Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 102

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Editor, Fabio Cediel

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA Amag, Cauca and Pata Basins

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

Vol. 2
Gloria M. Sierra Maria I. Marn-Cern
AGENCIA NACIONAL DE HIDROCARBUROS

Vol. 2

COLOMBIA

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 1

21/04/12 8:14

GEOLOGY AND HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Copyright

UNIVERSITY EAFIT Department of Geology Chairman Geovany Bedoya Sanmiguel, MSc. Project Manager www.eafit.edu.co Carrera 49 No. 7 sur 50, Avenida Las Vegas Tel: (57-4) 2619330 Medelln - Colombia Printed by Impresos El Da Medellin December 2011

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 2

21/04/12 8:14

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA


Editor, Fabio Cediel

Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS


Gloria Sierra Mara I. Marn-Cern

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 3

21/04/12 8:14

President of the Republic of Colombia


JUAN MANUEL SANTOS CALDERN

MAURICIO CRDENAS SANTAMARIA

Minister of Mines and Energy

AGENCIA NACIONAL DE HIDROCARBUROS

COLOMBIA

ORLANDO CABRALES SEGOVIA

General Director ANH

CAROLYNNA ARCE HERNNDEZ

Technical Sub-director

CLEMENCIA GMEZ GONZLEZ

Chief Geologist

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 4

21/04/12 8:14

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA


Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

ACPB, Amag Cauca - Patia


ATB, Atrato CATB, Catatumbo CAYB, Cayos CPB, Caguan - Putumayo CRB, Cesar - Ranchera ECB, Eastern Cordillera GUB, Guajira LIAB, Llanos LMB, Lower - Magdalena MMB, Middle Magdalena SIB - SJAB, Sin San Jacinto SJUB, San Juan TUB, Tumaco UMB, Upper Magadalena URB, Urab VAB, Vaups - Amazonas

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 5

21/04/12 8:14

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA Editor, 1Fabio Cediel, Co-Editor, 2Germn Y. Ojeda, Co-Editor, 3Fabio Colmenares

VOL. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

TITTLE - BASIN Regional Geology of Colombia Amag - Cauca - Pata, ACP Atrato - San Jun Urab, AT-SJU-UR Cagun - Putumayo, CP Catatumbo, CAT Cesar - Ranchera, CR Eastern Cordillera, EC Guajira - Cayos, GU-CAY Eastern Llanos, LLA Lower Magdalena, LM Middle Magdalena, MM Sin - San Jacinto, SI-SJA Tumaco, TU Upper Magdalena, UM Vaups - Amazonas, VA Chapter Petroleum Systems (in each basin)

AUTHOR Cediel, F., H. Leal-Meja,5-6R.P. Shaw, 6J.C. Melgarejo, 7 P.A. Restrepo-Pace


4-6 1

PAGES 224 104 112 126 136 160 140 174 185 218 194 110 80 182 104

FIGURES 67 74 92 70 86 86 87 107 135 148 85 87 46 104 74

Sierra, G.M., 1M.I. Marn-Cern


1 9

Cediel, F., 8I. Restrepo Correa

Montenegro, G., Barragan M.


3 3

Pedraza, P.E., 3Y. Ramrez

Mesa, A.M., Rengifo, S.E.


10

Sarmiento, L.F.
11

Aguilera, R.

10 12

Sarmiento, L.F.

Arminio, J.F., 12F. Yoris, 12L. Porras, 12E. Garca, 12 M. Diluca


10

Sarmiento, L.F.
11

Aguilera, R.

Marn-Cern, M.I.,1 G.M.Sierra Roncancio, J.H., 3M. Martnez Kroonenberg, S., 13C.V. Reeves

13

14

Mora, C., 14P. Parra, 14D. Sanabria, 14W. Guzmn

1 Department of Geology, University EAFIT, Medelln 2 LAEFM Colombia, Ltda., Subsuelo 3D, Bogot 3 Geosearch Ltd., Bogot 4 Greenfields Exploration, AngloGold Ashanti Colombia S.A., University of Barcelona 5 Exploration Geologist, Medelln 6 - MINRESOUR, Faculty of Geology, University of Barcelona 7 - Mubadala Oil & Gas Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur

8 ECOPETROL, Bogot 9 Lithoil Ltd., Bogot 10 Consultant, Bogot 11 RaGeologia E.U. 12 Pacific Rubiales Energy, Bogot 13 Delft University of Technology 14 Gems Ltda.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 6

21/04/12 8:14

CONTENTS
Pag. 13 14 17 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Basin Location and previous studies 1.2 Exploration History

23 2.GEOLOGY 24 2.1 Regional Overview 25 2.2 Stratigraphy 26 2.2.1 Pre Cenozoic basement 26 2.2.2 Cenozoic 26 2.2.3 Lower Eocene 28 2.2.4 Eocene Oligocene Sequences 31 2.2.5 Oligocene Miocene Sequences 35 2.2.6 Upper Miocene 35 2.2.7 Pliocene - Recent 35 2.3 Stratigraphic Summary 35 2.3.1 Environment 36 2.3.2 Drilled wells in the Cauca Pata area 39 2.3.3 Drilled wells in the Amag area 40 2.4 Structural Geology 40 2.4.1 Southern area: Pata sub-basin 44 2.4.2 Central area: Cauca basin 47 2.4.3 Northern area: Amag basin 54 2.5 Major Structural elements 54 2.5.1 Romeral Fault system 54 2.5.2 Cauca Fault system 54 2.5.3 Piedecuesta Fault 54 2.5.4 Faulting with NE - SW direction 54 2.5.5 Regional Folding N NE direction 57 2.6 Gravimetry and Magnetometry 57 2.7 Structural map 63 64 64 66 66 67 68 68 3. TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE AMAG CAUCA PATA BASIN 3.1 Late Triassic 3.2 Jurassic Early Cretaceous 3.3 Late Paleocene- early Eocene 3.4 Eocene to early Miocene 3.5 Late Miocene Pliocene 3.6 Quaternary 3.7 Basin Development

73 4. PETROLEUM SYSTEM 75 4.1 Hydrocarbon elements and processes 75 4.1.1 Source rocks 75 4.1.2 Reservoir rocks 75 4.1.3 eal rocks 75 4.1.4 Hydrocarbon traps

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr21.indd 7

25/04/12 9:43

CONTENTS
Pag. 75 4.1.5 Overburden rocks 75 4.2 Events Chart 75 4.3 Source rock properties 75 4.3.1 Organic matter content 75 4.3.2 Organic matter quality 75 4.3.3 Thermal maturation of organic matter 75 4.3.4 Hydrocarbon generation potential 75 4.3.5 Petroleum system modeling 76 4.4 Petrolelum system definition 76 4.5 Petroleum systems of the Cauca Sub-Basin 77 4.5.1 Elements and Processes 78 4.5.2 Organic matter content 78 4.5.3 Organic matter quality 79 4.5.4 Thermal maturation of organic matter 79 4.5.5 Hydrocarbon generation potential 79 4.6 Hydrocarbon extract properties 81 4.7 Petroleum systems modeling 81 4.8 Petroleum systems definition 83 4.9 Petroleum systems of the Pata Sub-Basin 83 4.9.1 Elements and Processes 84 4.10 Events Chart 84 4.10.1 Sourcer rock properties 85 4.10.2 Oil seeps and rock extract properties 85 4.10.3 Synthesis of oil seeps and rock extract properties 87 4.11 Petroleum systems modeling 88 4.12 Petroleum systems definition 91 95 5. CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 8

21/04/12 8:14

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure 1 Geographical location of Amag Cauca Pata Basin. Figure 2. Geological Map and location of Amag Cauca Pata Basin. Figure 3. Base map of studies carried out in the Amag Cauca Pata basin. Figure 4. Seismic lines location in the Amag Cauca Pata Basin Sub basin. Figure 5. Geological index map from Geological Survey of Colombia (INGEOMINAS). Figure 6. Geodynamics of the South American plate and the Caribbean and Nazca plates Cediel, et al., 2003). Figure 7. Chronostratigraphic Chart for ACP basin. (Modified from Barrero, and Laverde, 1998; Hincapie et al; 2010). Figure 8. Pea Morada Formation and Mosquera Formation, Syntetic stratigraphic column (Geoestudios 2008). Figure 9. Chimborazo Formation and Guachinte Formation, Syntetic stratigraphic column. (Geoestudios 2008). Figure 10. Mosquera Formation and Esmita Formation, Syntetic stratigraphic column (Geoestudios 2008). Figure 11. Guachinte Formation Syntetic stratigraphic column (Geoestudios 2008). Figure 12. Lower Cinta de Piedra Formation Syntetic stratigraphic column (Geoestudios 2008). Figure 13. Lower member of the Amag Formation (Unit 1 and 2). Figure 14. Esmita Formation Syntetic stratigraphic column (Geoestudios 2008). Figure 15. a) and b). Upper member of the Amag Formation. Figure 16. Cenozoic magmatism in the ACP basin. Figure 17. Ferreira Formation, Syntetic stratigraphic column (Geoestudios 2008). Figure 18a. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the Pea Morada Formation Figure 18b. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the Chimborazo Formation. Figure 18c. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the La Cima Member and lower member of the Amaga Formation. Figure 18d. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the Cinta de Piedra Formation. Figure 18e. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the Guachinte Formation. Figure 18f. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the La Rampla member. Figure 18g. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the Mosquera Formation. Figure 18h. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the Esmita Formation. Figure 19. Interpreted Seismic Profiles CP-90-1450 showing style of deformation and regional unconformities in the Pata Sub-basin (Modified from Barrero and Laverde, 1998). Figure 20. Interpreted Seismic Profile CP-90-1200, showing large displacement along thrust and regular relation of Upper Cretaceous strata with the Lower Eocene Pea Morada Fm., that documents the folding/thrusting deformationduring the Paleogene Collision in the Pata Sub-basin. (Modified from Barrero and Laverde, 1998). Figure 21. Geoseismic Profile showing structural style in the Cauca sub-basin. (Modified from Barrero and Laverde, 1998). Figure 22. TWT structural map of the Lower Eocene unconformity Pata sub-basin (Modified from Barrero and Laverde, 1998). Figure 23. TWT Structural map of the Lower Eocene unconformity Cauca sub-basin. From Barrero. D, and Laverde, F., 1998. Figure 24a. North stratigraphical correlation Cauca sub-basin. Figure 24b. South stratigraphical correlation Pata sub-basin. Figure 25. Seismic Profile VC-79-10 showing structural style, regional unconformities and seismic secuences in the Cauca sub-basin. (Modified from Barrero and Laverde, 1998). Figure 26. Geological map of Amag sub-basin. Figure 27. Cross-sections of the Amaga sub-basin. Figure 28. Geological map of the Cauca-Pata sub-basins. Figure 29. Regional structural map in the ACP basin. Figure 30. Pole reduced Total Magnetic Intensity (Modified from Carson Helicopters, 2006). Figure 31. Gravity_Seismic Depth. Figure 32. Top of Cretacic Basement map. Figure 33. Gravimetry map Amag sub-basin. Figure 34. Magnetometric map Amag sub-basin. Figure 35. Cross section geological profile close to Manizales city. (Modified from Suter 2008).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 9

21/04/12 8:14

Figure 36. Romeral Blue Schist Belt (Compiled by Cediel, 2011). Figure 37. Paleomagnetic site mean declination (the black wedges are a previous study and the red ones are the present one) for the late tertiary intrusions form two distintct groups (northern and souther of the Amaga Sub basin) of different treands but approximately parallel to trend of adjacent Romeral suture zone. Late Tertiary intrusions are stippled. Figure 38. Standard F diagrams (dedding poles, righthand column) define structural trends of domains for the folded Tertiary strata of the North Amaga Cauca Patia basin. In the left column, the symmetry plane found by eigenvalue method is great circle representing the bedding poles. Dots in the lefthand column represent the minimum eigenvector, representing the normal to the great circle and therefore corresponding to the fold axis for the bedding poles of the right column. The fold axes is approximately parallel to the Romeral Structure zone. Figure 39. Models for coherent vertical axis rotation of northern group of intrusions relative to southern group by kinking of the zone of intrusions. Figure 40. Models for incoherent horizontal axis rotation of lenticular masses of Tertiary intrusions. Rotation of massive lenticular intrusive bodies in the plane of the fault system produces irregular dispersion of remanence vector in the vertical plane. Figure 41. Sketch diagram of possible movements of Cauca Romeral fault System mid- Eocene Pleistocene. A). Extension phase with sedimentation, detachment, and clockwise rotation associated with right -lateral slip at a right stopover. b) Compression phase, with folding, thrusting, and clockwise rotation during ninistral slip at right stopover. Figure 42. Scheme of the origin and evolution of the Amaga Cauca Pata basin in the upper Cretaceous. Figure 43. Scheme of the origin and evolution of the Amaga Cauca Pata basin in late Cretaceous to Eocene. Figure 44. Scheme of the origin and evolution of the Amaga Cauca Patia basin in the Early Eocene - Middle Eocene. Figure 45. Scheme of the origin and evolution of the Amaga Cauca Patia basin in the in the Miocene to Pleistocene. Figure 46. Location of active coal mines in the Amag Basin. Figure 47. Chart of events of the unconventional hydrocarbon system of the Amag Basin. The hypothetical burial curve for the Paleogene unit is represented by the red line. Figure 48. Maximum temperature (Tmax) vs hydrogen index (HI) diagram for the Amag Basin. Note that HI values indicate the existence of kerogen type III, and type II in a lesser proportion. The analyzed samples are immature (modified from UNAL and ANH, 2009). Figure 49. Synthesis diagram properties of the source rock of the Amag Basin. Note that the Amag Formation is a gas prone unit. Figure 50. Location of wells and geochemical data of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Figure 51. Petroleum events Chart for the Cauca Sub-Basin. The burial curve is represented by the red line. Figure 52. Modified Van Krevelen diagram of the stratigraphic succession of the Cauca Sub-Basin. The evaluated stratigraphic succession presents a mixture of kerogens type II and III. Figure 53. Maximum temperature (Tmax) vs hydrogen index (HI) diagram for the source rocks of the Cauca Sub-Basin. The Cinta de Piedra and Agua Clara Formations are considered immature and over-matuer, respectively, whereas the Chimborazo, Guachinte, and Ferreira Formations are in the oil generation window. Figure 54. Total organic carbon (%TOC) vs generation potential (S1+S2) of the Cauca Sub-Basins source rocks. Note that the Guachinte and Ferreira Formations show favorable generation potential values. Data from Geoestudios Ltd. (2008) and Hincapi et al. (2009). Figure 55. Synthesis of geochemical properties of the main source rocks of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Note that the Guachinte Formation shows the best characteristics as a source rock. Figure 56. Phytane/nC18 vs pristane/nC17 diagram for organic matter extracts of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Extracts correlate with an oxic environment with a mixture of organic matter corresponding to a kerogen type II and III (marine and terrestrial). Figure 57. Pristane/Phytane vs oleanane/C30 hopane diagram for hydrocarbon extracts of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Note that they correlate with an oxic depositional environment. Figure 58. Maximum burial curves for the stratigraphic succession of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Note that the maximum burial depth occurs in the Holocene. Figure 59. Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) through time for the stratigraphic succession of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Note that the Cinta de Piedra Formation reached a temperature equivalent to the liquid hydrocarbons generation peak to a late maturation. Figure 60. Expulsion generation processes. Note that the Cinta de Piedra Formation did not reache a stage of development. Figure 61. Petroleum systems map of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Note the depocenter at the top of the basement, and the hypothetical area of influence of the petroleum systems. Figure 62. Location of geochemical data from the Pata Sub-Basin. Figure 63. Events Chart for the petroleum systems of the Pata Sub-Basin. The burial depth curve is indicated with the red line. Figure 64. Modified Van Krevelen diagram for the Pata Sub-Basin. Note how the Esmita and Mosquera Formations have the best organic matter quality, with mixture of kerogens II and III, and a gas and oil generation capacity. Data from Geoestudios Ltd (2008) and Hincapi et al. (2009).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 10

21/04/12 8:14

Figure 65. Maximum temperature (Tmax) vs the hydrogen index (HI) for the stratigraphic succession of the Pata Sub-Basin. Note that some samples of the Esmita and Mosquera Formations have values in the liquid hydrocarbon generation window. Data from Geoestudios Ltda (2008) and Hincapi et al. (2009). Figure 66. Total organic carbon (%TOC) vs generation potential (S1+S2) diagram for the Pata Sub-Basin. Note that the units with a better generation potential are the Esmita, Mosquera and Chapungo Formations. Data from Geoestudios Ltda (2008) and Hincapi et al. (2009). Figure 67. Synthesis diagram of the geochemical properties of the main source rocks of the Pata Sub-Basin. Figure 68. Phytane vs pristane diagram for the stratigraphic succession of the Pata Sub-Basin. Note that rock extracts from the Chapungo Formation suggest an oxidating environment, whereas that organic matter seeps suggest a more reducing depositional environment. Figure 69. Pristane/Phytane vs oleanane/C30 hopane diagram for the stratigraphic succession of the Pata Sub-Basin. Note that samples from the Pea Gorda and Chapungo Formations reflect a marine, siliciclastic depositional environment. Figure 70. Ternary diagram of esteranes (C27, C28 and C29) for the Pata Sub-Basin. The increase in the C29 fraction indicates a major supply of terrestrial organic matter. Figure 71. Burial curve depths for the stratigraphic succession of the Pata Sub-Basin. Note that the maximum depth has been reached in the Holocene. Figure 72. Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) profile through time for the stratigraphic succession of the Pata Sub-Basin. Note that the Esmita Formation was not submitted to enough temperature to reach the liquid hydrocarbon generation window. Figure 73. Expulsion processes for the stratigraphic succession of the Pata Sub-Basin. Note that the Esmita Formation did not experienced them. Figure 74. Petroleum systems map for the Pata Sub-Basin. Note the depocenter at the top of the basement, the oil seeps, and the hypothetical area of influence of the petroleum systems.

