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MAY-JUNE

2011

Vocational Training Report


NTPC - FGUTPP

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I am very of this grateful project and thankful helped to all me those towards who its were a

part

and

smooth

and efficient completion. I feel especially thankful to Mr.Munish Jauhari, Mr.A.K.Sharma, Mr.M.Z.A.Siddique,Mr. Umashankar, Mr.Rakesh Kumar, Mr. Sameer Kashyap,Mr.Ranjeet, Mr. J.K. Sahu, Mr. K.M. Gupta, Mr. D.D. Singh, Mr. K.K. Singh and Mr. Sanjeet to name a few for their helpful contribution and knowledge without which my project would not be a reality.

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INDEX
Acknowledgement.ii List of figuresvi List of tablesvii I. About the company.............1 A. Corporate Vision..1 B. Core Values..1 C. Evolution of NTPC..3 D. NTPC Group4 II. Introduction to FGUTPP5 A. Location5 B. Major Milestones..5 C. Installed capacity..5 D. Production Inputs.5 E. Requirements6 F. Cost of Generation6 G. Environmental aspects6 H. Layout..6 I. Various Cycles in the plant.7 i. Coal cycle...7 ii. Water cycle.8 iii. Steam cycle8 III. Switchyard..9 A. Circuit Breaker...9 B. Lightening Arrester...11 C. Earthing Switch12 D. Bus Bar.13 E. Capacitor Voltage Transformer13 F. Wave Trap.14 G. PLCC.14
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H. Current Transformer.14 I. Isolator..14 J. Bay15 IV. Generator..18 A. Main Components..18 B. Excitation system19 C. Generator protection..19 D. Generator cooling system..20 E. Coolong specifications of turbogenerators21 V. Transformers.22 A. Transformer accessories.22 B. Cooling of transformers.23 C. Main transformers..25 i. Generator transformers25 ii. Station transformers.25 iii. Unit auxiliary transformers..25 iv. Neutral Grounding Transformer..25 VI. DC system27 A. Requirement of DC system27 B. Description of battery.27 C. Battery Charger..27 D. Capacity test of battery..28 VII. Switchgear..29 A. L.T. switchgear..29 B. H.T. switchgear...30 VIII. Boiler..32 IX. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)...34 A. Working principle..34 B. Description.34 C. Parts of ESP34 D. Electrical scheme of ESP36 E. Variable frequency drive.36 X. Coal Handling Plant.39
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A. Introduction39 B. Properties of coal...39 C. Coal Analysis.39 D. Different methods of unloading the coal.39 E. Various equipments used in CHP.40 i. Marshalling Yard.40 ii. Wagon Tripler.40 iii. Paddle Feeder...41 iv. Vibrating feeder41 v. Transfer points.41 vi. Flap gate42 vii. Conveyors.42 viii. Belt protection42 ix. Primary crusher43 x. Secondary crusher43 xi. Cross belt magnetic separator..43 xii. Metal detector..43 xiii. xiv. Stacker reclaimer44 Transfer towers..45 Bunker.45

xv. Tipper45 xvi. F. Some Special motors of CHP.45 G. Power and Distribution Diagram of CHP.46 XI. Conclusion...47

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 NTPC generation growth

Pg No.
1
v

Figure 2 NTPC in power sector Figure 3 NTPC group Figure 4 Unit overview Figure 5 Steam flow Figure 6 SF6 Circuit Breaker Figure 7 Lightening Arrester Figure 8 Capacitor Voltage Transformer Figure 9 Single line diagram of switchyard Figure 10 Electrical System layout of stage III Figure 11 Water tube Boiler Schematic Layout Figure 12 Schematic Diagram of ESP Figure 13 Electrical scheme of VFD Figure 14 Two channel arrangement of synchronous motor Figure 15 Forward Conveyor Figure 16 Return Conveyor Figure 17 Power distribution diagram of CHP in stage I Figure 18 - Power distribution diagram of CHP in stage II

2 4 7 8 10 12 13 17 31 33 35 37 37 42 42 46 47

LIST OF TABLES
Table I Specifications of Circuit Breakers Table II Specifications of earthing switch Table III Specifications of Turbo generators Table IV Specifications of GTs Table V Specifications of STs Table VI Specifications of UATs Table VII Specification of NGT Table VIII Specification of Synchronous Motor

Pg No.
11 12 19 25 26 26 26 38

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I.

