleaned, the amenities offered by the property, and, of course, the size of the cart itself. A room attendants cart is generally spacious enough to carry all supplies needed for a half-days room assignments. Stocking the cart: Carts are typically stored in the linen room along with the housekeeping supplies. In large properties, supplies are often centralized in a particular area and issued to room attendants each morning. Most carts have three shelves the lower two for linen and the top for supplies. It is just as important not to overstock a cart, as it is not to understock. Overstocking increase the risk that some items will be damaged, soiled, or stolen in the course of cleaning. Items typically found on a room attendants cart include: Clean sheets, pillowcases, and mattress pads Clean towels and washcloths Clean bath mats Toilet and facial tissue Fresh drinking glasses Soap bars Clean ashtrays and matches

In most cases, all the cleaning supplies for the guestroom and bathroom are positioned in a hand caddy on top of the cart. This way, the room attendant does not have to bring the entire cart into the room in order to have easy access to supplies. Items conveniently stocked in the hand caddy include: All-purpose cleaner Spray window and glass cleaner Bowl brush Dusting solution

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Cloths and sponges Rubber gloves

A laundry bag for dirty linens is usually found at one end of the cart and a trash bag at the other. A broom and vacuum are also positioned on either end of the cart for easy access. For safety and security reasons, personal items and room keys should not be stored on the cart. Room Assignments: After assembling supplies, the room attendant is ready to begin cleaning guestrooms. The order in which he/she cleans rooms will be determined by the room status report. A floor or shift supervisor uses information from the room status report to draw up room assignments for housekeeping personnel. Room assignments are generally listed according to room number and room status on a standardized form. The number of rooms assigned for a room attendant is based upon the propertys work standards for specific types of rooms and cleaning tasks. The room attendant uses the room assignment sheet to prioritize the workday and to report the condition of each assigned room at the end of the shift. After reviewing the assignment sheet, a room attendant will have a sense where he/she should begin cleaning. Cleaning the Guestroom: General Sequence for Guestroom Cleaning: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 : : : : : : : : : : Enter the guestroom Begin cleaning. Tidy and air out the room. Strip the bed Make the bed Dust the guestroom Clean the bathroom Vacuum Make the final check Close the door and make sure it is locked Note room status on assignment sheet and proceed to next room

Entering the Guestroom: Guestroom cleaning begins the moment the room attendant approaches the guestroom door. It is important to follow certain procedures when entering the guestrooms that show respect for the guests privacy. When approaching a guestroom, first observe whether the guest has placed a Do Not Disturb sign on the door knob. Also, be sure to check that the door is not doublelocked from the inside. If either condition exists, respect the guests wishes and return

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later to clean the room. If this is not the case, knock on the door and announce Housekeeping. Never use a key to knock since it can damage the surface of the door. If a guest answers, introduce yourself and ask what time would be convenient to clean the room. Note the time on your room status sheet or schedule. If no answer is heard, wait a moment, knock again, and repeat Housekeeping. If there is still no answer, open the door slightly and repeat Housekeeping. If the guest does not respond after this third announcement, you can be fairly certain that the room is empty and can begin to enter. However, just because a guest doesnt answer, doesnt always guarantee that a guest is not in the room. Sometimes, the guest may be sleeping or in the bathroom. If this is the case, you should leave quietly and close the door. Should the guest be awake, excuse yourself, explain that you can come back later, discreetly close the door, and proceed to the next room. When you do finally enter, position your cart in front of the open door with the open section facing the room. Doing so serves a triplicate purpose: it gives you easy access to your supplies, blocks the entrance to intruders, and in the case of stayovers, alerts returning guests of your presence. If the guest does return while you are cleaning, offer to finish your work later. Also, make sure it is, in fact, the guests room, by checking his./her room key. This is done for security purposes to prevent unauthorized persons from entering the room. Beginning Tasks: Most room attendants begin their system of cleaning by airing out and tidying up the guestroom. After entering the room, turn on all the lights. This makes the room more cheerful, helps you se what you are doing, and allows you to check for light bulbs which need to be replaced. Draw back the draperies and check the cords and hooks for any damage. Open the windows so the air conditioning and heater to make sure they are working properly and are set according to property standards. Next take a good look at the condition of the room. Make note of any damaged or missing items such as linens or wastebaskets. If anything of value is gone or if something needs repair, notify your supervisor. Remove or replace dirty ashtrays and glasses. Always make sure that cigarettes are fully extinguished before dumping them in the appropriate container. As you replace the ashtrays, be sure to replenish matches. Collect any service trays, dishes, bottles, or cans that might be scattered around the room. Follow your propertys procedures for taking care of these items properly. Some properties have room attendants set these items neatly in the hallway and call room service for pickup. Empty trash and replace any wastebasket liners. In occupied rooms, straighten any newspapers and magazines. Never throw out anything in an occupied room unless it is in the wastebasket. In rooms where the guest has checked out, visually scan the room and check the dresser drawers for personal items, which may have been left behind. Report these items to your supervisor, or hand them in to the lost and found depending on the hotels policy.

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Making the Bed: Step 1: Strip the bed Step 2: Check the mattress pad for stains and damage. Step 3: Change the mattress pad if necessary:

Lay a fresh pad on the bed Unfold pad right-side up and spread it evenly over the center of the bed Smooth out any wrinkles
Step 4: Notify your supervisor if you note stains or damage to the mattress. Step 5: Center the bottom sheet right side-up on the mattress; there should be equal amounts of sheet hangover each side of the bed. Step 6: Miter the bottom sheet at the upper corner of the bed. Step 7: Miter the bottom sheet at the lower corner of the bed. Step 8: At the head of the bed, place the second sheet on the bed, wrong side up. Step 9: Place the blanket on top of the second sheet about 6 to 8 inches. Step 10: Place the top sheet, two inches over the blanket, and then fold the two inches inside the blanket to have a neat look appearance. Step 11: Turn the second sheet over the top sheet and blanket. Tuck the sheets on the sides. Step 12: Miter the top sheet, second sheet and blanket at the lower corners of the bed. Step 13: Tuck in top sheet, second sheet and blanket along the sides of the bed. Step 14: Make sure the second sheet; blanket and top sheet are tucked in neatly along the sides and foot of the bed. Step 15: Center the bedspread. Make sure the seams and patterns of the spread are straight. Step 16: Fold the bedspread down from the head, leaving enough room to cover the pillows. Step 17: Slip the cases over the pillows. 69