TABLE LIST
Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Seismic programs in the ACP basin. CBM exploration wells in the Amag sub-basin. (ANH, 2011). Synthesis of extracts and crude oil seeps from the Pata Sub-Basin.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 11

21/04/12 8:14

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 12

21/04/12 8:14

1. INTRODUCTION

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 13

21/04/12 8:14

1 - INTRODUCTION

1.1 Basin Location and previous studies The Amag Cauca Pata basin (ACP) in western Colombia lies between the Central Cordillera to the east and The Western Cordillera to the west, between 1 20 and 635 North latitude (Figure 1). The basin is mapped as an elongated depression that extends for about 588 kilometers in direction N 24 E, and averages 40 kilometers east west. The maximum width is about 55.4 kilometers close to the town of Cartago, narrowing to the North (3.5 kilometers) near the town of Santa F de Antioquia. The Cauca Valley terminates in the north at the junction of the Central and Western Cordilleras, where the Cauca - Romeral fault systems converge. In the south the ACP basin trends NNE and then switches to NNW in the north. It separates the Central and Western Cordilleras and largely controls the course of the Cauca and Pata rivers. Currently, remnants of molassic continental and marine sediments that filled the depression during the Tertiary period are dominant in the North Amag, in the central part of Valle del Cauca and in the southern Pata sub-basins. Between these basins, small bodies of Tertiary sediments are exposed as geological windows surrounded by thick volcano-clastic and Volcanic deposits. Locally, lacustrine and marine environments took place during the Cenozoic which are erosion remnants resting on pre- Tertiary rocks (Figure 2). The ACP basin is the result of the accretion and collision of oceanic terrains along the Romeral suture zone (McCourt and Aspden 1984; Pindell and Barrett 1990; Cediel et al., 2003). The stratigraphical and sedimentological histories of these basins show signatures related to the tectonic activity in western Colombia. The ACP basin developed through a process that started with a rifted continental margin, followed by oblique subduction of oceanic lithosphere and a sequential collision of an intra oceanic island arc (Strorey, et al. 1991; Nivia, A., 1989; Sierra et al, 1996; Kerr et al., 1997b, 1998; Barrero and Laverde, 1998; Moreno, and Pardo, 2003 Kerr, and Terney, 2005). This collision event may have triggered thrust-faulting and dextral strikeslip displacement mainly along the Romeral suture, inducing the formation of structures such as the Amag pull apart basin. Most of the ACP basin margins are shaped by inverse regional faults and that direct Cauca-Romeral fault system. These faults are the boundary between the Cenozoic sedimentary filling, the Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and the Cretaceous oceanic affinity bodied complexes. The information provided by five wells (Candelaria-1, Juga-1; Patacore-1; Salsa-1 and Bereju-1) drilled in the southern and central part of The ACP basin made it possible to understand the principal bioestratigraphic units and provide a general stratigraphic framework for the basin (Figure 3). The presence of oil seeps and hydrocarbons indicates that the source rocks could not have achieved the thermal maturity necessary to produce

Figure 1. Geographical location of Amag Cauca Pata Basin

14
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 14

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

15
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 2. Geological Map and location of The Amag Cauca Pata Basin

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 15

21/04/12 8:14

1 - INTRODUCTION

16
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 3. Base map of studies carried out in the Amag Cauca Pata basin.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 16

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

oil and gas. In order to evaluate any petroliferous system the available geochemical information was reinterpreted and a preliminary model of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion is proposed. A new play related to the non-conventional hydrocarbon exploration is also proposed, mainly related to the Coal Bed Methane (CBM) associated with the Amag basin (ANH, 2011), where seven wells have been drilled: Venecia-1, El Cinco-1A, El Cinco-1B, Torreblanca-1, Rincn Santo-1, Damasco-1 and La Loma -1. 1.2 Exploration History The ACP basins have been studied by various authors, including Hincapi et al., 2010, Geoestudios, 2008; Barrero et al., 2007; Moreno and Pardo, 2003; Bravo et al., 2004; Pardo et al, 2004; Buzar Consultor Limitada, 1993; Mantilla and Arias, 2001; Dueas et al., 2000; Villalobos and Aranzazu, 1994; Alfonso, 1993; Oxy Exploration, 1991; Gonzlez, 1991; Keith et al., 1988; Galindo and Gonzlez, 1982; Rodriguez and Velandia, 1980; Van der Hammen, 1958; and Grosse 1935, 1926. The work carried out by the Hincapie et al (2010) includes a summary of the Cauca Pata basin, as well as an extensive bibliography that mentions seismic, gravimetric, and aeromagnetometric studies, drilled wells and their results, and regional geological studies. A Base Map was compiled (Figure 4), showing the main field studies, the seismic programs, and five exploratory wells that have been drilled: Candelaria-1 (1965) drilled by the International Petroleum Limited Company and the other four wells: Juga1; Patacore-1; Salsa-1 and Bereju-1 were drilled during the period 19971998 by Trinity Gas Colombia INC Company. The most significant aeromagnetric and seismic reflection studies of the Cauca-Pata area were carried out during 1979 1990. The names of the seismic programs are: Valle Del Cauca-79, Valle Del Cauca-80, Pata-81, and Cauca-Pata-90. The total length of the seismic programs cover 905.934 km and a total of 33 seismic lines (see Table 1). Figure 5 shows the geological map index from Ingeominas.

17
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA
AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 17

21/04/12 8:14

1 - INTRODUCTION

18
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 4. Seismic lines location in the Cauca Pata, Sub basin.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 18

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

19
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 5. Geological index map from Geological Survey of Colombia (INGEOMINAS).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 19

21/04/12 8:14

1 - INTRODUCTION

Table 1. Seismic programs in the ACP basin.


Program Seismic Line CP- 1990 - 1160 CP- 1990 - 1200 CP- 1990 - 1300 CP- 1990 1300A CP- 1990 1300B CP- 1990 - 1450 CP- 1990 - 1600 CP- 1990- 1850 CP- 1990 - 2015 P-1981 - 1100 P-1981 - 1150 P-1981 - 1460 P-1981 - 1600 P-1981 - 1640 P-1981 - 1800 VC-1979 01 - L VC-1979 01 - N VC-1979 - 01- S VC-1979 - 02 VC-1979-03 VC-1979 - 4 VC-1979 - 5 VC-1979- 6 VC-1979- 8 VC-1979- 10 VC-1979 - 12 Length (Km) 25,2 35,5 44,3 11,8 14,3 26,4 15,1 23,3 14,2 24,1 27,1 5,5 8,5 5,7 5,5 30,0 29,7 21,6 34,5 73,7 41,5 69,9 36,3 42,2 36,7 Total Length of the Program (Km)

Cauca Pata - 90

Subtotal

210,0

Pata - 81

Subtotal

76,3

Valle del Cauca 79

20
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Valle del Cauca 79

VC- 1980 - 660 VC-1980 -840 VC- 1980 -1150 VC- 1980-1260 VC- 1980-1300 VC- 1980-1350

TOTAL

17,5 16,2 19,6 16,3 51,5 47,3 Subtotal

Subtotal

35, 4

451, 3

168,3 905,9

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 20

21/04/12 8:14

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 21

21/04/12 8:14

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 22

21/04/12 8:14

2. GEOLOGY

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 23

21/04/12 8:14

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

2.1 Regional Overview The northwestern part of the northern Andes is formed from the tectonic interactions between the South American, Caribbean and Nazca Plates (Figure 6). The ACP basin is located in the Cauca depression between the Cauca and Romeral Fault Systems, in an area where rocks of different characteristics are juxtaposed in fault contact. Also, the region is a former continental margin, set by the Cauca-Romeral fault system. The ACP is bordered by the Romeral-Peltetec and Cauca fault system and is inside of the so-called Romeral-Peltetec Terrain (Cediel et al., 2003). The RomeralPeltec and Cauca fault systems form a suture between the CajamarcaValdivia (CA-VA) - Romeral (RO) terraines, and Romeral- Dagua-Pin oceanic terraines (e.g Cediel et al, 2003). In Colombia, the Cauca system outcrops along almost its entire length and thus is cartographically well defined. The generally right-lateral strike-slip character of the fault (Sierra G., 1994; Ego et al., 1995; MacDonald et al., 1996,) varies along the strike and the dextral component can only be inferred at some local sites. The Cauca system appears to correlate with the dextral PujiliPallantanga system in southern Ecuador (e.g.Van Thournout et al., 1992). Interpretation is inhibited to some degree by deformation and abundant recent volcanic cover that distort and mask the faults structure along the Inter-Andean depression. Regardless, occurrences of ophiolite along the fault (e.g., the Pujili ophiolite; Litherland et al., 1994) suggest a suture origin. The seismic profiles of the Cauca fault system in the Cauca-Pata area indicate the dominance of west-verging thrust displacement in the subsurface (e.g. Cediel et al., 1998). This interpretation is corroborated by observed thrust emplacement of Paleozoic Cajamarca-Valdivia schist over siltstone and shale of the Oligocene Esmita Formation near Almaguer town in the southern part of the basin and Eocene Amag Formation near Santa Fe de Antioquia in the northern part of the basin. These observations contrast markedly with the traditional interpretation of the region as an arc-axial depression or structural graben (e.g. Sillitoe et al., 1982; Aspend et al., 1987). Thrust faults in the seismic profiles appear to truncate middle Miocene hypabyssal intrusive bodies, implying late or post-Miocene reactivation of the Romeral-Cauca system. Instead, Romeral fault arrival and oblique docking is temporally and geometrically constrained by five independent observations: Sierra (1994) conducted paleomagnetic studies in the Irra area and described both dextral and sinestral movements along the Romeral Fault systems, the dextral movements are predominant. Ego et al., (1995) confirms that the movement along the Romeral fault is clearly dextral.

Radiometric dating of phengite and glaucophane schists of the El Oro ophiolite (Raspas sector), Ecuador, Colombia and the Jambal areas, respectively, returned K-Ar dates of about 132 and 125 Ma (McCourt and Feininger, 1984). These units are contained in the Romeral suture and mlange and the dates are interpreted to indicate the time of collision and emplacement of the Romeral terrain (Litherland et al., 1994). Regional uplift and erosion in the Eastern Cordillera and elsewhere is registered by the stratigraphic gap of the Aptian. This unconformity appears to represent tectonic response to Romeral docking. Initial dextral reactivation of the Palestina fault system during the Aptian was documented by Feininger et al., (1970). This reactivation indicates transpressive dextral docking stress relay into preexisting structures of the Cajamarca-Valdivia terrain.

24
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 6. Geodynamics of the South American plate and the Caribbean and Nazca plates Cediel , et al., 2003)

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 24

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

Faults in this system are the boundaries of structural complexes from East to West: polymetamorphic complex of the Central Cordillera, Cajamarca complex, Quebradagrande complex, Amaime complex and Western Cordillera oceanic affinity complexes (e.g Maya & Gonzalez 1995; Moreno & Pardo 2003). The last two complexes comprise the majority of the basement of the ACP basin and consist of imbricate blocks of oceanic crust formed in the Cretaceous during the accretion to the South American plate (Millward et al., 1984; Nivia 1989; Kerr et al. 1996; Sinton et al. 1998; Cediel, et al., 2003; Pindell et al. 2006;). The sediments embedded in these complexes were deposited in marine environments during the Coniacian to Maastrichtian (Keizer 1954; Leon et al., 1973; Orrego et al., 1976; Pardo et al., 2004). The continuing convergence of the South American and Nazca plates resulted, during the Cenozoic in a syntectonic sedimentation in shallow locally marine, lacustrine, deltaic, and river environments; reverse faults and regional folds were also developed. Later on, the middle Miocene volcanic sedimentation process also became important. Associated with this volcanic activity a large number of intrusive small bodies were emplaced in the ACP basin, along the Cauca-Romeral fault system structures.

2.2 Stratigraphy The ACP basin is composed in the north part by the Amag sub-basin that is separated by the Armenia fan, in the central part is separated by the Popayn high basement and in the south it is made up by the Pata subbasin. Figure 7 shows in a general manner the lithology, age, stratigraphic relations and nomenclature of the rocks in the basin. The stratigraphy of the basin records a siliciclastic-dominated Upper Campanian to Holocene section more than 3000m thick (Barrero and Laverde, 1998), overlying an Upper Jurassic - Lower Campanian section of basaltic units interbedded with polymictic rocks. The basement unit has been named the Amaime- Chaucha complex by Moreno and Pardo (2003). The Amaime-Chaucha complex terrain crops out at the western and eastern side of the basin and corresponds mostly to the western flank of the Central Cordillera (Figure 2). The Amaime heterolithic complex represents a tectonic stacking of ocean basalts and sediments, trench deposits and slivers of dismembered ophiolites (Barrero and Laverde, 1998).

25
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 7. Chronostratigraphic Chart for ACP basin. (Modified from Barrero, and Laverde, 1998; Hincapie et al; 2010).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr21.indd 25

23/04/12 14:50

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

The major stratigraphic units and sequence boundaries were dated based on paleontological and palinological information cited by Orrego et al. (1980), Perez (1980b), Moreno et al. (1993), Pardo et al. (1993) and Blau et al. (1995), Zegarra, 1993; Geoestudios 2008; Sierra et al. (2011). Some unconformities observed in the field are also traced on seismic profiles carried out in the Cauca and Pata sub basins. There are no seismic lines available in the Amag sub basin. The Cenozoic basin fill was divided into five stratigraphic sequences that cover the time-span from early Eocene to the present. A chart for the ACP basin is presented in Figure 7 and explained below. 2.2.1 Pre Cenozoic basement Resting on the Amaime complex is a sequence of upper Campanianlower Paleocene age composed of the Marilopito Formation and the lower segment of the Rio Guabas succession in the Pata sub-basin, and the Nogales Formation in the Cauca sub-basin. In the Amag sub basin there is no record of this time (Figure 7). The Nogales formation consists of three different segments (Pardo et al., 1993; Moreno et al., 1993 and Blau et al., 1995). The lower segment is composed of matrix-supported conglomerates, calcareous sandstones, mudstone and claystone. The petrofacies of this segment indicates a source of sediment from the Central Cordillera. Said deposits were laid down from debris flow, most probably in the proximal part of a fan delta (fan delta-front facies). The middle segment consists of sandstones, siliceous claystone and chert beds. Sedimentary structures indicate deposition from turbidity currents during a time of limited sediment supply. The upper segment is dominated on its lower part by claystones and crossbedded sandstones. Conglomerates and claystones of red and green color suggesting transition to continental deposits dominate the upper part of this segment. This segment is interpreted to be deposited in the fan delta transition zone front to alluvial fan facies (e.g. Moreno and Pardo 2003). 2.2.2 Cenozoic The transition from an oceanic remnant to a collisional basin setting began as the intra- oceanic island arc terrain collided with the Ecuadorian and southern Colombia margin. The collisional basin is represented by five depositional sequences (Figure 7).

2.2.3 Lower Eocene The lower Eocene deposition is recorded in the Pata sub-basin by the 200m thick clast supported polymictic conglomerates of the Pea Morada Formation (Figure 8). In the Cauca sub-basin the occurrence of more than 400 m of similar lithofacies alternating with sedimentary breccias, siltstones and carbonaceous shale is referred to as the Chimborazo Formation (Figure 9). In the southern Pata sub-basin, Leon et al. (1973) identified a sedimentary succession 650 m thick that is composed of sedimentary breccias, conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones, named Upper Rio Guabas sequence.