Step 18: Place the pillows at the head of the bed and bring the bedspread over them. Tuck in the bedspread beneath the pillows. Step 19: Take a moment to check the bed for smoothness both up close and from a distance. Smooth out any wrinkles. Dusting: Step 1: Using a cloth sprayed with dusting solution, dust items located on walls or high off the floor. Work clockwise around the room. Step 2: Dust and polish mirrors. Spray glass cleaner on a clean cloth and wipe down the mirror. Step 3: Check the windows carefully. Clean with glass cleaner if necessary. Step 4: Dust the windowsill. Step 5: Dust and polish the dresser. Open the drawers and dust the inside surfaces. Step 6: Dust the nightstand. Start with the top surface and work your way down the sides to the legs or base. Step 7: Clean and dust the telephone. Check proper operation by picking up the receiver and listening for the dial tone. Use spray disinfectant on the mouthpiece and earphone (optional). Step 8: Dust the top and sides of the television set and the stand it rests on. Step 9: Clean the front of the television set with glass cleaner. Turn on the set to make sure it works properly, and then turn it off. Step 10: Dust any tables, beginning with top surface and working your way down to the base and legs. Step 11: Dust wood or chrome surfaces on chairs, beginning at the top and working your way down the legs. Step 12: Clean both sides of the connecting door to an adjoining guestroom, if applicable.

Wipe from top down. Polish the knobs and remove any smudges around the knob area. When finished, make sure the door is closed and locked.
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Step 13: Clean the closet:

Dust both the top and underside of the closet shelf. Remove any smudges on
the surfaces. Wipe down the closet rod. Dust hangers and hooks. Clean and dust both sides of the closet door. Step 14: Wipe down light switches and clean any smudges on surrounding wall area. Step 15: Clean both sides of the guestroom door. Step 16: Restock the room with guest supplies. Cleaning the Bathroom: Step 1: Turn on lights and fan. Replace any burned out light bulbs. Check fan for proper operation. Step 2: Remove used towels, washcloths, and bath mat. Step 3: Empty trash and wipe container. Step 4: Flush the toilet. Apply all-purpose cleaner around and under the lip of the bowl. Let it stand while you attend to other cleaning tasks. Step 5: Clean the shower area:

Check the shower head to make sure it is positioned correctly. Wash the tub or shower walls and soap dishes using a damp cloth and all
purpose cleaner. Check condition of walls as you clean. Rinse the tub or shower walls and soap dishes with sponge. Clean both sides of the shower curtain or shower door. Pay special attention to the bottom where mildew may accumulate. Wipe dry. Clean shower curtain rod or clean the tracks and frame of the shower door. Scrub the bathtub with all-purpose cleaner. Remove and clean the drain trap. Clean bathtub fixtures. Polish dry to remove water spots. Hang clean bath mat over edge of the tub. Reposition shower curtain or shower door to the center of the tub.

Step 6: Clean the vanity and sink area:

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Run some warm water into the sink. Add the correct amount of all-purpose
cleaner. Clean the countertop area of the vanity. Clean the sink. Remove drain trap and clean. Clean sink fixtures. Polish dry to remove water spots. Wipe dry the countertop area of the vanity. Clean mirror with glass cleaner.

Step 7: Clean the toilet:

Scrub the insides of the toilet and under the lip with the bowl brush. Flush. Using cleaning solution and a cloth, clean the top of the seat, the lid, the tank,
and the outside of the bowl. Wipe dry all the outside surfaces. Close the lid. Step 8: Clean bathroom walls and fixtures:
Dust light fixtures. Using a clean damp cloth, spot-clean fingerprints and smudges. Wipe down all electrical outlets and light switches, paying close attention to

the surrounding wall area. Wipe and polish towel bars. Dust all exposed piping. Clean both sides of the bathroom door. Step 9: Restock bathroom supplies:

Replenish the towels. Replenish guest amenities. Replenish toilet and facial tissue supplies.
Step 10: Clean the floor:

Spray bathroom floor and baseboards with all-purpose cleaning solution. Starting with the farthest corner and working your way toward the door, scrub
the floor and wipe baseboards. Step 11: Make the final check. Visually scan all the areas of the bathroom for areas you may have overlooked. Turn off the lights and the fan. Vacuuming and Cleaning Baseboards:

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Step 1: Clean the baseboards. Begin in the closet area and work your way around the room. Wipe all exposed area of the baseboard to remove surface dust and dirt. Step 2: Take a vacuum sweeper or broom to sweep large dirt. Sweep also sides of the room and under furnitures to where vacuum cannot reach. This way the dirt that cannot be reached by the vacuum will be picked up immediately and/or center the dirt so to possibly reach by the vacuum. Step 3: Take the vacuum to the farthest corner in the guestroom. Begin vacuuming. Take care not to bump furnitures or even dragging the vacuum over its cord. Vacuum side to side. Step 4: Vacuum your way back to the door; cover all exposed areas of the carpet you can reach including under tables and chairs, behind the door, and in the closet. Step 5: Close windows and turn off lights along the way. Final Check: The final check is a critical step in guestroom cleaning. It makes the difference between just cleaning the room and doing a professional job. After reloading your vacuum and cleaning supplies on your cart, take a few moments to give the room a careful look from the guests perspective, Start at one point from one point in the room and trail your eyes in a circular fashion from one corner to the next until you have visually inspected each item. By doing so, you may discover something you overlooked or that was difficult to spot on the first cleaning. Make sure that all the furnishings are back in their proper places. Look for little things like making sure the lampshades are straight and their seams are turned toward the back. Smell the air for any unusual odors. If you detect any unpleasant smells, report them to your supervisor. Spray air freshener if needed. Remember that your last look is the guests first impression. When you are satisfied that the guestroom is neat and thoroughly cleaned, turn off the lights, close the door, and check to see that it is locked. Note the condition and status of the room on your assignment sheet, and proceed to the next room on your schedule.

Turndown Service: Step 1: See procedure for entering the guestroom. When announcing your presence, substitute Turndown Service for Housekeeping. Step 2: Remove any guest items from the bed. Set neatly aside on the dresser or a chair.

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Step 3: Pull back the bedspread so 15 to 18 inches hangs over the foot of the bed. Bring this slack part of the spread back over the fold so the fabric faces right side-up. Step 4: Pull back the sheets.

For a bed sleeping one guest, turn down the sheets on one side only, usually the
side near the night stand or phone. For a bed sleeping two, turn down the sheets on both sides. Step 5: Place the amenity on the pillow. For beds sleeping two, be sure to leave amenity on both pillows. Step 6: Remove and replace dirty ashtrays. Replenish matches. Step 7: Remove and replace dirty glasses. Step 8: Collect any food service trays and dishes.

Set items neatly outside the door. Call room service for pickup.
Step 9: Empty the trash and replace wastebasket liners. Step 10: Straighten newspapers and magazines. Step 11: Remove dirty linen in bathroom. Restock with fresh linen. Step 12: Straighten and wipe down vanity area. Dry and polish fixtures. Step 13: Straighten and wipe down tub area if necessary. Dry and polish fixtures. Step 14: Check toilet and facial tissue supply. Replenish if necessary. Step 15: Close the drapes. Step 16: Turn on bedside lamp. Step 17: Turn radio to recommended easy listening station. Adjust to a low volume. Step 18: Visually scan the guestroom, beginning at one point in the room and working your way back to the beginning point. Attend to any turndown task you may have overlooked. Step 19: Leave the room and close the door. Check to be sure it is locked.

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XI.

LINEN AND LAUNDRY SERVICE

The linen and laundry section is responsible for the processing of all requests for laundry service, including guests laundry and employee uniforms.

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The laundry section is usually managed by a Laundry Manager or supervisor and is manned with the following personnel: Valet Runner Sorter/ marker Linen attendant Washer Flat Ironer Steam Presser Dry Cleaner-spotter Seamstress - picks ups and delivers guest laundry. - sorts, classifies and labels laundry items. - does the recording, storage and issuance of linen. - responsible for washing and drying laundry items. - does the ironing. - performs steam pressing. - assigned to do dry cleaning and spot removal. - does mending of guest laundry or employees uniforms.

Distribution of Laundry Responsibilities: Linen and Laundry Supervisor Basic Function: Directs, leads, monitors and controls all activities covering linen and laundry service. Duties and Responsibilities:

Checks quality of laundry service; ensures that laundry standards are complied
with and that garments are protected from damages. Ensures the proper use, storage, and maintenance of linen and laundry equipment, tools and supplies. Checks equipment regularly for their condition. Looks after their preventive maintenance through periodic cleaning and repair when necessary. Checks and maintains par stock requirements. Makes requisition whenever needed. Initiates and supervises weekly inventory of laundry supplies and other items allocated to his unit. Reports losses and damages and takes corrective action against reckless use of equipment. Sees to it that laundered items are delivered on time. Trains, coaches and supervises his staff. Conducts performance evaluation of his subordinates; conducts appraisal interview. Attends to complaints regarding linen and laundry service. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior.

Linen Attendant/ Custodian

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Basic Function: Stocks, stores and issues employees uniforms, linens, cleaning supplies, guestroom, and public area amenities. Duties and Responsibilities:

Responsible for the issuance of uniforms as well as guestroom, restaurant and


banquet linens, cleaning materials, supplies as well as guestroom amenities; ensures that all issued items are properly recorded and accounted for. Reports to the Supervisor missing articles, losses, breakages and damaged items in the linen room. Assists the supervisor in conducting inventories of linen, general supplies and uniforms. Responsible for the proper arrangement and storage of linen, uniforms and general supplies in the linen room.

Performs side duties like mending, repair of uniforms and baby-sitting. Receives all surrendered linen items; checks if they are complete and in good condition; endorses soiled linens to laundry section for laundry. Performs other related duties as may be assigned by superior.

Valet Runner Basic Function: Responsible for pick up and delivery of laundry items of guests and those for house use. Duties and Responsibilities:

Picks up guests items for laundry and endorses them to sorter/marker for proper
classification. Checks laundry items for possible damages and immediately informs guests about it. Also indicates noted damages in the endorsement record. Informs the sorter/marker about the special instructions of guests regarding the latters laundry items. Helps in sorting finished laundry items that are ready for delivery. Delivers processed guests laundry making reference to tag number and room number and makes sure these items are delivered on time. Coordinates with the rooms keeping supervisor for the delivery of all processed items when guests are not in their rooms.

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Informs the laundry office of his whereabouts in case there is any call for pick up
and immediate delivery. Coordinates with front office/housekeeping regarding information on room changes to avoid wrong delivery. Helps in keeping the laundry area clean. Performs other related duties as may be assigned by his/her superior. Flatwork Ironer / Wrangler Basic Function: Performs ironing of linen items in the flatwork machine following the standard procedures. Duties and Responsibilities:

Sorts all items by classification before running them through the machine. Performs pressing and ironing, straightens edges and smoothly presses wrinkles;
starts and stops machine according to prescribed procedures. Inspects and sorts out stains and damaged linens. Refers them to supervisor for proper action. Folds duly accomplished items; counts and classifies them.

Prepares and keeps records of accomplishments. Cleans work areas and machine. Reports malfunction of machine to superior. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by supervisor from time to time.

Washer (Guest Items) Basic Function: Attends the washing and extracting, drying of all guests laundry and FOC (free of charge) items. Duties and Responsibilities:

Receives laundry items of guests from the sorter-marker. Sorts and classifies items according to kind, color, and degree of dirt. Inspects items for damages and stains and reports any damage to the laundry
supervisor.

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Manually cleans with detergent the badly soiled portion of the guests items prior
to machine washing; informs sorter or supervisor regarding irremovable stains for the latter to bring it to attention of the guest. Loads guests items into the washing machine and performs washing according to standard washing procedures. Unloads washed items and transfer them to the laundry cart. Loads the extracted items to the drying machine for completion. Inspects and sorts dried items and forwards them to the pressing section for pressing or ironing. Constantly checks the cleanliness and maintenance of the equipments and reports the defects to his supervisor. Performs other duties as may be assigned by his/ her superior.

Washer (Linens) Basic Function: Attends to the washing, extracting and drying of all housekeeping linens such as towels, bed sheets, pillow slips and pillow cases, etc., and also linen used for dining and banquet functions. Duties and Responsibilities:

Sorts all dirty linens and towels brought into the laundry section. Sorts all dirty linens like tablecloths, napkins and cocktail napkins received from
different food outlets. Loads items into the washing machine and performs washing in accordance with standard washing procedures. Unloads extracted items and forwards them either mangling or pressing section. Performs daily cleaning of his area and the machine he is operating. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by his/her superior.