26
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 8. Pea Morada Formation and Mosquera Formation, Syntetic stratigraphic column (Geoestudios 2008).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 26

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

The ruditic petrofacies of these units consist of pebbles and boulders of diabase, basalt, chert, dacite and granitoids. This assemblage strongly suggests provenance of sediments from the Western Cordillera Island Arc with a minor contribution from the Central Cordillera. These three units are herein interpreted as time equivalent facies deposited as alluvial fans, fan-deltas and sub-marine fans during a period of high tectonic activity and sediment supply.

27
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 9. Chimborazo Formation and Guachinte Formation, Syntetic stratigraphic column. (Geoestudios 2008).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 27

21/04/12 8:14

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

2.2.4 Eocene Oligocene Sequences The upper Eocene-lower Oligocene Mosquera and Guachinte Formations in the Pata sub - basin (250 m and 700 m thick) consist of fining upward units of quartz rich conglomeratic sandstones, quartz arenites, fossiliferous mudstones, coal seams and shales (Figure 10 and 11). The basal part of the Mosquera Formation is made up of massive quartzose conglomerates alternating with thin polymictic conglomerates. Equivalent lithofacies were recognized in the basal part of the Lower Cinta de Piedra Formation (at least 300 m thick, Figure 12) of the Cauca sub-basin (Ecopetrol-ESRI, 1988). In this region, the fining upward trend is also present, but with an additional mudstone dominated segment (500 m thick) at the top of the unit. A shallow marine fossiliferous limestone (Vijes Formation 40-50m thick) grading upwards into finegrained siliciclastics, locally crops out in the Cauca sub-basin. Despite the fossil content (Heterostegina, Miogypsina, Lepidocyclina, and Porites sp.), the age of this limestone is still a matter of controversy. The equivalent lithofacies were recognized in the lower member (300 m thick) of the Amag Formation in the Amag Sub basin (Sierra et al; 2005; Silva et al, 2008; Figure 13). It is characterized by poorly selected and quartz-rich conglomerates, well sorted sub lithoarenites with high content of quartz, massive grey siltstones and layers of coal. The siliciclastic lithofacies of this sequence seems to have been deposited in a delta plain environment. The high content of quartz clearly indicates a provenance of sediments from the Central Cordillera.

28
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 10. Mosquera Formation and Esmita Formation, Syntetic stratigraphic column (Geoestudios 2008).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 28

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

29
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 11. Guachinte Formation Syntetic stratigraphic column (Geoestudios 2008).

Figure 12. Lower Cinta de Piedra Formation Syntetic stratigraphic column (Geoestudios 2008).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 29

21/04/12 8:14

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

30
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 13. Lower member of the Amag Formation (Unit 1 and 2).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 30

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

2.2.5 Oligocene Miocene Sequences The upper Oligocene-Miocene sequence is composed of three major lithostratigraphic units: Esmita in the Pata sub-basin (Figure 14), the Ferreira and upper Cinta de Piedra Formations in the Cauca sub-basin and the upper member of Amag formation in the Amag sub-basin (Figure 15). The South, Central and Northern sequences were intruded by numerous porphyritic stocks (Figura 16). The Ferreira Formation consists of quartz-rich conglomerates and sandstones, siltstones and carbonaceous shales. The main clasts constituents of the conglomerates are of quartz, chert and quartzite (Figure 17). The Esmita Formation consists of a lower part made of siltstones, mudstones, thin layers of limestone and local coal beds. The upper part of the Esmita Formation shows different petrofacies dominated by graywackes with few layers of quartz arenites. The upper Cinta de Piedra consists of quartz-rich conglomerates and sandstone followed by a succession of claystones. The upper member of the Amag Formation consists of lithic wackes, feldspathic lithoarenites and siltstone of reddish and greenish colors (Figure 15). The quartz-rich composition of the four lithofacies described above, together with the metamorphic origin for some of the components, strongly suggests a source of sediments from the Central Cordillera and a drastic change of Oligocene weathering conditions. The sediment dispersal system for this sequence was probably longitudinal and transversal as well.

31
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 14. Esmita Formation Syntetic stratigraphic column (Geoestudios 2008).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 31

21/04/12 8:14

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

32
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 15a and b. Upper member of the Amag Formation.

a)

b)

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 32

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

33
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 16. Cenozoic magmatism in the ACP basin.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 33

21/04/12 8:14

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

34
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 17. Ferreira Formation, Syntetic stratigraphic column (Geoestudios 2008).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 34

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

2.2.6 Upper Miocene The upper Miocene deposition is recorded in the Pata sub-basin by the Pata Formation, in the Cauca sub-basin by the conglomeratic member of the Upper Esmita Formation and La Paila Formation, and by the lower part of the Combia Formation in the Amag sub-basin. These four units exhibit similar petrofacies consisting of thick successions of polymictic conglomerates, massive cross-bedded sandstones, minor shales, tuffaceous deposits, and woody fragments in its upper part. The conglomerates are made of clasts of granitoids, diabase, basalt, chert, quartzite, schist and pyroclastic rocks. These mixed petrofacies indicate multiple sources of sediments in the Central and Western Cordillera. The shape of these deposits in cross-section is that of a wedge with the thickest part close to the Romeral suture zone, as a result of a tilting of the basin toward the east due to tectonic loading and thermal subsidence of the oceanic crust. The upper Miocene deposits are considered the tectonic signature produced by the collision of the Panama Arc against the northwestern corner of South America. The presence of abundant volcanic material in the lower part of the sequence is the record of the intense plutonic/ volcanic activity that began at 19 Ma until 6 Ma (Figure 16). 2.2.7 Pliocene - Recent The Galen and Popayn Formations in the Pata sub-basin, the Zarzal, Jamundi, Armenia Formations in the Cauca sub-basin and the upper part of the Combia Formation in the Amag sub-basin represent the upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary successions of the basin. These sedimentary units form the youngest sequence in the basin and overlie and unconformably coalesce with older sequences (Alfonso et al., 1994, Sierra et al., 1995, Sierra et al, 2011). Seismic reflection data indicates a post- kinematic character for this sequence. The sequence was deposited after final collision of the island arc took place, ca. 3.6-3.1Ma (Kroonenberg et al., 1990). The main lithofacies are composed of polymictic conglomerates, volcanoclastic sandstones and diatomaceous deposits of the Zarzal Formation; tuffaceous deposits of the Popayn Formations and alluvial fan and glacio-fluvial deposits of the Jamundi- Armenia Formations, and tuffaceous deposits and alluvial fluvial deposits of the Upper part of the Combia Formation.

2.3 Stratigraphic Summary 2.3.1 Environment Paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the analyzed units (Figures 18), and their potential source areas are outlined below in a schematic way and without scale. The absence of paleocurrents and areas of provenance, the register of high dip directions, the lack of detailed maps and in consequence, the impossibility of having an acceptable structural model, among other factors, limits the paleo-environment interpretation. The interpretations are based on lithofacies arranged in the studied stratigraphic columns from the different authors, combined with age-dating from palynomorphs and geochemical, petrophysical and petrographical information from secondary information. The sediments of the Pea Morada Formation of Paleogene age in the Pata area are interpreted as deposited in two different environments: the calcareous member was deposited in a shallow platform dominated by carbonates; and the conglomeratic member deposited in deltaic fans dissecting the shelf area (Figure 18a). Concentrations of clasts and calcareous sandstones that demonstrate the processes of erosion to the base of the sequence of conglomeratic member can be seen in the registry (Geoestudios 2008). The oldest sediments in the southern sector of the Cauca basin correspond to the upper part of the Chimborazo Formation, Loma Larga Member and in a northern sector of the basin (Antioquia), the lower member of the Amag Formation, which accumulated during the Middle Eocene in areas with an alluvial system of fans, braided rivers, flood plains and meandering system rivers, which were transient on a delta plain associated with tectonic pulses (Figure 18b). Samples of fine sediments with gastropods and bivalves, indicating proximity to marine or transitional areas, have been collected toward the base of the members. La Cima Member accumulated in fields of braided rivers and towards the top, meandering systems with poor preservation of fine facies associated with flood plains, possibly due to high migration of channels producing a stacking by reworked sediments where only the coarse fraction is preserved (Figure 18c). In the northern Cauca and Antioquia area during the Oligocene the sediments of Cinta de Piedra Formation and the upper member of the Amag Formation were accumulated mainly in continental areas of meandering systems and, with less development, distal braided rivers and flood plains. Marginally, the sediments present toward the top of the column accumulated during the Lower Miocene were deposited in areas of swamps and marshes(Figure 18d). Marginally, the sediments presented

35
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 35

21/04/12 8:14

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

in the superior part of the column were deposited in areas of swamps and marshes during the lower miocene. Is an approximate distribution of the different environments, which accumulated in the Cinta de Piedra Formation and upper member of Amag Formation. Of the Guachinte Formation were clearly deposited in marginal marine environments in areas of marshes, swamps, and shallow ponds, while La Leona Member represents shore face environments, the presence of glauconite in the sediments corroborating the marine conditions (Figure 18e). This may indicate a transgressive event, represented by the increase in the level of the sea or a larger rate of basin subsidence, which allowed the migration of the coastline to the East and as a result, the migration of the environments. La Rampla Member accumulated in continental flood plains and marshes with some developments of meanderformes and braided rivers deposits (Figure 18f). Registers the paleoenvironments in transition zones for the accumulation of Los Chorros and La Leone members, close to the continental areas where sediments of La Rampla Member were deposited, indicating a regressive event as a result, of westward migration of the shoreline. Acording to Geoestudios (2008), the Surez member and the lower part of Ferreira Formation demonstrate the continuity of the regressive process with a clearly continental domain at the base and braided rivers in the middle and upper intervals. Among the thick conglomerates and sandstones deposits are decametric beds with carbonaceous mudstones and coal, which were accumulated in fields of marshes and swamps. Such alternation can mean that while there is an overall regressive process, intermittent marine incursions occurred. Figure 18c represents the geographical distribution of environments of braided rivers, meanderforms, swamps and marshes to this unit. The sediments of the Pea Morada Formation of Paleogene (?) age in the Pata area are interpreted as accumulated in two different environments: the calcareous member in a shallow platform dominated by carbonates and a conglomeratic member in deltaic fans. Concentrations of clasts and calcareous sandstones that demonstrate the processes of erosion to the base of the sequence of the conglomeratic member can be seen in the registry.

The presence of the thickest deposits to the south and a gradation northward suggest a possible subsidence proceding northward. In addition, the Boquern section presents a gradation in size and composition of the clasts, indicating a change in the type of source rock. The absence of lithological bodies of enriched quartz close to the area of the uprising may indicate that there was exhumation and erosion of the whole body that originated the conglomerates. Figure 18g shows that the paleoreconstruction of Mosquera Formation and of the upper member of Amaga Formation are similar. The basal interval of the Esmita Formation, called Limoltico Member, is characterized by the abundance of bivalves and gastropods. It was accumulated in an estuarine system where the facies of the Guanabanal section displays greater marine influence. It shows marshes, intertidal plains, tidal channels and beach deposits of shallow platform environments (Figure 18h). In El Boquern and La Despensa stream sections, the Limoltico Fosilfero Member developed in marshes, locally reaching intertidal plain environments. Such a relation could be established by comparing the sets of ichnofacies found in the three sections, in which there is a wide variety of ichonofacies that correspond to the Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies in the Guanabanal section. The other two sections are associated with mudstones and carbonaceous shales, indicating ichonofacies Skoyenia - associated environments with continental influence (Geoestudios, 2008). The Arenceo and Limoltico Members were accumulated in purely continental areas, associated with meandering currents that were cutting in extensive flood plains. These deposits are the final stages of the processes of the sedimentary basin accumulation. Figure 18f presents a paloenvironmental reconstruction that shows the absence of marine influence and indicates a westward migration. 2.3.2 Drilled wells in the Cauca Pata area In the Cauca Pata area there are five exploratory wells; the first one was the Candelaria-1 well located by gravimetric interpretation and drilled in 1965 by the International Petroleum Company; the other wells, Juga-1, Patacore-1, Salsa-1 and Bereju-1, were drilled in 1997 and 1998 by Trinity Gas Colombia Inc., and were located by gravimetric and seismic interpretation acquired between 1979 and 1990. In the Amag area, there are six drilled wells with exploration of CBM OBJETIVED. A brief description of each well in the Cauca Pata area is presented below. There is some information about Candelaria-1, Juga-1 and Patacore-1 wells, as shown in the following paragraphs. Less informationis available for Salsa-1 and Berej-1 wells.

36
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 18g represents a possible distribution of environments, showing areas where fan deltas cut a shallow platform dominated by mud and carbonates (Orrego, 1975). The decametric conglomerates packages must be associated with faulting and tectonic pulses. The Mosquera sequences indicate that the unit accumulated in alluvial continental areas involving proximal and distal fans mainly in the section El Boquern; braided rivers and meandering river systems transient on flood plains, and swamps with marginal marshes are dominant environments in the Guanabanal and La Despensa stream sections.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 36

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

Figure 18a. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the Pea Morada Formation.

Figure 18b. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the Chimborazo Formation.

37
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 18c. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the La Cima Member and lower member of the Amaga Formation.

Figure 18d. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the Cinta de Piedra Formation.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 37

21/04/12 8:14

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

Figure 18e. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the Guachinte Formation.

Figure 18f. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the La Rampla member.

38
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 18g. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the Mosquera Formation.

Figure 18h. Schematic paleo reconstruction sedimentary enviroments of the Esmita Formation.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 38

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

Candelaria-1 Well The Candelaria-1 well started in alluvial Quaternary deposits, and ended at 5.028 feet, in sediments of Cretaceous age corresponding to the Diabasic Group. A summary of the formation tops and ages in this well are listed in Table 1 where several gas manifestations were observed (weak and strong). The interval 3.762-4.576 (Guachinte / Formation) has high content of organic matter, appropriate for the generation of gas. On the other hand, the thermal maturity tests show a type of organic matter between immature and mature, which can be observed under the geometric gradient: 1.33 oF/100 ft. The well was not tested, since the manifestations found indicated the presence of gas (methane). Juga-1 well Quaternary deposits were drilled in the Juga-1 well; these are mainly made up of sand, clay and gravel intercalations (from the surface up to 2.030). On the other hand, the Amaime complex is made up of volcanic rocks (basaltic lavas, andesites towards the top and basalts and ultramafic diabases (from 2.030 to T.D. and 3.761). Patacore-1 well Quaternary deposits were drilled in the Patacore-1 well; these are mainly made up of sand, clay and gravel intercalations (from the surface up

to 2.090). La Paila Formation is made up of intercalations of conglomerate sandstones, conglomerates, claystones and locally of shales (from 2.090 to 5.156); the Cinta de Piedra formation is made up of intercalations of sandstones, mudstones and conglomerates (from 5.156 to 7.210); and the Guachinte formation, fining succession, mainly consists of mudstones with two quartz sand-conglomerate levels, in the lower part (La Cima Member) and towards the middle; between these two levels the biggest number of coal layers are found (from 7.210). 2.3.3 Drilled wells in the Amag area Recent projects done by EAFIT Unviersity in the Amag area have been focused in the CBM exploration (ANH, 2011). Up to now, seven wells have been drilled as shown in Table 2, the analyzed samples related to the gas content range from 10 to 90 Tcf.
Table 2. CBM exploration wells in the Amag sub-basin. (ANH, 2011).
Well Venecia-1 El Cinco-1A El Cinco-1B Damasco-1 Rincn Santo -1 Torreblanca-1 La Loma-1 Depth (m) 467.5 278 340 85.4 247.50 513,13 313,92 East 811067 820029 819902 832309 809915 813691 830762 North 1153153 1150821 1150923 1133795 1153645 1153752 1135694

39
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA
AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 39