Seamstress Basic Function: Performs sewing or mending of guest room linens as well as those used for banquet and food service operations. Duties and Responsibilities: Response for mending and repair of guest garments as well as uniforms and linens for house use.

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Mends and repairs torn or damaged curtains, bed cover, skirting of guest rooms. Maintains the cleanliness and condition of the sewing machine. Reports to the supervisor any malfunctioning of the sewing equipment. Maintains a stock of sewing kit and looks after their safekeeping. Assisting linen attendant in the issuance of guest room linens and banquet linen during peak season. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by his/ her superior.

Sequence of Guest Laundry Service:

Guest shall fill up the laundry list and may request for pick-up either through the
Housekeeping or Laundry office guest phone, through the Front desk or any room supervisor or room attendant.

If the pick-up request is coursed through the laundry clerk, the latter logs down the
guests instructions for the processing of items and calls the linen attendant, valet runner or room boy for eh pick-up of the linen.

The laundry list and laundry items are picked up by concerned staff. Upon pick-up of the laundry items, the attending staff checks items on the list in front of the guest if he is around. If the guest is not around, he checks it in the presence of a floor guard or room boy/ supervisor who will be serving as witness for damages or valuables.

If stains or damage are found in the item, the valet runner or room attendant who picks up the laundry will fill up the guest notification form to notify the guest of noted damage or any discrepancy. This notification is brought to the guest by the room boy or bellboy. The guest shall acknowledge receipt of said notification by signing his name. If the item is not suited for the requested processing method (dry cleaning, washing, etc.), the guest is also notified thru the same notification form, indicating therein the recommended method in processing the item. Items for washing are endorsed to washer for processing. Upon receipt of the items, the washer shall count and double check items against the laundry list; sort and classify them, then place the appropriate tag. If the item is for dry cleaning (color code it with blue tag) If the item is for machine-washing, (color code it with pink tag)

Hotel has the option to make their own coding system. If the item is to be hand washed, washer should hand wash with care. 80

After washing the laundry items, the washer endorses the finished items to the other laundry staff (i.e. ironer or presser) for further processing.

If the items is for other forms of processing, it is endorsed to other laundry staff, namely: Presser for blouse, dresses, trousers and related items. Hand ironer for normal shirts. Utility presser for trousers, skirt and long dresses.

The attending staff shall double check each items upon receiving them, and takes
note of discrepancies in quantity and damaged parts.

If the item needs no further processing, it is placed inside the pigeon box (if any) according to tag. If the item is ready for delivery, the linen attendant or valet runner sorts them against the laundry list, collects altogether laundry items of each guest in a garment bag, attaches the laundry list to the bag and endorses it to the presser or linen attendant. If the guest is on cash basis, laundry clerk, prepares a voucher to be attached to the item for billing. Payment must be made upon delivery of the items. The processed items will now be delivered to the guest. If the guest is around, he is asked to sign in the delivery logbook for acknowledgement. Then the bill is presented to him for settlement.

If the guest is not around, the housekeeping supervisor acknowledges by signing in the logbook. If the room is on Do Not Disturb sign and said item is on special service, a notification is placed in the guests room through the door, (another copy to the front office) notifying him that an attempt to deliver his laundry was made while he is on DND. Undelivered linens brought back to the laundry area to be redelivered upon the arrival of guest. Summary of the basic wash steps:

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Flush the linen is wet to dissolve water-soluble soil and to reduce soil load in the following suds steps. Always flush at high-water level and medium-temperature water. Time: 1 to 3 minutes Suds involves actual washing step, where detergent is added to the wheel, lowwater level and hot water is used. Time: 5to 8 minutes Bleach elimination of stains that could be removed by the detergent. This is done using chlorinated bleach added to the wheel. Usually low-water level and hot water is used. Time: 5 to 8 minutes Rinse rids the linen of detergent and soil. Usually 3 to 5 steps are utilized at highwater level temperature usually dripping with subsequent rinses. Time: 1 to 3 minutes Sour and soft step is the final conditioning of the linen using fabric softener and sour (wild acid). This id performed at low-water level, medium temperature water. Time: 3 to 5 minutes Extract processing of reducing the moisture content of linen by 50% (100 lbs. dry weight); linen will retail 50 lbs water after extraction. Time: 1 to 12 minutes Break performed before the suds step. Low-water level; medium to hot water, with a highly-alkaline-break product is added to break loose soils. Time: 3 to 7 minutes. Interdictor extract this process spins soil-laden detergent solution out of linen. A high-speed is used, usually after the first rinse step. This process reduces the required number of deep-water rinses. Time: 30 seconds to 2 minutes

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XII. FLOOR TYPES AND THEIR CARE


A. Hard Floors (Non-resilient floors) Flooring materials that do not give to any degree underfoot. Their hardness ensures their durability. Dents are not a problem with these types of floors. However, the hardness of these types of floors is also a major drawback. They are extremely tiring to those who must stand on them for any length of time. Types of Hard Floors (Non-resilient Floors): a. b. c. d. e. a. Brick Ceramic and Terra Cotta Tiles Concrete Stone Floors Terrazzo Brick

Brick is not commonly used as a flooring material for interiors, except to convey a rustic theme. Brick floors are normally left in their natural unglazed state and color, but they can be sealed and finished for some interior applications. Unglazed bricks are highly porous material, and they provide a highly durable, fairly slip-resistant floor, but the mortar between the bricks can deteriorate rapidly if it is not properly maintained. Deteriorating mortar and loose bricks can quickly become a serious hazard for slip-fall accidents. Another caution is not to use bricks where there may be grease spills. Since an unglazed brick is very porous, spilled grease and oil will be absorbed into the brick and will be very hard to remove. If the floor then becomes wet, the surface of the brick will have this oil and water mixture, making for a very slippery surface.

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Cleaning Procedures: Brick floors create special problems in cleaning. If the bricks are the speciallymade type of slip-resistant brick, they will cause cotton mop heads to fray. Also, unglazed bricks tend to become very dusty. The best approach to cleaning a brick floor is to vacuum it with a brush and, when mopping, use a bristle brush in combination with a wet/dry vacuum. b. Ceramic and Terra Cotta Tiles

Like brick, ceramic and terra cotta tiles are made from clay that s fired in a kiln. However, ceramic tile differs from brick in that a coating is applied to one side of the tile and the tile is then fired in a kiln, creating a surface that is almost totally impervious to soil and liquids. Ceramic tile comes in a multitude of colors and can have either a matte or glossy surface. Care must be taken when selecting ceramic tile because certain solid colors will show dirt quite easily. Ceramic tile also appears on walls and countertops, as well as on interior and exterior floors. Terra cotta tiles, typically six inches square, resemble bricks because they are left in their natural color, and they do not have the glaze coat that is commonly applied to ceramic tile. The color of terra cotta is traditionally a reddish-brown. One variety of terra cotta is often used in kitchen floor application because it is marked with a rough surface that makes it slip resistant in greasy conditions. Cleaning Procedures: The tiles must be cleaned frequently to remove dust and grit that could damage the glaze on the tile. Cleaning procedures might include dust mopping, damp mopping, and light scrubbing when needed. Cotton mop heads should not be used on tiles that contain slip-resistant surfaces, because these surfaces will quickly shred a traditional mop head. Scrubbing should be done with brushes and the water should be picked up with a wet/ dry vacuum. c. Concrete

The concrete floor is employed for its utility, not for its attractiveness or its resiliency. A concrete floor is composed of cement, rocks, and sand, to which is water is added to initiate a chemical reaction that changes the ingredients into a stone like material. Cleaning Procedures:

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The cleaning procedures that may be used on a concrete floor range from a daily dust mopping, to a damp mopping, to heavy scrubbing to remove grease and soils. Since concrete, and especially unsealed concrete, is so porous, an immediate effort must be made to clean up spilled liquids before they are absorbed into the concrete and cause unsightly stains. d. Stone Floors

Common types of natural stone flooring includes marbles, travertine, serpentine, granite, slate, and sandstone. All natural stone products share certain properties that must be taken into consideration by the professional housekeeper to ensure the proper care of this type of flooring. Natural stone flooring may look impervious to the elements, but it is decidedly not as resistant to damage as it looks. Acids and moisture can have disastrous effects on natural stone. Some acids are present naturally in the stone, but even the acid from spilled orange juice can have a deleterious effect on stone floors, causing pitting, cracking, and spalling. These floors need to have moisture-permeable sealers applied so moisture and acids do not build up under the sealer and destroy the floors surface. Oils and grease can permanently stain untreated stone floors because these floors are extremely porous. Cleaning Procedures: To prevent the staining of stone floors, the dust mops should be free of all oilbased dusting compounds. Dusting should be carried out on a daily basis because grit, sand, and other abrasives that are tracked onto a stone floor will quickly mar the floors finish. A pH neutral detergent is recommended to clean all natural stone floors. Highly alkaline cleaners as well as acidic compounds will damage stone floors. When mopping stone floors do not let water or chemicals remain on the floor. A final rinse of clean water should be applied and then immediately picked up with a mop or a wet/ dry vacuum. e. Terrazzo

A terrazzo floor is a mosaic flooring composed of Portland cement that has been embedded with marble and/or granite chips. The chips used in terrazzo floor can differ both in sizes and color, creating a variety of colorful and attractive floors. With proper care, a terrazzo floor will hold its original luster and will last indefinitely. What destroys most terrazzo is not use, but improper maintenance. Cleaning Procedures:

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Terrazzo should be dusted daily to remove harmful grit and sand that can wear down the surface, but dust mops should not be treated with oil dressings because oil is the archenemy of a terrazzo floor. Once oil or grease penetrates a terrazzo floor, it is virtually impossible to remove. Steel wool should not be used on the surface of a terrazzo because the steel wool may put rust stains on the marble chips. When selecting detergents and cleaners for terrazzo floors, stay away from acid cleaners, abrasives and scrubbing powders, and preparations that have an alkalinity above pH 10. Always rinse a freshly scrubbed floor and do not allow water or cleaners to remain on the floor surface. B. Resilient Floors Resilient floors have various degrees of give to their surfaces. When dented, a resilient floor will eventually rebound wholly or partially to its origin form. They are called resilient because they are elastic and buoyant underfoot. They are also non porous. Types of Resilient Floors: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. a. Asphalt Tile Cork Linoleum Rubber Vinyl Wood Carpet Asphalt Tile

Asphalt tile is one of the lowest-cost resilient floor coverings available, and it is quite durable under most normal conditions. It will, however, become brittle when exposed to prolonged periods of low temperature and will also dent when heavy objects are present on its surface, particularly when the ambient temperature is above 80 0 Fahrenheit. Asphalt tile is also fire resistant, in fact, it is one of the most mar resistant of all floorings in regard to cigarette burns. Cleaning Procedures: Dust mopping, damp mopping, and scrubbing will maintain and preserve the asphalt floor. One important item to remember, wet mopping is to never let water stand

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for any length of time on an asphalt tile floor. Standing water will attack the adhesive cement and will cause tiles to curl and loosen. b. Cork Tile

Cork tile is made from the outer bark of cork oak trees grown in Spain and Portugal. The cork is ground into large granules, mixed with synthetic resins, and pressed into sheets, which are then cut into tiles. Contemporary cork tiles for floors usually have a top layer of clear vinyl applied to them. This vinyl layer protects the cork from staining and wear. Cork tiles traditionally have had limited application in industrial or institutional settings. One reason is that cork is susceptible to staining because it is one of the most porous of all floor coverings. Another limitation is that it is not durable; it is highly susceptible to abrasion. Cinders, sand, and gravel tracked on to a cork floor will severely shorten its life span. Finally, it is expensive. Cork rivals ceramic tiles in cost and does not have nearly the useful life of ceramic tile. c. Linoleum

In modern buildings, the use of vinyl has replaced linoleum, but on occasion, linoleum floors can still be found in older facilities. Linoleum was once so pervasive that many still use the term linoleum to indicate any continuous flooring material, such as solid vinyl flooring. Linoleum was composed of oxidized linseed oil, resins, embedded cork, and wood flour with pigments pressed on a backing. Its properties included in a remarkable degree of resiliency. Next to cork and rubber, and of course, padded carpeting, linoleum is considered to have the greatest degree of resiliency. Linoleum was quite durable, was resistant to oil and grease, and do not shrink. The negative aspects of linoleum was that it is highly susceptible to water. The linoleum would absorb water and would then soften, causing it to lose its abrasion resistance and become more susceptible to indentation. Even high humidity would have a negative effect upon this material. Cleaning Procedures: Frequent dusting is essential to the preservation of linoleum. The flooring can also be dry mopped using a pH neutral cleaner. Harsh abrasives and scouring powders should be avoided and water or detergent solutions should not be left in contact with the floor for any length of time. When the floor is mopped, it should be allowed to dry completely before foot traffic is allowed upon it.