21/04/12 8:14

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

2.4 Structural Geology The ACP basin seems to have behaved like a tectonic unit from the Middle Eocene. The fact that the Amag and the Cauca Pata subbasins developed in similar environments but in different morphological conditions suggests a tectonic control for both sedimentation and the morphology of the basins . Andean folding and uplift in the middle Miocene characterizes the western Colombian region. This tectonic process gave individual development to the Amag, Cauca and Pata sub-basins. The main differences between these sub-basins result from pure and simple shear that can be demonstrated by the paleomagnetic date. Structurally, the ACP basin is characterized by a dominant NE structural trend, which is offset by ENE trending right - lateral and NW trending left lateral structures. NE - trending faults are either dip slip or oblique thrusts, generated as a result of transpressive regime active since at least Paleogene (?) times. NW- trending faults are considered to be reactive pre Cretaceous extensional structures. Right lateral shear on ENE trending faults has resulted from oblique convergence between the Nazca Plate and the northern Andes. Major changes in the geometry of the oblique plate convergence between the Nazca and South American plate generated the stress strain partition within the mountain belt. These strike slip structures have exerted important control on the sedimentation, source rock distribution, fluid flow and ore mineralization during the Cenozoic. The interpretation of the ACP basin affected by strike slip deformation provides a structural context in which to reassess resource exploration. The Amag and Cauca sub-basins are separated by Pliocene volcanic -clastic sediments: The Cauca and Pata sub-basins are separated by the Popayn high, which is a poorly known structural feature that may represent either a basement-cored uplift, like those described by Alfonso et al. (1994), or a paleo-topographic high of the old accreted oceanic crust (Barrero and Laverde 1998). The three sub-basins have changed in orientation, structural style and thickness of the sedimentary infill. Shortening in the Amag and Pata sub basin is greater than in the Cauca sub-basin, and this is probably related to a thicker sedimentary infill and to differences in style of deformation in the sub-basins. The seismic records are restricted to the Cauca-Pata area and were used to describe the structural style. Table 1 summarizes the main seismic programs; the Candelaria-1 well and 600km of 2D seismic data were interpreted by Barrero and Laverde (1998), following stratigraphic sequence concepts from Van Wangoner et al. (1990). Five regional

unconformities are recognized throughout much of the Cauca-Pata basin. These unconformities were calibrated with surface geology in the Pata sub-basin and the Candelaria-1 well in the Cauca sub-basin. Due to the non-existence of seismic data in the Amag sub-basin, paleomagnetism, boreholes and surface data were used. 2.4.1 Southern area: Pata sub-basin The Pata sub-basin is bounded to the east by the over-thrust Amaime complex and to the west by the Cauca fault system, a major eastvergent suture, composed of several footwall imbricates that uplifted rocks of the Western Cordillera island arc over Neogene deposits of the basin. The breaking forward imbricates suggest that they developed at depth, conclusion supported by seismic data (Figures 19, 20, 21). The Cauca Pata thrust faults or Bellavista fault named by other authors (e.g. Barrero and Laverde, 1998.) is interpreted to be a branch from a westvergent basal detachment within oceanic crust, marking a possible suture zone (Figures 20 and 21). Surface geology mapping shows that the Pata area is characterized by thrust and related folds showing a clear west vergence. The fold and thrust belt is ca. 150 km long and 40 km wide and is composed of four major thrust sheets separated by the Chorea, Guayabillas, El Bordo and Miraflores faults. The main outcropping units in the thrust sheets are the Paleogene Mosquera Formation and the Neogene Esmita Formation. Cenozoic intrusive bodies crop out mostly toward the east, in the hanging wall of the Guayabillas fault (Figures 20, 21). Four major west-vergent thrust sheets associated with local backthrust are imaged on seismic records. The thrust faults, folded Cretaceous basement and a thick Paleogene and Neogene sedimentary sequence, have a ramp-flat geometry and follow a staircase trajectory. They are steep to the east and gentle to the west. Shortening is greater to the east as evidenced by the geological map and the seismic lines (Figures 19, 20, 21). This suggests that the deformation developed in a forward breaking sequence towards the west. Minor east-directed back thrusts are also present and in some cases it looks as if they were decapitated by some of the west vergent-thrusts (Figures 20, 21). However, the most frontal zone of deformation to the west forms a triangular zone, which suggests that east- and west-directed thrusts share a common detachment at depth, with probably a simultaneous development of both vergences (Barrero and Laverde 1998). The structural map at the level of the sub-lower Eocene unconformity indicates that the major thrust faults that trend NE-SW are at least 50 km long and form closures in anticline structures (Figure 21). Four seismic sequences were identified in this sub-basin base on seismic character and unconformities of regional extent. Because of the absence of well penetrations in the Pata sub-basin, the unconformities that define the

40
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 40

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

sequence boundaries were correlated with the stratigraphic record described from outcrops (Barrero and Laverde 1998). The seismic sequence 1 below the sub- Lower Eocene unconformity is characterized by strong discontinuous reflectors that are truncated by the overlying unconformity (Figures 19, 20, 21). The uppermost reflectors are interpreted to represent the upper Campanian-Maastrichtian Aguaclara and Marilopito Formations overlying the basaltic (non-stratified) rocks of the Amaime complex. Seismic sequence 2 is composed of two stratigraphic sequences separated by the Middle Eocene unconformity (Figures 19, 20, 21). The basal part of the seismic sequence corresponds to the Paleogene molasse and shows a reflection proper of mounded seismic facies. The upper

part of the sequence has parallel continuous reflectors, some of them of high amplitude probably representing shales and coals of the Mosquera Formation (Figures 19, 20, 21). Seismic sequence 3 is limited at the top by the Sub-Middle Miocene unconformity, and is ca. 700 ms two-way-time thick. It has a lower part of high amplitude, parallel, continuous reflectors and an upper part of chaotic seismic configuration. These seismic facies correspond to the silty and sandy members of the Lower Esmita Formation (Barrero and Laverde 1998). Seismic sequence 4 is the youngest outcropping seismic unit in the Pata sub-basin, the reflection patter is chaotic and in some places mounded, and presents the conglomeratic member of the Esmita Formation (Figures 19, 20, 21).

41
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA
AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 41

21/04/12 8:14

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

42
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 19. Interpreted Seismic Profiles CP-90-1450 showing style of deformation and regional unconformities in the Pata Sub-basin (Modified from Barrero and Laverde, 1998).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 42

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

Figure 20. Interpreted Seismic Profile CP-90-1200, showing large displacement along thrust and regular relation of Upper Cretaceous strata with the Lower Eocene Pea Morada Fm., that documents the folding/thrusting deformationduring the Paleogene Collision in the Pata Subbasin. (Modified from Barrero and Laverde, 1998).

43
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 21. Geoseismic Profile showing structural style in the Cauca sub-basin. (Modified from Barrero and Laverde, 1998).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 43

21/04/12 8:14

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

2.4.2 Central area: Cauca basin The Cauca sub-basin is limited to the east by an inner fold-andthrust belt of basement core uplifts (Alfonso et al., 1994) and to the west by the Cauca fault system. There are only few outcrops of Tertiary units. Quaternary deposits cover most of the interior of the sub-basin. In the Cauca sub-basin, the thrust belt is oriented NNE-SSW and is ca. 235 km long and 45 km wide. The first interpretation of this sub-basin as a fold-and-thrust belt was done by Alfonso et al. (1994). He described it as a west-vergent thick - skin thrust belt in a stacked imbricate fashion of basement highs transported over Miocene strata, formed during the Oligocene upper Miocene. The seismic profiles in this region show a consistent structural style of west-vergent imbricates, in a similar way to the Pata sub-basin. Here, the deformation propagated to the west, from the Central Cordillera, which acted as a back-stop (Barrero and Laverde 1998). The structural map at the level of the sub-lower Eocene unconformity shows that thrust system trend is mainly N-S and that it is at least 70 km long. (Figure 22 and 23). There is less back thrusting in this sub-basin compared to the Pata subbasin, the thrusts involve mainly Cretaceous sections and have passively deformed the Cenozoic section. Most of the thrusts stop at the sub-Upper Miocene unconformity, but the section below shows good examples of synkinematic deposition (growth strata). Since growth strata are present in the footwall of the thrusts, from uppermost Cretaceous to Middle Miocene, we argue that thrusting in this sub-basin was a continuous process and that this growth strata record the history of collision. The Cenozoic sequence has an overall wedge shape, thicker to the west suggesting tilting of the basin by tectonic loading (Figure 24a and 24b). Five seismic sequences were identified in this sub-basin based on the character and interpretation of the Candelaria-1 well by Barrero et al.,(2007). (Figure 25). Seismic sequence 1 is composed of strong discontinuous reflectors that are folded and truncated by the sub-Lower Eocene unconformity. The reflectors in the upper part of the sequence my represent the upper Campanian Paleocene Nogales Formation. The chaotic reflection character of the lower part corresponds to volcanic basement. Seismic sequence 2 is composed of two stratigraphic sequences separated by the middle Eocene unconformity. The basal part of the sequence shows mounded reflections onlapping the underlying sequence, and represents the Paleogene molasse deposition of the Chimborazo Formation. The upper reflectors are parallel and discontinuous and represent the prospective Guachinte Formation. The entire sequence is
Figure 22. TWT structural map of the Lower Eocene unconformity Pata subbasin (Modified from Barrero and Laverde, 1998).

44
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

200 to 400 ms two-way-time, considerably thinner than its coeval section in the Pata sub basin. Seismic sequence 3 is composed of continuous, parallel, high amplitude reflectors. The basal part of the sequence shows reflectors onlapping the underlying sequence. The upper reflectors are more continuous and in general are tilted to the east. The sequence is wedging within each thrust sheet, becoming thicker to the east. It records progressive growth of the structures, during time of deposition of the Ferreira and upper Cinta de Piedra Formations.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 44

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

45
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 23. TWT Structural map of the Lower Eocene unconformity Cauca sub-basin. From Barrero. D, and Laverde, F., 1998.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 45

21/04/12 8:14

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

Figure 24a. North stratigraphical correlation Cauca sub-basin.

46
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 24b. South stratigraphical correlation Pata sub-basin.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 46

21/04/12 8:14

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

Figure 25. Seismic Profile VC-79-10 showing structural style, regional unconformities and seismic secuences in the Cauca sub-basin. (Modified from Barrero and Laverde, 1998).

Seismic sequence 4 is composed of parallel discontinuous reflectors and is 200 ms two-way-time in average shows little deformation and is interpreted to represent the Neogene molasse, a result from the final collision. Deformation of this sequence has been documented close to the Central Cordillera. Seismic sequence 5 is composed of parallel, sub-horizontal continuous reflectors wave-shaped at the base of the sequence, and chaotic pattern to the east (Figure 25). The overall geometry of this sequence is a wedge shape that thickens to the east from 100ms to 600ms two-way-time. It shows no deformation on the seismic profile VC-79-10. However, the fieldwork observations indicate faulting is present in this sequence close to the Central Cordillera.

2.4.3 Northern area: Amag basin The Amag sub-basin is limited to the east by an inner fold-andthrust belt of basement core uplifts and to the west by the Cauca fault system. There are only few outcrops of Tertiary units. Most of the interior of the sub-basin is covered by the Combia Formation deposits (Figure 26). In the Amag sub-basin the thrust belt is oriented N 34 E and is 230 km long and 6.6 km wide in the northern part, 40km wide in the middle part and 12 km in the southern part. The first interpretation of this sub-basin as a fold-and-thrust belt was done by Grosse (1926). It was described as a thrust of basement highs transported over Miocene strata, formed during the Oligocene to upper Miocene (Figure 27a, b, c, d, e).

47
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 47

21/04/12 8:14

Figure 26. Geological map of Amag sub-basin.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr21.indd 48

21/04/12 10:37

INSERTAR MAPA PLEGABLE ARCHIVO ADJUNTO (Amag Pg.49 plegable.pdf)

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr21.indd 49

21/04/12 10:37

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

50
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 27 a). Cross-sections of the Amaga subbasin.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 50

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

b)

51
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 51

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

52
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

c)

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 52

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

d)

53
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 53

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

2.5 Major Structural elements The Pata sub-basin is essentially a wide synclinorium developed in the Cenozoic sedimentary sequence. The Cretaceous basement complex is exposed on the flanks of this structure in the western foothills and East of the Cordillera Central and Western respectively. The structural regional trend of the Pata sub-basin is N - NE / S - SW. The most important structural elements are: Romeral Fault System, to the East, Cali - Pata Fault system to the west, a system of transverse faults with NE - SW direction and a set of folds with azimuth N - NE, developed between the systems of faults of Romeral and Cali - Pata (Figure 28). The regional structural features are summarized in the Figure 29 and described as follows: 2.5.1 Romeral Fault system 2.5.3 Piedecuesta Fault This fault system is generally accepted as the boundary between oceanic and continental crusts and was initially recognized by Grosse (1926) in the Antioquia region. It has been described in numerous works such as: (1) strike-slip system (Campbell, 1968; Case and others, 1971); (2) inverse system of high angle; (3) Western vergence (McCourt and Millward, 1984); (4) right-lateral strike-slip system (McCourt and Aspden, 1984, MacDonald et al., 1996, Sierra, G., 1994); (5) transtensional system with left lateral movement (Kellog et al., 1983) and (6) a system with transpressional compressive and direction components (Afonso et al., 1994). On the other hand, ECOPETROL / ESRI (1988) studies indicate the presence of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks in the hanging wall and Cretaceous rocks in the footwall of the fault suggesting this structure was a thrust from its origin. To the north of the Basin, Alfonso (1993) recognizes a belt folded and faulted with azimuths N - NE, on the east flank of the Cauca sub-basin, consisting of a series of basement highs with en echelon geometry, and westward vergence, which constitute an embedded system associated with Romeral Fault System. The Romeral fault system, which includes San Jernimo, Silvia Pijao and Cauca Almaguer faults, is noted with an arched, concave line westward, consistent with a moderate inclination towards the East and a direction of tectonic transport to the west (see Geological maps Figures 26, 28). 2.5.2 Cauca Fault system This fault system is called Cali Pata in the Cauca-Pata sub-basins (Mosquera et al., 1998). There is no consensus on the definition of the fault system, which has been described interchangeably by various authors. The Piedecuesta Fault was mapped and named by Grosse (1926) in the Amag sub-basin. This Fault lies west of the principal trace of the Romeral Fault. The fault is a truly remarkable geological boundary, it separates blocks of very dissimilar geology and lithology. Estrada et al., (1998) shows that the trace of the fault is a reverse fault dipping to the east. The Piedecuesta fault trend is somewhat irregular (anastomosing pattern). 2.5.4 Faulting with NE - SW direction A third system of major faults is a series of transverse structures of NE - SW trend. The cartographic relations indicate that they are more recent structures related to N S direction movements. 2.5.5 Regional Folding N NE direction A series of anticlines and synclines with preferential direction N NE are developed, in Neogene rocks. The synclines dominate over anticlines and are the most prominent structures mapped. The folds are parallel or sub parallel to the faults, and are tight, asymmetric, with westward vergence; the direction of thrust axes is not very continuous. The general trend of faulting for the Cauca-Pata watershed varies between 30-43 NE-SW. The axes of folding, anticlines and synclines, are parallel to that trend. Strikes of NS direction that extend to the northernmost part north of the Amag basin can be seen approximately at the latitude of Manizales. A third train of fault tend, evidenced in two basins, with trend N 30 W can be observed. Murcia and others (1991) interpret these feactures as an extensional system, formed in the area of flexure of the oceanic crust adjacent to the old mid- Cretaceous subduction zone; Cline et al. (1981) argue that the system is part of the Dolores Megashear System, which extends from Ecuador as an anastomosing system of faults, which are vertical and that dip both east and west. ECOPETROL / ESRI (1988) suggests that Cauca and other associated faults that cut the Tertiary rocks along the eastern flank of the Cordillera Occidental deliver a thrust of dominantly western vergence. On the other hand, Orrego and Paris (1999) described the system as a group of reverse, high angle, NE-trending faults, dipping to the East, with important horizontal displacements.

54
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 54

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

55
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 28. Geological map of the Cauca-Pata sub-basins.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 55

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

56
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 29. Regional structural map in the ACP basin.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 56

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

2.6 Gravimetry and Magnetometry A magnetic study was done at 4750m above sea level by Carson Helicopters (2006) and interpreted by Graterol. The magnetic and Bouguer gravity anomaly data are well correlated with the igneo-metamorphic PreCretaceous basement. The Bouguer anomaly with a density of 2.30 Grs/ cc Bouguer density, also shows a clear close relationship with the density contrasts between the Tertiary sequences and the Cretaceous basement. Along the Cauca Valley river, there are negative Bouguer anomalies, indicating the great thickness of the Quaternary Tertiary sequence to the North. A positive anomaly in the middle of the Valley with a large extension to the west border correlates with the Cretaceous basement. The eastern border has negative values and correlates with the metamorphic nucleus of the Central Cordillera. Figure 30 shows the pole-reduced total magnetic intensity, which correlates well, with the gravity seismic depth map (Figure 31), and with positive Bouguer anomalies associated with the igneousmetamorphic Cretaceous basement rocks. The top of the Cretaceous basement is shown in Figure 32. The geophysical information in the Amag sub-basin is shown in Figures 33 and 34. Both maps are well correlated with the main fault systems and with the surface lithology. A possible depocenter in the basin is interpreted south of the Arma fault where the overlying Combia Formation has its maximum thickness. 2.7 Structural map The structural contour analysis associated with the 3D gravimetric inversion with the geological control was the basis of the structural interpretation of the Cretaceous basement. This map clearly shows the Tertiary-Quaternary thickness and the main fault trends. There is a large structural complexity of the Cretaceous basement top that outcrops along the Eastern and Western border and the Cauca river Valley and close to the Juda-1, Patacore-1 and Bereju-1 wells. The greatest thicknesses of the Quaternary-Tertiary sequences is observed close to the Candelaria-1 (3000m) well and to the Southeast of Armenia city (1500m). These values indicate that there is not enough Tertiary sedimentary sequence for hydrocarbons generation. However, if migration from other sources occurs in the valley, the best possibilities for their retention will occur in the Cretaceous basement structural traps. The gravimetric-magnetometric models, and the structural interpretation of the top of the Cretaceous basement, show that the dominant structural trend in North-Northeast direction in the Cauca River is related to the Central and Western Cordillera emplacement.