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d.

Rubber Floors

All modern rubber floors are made from synthetic rubber, such as styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). Rubber tiles are cured or vulcanized by the application of heat. Rubber floors are nonporous, waterproof surfaces. One major advantage is that they are quite resilient and will remain resilient over a considerable temperature range. Rubber flooring is susceptible to alkalines, oils, grease, solvents, ultraviolet light, and ozone in the air. When attacked by these components, a rubber floor will often become tacky and soft. It will then become brittle and begin to crack and powder. Rubber tiles often have knobs n the surface or will have a tread pattern to improve traction, especially if liquids are frequently spilled on the surface. Cleaning Procedures: Highly alkaline cleaning solution should be avoided; it is best to use pH neutral detergents whenever possible. Cleaning solvents such as naphtha and turpentine should never be used on a rubber floor. Rubber floors are fairly easy to maintain. Daily dust mopping and an occasional damp mopping are all that is needed to maintain the floor. e. Vinyl Floors

There are several types of vinyl floorings and tiles. The major varieties include vinyl asbestos tiles, vinyl composition tiles, homogeneous or flexible vinyl tiles, and laminated vinyl flooring. Vinyl asbestos tiles are no longer made and have been removed from numerous commercial and residential settings because the asbestos in the tile is a known carcinogen. Improper cleaning of vinyl asbestos tile can release deadly asbestos fibers into the air and present a very real health hazard. Laminated vinyl flooring is less expensive to manufacture than vinyl composition or homogeneous vinyl floors. The low initial cost may be deceiving, however, for once the top wear layer is worn through, the floor will have to be replaced. Some laminated floorings are only guaranteed for three years with moderate use. The cost of laminated vinyl flooring will vary in proportion to the thickness of the top vinyl wear layer. In addition to the vinyl resins, vinyl composition tiles contain mineral fillers such as asphalt and pigments. Homogeneous vinyl tiles may either be flexible or solid, and it has become the preferred standard for resilient tile flooring. It is practically unaffected by moisture, oils, and chemical solvents.

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Cleaning Procedures: Modern homogeneous vinyl needs only to be dusted and damp mopped to restore its luster. Daily dusting to remove sand and grit is extremely important to the care of vinyl because most types will scratch under heavy foot traffic. Some tiles are specially treated with a scratch resistant seat that is applied at the factory. Modern vinyl is unaffected by alkaline detergents, but pH neutral detergents are recommended over heavy alkaline products. f. Wood Floors

There is nothing quite as attractive as the warmth and richness of wood floors. Most hardwood floors are made from oak, but other popular woods include ash, beech, birch, hickory, maple, teak, and walnut. In addition to its attractiveness, hardwood floors are extremely durable if they are properly finished and maintained. Unfinished wood floors will quickly deteriorate under even light use, as wood is an extremely porous material. Unfinished woods are susceptible to dirt lodging in the grains, splintering of the wood fibers, abrasions caused by normal foot traffic, and of course, moisture, the bane of wood floors. Too much moisture will cause a wood floor to warp, while too little humidity will cause wood floors to shrink and crack. To help forestall damage, most wood floors made today receive factory applied finish. In some instances the wood is heated to open the pores of the wood. Tung oil and carnuba wax are then applied to seal the wood. Since there is a degree of resiliency in even the hardest of hardwood floors, precautions should be taken to protect the floor from furniture legs that may dent the flooring. Wood floors are particularly susceptible to metal or hard plastic rollers and to those small metal domes that are often found on the legs of office furnitures Cleaning Procedures: Preventive maintenance is the key to attractive and durable wood floors. One of the best prevention techniques is to use walk-off mats at exterior entrances and use rugs and carpet runners in high-traffic areas. Wood floors should be dusted, but do not use an oily dust mop on wood floor. The oil from the mop head may darken or stain the floor. Water is one of the most deleterious substances to a wood floor, consequently, it should not be used to clean most wood floors. Dusting, vacuuming, buffing, and, on limited occasion, a light damp mopping is all that is necessary to maintain a wood floor on a daily basis. g. Carpet Floors

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Carpet is typically installed wall-to-wall to eliminate the maintenance of hard flooring surfaces around the edge of a carpet. Rugs, on the other hand, are often used to accentuate a tile or wood floor. In areas where there is heavy foot traffic, rugs can be used to equalize wear and help prevent tracking onto other floor coverings. Carpet offers a number of benefits over hard and resilient flooring materials. Carpet prevents slipping; it provides an additional source of insulation, it has acoustical properties that can effectively lower noise levels; and it is the most resilient of all floor coverings, which is a major benefit to individuals who must remain on their feet for extended periods. Carpet Components: a. b. c. d. a. Pile Pile is the yarn that we see and can readily touch. The fibers can either be synthetic or natural in composition. Test of Pile Quality: a. Pile density; the greater the density of pile, the better the carpet. Carpet with greater pile density hold their shape longer and are more resistant to dirt and stains. One common test of density is to bend a piece of carpet, and if the backing can readily be seen, the carpet is of an inferior quality. b. Face weight; is the weight of the carpets surface fibers in ounces or grams per square yard. The greater the face weight, the higher the quality. c. Height of the pile; longer fibers are better than shorter fibers. d. Amount of twist the pile fibers have receives; the tighter the twist, the better the carpet. b. Backing The backing is on the underside of the carpet; it secures the tufts of pile and gives additional strength and stability to the carpet. Most carpets have a double backing, a primary backing to which the yarn is attached and an outer backing called the secondary backing. A layer of latex adhesive is sandwiched between the two layers to seal the pile tufts to the primary backing. Pile Primary Backing Secondary Backing Padding

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Types of Backing: a. Jute; a natural fiber imported from India and Bangladesh, b. Polypropylene; a synthetic thermoplastic resin, c. Foam rubber. c. Padding Padding can be placed under carpet to provide extra insulation, deaden sound, add comfort, and extend the life of the carpet by serving as a shock absorber. Types of Padding: a. Foam rubber b. Urethane foam c. Natural materials such as jute and hair blends. Sizes of Carpets: a. Broadloom carpets 12 feet in width, but can be ordered up to 15 feet in width. b. Carpet runners 2 feet to 9 feet in width. c. Carpet squares or tiles 18 square inches. Carpet Construction: a. Tufted carpet produced by forcing needles, threaded with pile yarn, through the primary backing (usually polypropylene) to form tufts. b. Needle punched carpets are produced by a manufacturing method that punches the fibers into a structural backing and then compresses the fibers into a felt-like fabric. It is used mainly in indoor-outdoor carpets. c. Flocked carpets are produced by electrostatically embedding short carpet fibers into a backing, producing a velvety-look cut pile surface. d. Knitted carpets are produced by a method that uses a specialized knitting machine with different sets of needles to loop together the pile, backing, and the stitching yarns. e. Weaved is the traditional way of making carpet on a loom. Carpet Maintenance: a. Inspection and Prevention

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b. Interim Cleaning Method c. Restorative Cleaning Method d. Spot Cleaning

a. Inspection and Prevention: The most frequent activity, which should occur on a continual basis. Carpets need to be inspected for spills and stains, which are far easier to remove if they are treated before they have a chance to set. Prevention includes the use of mats to absorb dirt and spills around food preparation areas and the use of grates, track-off mats, and carpet runners to absorb dirt and grit and control wear at entrances and in high-foot-traffic locations. b. Interim Cleaning Method: Interim cleaning methods include carpet sweeping, vacuuming, bonnet cleaning, and spot stain removal. Interim carpet care is absolutely necessary to remove gritty soil and spots before these elements become embedded in the carpet, causing the pile to wear prematurely. c. Restorative Cleaning Methods: Interim cleaning methods do not remove the gummy, sticky residues and the dry particulates that have become stuck to them. Deep cleaning methods must be employed to restore the carpet to a near original condition. Four Restorative Carpet Cleaning Systems: a. b. c. d. Water extraction Dry foam Dry powder Rotary shampoo

d. Spot Cleaning Spot and spills call for immediate action. If allowed to set, many substances can permanently stain a carpet, especially one that is made of nylon or wool. Carpet Problems: a. Pile distortion

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b. c. d. e. f.

Shading Fading Wicking Mildew Shedding / pilling

a. Pile Distortion: A general term for a number of problems with the carpets face fibers. Fibers can become twisted, pilled, crushed, or flared and matted. Pile distortion occurs when the carpet receives heavy foot or equipment traffic. Improper cleaning methods can also cause pile distortion. b. Shading: Shading occurs when the pile in a carpet is brushed in two different directions so that dark and light areas appear. Shading is normal feature of almost all carpets/Vacuuming or pile lifting the carpet in one direction can help to reduce a shading problem, but will probably not eliminate it. c. Fading: Every carpet will fade with time. Sunlight, wear, cleaning, and natural aging can combine to accelerate color loss. Premature fading may occur if the carpet is improperly cleaned. Improper cleaning or spot removal can actually do more damage than some permanent stains. Always pretests carpets before using aggressive spot-removal techniques. d. Wicking: Wicking (sometimes called browning) occurs when the backing of the carpet becomes wet and the face yarns draw or wick the moisture and color of the backing to the surface of the carpet. Wicking can often be prevented by promptly attending to spills and by following proper cleaning procedures that avoid over wetting the carpet. e. Mildew: Mildew forms when moisture allows molds in the carpet to grow. Mildew can cause staining, odor, and rotting. Natural fibers are especially prone to mildew, but all carpets should be kept dry and/or treated with an antibacterial to prevent the problem. Proper cleaning procedures that avoid over wetting the carpet can help prevent mildew from forming. f. Shedding / Pilling:

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Short pieces of face fibers are often trapped in the carpet when it is manufactured. As the new carpet is walked upon, these pieces work themselves to the surface of the carpet and can make a new carpet look littered and unkempt. Shedding will eventually top. In the meantime, frequent vacuuming will prevent the carpet from looking littered. Pilling, often the result of cleaning can be removed by heavy vacuuming or by gently cutting loose fibers from the carpet with scissors.

THE PRINCIPLES AND ELEMENTS OF FLORAL DESIGN


A. The Principles of Design: a. b. c. d. e. f. Emphasis Balance Proportion and Scale Rhythm Harmony Unity

a. Emphasis: Emphasis is achieved in a floral design by creating an accented area or a focal point. The focal point is the area of an arrangement that will draw the most attention and will direct the eye of a viewer to a specific location within the design. The purpose of the focal flowers is to draw visually all elements of the design to a single location, the center of interest. An accent will exist whenever contrast is present in a design. This contrast may be in the form of flower sizes, colors, textures, or shapes. The most striking contrast in a design is created by use of brightly colored flowers at the center of interest, with less vibrant tones or tints used as the flowers approach the perimeter of the design. The flowers, however, should never be crowded to form a tightened mass of blossoms. Generally, it will not be necessary to allow individual blooms to touch each other; rather, they should appear loose and natural, with some foliage protruding between the petals. Emphasis can mostly easily be achieved in a design when the smallest, least-open flowers are placed at the perimeter of the arrangement and the large, fully developed flowers are located at the focal point. Flowers with unique shapes also attract attention; using varying degrees of flower and foliage textures within an arrangement may create another striking contrast. Coarser textures will appear to have more visual weight so they will be best used at the focal point. An accessory such as ribbons or bow is often used by retail florists to create emphasis in bouquets and corsages. The contrast in texture or color will place the emphasis at the lip of the container. b. Balance:

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A well-designed arrangement will appear to be stable and self-supporting. An arrangement should possess both mechanical and visual balance. Mechanical balance is achieved when the container is the proper size and weight for the size of flowers being used with it. The design should have the flowers distributed properly so that the containers will support them. This is accomplished by the convergence of lines at the focal point. The flower and foliage stems should appear to arise from a single central location in the container. An arrangement may be composed of symmetrical or asymmetrical balance. A symmetrical design will appear to be the same on each side of a vertical centerline. A formal balance is created when the focal point is centered in the container. Many floral design styles are arranged with asymmetrical balance. This gives the appearance of a more natural design and allows the arranger more originality in his or her work. The size relationship of flower stems, distance from the focal point, and color density must be considered in this type of balance. Flowers are arranged from the back of the container toward the front and sides. Depth and visual balance are created in the design when the rear flower stems tip backward slightly, and the focal flower is placed well in front of the lip of the container. Flower heights are gradually lowered, as each flower is placed closer to the front of the arrangement. Balance is maintained by grading flowers by color, texture, size and spacing. This gives the arrangement a feeling of depth and support. c. Proportion and Scale: A floral arrangement appears best when all the component flowers are related in size, color, texture, and shape. The scale of a design is dictated by the size of arrangement and its relationship to its surroundings. Proportion in an arrangement is accomplished by scaling flowers toward the focal point. This means that the smallest buds are placed farthest from the visual center of the design. The flowers are then graduated in size by the placement of increasingly larger flowers in the arrangement until the center of interest is reached. The use of negative spaces or voids within the arrangement is equally as important as sizes of flowers in creating a pleasing proportion. Flowers are placed at the same heights within the design will fight for equal attention. Spaces without flowers are purposely left to allow each bloom to be viewed singly. A visual line is left uncompleted with the void balanced by flowers to create the curved line of the design. The absence of flowers in these areas adds interests and proportion within the design. Good proportion in an arrangement is created by establishing a pleasing scale relationship of the flowers to the container. A generally accepted rule of floral design states that for a tall container, plant material should be at least one and one-half to two times the height of the vase. For low, flat containers, the height of an