57
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 30. Pole reduced Total Magnetic Intensity (Modified from Carson Helicopters, 2006).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 57

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

58
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 31. Gravity_Seismic Depth.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 58

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

59
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 32. Top of Cretacic Basement map.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 59

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 2 - GEOLOGY

60
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 33. Gravimetry map Amag sub-basin.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 60

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

61
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 34. Magnetometric map Amag subbasin.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 61

21/04/12 8:15

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 62

21/04/12 8:15

3. TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 63

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 3 - TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE AMAG CAUCA PATA BASIN

The model presented here is intended to be a synthesis of all the available information of the evolution of the Western Colombia region. Nevertheless, the scarcity of radiometric, biostratigraphic and geochemistry data, the structural complexity, and the lithologic similarities of diachronous units, result in basin reconstructions of variable detail for particular periods of time. The ACP basin developed during the Paleogene and Neogene time, adjacent to the Romeral suture zone, as result of diachronous oblique collision of an intra oceanic island arc with the irregular margin of north western South America. The basin is located between the Cayo Arc Continental Ecuador collision zone to the South, and the Panama Arc Antioquia collision zone to the North (Barrero and Laverde 1998; Cediel et al., 2003; Moreno and Pardo, 2008). The plate tectonic events that play an important role in the evolution of the Western Colombia region and in the origin of the ACP are: (1) Late Triassic event, related to Pangea breakup; (2) a Jurassic-Early Cretaceous event: western Colombia underwent oblique subduction by the Farallones plate; (3) a Late Paleocene- early Eocene event: major tectonism in Ecuador could be caused by collision of the Cayo remnant arc with the continental margin; (4) an Eocene- early Miocene event: the island arc migrated and rotated about 130 degrees from its original position to finally collide with the Antioquia promontory in western Colombia, Discontinuous uplift and erosion of the ancestral Central and Western Cordilleras and the closure of the basin to the marine influence during the Cenozoic allow us to propose that the ACP basin could be better classified as a collision related basin.

3.1 Late

Triassic

Bacause of the break up of Pangea, the continental margin of northwest South America was very irregular, due to the alternation of coastal promontories and re-entrants. The geometry is now expressed by two promontories separated by a pronounced re-entrant that probably existed since Triassic time: The Ecuadorian promontory, extending from Gulf of Guayaquil to southern Colombia; the Manizales re-entrant and the Antioquia promontory extending from the north of Manizalez as far as the northern part of Cerro Matoso. This configuration of the Triassic continental margin has big implications in the kinematics and geometry of the different events. (Storey, et al., 1991; Nivia, A., 1989; Kerr, A. C., at al., 1997, 1998; Moreno, and Pardo, 2003; Cediel et al., 2003; Barrero et al, 2003, Kerr, and Tarney, 2005.) 3.2 Jurassic Early Cretaceous East-dipping subduction was the dominant process during evolution of the northwest continental margin of South America for this time. During this period, the continental margin of western Colombia underwent oblique subduction by the Farallones plate. The evidence of these events is now mapped as a highly deformed accretionary prism that extends along the Romeral suture. This accretionary prism is well exposed in the Manizales reentrant and the evidence includes: slivers of oceanic crust (Figure 35), dismembered ophiolite suites, glaucophane schists, retrograde eclogites and calcareous unit. The above mentioned suture is well explained by the so-called Romeral Blueschist Belt (Figure 36). Surface geology and seismic data indicate a west-vergent fold-and thrust structural style of deformation

64
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 35. Cross section geological profile close to Armenia city. (Modified from Suter 2008).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 64

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

65
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 36. Romeral Blue Schist Belt (Compiled by Cediel, 2011).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 65

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 3 - TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE AMAG CAUCA PATA BASIN

(Figure 37). This accretionary prism that crops out east of the Cauca-Pata basin and, most-likely form the basement of its Paleogene- Neogene fill, has been named Amaime terrain (McCourt and Aspden 1985). 3.3 Late Paleocene- early Eocene The late Paleocene- early Eocene major tectonism in Ecuador could be caused by collision of the Cayo remnant arc with the continental margin. The collision zone extends from southern Ecuador to the south of Colombia. This situation created a remnant ocean basin between the arc and the continental margin of Colombia at that time. The continued migration of the arc in a north-east direction results in a clockwise rotation of about 55 degrees in the Ecuadorian portion of the arc (Roperch et al., 1987). The upper Paleocene middle Eocene is marked by a regional hiatus in the ACP, and by the development of silici-clastic deposits (Figure 38). 3.4 Eocene to early Miocene From Eocene to early Miocene times, the island arc migrated and rotated about 130 degrees from its original position to finally collide with the Antioquia promontory in western Colombia. Evidence for rotation of the Colombia portion of the Costa Rica-Ecuador island arc is given by the paleomagnetic studies done in the El Horno pillow basalt (86+/- 3 Ma) of the Gorgona terraine (Estrada, 1995). The collision zone with the Antioquia promontory extends from the south of Antioquia as far north to Cerro Matoso. This zone is geologically very complex and thrusting of the arc over the Central Cordillera was probably the result of this Miocene collision, and more importantly, this event closed the remnant ocean and determined the final geometry of the ACP basin. The above description of the Cenozoic evolution of the western continental margin of Colombia allows us to propose that the ACP basin is better classified as a collision related basin (Figure 39).

66
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 37. Paleomagnetic site mean declination (black wedges previous study and red wedges these study) for the late tertiary intrusions form two distintct groups (northern and souther of the Amaga Sub basin) of different treands but approximately parallel to trend of adjacent Romeral suture zone. Late Tertiary intrusions are stippled.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 66

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

The zircon fission track analysis (ZFT) in the ACP basin shows coherence with the tectonic setting related to the Andean orogeny from Eocene to the Early Miocene. The first stage during the opening of the basin is related to the deposition of Eocene formations (e.g. Pea Morada, Chimborazo, Mosquera, Guachinte, Cinta de Piedra and lower Amag member). It may correspond to the uplift of the proto-Central Cordillera. At least two populations of zircons with Jurassic and Cretaceous ages are consistent with the ages of the crystalline rocks in the present Central Cordillera. The Eocene zircon populations could correspond to the minimum deposition age. The petrographical and heavy mineral studies in sandstones in the Amag sub-basin may indicate an orogen-recycle related origin. The paleo-topography at this time may indicate that the Western Cordillera was partially or completely immersed; therefore, there is no evidence of zircon populations or heavy mineral that could be correlated with the source from the west Andes. The detrital zircon population data in the upper members of these formations are very similar to the ones found in the lower members. Thus, it is propose that the Eocene formations were up-lifted and were the source of the Miocene sequences. The volcanicrelated zircons with Miocene ages may indicate deposition of the late Miocene sedimentary sequences synchronous with the late Cenozoic magmatism (e.g. Combia Formation) with ages between 6-12 M.a. This data is consistent with the data reported by Jaramillo (1978), Toro et al., (1999) and Lpez et al., (2006). 3.5 Late Miocene Pliocene Late Miocene andesitic and dacitic intrusions (stiching plutons) form well preserved dikes and necks that stand out in relief above the surrounding sediments. (Figure 26). The radiometric and fission track ages of igneous rocks from this zone range from 6 10 M.a. The displacements of these bodies are indicative of the most recent movements in this zone. Several bodies and the surrounding sediments were sampled by paleomagnetic study. The distribution of sampling sites is shown in Figure 37. The results of this study are compared to those of MacDonald (1980), MacDonald et al., (1993) Sierra, (1994) and suggest counter-clockwise vertical axes rotation (Figure 38). The rotation inferred from paleomagnetic data can be explained by a variety of mechanisms; two mechanisms of structural rotations for lenticular shaped igneous bodies in strike slip zone are suggested (Figure 39 and 40): the Cenozoic intrusions are either lenses or lenticular pipes with their shape being both inherited from the intrusion, and/or modified as a result of faulting. Torques resulting from the differential slip along the anastomosing fault zone cause rotations of these competent igneous lenses in the plane of the fault, i.e., about horizontal rotation axes normal to the fault trend. Because of the differences in the faulting environments the associated horizontal axis rotations are of variable amount and opposite senses in the different blocks. For the large pipe like bodies, horizontal axis rotation can result

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 67

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA


21/04/12 8:15

Figure 38. Standard F diagrams (dedding poles, righthand column) define structural trends of domains for the folded Tertiary strata of the North Amaga Cauca Patia basin. In the left column, the symmetry plane found by eigenvalue method is great circle representing the bedding poles. Dots in the lefthand column, represent the minimum eigenvector, representing the normal to the great circle, and therefore corresponding to the fold axis for the bedding poles of the right column. The fold axes parallel approximately the Romeral suture zone.

67

CHAPTER 3 - TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE AMAG CAUCA PATA BASIN

from slip on horizontal detachments. The structural and paleomagnetism studies in the Amag sub-basin indicate that since middle Eocene, the Romeral faults has had multiple slip reversal (Figure 41). 3.6 Quaternary Quaternary deposits associated to volcanic pyroclastic flows, lahars and volcano-clastic rocks fill up the valleys, fossilizing the structure in some areas of the basin. 3.7 Basin Development The ACP basin marks a northward elongate Cenozoic sedimentary basin, fixed in the domain of large transcurrent faults, which form the Cauca Romeral Fault System (CRFS). The system is well characterized on the east side (San Jernimo, Silvia Pijao and Romeral Faults), but in the western part of the Cauca fault the cartography is not clear. To the east, the Romeral fault separates the ACP basin from the Central Cordillera, a deformed and uplifted block of metamorphic Paleozoic rocks intruded by Mesozoic plutons. The western side of the Central Cordillera has been thrusted westward over the ACP basin along the right lateral Romeral Fault Zone, reactive suture. Partially dismembered ophiolites in several areas along the Romeral fault provide direct evidence of this suturing. Cenozoic volcanic centers are located along the western side of the Central Cordillera near the fault zone. The ACP is separated from the western Cordillera by the east vergent Cauca Fault System. The western cordillera is composed of variably metamorphic Cretaceous volcano-clastic rocks, sandy turbiditic rocks, thoeleiitic rocks and dismembered ophiolites. These rocks define a series of thrust nappes, which appear to have travelled from southeast to northwest, and are locally intruded by Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene plutons. Dismembered ophiolites are present in several places as fault bounded slices along the Cauca Fault. The ACP developed during Paleogene-Neogene time, west of the Romeral suture zone, as a result of diachronous oblique collision of an intra-oceanic island arc with the irregular margin of northwestern South America. This configuration of the Triassic continental margin (with some latter modifications) has significant implications in the kinematics and geometry of events. The basin is situated between the Cayo Arc- Continental Ecuador collision zone to the south, and the Panama Arc-Antioquia collision zone to the north. This collision event triggered thrust faulting and dextral strike slip displacement mainly along the Romeral suture zone. The regional synthesis and structural characterization developed in the area of ACP

Figure 39. Models for coherent vertical axis rotation of northern group of intrusions relative to southern group by kinking of the zone of intrusions.

68
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 40. Models for incoherent horizontal axis rotation of lenticular masses of Tertiary intrusions. Rotation of massive lenticular intrusive bodies in the plane of the fault system produces irregular dispersion of remanence vector in the vertical plane.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 68

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

a result of the ocean material accession. The mechanism that produced this effect is known as underplating and generated a belt of thrusting towards the coastline . The structural style is a forward thrust system with western vergence. This accretionary wedge would later form the basement of the basin ACP, known as the Amaime terraine to the south and east (McCourt and Aspden 1984), the Dagua terraine (Etayo et al., 1982) in the Western Cordillera, and the Quebradagrande Formation to the north (Barrero and Laverde 1998). Late Cretaceous Probably at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous a second subduction zone formed. Several hundred kilometers to the west of the accretionary prism. This new subduction zone gave rise to an intra oceanic island arc, known in the Ecuador as the Macuchi arc and in Colombia as the oceanic basement from the Western Cordillera. The Macuchi arc extends from the Garrapatas fracture zone to the Grijalba fracture zone in the Guayaquil Gulf (Figure 43). Campanian Maastrichtian As the collision started between the Macuchi arc and the Ecuador continental margin, a narrow and elongated space was opened to the north, forming a remnant ocean basin. The continuous addition of material by underplating at the base of the accretionary wedge thickened the accretionary prism and uplifted of the adjacent proto-Cordillera Central. In this process calcareous and siliciclastic turbidites and hemipelagic sediments were deposit and represented by the Maripolito, Agua Clara and Nogales Formations. The distribution of these facies has a regional character. The clastic sequences have a high volcanic content and consequently low potential as rock reservoirs; while the interbedded shales with organic matter dominantly of marine origin and with a smaller influence of terrigenous sediments are potential rock sources of gas. Paleocene Collision The late Paleocene- early Eocene major tectonism in Ecuador may be related to the collision of the Cayo remnant arc with the continental margin. The collision zone extends from southern Ecuador to south of the city of Pasto, Colombia. This situation created a remnant ocean basin between the arc and the continental margin of Colombia at that time. The continued migration of the arc in a north-east direction resulted in a clockwise rotation of about 55 degrees in the Ecuadorian portion of the arc (Roperch et al., 1987). 69
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA
21/04/12 8:15

Figure 41. Sketch diagram of possible movements of Cauca Romeral fault System mid- Eocene Pleistocene. A). Extension phase with sedimentation, detachment, and clockwise rotation associated with right -lateral slip at a right stopover. b) Compression phase, with folding, thrusting, and clockwise rotation during ninistral slip at right stopover.

basin, suggests a polyphase basin development. The plate tectonic events that gave origin to the ACP basin are summarized as follow: Jurassic early Cretaceous The breakup of Pangea during the early Triassic results in a territorial irregular shaped margin. This geometry of the continental margin affects the facies and structural architecture of ACP basin. During this time, the continental margin of Ecuador and western Colombia underwent oblique subduction by the Farallones plate. The displacement was toward the Northeast (Figure 42). The result of this process was the formation of a magmatic arc in the Cordillera Central, the development of Romeral faults and the formation of an accretionary wedge into the ocean. Therefore, the ACP basin area would have been occupied by a tectonic trench. The subduction process would continued during the early Cretaceous and consolidated the accretionary wedge. This prism increased and rose as

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 69

CHAPTER 3 - TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE AMAG CAUCA PATA BASIN

Early Eocene - Middle Eocene During this period, the Macuchi arc moved between the Garrapatas and Grijalba fractures, in collision with the continental margin of Ecuador (Figure 44) in diachronous way from south to north, due to the irregularity of the margin, resulting in the formation of the Patia - Cauca basin as a remnant ocean basin. The collision revived the thrusts of western vergence (accretionary wedge) and thus the thrust of eastern vergence began from the Macuchi arc towards the continent. The asymmetric ACP basin, was closed to the south but open to the ocean northward. Sediments from the Macuchi arc and the proto-Central Cordillera drained and converged in a main N-S drainage, resulting in a deposition of Paleogene sediments (e.g. Pea Morada, Rio Guabas, Chimborazo and the lower member Amaga formations). Middle Miocene - lower Miocene During this period of time, the collision of the Panama arc began at the continental margin of Colombia in the northern ACP basin. The Paleogene structures were reactivated with a thrusts predominat thrusts, of western vergence beheading the thrusts of eastern vergence, mainly in the Patia area. This collision closed the basin in the far North. From this moment on the basin was filled with the Neogene sediments such as the Pata Formation, the conglomeratic member of the Esmita Formation, La Paila Formation and the upper member of the Amag Formation (Figure 45). Pliocene Pleistocene During this time, volcanic- clastic deposits covered the ACP basin from south to north. The block- like movements in the basin, induced the segmentation of the Cauca - Pata sub-basins and Amag basin, in the final events of the Andean orogeny. The Galen, Popayn, Jamundi, Zarzal, Armenia and Combia Formations were deposited.
Figure 42. Scheme of the origin and evolution of the Amaga Cauca Pata basin in the upper Cretaceous.

70
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 43. Scheme of the origin and evolution of the Amaga Cauca Pata basin in late Cretaceous to Eocene.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 70

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

Figure 44. Scheme of the origin and evolution of the Amaga Cauca Patia basin in the Early Eocene - Middle Eocene.

71
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 45. Scheme of the origin and evolution of the Amaga Cauca Patia basin in the Miocene to Pleistocene.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 71

21/04/12 8:15

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 72

21/04/12 8:15

4. PETROLEUM SYSTEM

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 73

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 4 - PETROLUEM SYSTEM

This chapter succinctly identifies and characterizes the basins principal petroleum system elements and processes. Due to the diverse and complex stratigraphic nomenclature used by various authors, the terminilogy most adequate for this exercise has been adopted. It is important to emphasize that the site chosen for 1-D geochemical modeling (in deep areas of the basin) represents hydrocarbon generation and expulsion conditions that are only valid for source rocks at that particular site. Extending these results beyond this site, or building general conclusions based on this site alone is therefore inappropriate. The Amag Basin is considered a frontier basin from the exploration point of view. This basin has large economic coal reserves from the Amag Formation (Figure 46). In a study carried out by Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medelln (UNAL, 2009), the Amag Basin is considered to be a potential generator of non-convential hydrocarbons, i.e. coal- bed methane (CBM). This is evidenced in some underground mines. However, volumes and distribution of the CBM resources have not been determined. A preliminary evaluation of CBM resources was done by EAFIT University (ANH, 2011) based on the data from five wells. The analyzed samples related to the gas content range from few to 90 Tcf. The total evaluated resources in three prospective blocks were 186.30 MMCF in the P5%. The limited areal extent of the basin, its relatively thin sedimentary sequence, together with the unclear definition of a source rock lead to an uncertain definition of a petroleum system. However, the available geochemical information suggests a possible petroleum system associated with the production of gas from a kerogen type III which is abundant in the Amag Formation.

74
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 46. Location of active coal mines in the Amag Basin.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 74

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

4.1 Hydrocarbon elements and processes 4.1.1 Source rocks Potential source rocks of the basin are the coal beds of the Amag Formation, which are rich in vitrinite and liptinite. Similarly, the sub-bituminous coals and the carbonaceous mudstones are potential hydrocarbon source rocks (UNAL, 2009). 4.1.2 Reservoir rocks The upper member of the Amag Formation contains thick successions of mid- to fine-grain sandstones that could act as reservoir rocks. 4.1.3 Seal rocks The thick succession of greenish grey mudstones of the upper member of the Amag Formation are potential seal rocks for the accumulation of hydrocarbons in the basin. 4.1.4 Hydrocarbon traps Due to the similarity of the tectonic style between the Amag Basin and the Cauca Sub-Basin, analogous hydrocarbon traps should be expected. This tectonic style is characterized by blocks which would have favored the development of stratigraphic traps associated to with the thinning (pinchouts) of stratigraphic units against the basement, and lateral closures generated against normal faults. 4.1.5 Overburden rocks The overburden above the source rocks, i.e. the coal beds and the carbonaceous mudstones of the Amag Formation, is the Neogene sedimentary succession. 4.1.6 Events Chart Figure 47 presents the elements of the unconventional hydrocarbon system of the Amag basin, the hypothetical burial curve for the Paleogene units is represented by the red line. 4.3 Source rock properties 4.3.1 Organic matter content The Amag Formation has an organic matter content (%TOC) that normally exceeds 10% due to the presence of carbonaceous mudstones and coal bed interlayers.

4.3.2 Organic matter quality Based on the counting of macerals, it was determined that there is a dominance of vitrinite in excess of 69%, followed by exinite with 6 to 27% values, and inertinite with 1 to 5% values for the Amag Formation (Toro, 1983). This is kerogen type III, which has a gas generation capacity. Furthermore, across the basin there is a dominance of kerogens type II and III and exceptionally some mudstones with kerogen type I (UNAL, 2009). Therefore the possibility of generating liquid hydrocarbons in the basin exists (Figure 48). 4.3.3 Thermal maturation of organic matter From the study of about 56 samples it was determined that 22% present vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) values between 0.6 and 1.3%, which corresponds to the oil generation window. In addition, 8% and 70% of the samples show %Ro values above 1.3% and 70%, respectively (Toro, 1983). Therefore, the former are over-mature, whereas the latter are immature. On the other hand, maximum temperature values (Tmaz) are under 435C for the immature mudstones and coals of the Amag Formation (UNAL, 2009). However, the UNAL (2009) considers that the subbituminous coals and carbonaceous mudstones could have generated hydrocarbons at lower temperatures to was is known as the conventional generation window, i.e. a Tmax of 435-470C, and a %Ro between 0.6 and 1.3% (Figure 48). 4.3.4 Hydrocarbon generation potential The hydrocarbon potential of the Amag Basin is mainly unconventional, i.e. coal bed methane. However, the possibility of liquid hydrocarbons exists, based on the occurrence of mudstones with kerogens type I and II and considering the thermal variable needed on the generation and expulsion processes. In Figure 49 a synthesis of the main geochemical characteristics of the Amag Formation as a possible source rock in the basin is presented. 4.3.5 Petroleum system modeling Currently, and due to the sparse geochemical information available, the uncertainty regarding the thickness of the stratigraphic succession, and the absence of a geological section in depth, the modeling of the petroleum system of the basin is not possible. 75
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA
21/04/12 8:15

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 75

CHAPTER 4 - PETROLUEM SYSTEM

Figure 47. Events Chart of the hydrocarbon unconventional system of the Amag Basin. The hypothetical burial curve, for the Paleogene unit, is represented by the red line.

Figure 49. Synthesis diagram of the source rock properties of the Amag Basin. Note that the Amag Formation is a gas prone unit.

4.4 Petrolelum system definition The available information did not suggest a petroleum system in the basin. However, it is now possible to suggest a speculative petroleum system (cf. Magoon & Dow, 1994) based on the geological and geochemical information of the coals and mudstones of the Amag Formation as hypothetical source rocks, and its sandstones as reservoir rocks. This would be expressed as: Amag (?)

76
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

4.5 Petroleum systems of the Cauca Sub-Basin The Cauca Sub-Basin is considered as a frontier basin from the exploration point of view. A total of five noncommercial wells have been drilled since 1965 (Figure 50). The geochemical evaluation of hydrocarbon extracts and rocks, and the data with structural and stratigraphic information permit the indentification of elements and processes needed in support of the occurrence of possible petroleum systems in theis subbasin.

Figure 48. Maximum temperature (Tmax) vs hydrogen index (HI) diagram for the Amag Basin. Note that HI values indicate the existence of kerogen type III, and type II in a lesser proportion. The analyzed samples are immature (modified from UNAL and ANH, 2009).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 76

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

4.5.1 Elements and Processes Source rocks The available geochemical information suggests that the upper Cretaceous to lower Miocene mudstones and siltstone units, i.e. Chimborazo, Guachinte, Ferreira, and Aguas Claras Formations, contain intervals with good hydrocarbon generattion characteristics. These are total organic carbon (%TOC) > 1%, a hydrogen index (HI) up to 300 mg HC/g TOC, and a mixture of kerogens type II and III. (Hincapi et al., 2010). Reservoir rocks The main reservoir rock corresponds to the Chimborazo Formation, which has porosities between 5 and 15%, and mean permeabilities of 100 md. Other coarse-grained clastic units, i.e. Eocene to middle Miocene sandstones and conglomerates are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs in the basin. Among these units are the Ferreira, and Cinta de Piedra Formations, and some levels of the Guachinte Formation. Seal rocks The statigraphic units that qualified as the best seal rocks in the Cauca sub-basin because of their lithological characteristics are finegrained, volcanoclastic deposits interbedded within the Galen and La Paila Formation, together with the fine -grained, facies of the Ferreira, Guachinte, and Cinta de Piedra Formations (Hincapi et al., 2010). Hydrocarbon traps Based on seismic information it has been established that the main trap styles of the Cauca Sub-Basin are the pinchouts of stratigraphic units against the basement and the lateral closures against normal faults. Overburden The overburden for the Cretaceous and Paleocene source rocks comprises the Eocene to Recent stratigraphic succession. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion processes The hydrocarbon generation and expulsion processes mainly occurred since the early Miocene, with a brief interruption about the Pliocene time. The critical moment of hydrocarbon generation occurred in the Recent.

77
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 50. Location of wells and geochemical data of the Cauca Sub-Basin.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 77

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 4 - PETROLUEM SYSTEM

Events Chart Figure 51 depicts the petroleum system elements and processes of the Cauca Sub-Basin. In Figure 51 Petroleum events Chart sub basin, the burial curve is represented by the red line.

The Cinta de Piedra and Ferreira Formations have HI values lower than 200 mg HC/gr TOC that correspond to a kerogen type III, thus indicating its gas generation potential. Due to the high organic matter maturation of the Agua Clara Formation, its HI values are reduced in relation to the original values. In Figure 52 Modified Van Krevelen diagram of the stratigraphic succession of the Cauca sub-basin, the evaluated stratigraphic succession presents a mixture of Kerogens type II and III.

Figure 51. Petroleum events Chart for the Cauca Sub-Basin. The burial curve is represented by the red line.

4.5.2 Organic matter content The analyses of total organic carbon (%TOC) for the MaastrichtianMiocene succession of the Cauca Sub-Basin varies greatly, with values in the range 0 to 20%. However, most samples have TOC values lower than 2%. This qualifies them as having a favorable to very good hydrocarbon potential. The most favorable (TOC>2%) units are the Guachinte and Cinta de Piedras Formations. 78
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

4.5.3 Organic matter quality Organic matter quality was evaluated by Pyrolysis Rock Eval and kerogen visual analyses. This evidence of the presence of a mixture of kerogens type II and III, with a mixture of vitrinite and amorphous organic matter, i.e. terrestrial and marine, and an hydrogen index (HI) that varies between 8 and 315 mg HC/gr TOC in the Chimborazo and Guachinte Formations. Thus, they have an oil and gas generation potential (Figure 52).

Figure 52. Modified Van Krevelen diagram of the stratigraphic succession of the Cauca Sub-Basin. The evaluated stratigraphic succession presents a mixture of kerogens type II and III.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 78

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

4.5.4 Thermal maturation of organic matter Maximum temperature (Tmax) values indicate that samples of the Chimborazo, Guachinte and Ferreira Formations are in a thermal stage that varies from immature to the liquid hydrocarbon generation peak (430 to 450C). Conversely, samples from the Cinta de Piedra Formation are considered immature, with Tmax values lower than 435C, whereas the Agua Clara Formation is over-mature with Tmax values higher than 472C (Figure 53). 4.5.5 Hydrocarbon generation potential The geochemical information indicates a favorable to poor hydrocarbon generation potential for most of the stratigraphic succession of the Cauca Sub-Basin, i.e. with values lower than 5 mg HC gr/rock for most samples. The best generation potential is recorded in some levels of the Ferreira, Guachinte, and Cinta de Piedra Formations, with values between 6 and 47 mg HC gr/rock. The latter with a good to very good potential (Figure 54). In Figure 55 a synthesized presentation of the main geochemical characteristics of the Guachinte, Ferreira, chimobrazo and Cinta de Piedras Formation is done as potential source rocks in the Cauca sub-basin. 4.6 Hydrocarbon extract properties Due to the absence of hydrocarbon producing fields and oil seeps in the Sub-Basin, the information on crude oils is limited. The analysed samples correspond to extracts of the Chimborazo Formation. Compositional analyses of rock extracts indicate that the Saturate fraction is dominant compared to the Aromatics and NSO (Resins+Asphaltenes) compound fractions. The Pristane/Phytane ratio is larger than 2, thus suggesting a marine (deltaic), oxic, depositional environment, with organic matter contributions of terrestial origin (Figures 56 and 57).

Figure 53. Maximum temperature (Tmax) vs hydrogen index (HI) diagram for the source rocks of the Cauca Sub-Basin. The Cinta de Piedra and Agua Clara Formations are considered immature and over-matuer, respectively, whereas the Chimborazo, Guachinte, and Ferreira Formations are in the oil generation window.

79
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 54. Total organic carbon (%TOC) vs generation potential (S1+S2) for the source rocks of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Note that the Guachinte and Ferreira Formations show favorable generation potential values. Data from Geoestudios Ltd. (2008) and Hincapi et al. (2009).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 79

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 4 - PETROLUEM SYSTEM

Figure 56. Phytane/nC18 vs pristane/nC17 diagram for organic matter extracts of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Extracts correlate with an oxic environment with a mixture of organic matter corresponding to a kerogen type II and III (marine and terrestrial).

80
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 55. Synthesis of geochemical properties of the main source rocks of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Note that the Guachinte Formation shows the best characteristics as a source rock.

Figure 57. Pristane/Phytane vs oleanane/C30 hopane diagram for hydrocarbon extracts of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Note that they correlate with an oxic depositional environment.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 80

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

4.7 Petroleum systems modeling The simulation of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion processes in the northern Cauca Sub-Basin was done based on a pseudo-well and generalized (un-localized) stratigraphic columns. According to the geological evolution model for the Cauca Sub-Basin, the base of the lower Cretaceous succession has reached a maximum burial depth of 26000 feet, and a maximum temperature of 405F during the Holocene (Figure 58). Figure 59. Maximum burial curves for the stratigraphic succession of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Note that the maximum burial depth occurs in the Holocene. A constant heat flux of 46 mw/m2 was used in the modeling exercise. Based on regional and local geochemical information, a source rock interval of the lower Cinta de Piedra Formation was included. Results of the simulation indicate that this source rock interval reached maturation levels in the late stage of hydrocarbon expulsion, i.e. in the late stage of the oil generation window (Ro=1, Figure 60). However, there is not an associated expulsion process due to the shallow burial of the source rock interval (Figure 60). 4.8 Petroleum systems definition The lack of geochemical information is the main constraint for the definition of the petroleum systems in the Cauca Sub-Basin. Despite the scarce presence of oil, seeps and accumulations, the available geological and geochemical information, as well as modeling, suggest the presence of the following petroleum systems: Guachinte-Chimborazo (.) Ferreira-Esmita (.) Cinta de Piedra (.) These petroleum systems are considered hypothetical, based on geochemical evidence of the source rock, but still crude oil rock correlations are needed (cf. Magoon & Dow, 1994). Figure 61 shows the hypothetical geographical distribution of the petroleum systems in the Sub-Basin.

Figure 58. Maximum burial curves for the stratigraphic succession of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Note that the maximum burial depth occurs in the Holocene.

81
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 59. Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) through time for the stratigraphic succession of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Note that the Cinta de Piedra Formation reached a temperature equivalent to the liquid hydrocarbons generation peak to a late maturation.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 81

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 4 - PETROLUEM SYSTEM

Figure 60. Expulsion generation processes. Note that the Cinta de Piedra Formation did not reache a stage of development.

82
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 61. Petroleum systems map of the Cauca Sub-Basin. Note the depocenter at the top of the basement, and the hypothetical area of influence of the petroleum systems.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 82

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

4.9 Petroleum systems of the Pata Sub-Basin The Pata Sub-Basin is considered a frontier basin from the exploration point of view. In the southern Pata Sub-Basin, some oil seeps have been reported (Figure 62). The geochemical evaluation of organic matter extracts and rocks, and its integration with structural and stratigraphic information permits the identification of the elements and processes needed to support the presence of hypothetical petroleum systems in the sub-basin. 4.9.1 Elements and Processes Source rocks The available geochemical information, which was obtained from outcrop samples, indicates that the sedimentary succession, i.e. the mudstones of the Guachinte, Esmita, Mosquera (Eocene middle Miocene) and Chapungo (upper Cretaceous) Formations have the best source rock characteristics. Total organic carbon (%TOC) values are higher than 1%, and organic matter contains kerogens type II and III, which are oil and gas prone. Reservoir rocks The sandy succession of the Mosquera Formation represents the main reservoir rock of the Pata Sub-Basin. It accumulated in a fluvial depositional environment and has porosities that reach 16%. Conversely, the sandy levels of the Esmita Formation also present good characteristics as possible reservoirs of hydrocarbons. Seal rocks Fine-grained facies with a good lateral continuity are characteristic of the mudstones of the Esmita Formation, which qualifies this unit as the main seal rock in the Pata Sub-Basin. In addition, mudstones interlayers in the Pea Morada and Mosquera Formations could act as local seal rocks. Traps The main trap style in the Pata Sub-Basin, based on seismic information, is structural. It consists of a series of low-angle reverse faults, which gave rise to propagation folds, which are ideal for the accumulation of hydrocarbons. Overburden The overburden rocks comprises the stratigraphic succession 83
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA
21/04/12 8:15

Figure 62. Location of geochemical data from the Pata Sub-Basin.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 83

CHAPTER 4 - PETROLUEM SYSTEM

deposited between the Paleocene and the Recent. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion processes For the site modeled in the Pata Sub-Basin, the hydrocarbon generation and expulsion processes were not reached. However, the presence of oil seeps indicates that somewhere in the Pata Sub-Basin, a temperature large enough for the generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons should have existed. 4.10 Events Chart Figure 63 depicts the elements and processes for the proposed petroleum systems of the Pata Sub-Basin. 4.10.1 Source rock properties Organic matter content Total organic carbon (%TOC) for the Esmita Formation vary between 0 and 26%, with about 65% of the samples with values in excess of 1%, i.e. organic matter content that is good to excellent. About 50% of the analyzed samples of the Mosquera Formation have TOC values in excess of 2%, which qualify them as good to excellent. Similarly, the Chapungo Formation has TOC values of up to 6%. Organic matter quality Pyrolisis Rock Eval and kerogen visual analyses indicate the existence of kerogens type II and III, with a mixture of vitrinite and amorphous organic matter, i.e. terrestrial and marine, and hydrogen index (HI) values higher than 50 mg Hc/g TOC for the Esmita and Mosquera Formations (Figure 64). The Chapungo Formation has HI values higher than 300 mg Hc/g TOC, which correspond to a kerogen type II (marine), and therefore a liquid hydrocarbon generation capacity.