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arrangement is at least one and one-half to two times the width. This rule is not ironclad and may be altered provided that good proportion in the design is maintained. An arrangement that would exceed these height limitations would be one where very visually lightweight foliage and flowers are used. Balance and proportion are easily maintained in a tall, delicate-appealing design. A horizontal style design will have its primary axis running along its width. The height of this type of design would be drastically reduced from the designated rules. d. Rhythm: Rhythm is the apparent flow of lines, textures, or colors that expresses a feeling of motion rather than confusion in an arrangement. Motion is created most easily in a design having a curved line. Here, the viewer is attracted gently from the top of the arrangement along the curving elements of line or texture or color through to its focal point, the center of interest. Rhythm may be achieved in several ways through opposition, repetition, or transition. When flowers having the same color, texture, or form are placed at opposing points away from the focal point, the center of interest is emphasized. These opposing flowers create a balance in the design that naturally leads the eye from one point, through the focal area, and on to the other side of the design. This eye movement is the result of the visual motion within the design. The repetition of the same flower types throughout an arrangement ties all the parts into a single unit. The viewer will see the entire design through a repeated use of the same colors, textures, or flower shapes. When flowers are placed with their stems originating at the focal point, they will appear to radiate from the center of the design. This radiation from a single point will create an emphasis at the center of interest and will provide a visual movement as well. A transition in color and texture or the gradation of scaled flower sizes can also be used to create motion in a design. The darkest or brightest color may be placed at the focal point. From the center to the outer edges of the arrangement, the intensity or tone of the color is graded to be more subdued. A similar use of texture-quality transition will be effective in creating motion within the design that leads the eye to the center of interest in the arrangement. e. Harmony: When an arrangement possesses harmony, all the design parts will fit together into a pleasing composition of flower shapes, colors, textures, and sizes. This could be interpreted to mean that the idea or theme of the design has been successfully created. In order for harmony to be achieved all the component parts of the design must be in an appealing relationship.

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f. Unity: Unity is created when all the design parts blend together without a noticeable separation. Although each flower or area of the arrangement may be distinctive, all elements must visually blend together. Unity is best achieved by repeating related flower types, colors, and textures throughout the design. This helps to pull the components together with the focal point as the center of interest. When one color or type of flower is used only at the perimeter of the arrangement and another at the center, the viewer of the design will feel a lack of unity. B. The Elements of Design: a. b. c. d. e. f. Line Form Texture Pattern Color Space

a. Line: Line in a flower arrangement is the visual path the eye travel as it passes through the arrangement. The line establishes the skeleton of the design particularly when linear flowers or foliages are used. This element produces the underlying framework of the arrangement that holds the composition together. A vertical line gives the arrangement an appearance of strength. A curved line adds gentleness or gracefulness and gives the impression of motion. A horizontal line is more relaxing or informal, so is used most often for table arrangements. b. Form: The flowers, foliages and containers used in flower arrangements have various shapes or forms. Flower and foliage shapes add a visual quality that is important in developing harmony, creating rhythm and establishing a focal point. Form is also expressed by the geometric shape that creates the outline of the design. c. Texture: Texture refers to such tactile or surface qualities of flowers and foliage as smoothness glossiness, and roughness, the way something feels. This quality of texture may be expressed either as a physical or a visual characteristic of the plant material. Basically it involves the sense of touch, which is then experienced visually. d. Pattern:

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Pattern applies to the contour of a composition and the grouping of materials within it. Pattern is monotonous if placements are uniform and forms unvaried, but it will be confused if assorted flowers are randomly spotted causing the eye to jump about. Pattern relates to continuity, since the distribution of lines and forms can proceed either logically or in a disjointed way that disrupts unity. The pattern of a design and that of the individual materials influence each other. Patterns are different kinds intricate, bold, open, dense, regular, and irregular. The pattern of the materials often identifies the style, as traditional, modern, oriental, or naturalistic. e. Color: Probably the most important factor in the compatibility of materials is their color, because color commands the most attention, causes the strongest reaction, and often accounts for success or failure. . f. Space: It is difficult to think of space as a positive element of design. Usually we regard it as emptiness without limits or definition. In a design, if we mark off space or enclose it, or if we cut out sections in a solid and leave them open, then space assumes shape. Factors in the Selection of Containers: In flower arrangement, a container has connotation beyond the dictionary definition of a thing that contains; it encompasses more than a vases and bowls, box, can, jar or crate. In floral work, a container transcends its practical purpose and becomes an artistic component of design, an integral part of it. Thus two factors size and decorative qualities determine the suitability of a container to a design. As the first requirement is to hold materials, it must have an opening adequate for a number of stems and a quantity of flowers and foliage as well as enough water to sustain them. Arrangement and container must be in proportion, the container neither so large that it overpowers the arrangement nor so small that the design dwarfs the vase. A container must be sturdy enough to balance the weight and breadth of a quantity of material. Decoratively a container may be of little interest or it may make a positive contribution through color, form, or texture. Except in modern design where it may be featured, a container is usually of less importance than plant material. In any case, a container should share the characteristics of a design, be equally formal or casual, and be related in color but not so intense or varied in hue, highly glazed or patterned that it competes.

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Compatibility also depends on similarity of style and shape, container and design correspondingly traditional, modern, naturalistic, or oriental. The color, texture, and style of a container should be in keeping with the setting or mood of an occasion, and have the same degree of elegance or informality, the same air of gaiety or restraint. In collecting containers, be guided also by the dimensions and shape of the area and furniture that will be use for their display and for the type of arrangements to make.

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