Figure 63. Events Chart for the petroleum systems of the Pata Sub-Basin. The burial depth curve is indicated with the red line.

Thermal maturation of organic matter 84


PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

The vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) and maximum temperature (Tmax) values indicate that the Esmita and Mosquera Formations reached a thermal stage that varies from immature to the peak of liquid generation of hydrocarbons. Samples from the Chapungo Formation are considered mature. They have Tmax values between 437 and 450C. Conversely, the Pea Morada Formation is over-mature with Tmax higher than 485C (Figure 65).

Figure 64. Modified Van Krevelen diagram for the Pata Sub-Basin. Note how the Esmita and Mosquera Formations have the best organic matter quality, with mixture of kerogens II and III, and a gas and oil generation capacity. Data from Geoestudios Ltd (2008) and Hincapi et al. (2009).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 84

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

Hydrocarbon generation potential The Esmita, Mosquera and Chapungo Formations have generation potential (S1+S2) values in the range of good to excellent. Nearly 40% of the samples have values higher than 5 mg HC/g TOC, and 2 % of TOC (Figure 66). In Figure 67 a synthesis of the main geochemical characteristics of the stratigraphic succession of the Pata Sub-Basin is shown. Note that the Esmita, Mosquera and Chapungo Formations are very good source rocks. 4.10.2 Oil seeps and rock extract properties Because in the Pata Sub-Basin there are no hydrocarbon productive fields, the geochemical information on crude oil is scarce. The samples analyzed are rock extracts and crude oils from seeps. The compositional analyses of the rock extracts indicate point to that there is a major content of the Saturates fraction, in comparison to Aromatics and NSO compounds (Resines+Asphaltenes). The Pristane/ Phytane ratio varies between 1 and 2, thus suggesting a dis-oxic, marine silicilastic, depositional environment with some influence of terrestrial organic matter (Figures 68 and 69). As for the seep samples, the kerogen is of type II and the depositional environment was marine and more reducing. The esterane ternary diagram shows high values of the C29 fraction, thus suggesting an important supply of terrestrial organic matter in the source rocks (Figure 70). 4.10.3 Synthesis of oil seeps and rock extract properties The rock extracts present saturated hydrocarbons in a major proportion, at the same time that their biomarker ratios suggest a sub-oxic depositional environment and an important supply of terrestrial organic matter. In contrast, the geochemistry of the crude oil seeps suggest a more reducing, marine, depositional environment. The main properties of the crude oils of the Pata Sub-Basin are presented in Table 3. Because of its geochemical characteristics, the Chapungo Formation would correspond to the source rock from which the crude oil seeps were derived.

Figure 65. Maximum temperature (Tmax) vs the hydrogen index (HI) for the stratigraphic succession of the Pata Sub-Basin. Note that some samples of the Esmita and Mosquera Formations have values in the liquid hydrocarbon generation window. Data from Geoestudios Ltda (2008) and Hincapi et al. (2009).

85
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 66. Total organic carbon (%TOC) vs generation potential (S1+S2) diagram for the Pata Sub-Basin. Note that the units with a better generation potential are the Esmita, Mosquera and Chapungo Formations. Data from Geoestudios Ltda (2008) and Hincapi et al. (2009).

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 85

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 4 - PETROLUEM SYSTEM

Figure 69. Pristane/Phytane vs oleanane/C30 hopane diagram for the stratigraphic succession of the Pata Sub-Basin. Note that samples from the Pea Gorda and Chapungo Formations reflect a marine, siliciclastic depositional environment.

Figure 67. Synthesis diagram of the geochemical properties of the main source rocks of the Pata Sub-Basin.

86
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 68. Phytane vs pristane diagram for the stratigraphic succession of the Pata Sub-Basin. Note that rock extracts from the Chapungo Formation suggest an oxidating environment, whereas that organic matter seeps suggest a more reducing depositional environment.

Figure 70. Ternary diagram of esteranes (C27, C28 and C29) for the Pata SubBasin. The increase in the C29 fraction indicates a major supply of terrestrial organic matter.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 86

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

Table 3. Synthesis of extracts and crude oil seeps from the Pata Sub-Basin.
Source Rock Organic Matter Source Depositional Environment Maturity Quality Good Saturates: Dominant Fraction Alterations

Chapungo?

Marine Algal Marine Siliciclastic (Kerogen Type II)

Mature

Non Biodegradated to Biodegradated

Note that the Chapungo Formation could have been the source rock of some crude oil found at surface. 4.11 Petroleum systems modeling The simulation of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion processes in the Pata Sub-Basin was done based on a pseudo-well and generalized (unlocalized) stratigraphic columns from the Sub-Basin. According to the geological evolution model of the pseudo-well sector of the Sub-Basin, the base of the lower Cretaceous succession has reached a maximum burial depth of 13000 feet and a maximum temperature of 242F. This happened in the Holocene (Figure 71). For the modeling experiment, a constant heat flux of 46 mw/m2 was used. Based on regional and local geochemical information a source rock interval, i.e. the Esmita Formation, was included in the model. Results of the simulation indicate that the interval reached the immature stage (Ro <0.6%, Figure 72), and that there was an associated expulsion process (Figure 73).

Figure 71. Burial curve depths for the stratigraphic succession of the Pata SubBasin. Note that the maximum depth has been reached in the Holocene.

87
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 72. Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) profile through time for the stratigraphic succession of the Pata Sub-Basin. Note that the Esmita Formation was not submitted to enough temperature to reach the liquid hydrocarbon generation window.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 87

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 4 - PETROLUEM SYSTEM

4.12 Petroleum systems definition Geoconsult Ltda. (2005) proposed the existence of a proven petroleum system in the Pata Sub-Basin. This would be composed of the Eocene Guachinte Formation, as the source rock, and the early Miocene Esmita Formation, as the reservoir rocks. Therefore, the system is defined as: Guachinte-Esmita (!) Additionally, the integration of geological, geochemical, and modeling information from the Pata Sub-Basin, allow to suggest the possible existence of other petroleum systems associated with source rocks with a good hydrocarbon generation potential and oil seeps. These possible petroleum systems are: Chapungo-Mosquera (.) Mosquera (.) Esmita (.)
Figure 73. Expulsion processes for the stratigraphic succession of the Pata SubBasin. Note that the Esmita Formation did not experienced them.

These are qualified as hypothetical, because of evidence of the occurrence of the source rock, but the absence of crude oil rock correlations (cf. Magoon & Dow, 1994). Figure 74 depicts the geographical distribution of the petroleum systems in the Pata Sub-Basin.

88
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 88

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

89
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 74. Petroleum systems map for the Pata Sub-Basin. Note the depocenter at the top of the basement, the oil seeps, and the hypothetical area of influence of the petroleum systems.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 89

21/04/12 8:15

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 90

21/04/12 8:15

5. CONCLUSIONS

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 91

21/04/12 8:15

CHAPTER 5 - CONCLUSIONS

The ACP basin is a highly complex geological area; during the Paleocene? Middle Eocene, sedimentation occurred in alluvial fan flood plains (Chimborazo, Pea Morada formations and Lower member of Amag Formation). During the Medium Eocene - Medium Miocene the sedimentation corresponded to fluvial processes (Guachinte, Ferreira, Mosquera, Cinta de Piedra, Esmita formations and Upper member of Amag formations) with local marine influence (Esmita and Vijes formations). The Miocene collision resulted in a thrusting of arc remnants over the Central Cordillera, inducing the closure of the ocean and determining the final geometry of the basin. The progressive development of the thrusting in the western foothills of the Central Cordillera produced a series of anticline and syncline forms of N-S trend that plunge to the north and south respectively. From the Late Miocene to the Pliocene, the volcanic and tectonic activity became an important control of sedimentation. However, the sedimentation continued in fluvial domains (Galen, La Paila and Combia Formations) the emplacement of porphyritic bodies along the main fault system, and the rotations they registered, indicates continuous reactivation of the fault system from Cretaceous to recent times, that also induced a magnetic anisotropy in the sedimentary fabric of the ACP basin rocks. During the Quaternary, fluvial sedimentation persisted with volcanic influence (Zarzal Formation).

Along the Cauca-Romeral fault system zone, important basic and ultrabasic rocks and metamorphic rocks (e.g. Blueschist metamorphic belt) are in fault contact with the volcanic sedimentary sequence of the ACP basin. The subsequent Cenozoic magmatism (e.g. granites and andesitesdacites porphyritic rocks) from south to north mainly with an arc-related geochemical signature, and the volcanic activity from the Plio-Pleistocene to the present time (e.g. lava flows, ignimbrite and pyroclastic deposits) represents the final stages of the Andean orogeny cycle, which was related with erosion and deposition events clearly marked by five unconformities: (1) Sub lower Eocene; (2) Sub middle Eocene; (3) Sub Oligocene; (4) Sub Miocene and (5) Sub Pliocene. The Cenozoic sedimentary sequences in this region indicate continental, marine, brackish and transitional environments. The petroleum system in the Pata Sub-Basin would be composed of the Eocene Guachinte Formation, as the source rock, and the early Miocene Esmita Formation, as the reservoir rocks. The integration of geological, geochemical, and modeling information from the Pata Sub-Basin, allow us to suggest the possible existence of other petroleum systems associated to source rocks with a good hydrocarbon generation potential and the oil seeps. These possible petroleum systems are: Chapungo-Mosquera, Mosquera, Esmita.

92
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 92

21/04/12 8:15

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 93

21/04/12 8:15

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 94

21/04/12 8:15

REFERENCES

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 95

21/04/12 8:15

REFERENCES

Alfonso, C. A. 1993. Late Tertiary Structure of the Valle del Cauca Basin, Colombia Andes. Ph. D. Thesis, University of South Carolina. Alfonso, C.A., Sacks, P.E., Secor, D.T., Rine, J., and Prez, V., 1994, A Tertiary fold and thrust belt in the Valle del Cauca Basin, Colombian Andes: Journal of South American Earth Science, v. 7, p. 387-402. Aspden, A., Mccourt, W. And Brook, M., 1987. Geometrical control of subductin related magmatism: the Mesozoic and Cenozoic plutonic history of Western Colombia. Jour. Of the Geol. Soc., London, 144: 893- 905 Barrero, D., Laverde, F., 1998, Estudio Integral de evaluacin geolgica y potencial de hidrocarburos de la cuenca intramontana CaucaPata, ILEX- Ecopetrol report, Inf. N0. 4977. Barrero-Lozano, D., Laverde, F., Ruiz, C., and Alfonso, C.A. 2006, Oblique Collision and Basin Formation in Western Colombia: The Origin, Evolution and Petroleum Potencial of Cauca-Pata Basin. IX Simposio Bolivariano de Cuencas Sub-andinas, Cartagena de Indias, CD. Barrero, D, Martinez, J, Vergas, C, y Pardo, A, 2007. Petroleum geology of Colombia Basin in ANH, Colombian Sedimentary Basin. Bogota Bravo et al., 2004; Barrero, et al., 2008 Blau, J., Moreno, M., and Senff, M., 1995, Plaxius Caucadensis n. Sp., a crustacean microcoprolite from the basal Nogales Formation (Campanian to Maastrichtian of Colombia ): Micropaeontology, v. 41,p. 85-88. Bravo C., et al. 2004 Informe de cuencas sedimentarias Cauca Pata y Catatumbo. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Brook, M., 1984. New radiometric ages data from S.W. Colombia, Report 10: Cali, Colombia, Ingeominas- Misin Britnica, p. 125.

Calle, B. y Gonzlez, H. 1980. Geologa y Geoqumica de la Plancha 166, Jeric. Informe No. 1822. Medelln, INGEOMINAS, 232 P. -------. 1982. Mapa geolgico. Plancha 186, Riosucio - Caldas. Escala 1:100.000. INGEOMINAS. Bogot. Campbell, C.J., and Velasco, G. 1965. The Geology and Oil prospects of the Cauca Basin, Colombia. Sinclair and BP Colombian Inc. International report. 100 p. Cediel, F., D. Barrero, and C. Caceres, 1998, Seismic expression of structural styles in the basins of Colombia in six volumes, prepared by Geotec for Ecopetrol: Ed. by Robertson Research, London. Cediel, F.,Shaw, R.P., And Cceres, C., 2003 Tectnic Assembly of the Northern Andean Block in: Bartolini, C., Buffler, R. and Blickwede, J., eds., The Circum-Gulf of Mxico and Caribbean: Hydrocarbon habitats, basin formation and plate tectonics, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 79, Digital Edition, p. 815-848 Cline, K.M., Page, W.D., Gillam, M.L., Cluff, L.S., Arias, L.A., Benalczar, L.G., and Lpez, J.H. 1981. Quaternary activity on the Romera1 and Cauca faults, Northwest Colombia: Revista C.I.A.F., v. 6, n. 1-3, p.115-116. De Armas, M. 1984. Mapa geolgico preliminar. Plancha 261- Tulu. Escala 1: 100 000, Cali, Ingeominas Dueas J, E, And Aguilera B, H, 2000. Informe Geolgico Preliminar del Valledel Cauca Sectores Norte y Central. ECOPETROL, Informe 608, 51 p. ECOPETROL / ESRI. 1988, Valle del Cauca field report, v. 1 (Text), Esri technical report 88-0012. Ego, F., Sbrier, M. y Yepes, H. 1995. Is the Cauca - Pata and Romeral Fault System Left or Rightlateral? Geophysical Research Letters, 22(1): 3336. Estrada, J.J., 1995. Paleomagnetism and accretion events in the northern Andes: Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York, p. 1-170. Estrada, J.J., y Viana, R. 1998. Geologa de la Plancha 205 Chinchin. Escala 1:100.000. INGEOMINAS. Etayo, F., Parra, E., y Rodrguez, G. 1982. Anlisis facial del Grupo Dagua con base en secciones aflorantes al oeste de Toro (Valle del Cauca). Geologa Norandina, 5, 3-12. Bogot.

96
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Buzar Consultores Limitada. 1993. Mapas de Plays explotorios, Cuencas del Pata, Valle del Cauca y Choc Pacifico. Ecopetrol. Carson Helicopters. 2006. Programa adquisicion procesamiento e interpretacin de datos de aeromagnetogravimetria en el valle del rio Cauca contrato no. : 074 ANH. 38 p. Caballero, H., y Zapata, G. 2003. Mapa geolgico preliminar Plancha 224 Pereira, escala1:100.000. Ingeominas.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 96

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

Feininger, T., D. Barrero, and N. Castro, 1970, Mapa Geolgico del Oriente del Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Plancha I-9, Escala 1:100000, INGEOMINAS Galindo, V.; and Gonzlez, J. 1982. Estudio Geofsico Geolgico Cuenca Del Alto Pata. Empresa Colombiana de Petrleos. Geoconsult Ltda., 2005. Cauca-Pata Basin, untested traps waiting the exploration ring. Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos (ANH), Bogota, Colombia. GEOESTUDIOS Ltda. 1999. Levantamiento de columnas estratigrficas de las unidades posiblemente generadoras de hidrocarburos en la parte sur de la cuenca del Cauca Pata. Informe Tcnico de Ecopetrol No. 9097. GEOESTUDIOS Ltda. 2008; Levantamiento de columnas estratigrficas y realizacin de anlisis petrogrficos, petrofsicos, bioestratigraficos y geoqumicos en las reas de Pasto el Bordo, Cali Buga y Buga Cartago (Cuenca Cauca Pata). Fondo Financiero de Proyetos de Desarrollo (FONADE) Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos (ANH). Geoparra, y Torres. 1990. Proyecto Cauca Pata, Secciones Geolgicas. Para Occidental de Colombia Bogot. Gmez, C., y Osorio, L.F. 1996. Cartografa Geolgica y Correlacin estratigrfica de los Miembros en las Formaciones del Terciario Carbonfero, del rea comprendida en el Rio Guachinte y el Sector de Golondrinas, en el Valle del Cauca. Proyecto de Grado, Ciencias Geolgicas. Manizales, Universidad de Caldas. Gonzlez, 1991; Palynostratigraphy from 57 field samples colected in the Cauca Pata Basin, Colombia. Geoestrat para occidental de Colombia. 85 pp. Grosse, E., 1926. El Terciario carbon fero de Antioquia, en la parte occidental de la Cordillera Central de Colombia entre el ro Arma y Sacaojal: Berlin, Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen), 361 p. Grosse, E.1935. Acerca de la geologa del sur de Colombia. II Compilacin de estudios geolgicos de Colombia, p. 139 231. Hincapi G.; Jaramillo J. M.; Rodriguez J. V.; Ortiz S.; Marin J.P; Aguilera R., 2010, Evaluacin Geolgica y Prospectividad , Cuenca Cauca Pata. Universidad de Caldas, Fondo Financiero de Proyetos de Desarrollo (FONADE) Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos (ANH). 99 p.

INGEOMINAS & GEOESTUDIOS. 2002. Geologa de la Plancha 411 La Cruz. Escala 1:100.000. INGEOMINAS. Bogot. INGEOMINAS IGAC. 2005. Geologa de la Plancha 299 Jamund. Escala 1:100.000. INGEOMINAS. Bogot. Jaramillo, J. M., 1978. Determinacin de las Edades de algunas Rocas de la Cordillera Central por el Mtodo de Huellas Fisin. Memorias II Congreso Colombiano de Geologa. Bogot. Kerr, A.C., Tarney, J., Marriner, G.F., Nivia, A. Saunders, A.D., & Klaver, G. 1996. The geochemistry and tectonic setting of late Cretaceous Caribbean and Colombian volcanism. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 9, pp. 111-120 Keith, J.F., Rine, J.M & Sacks, P.E. 1988. Frontier Basin of Colombia Valle del Cauca. Field Report, Volume I text, university of South Caroline, Earth Sciences and Resources Institute, Technical Report No. 88 0012, 107p. Keizer, J., 1954. Estudios geolgicos en la regin carbonfera de Jamund entre los ros Guachinte y Jorda n: Instituto Geolgico Nacional, Bogota , Colombia, Informe no. 1064, unpublished Kellog, J.N., Godley, V.M., Ropain, C.A., and Bermudez, A. 1983. Gravity anomalies and tectonic evolution of northwester South America. 10a. Conferencia Geolgica del Caribe, Memorias, 18-31. Cartagena. Kerr, A.C., Tarney, J., Marriner, G.F., Nivia, A., Saunders, A.D., & Klaver, G. 1996. The geochemistry and tectonic setting of late Cretaceous Caribbean and Colombian volcanism. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 9, pp. 111-120 Kerr, A. C., Marriner, G. F Tarney, J., Nivia, A., Saunders, A. D., Thirwall, M.F., and Sinton, C. 1997. Cretaceous basaltic terranes in Western Colombia: Elemental, chronological and Sr-Nd isotopic constraints on petrogenesis. Journal of Petrology, 38/6, 677-702. Kerr, A. C., Tarney, J., Nivia, A., Marriner, G. F. and Saunders, A. D., 1998. The internal structure of oceanic plateaus: Inferences from obducted Cretaceous terranes In western Colombia and Caribbean: Tectonophysics, Vol. 292, pp. 178-188. Kerr, A. C., and Tarney, J., 2005, Tectonic evolution of the Caribbean and northwestern South America: The case for ccretion of two late Cretaceous oceanic plateaus: Geology, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 269-272.

97
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 97

21/04/12 8:15

REFERENCES

Kroonenberg, S.B., Bakker Jos, G.M., and Van der Wiel, M. 1990. Late Cenozoic uplift and paleography of the Colombia Andes: contrainst on the development of high Andean biota. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 69, 279-290. Leon, I. A., Padilla, L.E., Marulanda, N., 1973, Geologia, recursos minerales y geoqumica de la parte NE del cuadrngulo O-5, El Bordo, Departamento del Cauca: Ingeominas, Informe 1672. Litherland, M., Aspden, J. and Jemielita, R.A., 1994. The metamorphic belts of Ecuador. Br. Geol. Surv. Overseas Mem., 11, 147. Lpez , A., Ramrez, D., Sierra, G.M., Toro, G., 2006. Edad y proveniencia de las rocas volcano sedimentarias de la Formacin Combia en el suroccidente antioqueo-Colombia. Boletn de Ciencias De La Tierra. Vol. 19. 9-26 p. MacDonald, W., 1980. Anomalous paleomagnetic directions in Late Tertiary andesitic intrusions of Cauca depression, Colombian Andes: Tectonophysics, v.68, p. 339 348. MacDonald, W., Estrada, J., Sierra, G., and Gonzlez, H. 1993. Cenozoic Tectonics paleomagnetism West of Romeral fault zone, Colombian Andes. Second Sag, Oxford (Uk) 6p. -------. 1996. Late Cenozoic tectonics and paleomagnetism of north Cauca Basin intrusions, Colombian Andes Dual rotation modes. Tectonophysics 261, 277289. MacDonald, W., Estrada, J., Sierra, G., Gonzalez, H., 1996. Late Cenozoic tectonics and paleomagnetism of north Cauca Basin intrusions, Colombian Andes Dual rotation modes. Tectonophysics 261, 277 289. Magoon, L. and Dow, W. 1994. The Petroleum Sytem. The petroleum system from source to trap. American Association of Petroleum Geologist (AAPG)Memoir, 60, pp. 3-24.

Maya, M., and H. Gonzlez, 1995, Unidades litodmicas en la Cordillera Central de Colombia: Boletn Geolgico, Ingeominas, v. 35, nos. 215 3, p. 4357. McCourt, W. J., y Millward, D. 1984. Fallas principales de acrecin de las placas en el Valle del Cauca, suroccidente de Colombia: IV Congreso Colombiano de Geologa. Cali, 7p. McCourt, W. J., and Aspden, J.A. 1984. A plate tectonic model for the phanerozoic evolution of Central and Southern Colombia: 10th Caribbean Geological Conference, Ingeominas, p. 3847. -------. 1985. Discussion on the Cretaceous tholeiitic volcanic rocks from the Western Cordillera: Journal Geological Society of London, 142,585587. McCourt, W.J., and Feininger, T. 1984. High pressure metamorphic rocks in the Central Cordillera of Colombia: British Geological Survey Reprint Series, v. 84, no. 1, p. 2835. McCourt, W. J., and Verdugo, G. 1985. Mapa Geolgico de Colombia-Escala 1:100.000, Plancha 300-Cali. INGEOMINAS. Bogot. McCourt, W.J., Mosquera, D., Nivia, A., y Nez, A. 1985a. Mapa geolgico preliminar de la Plancha 243- Armenia (Departamento del Valle Quindio y Tolima). Escala 1:100.000. INGEOMINAS. Bogot. McCourt, W.J., Millward, D., y Espinosa, A. 1985b. Mapa geolgico preliminar de la Plancha 280 Palmira (Departamento del Valle). Escala 1:100.000. INGEOMINAS. Bogot. Meja, M., lvarez, E., y Gonzlez, H. 1983a. Mapa Geolgico preliminar de la Plancha 130- Santaf de Antioquia. Escala 1:100.000. INGEOMINAS. Bogot. --------. 1983b. Mapa Geolgico preliminar de la Plancha 146- Medelln Occidental. Escala 1:100.000. INGEOMINAS. Bogot Millward, D., Marringer, G., y Saunders, A.D. 1984. La geoqumica del grupo Diabsico en la cordillera Occidental, al oeste de Cali, Valle, Colombia. Geologa Norandina, 5, 39-45. Bogot. Moreno-Sanchez, M., and Pardo-Trujillo, A., 2003, Stratigraphical and Sedimentological constraints on Western Colombia: Implications on evolution of Caribbean plate, in C. Bartolli, R. T., and J. Blickwede, eds., The Circum-Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean: Hydrocarbon habitats, basin formation, and plate tectonics: AAPG Memoir 79, p.891-924.

98
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Mantilla, A; Arias J. 2001. Sntesis regional y caracterizacin estructural de la Subcuenca del Pata. Ecopetrol. Martnez J. A., y Rubio, F. O. 1991. Arquitectura facial de las unidades tectonosedimentarias Terciarias, con la evolucin geodinmica de la Subcuenca del Alto Pata, Cauca Colombia. Tesis de Pregrado, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogot. 109 p. Informe Geolgico No. 3023 de Ecopetrol, ISN 25378.

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 98

21/04/12 8:15

AMAG, CAUCA AND PATA BASINS

Mosquera, D., Marn, P., Vesga, C., y Gonzlez, H. 1998. Geologa de la plancha 206, Manizales (1:100 000): Ingeominas. Murcia, A., y Cepeda, H. 1991. Mapa Geolgico de Colombia Escala1:100.000, Plancha 410-La Unin. INGEOMINAS. Bogot. Nivia, A. 1989, El terreno Amaime-Volcnica una provincia acrecionada de basaltos de meseta ocenica: V Congreso Colombiano de Geologa, Bogot, Memorias, v.1, pp. 1-30. Nivia, A., Galvis, N., y Maya, M., 1992. Geologa de la Plancha 242-Zarzal: Bogot, Ingeominas, p. 73 Orrego, A. 1975. Geologa y ocurrencias minerales de la parte oeste del cuadrngulo N-6 Popayn. Informe 1690. INGEOMINAS. Bogot. Orrego, A., Rossman, D., and Paris, G. 1976. Geologa del Cuadrngulo N-6 Popayn: Ingeominas, Informe 711, p.1-179. Orrego, A., Cepeda, H., y Rodrguez, G. 1980. Esquistos glaucofnicos en el rea de Jambal, Cauca, Colombia. Geologa Norandina, 1, 5-10. Orrego, A., Len, A., Padilla, L.E., Acevedo, A.P., y Marulanda, N. 1999a. Geologa de la Plancha 364 Timbio. Escala 1: 100.000. INGEOMINAS. Bogot. Orrego, A., Pars, G., Ibaez, D.,y Vsquez, E. 1999b. Geologa de la Plancha 387 Bolvar. Escala 1:100.000. INGEOMINAS. Bogot. Oxy Exploration Colombia. 1991. Cauca Block, Cauca Basin. Evaluation Report. Executive summary. Padilla, L. E. 1986. Carcter cclico del Terciario hullero del Valle del CaucaCauca. Geologa Colombiana N15. Pg. 229-239. Pardo, A., Moreno, M., y Gmez, A. 1993. La Formacin Nogales: una unidad sedimentaria fosilifera del Campaniano-Maastrictiano, aflorante en el flaco occidental de la Cordillera Central colombiana: VI Congreso Colombiano de Geologa, memorias tomo I, p.248-261 Pardo-Trujillo A., Moreno-Snchez M., y Gmez-Cruz A. 2002 Estratigrafa de algunos Depsitos del Cretceo Superior en las Cordilleras Central y Occidental de Colombia: Implicaciones Regionales. International Journal of Tropical Geology, Geography and Ecology. Pardo Trujillo, A., Moreno Sanchez, M. & Gmez Cruz, A. de J. 2004. Estratigafa y facies del Cretceo Superior Terciario Inferior () en

el sector de Nogales Monteloro (borde occidental de la Cordillera Central, Colombia). Intenational Journal of tropical Geology, Geography and Ecology, GEO ECO _ TROP, Numro Special 26/2, pp. 9 40. Parra, E., Caballero, H., Muoz, R., Zapata, G., y Zuluaga, J. 1984. Mapa geolgico preliminar de la plancha 223, El Cairo (Valle del Cauca). Escala 1:100.000. Ingeominas. Pindell, J. L., and Barrett, S.F. 1990. Geological evolution of the Caribbean region: A plate tectonic perspective, in G. Dengo and J. E. Case, eds., The Caribbean region: Geological Society of America, Geology of North America, v. H, p. 405432. Pindell, J., Kennan, L., Stanek, K.P., Maresch, W.V., and Draper, G. 2006. Foundations Of Gulf of Mexico And Caribbean Evolution: Eight Controversies Resolved. Geolgica Acta, Vol.4, No1-2, 2006, 303-341 Rodriguez, G.; Velandia, G. 1980. Evaluacin de la informacin geolgica y geofsica de la Cuenca del Valle del Cauca. Rodrguez, G., Zapata, G., Gonzlez, H., y Cossio, U. 2005. Plancha geolgica Medelln Oriental. Escala 1:50.000. Ingeominas. Roperch, P., Megard, F., Laj, C., Mourier, T., Clube, T., and Noblet, C. 1987. Rotated oceanic blocks in Western Ecuador: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 14, p. 558-561. Ruz, S. 1999. Geologa de la Plancha 386. Mercaderes. Escala 1:100.000. INGEOMINAS. Bogot. Sierra, G.M. 1994. Structural and sedimentary evolution of the Irra Basin, Northern Colombian Andes. M.Sc. Thesis, State University of New York, Binghamton, 102 p. Sierra, G.M., MacDonald, W., and Estrada, J.J. 1995. Young rotations inferred from paleomagnetic evidence in late Tertiary strata: slip reversals along the Romeral Strike Slip fault zone, Northern Andes. En: Estados Unidos Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union ISSN:0096-3941. Sierra, G.M., Ros, A.M., y Sierra, M.I. 2005. Registro del volcanismo Negeno y la sedimentacin fluvial en el suroeste antioqueo. En: Colombia, Boletn de Ciencias de La Tierra ISSN: 0120-3630 Ed:Universidad Nacional de Colombia, v.17 fasc. p.135 152.

99
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 99

21/04/12 8:15

REFERENCES

Sierra, G.M., Marn-Cern, M.I., McDonald, W., y Gmez, C. 2011. Evolucin tectnica de la cuenca Irra a partir de la anisotropa magntica (susceptibilidad y remanencia) y su relacin con la geodinmica del sistema Cauca Romeral. Memorias XIV Congreso Latinoamericano de Geologa y XIII Congreso Colombiano de Geologa. Medelln. Silva, J.C, Sierra, G., Correa, L., 2008. Tectonic and climate driven fluctuations in the stratigraphic base level of a Cenozoic continental coal basin, northwestern Andes Sillitoe, R. H., Jaramillo, D., Shafiquillah, & Eacobar, R. 1982. Setting, Characteristic and Age of the Andean porphyry copper belt in Colombia. Economic Geology, 77: 1837 1850. Sinton, C.W. 1997. The internal structure of oceanic plateaus: Inferences from obducted Cretaceous terranes in western Colombia and the Caribbean: Tectonophysics, v. 292, p. 173 188. Sinton, C.W., Ducan, R.A., Storey, M., Lewis, J., and Estrada, J.J. 1998. An oceanic flood basalts province within the Caribbean plate: Earth and Planetary Science Letter, v. 155, p. 221 235. Storey, M., Mahoney, J.J., Kroenke, L.W., and Saunders, A.D. 1991. Are oceanic plateaus sites of Komatiite formation? Geology 19, 376-379. Suter, F., Sartori, M., Neuwerth, R., and Gorin, G. 2008. Structural imprints at the front of the Choc-Panam indenter: Field data from the North Cauca Valley Basin, Central Colombia. Tectonophysics, Volume 460, Issues 1-4, pp. 134-157. Toro, F. 1983. Determinacin de las lneas de igual reflectancia en la Amag Basin- Angelopolis Titirib. Trabajo de grado, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medelln.

Toro, G., Restrepo, J.J., Senz, E., Azdimousa, A., y Poupeau, G. 1999. Datacin por trazas de fisin de circones rosados asociados a la secuencia volcano-sedimentaria de Irra (Caldas). Boletn De Ciencias De La Tierra. Vol. 13. 28-34.p. Universidad Nacional Sede Medelln UNAL & Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos ANH., 2009. La cuenca de Amag y la potencialidad de metano asociado al carbn-CBM. Universidad EAFIT & Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos ANH., 2011. Valoracin del potencial exploratorio CBM en la cuenca carbonfera de Amag y Boyac-Cundinamarca (Formacin Guaduas). Informe final. Van der Hammen, T. 1958. Estratigrafa del Terciario y Maastrichtiano continentales y tectognesis de los Andes Colombianos. Servicio Geolgico Nacional, Vol VI, No. 1 3, p. 67 128. Van Thournout, F., Hertogen, J. and Quevedo, L., 1992. Allochthonous terranes in northern Ecuador. Tectonophysics, 205, 205222. Van Wangoner, J.C., Mitchum, R.M., Campion, K.M., and Rahmanian, V.D. 1990. Siliciclastic sequence stratigraphy in well logs, cores and outcrops: Concepts for high-resolution correlation of time and facies: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Methods in exploration series. No. 7, p. 1- 55. Villalobos and Aranzazu, 1994; Informe final Interpretacin Ssmica Cuenca Cauca Pata Bloque Cndores. Zegarra, M., 1993. Estudio palinolgico de la Formacin Amag en la cuenca de Sopetrn. Facultad de Minas. Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Sede Medelln, 123p.

100
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 100

21/04/12 8:15

AMAGA Correciones 7 Abr19.indd 101

21/04/12 8:15