ABOUT THE COMPANY

A. Corporate Vision:
A world class integrated power major, powering Indias growth, with increasing global presence

B. Core Values:
B-Business Ethics C-Customer Focus O-Organizational & Professional pride M-Mutual Respect and Trust I- Innovation & Speed T-Total quality for Excellence

NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India. A public sector company, it was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India. At present, Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of the company and the balance 10.5% is held by FIIs, Domestic Banks, Public and others. Within a span of 31 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company, with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country.

Figure 1. NTPC generation growth

NTPCs core business is engineering, construction and operation of power generating plants. It also provides consultancy in the area of power plant constructions and power generation to companies in India and abroad. As on date the installed capacity of NTPC is 27,904 MW through its 15 coal based (22,895 MW), 7 gas based (3,955 MW) and 4 Joint Venture Projects (1,054 MW). NTPC acquired 50% equity of the SAIL Power Supply Corporation Ltd. (SPSCL). This JV company operates the captive power plants of Durgapur (120 MW), Rourkela (120 MW) and Bhilai (74 MW). NTPC also has 28.33% stake in Ratnagiri Gas & Power Private Limited (RGPPL) a joint venture company between NTPC, GAIL, Indian Financial Institutions and Maharashtra SEB Holding Co. Ltd. NTPCs share on 31 Mar 2007 in the total installed capacity of the country was 20.18% and it contributed 28.50% of the total power generation of the country during 2006-07.

Figure 2. NTPC in power sector

C. Evolution of NTPC

1975

NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the Government of India. In the last 30 years, NTPC has grown into the largest power utility in India.

1997

In 1997, Government of India granted NTPC status of Navratna being one of the nine jewels of India, enhancing the powers to the Board of Directors.

NTPC became a listed company with majority Government

2004

ownership of 89.5%. NTPC becomes third largest by Market Capitalisation of listed companies

2005
TABLE IV Specificat ions of Turbo Generator s of stage I. (gen1, gen2)

The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its changing business portfolio and transform itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power utility.

KVA Pf TABLE IV

2010

NTPC Ltd. Has granted of Maharatna status by Govt. of India. Stator

Stator Rotor Rotor Rpm Hz Phase Coolant NTPC Ltd. Has been ranked 7th great place to work in India by SpecificatVoltage Current Voltage Current The great places to work institute INDIA and The Economic ions of Turbo (V) (A) (V) (A) times. Generator
s of stage gen2)

247000 I.0.85 (gen1, 15750 KVA Pf Stator

9050 Stator

310 Rotor

2600 Rotor

3000

50

Water

(stator)& Rpm Hz Phase hydrogen Coolant (rotor)


3

Voltage Current Voltage Current (V) 247000 0.85 15750 (A) 9050 (V) 310 (A) 2600 3000 50 3

Water (stator)&

D. NTPC Group NTPC Limited

Subsidiaries

NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Limited 100%

NTPC Electric Supply Co. Limited 100%

Kanti Bijlee Utpadan Nigam Limited 64.57%

NTPC Hydro Limited 100%

Joint Ventures

NTPC-SAIL Power Company Pvt. Limited 50% NTPC-SAIL Power Company Pvt. Limited 50

TELK/ICV PL, NPEL 44.7%

NTPC-Alstom Power Services Pvt. Limited/ Utility Powertech Ltd. (UPL) 50%

Nabinagar Power Generating Company Pvt. Limited/ BF-NTPC Energy Systems Limited

NTPCBHEL Power Projects Pvt. Limited/ PTC India Limited 8%

NTPC Tamilnadu Energy Co. Limited 50%

Meja Urja Nigam Private Limited 50%

Ratnagiri Gas & Power Private Ltd 29.65%

Aravali Power Co. Pvt. Ltd. 50%

Figure 3. NTPC Group

II.

INTRODUCTION TO NTPC FEROZ GANDHI UNCHAHAR THERMAL POWER PROJECT (FGUTPP)

A. Location Located on Lucknow Allahabad state highway 35 Km from Raebareli 80 Km from Allahabad 120 Km from Lucknow

B. Major Milestones
Our late Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi laid down the foundation stone on 27TH June 1981. First two units of 210MW were commissioned on 21stNovember, 1988 and 22ndMarch, 1989 by U.P. Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam. Unchahar project was taken over by NTPC from UPSEB on 13th Feb,1992 After take over of FGUTPP from UPRVUN to NTPC, unit-3 & unit-4 were commissioned on 27th January, 1999 and 22nd October, 1999 Now third stage (unit-5) is of 1X 210 MW.

C. Installed Capacity
Stage I Stage II Stage III = = = 2 X 210 MW 2 X 210 MW 210 MW

D. Production Inputs
a. Coal Source Central Coal fields Ltd. ( CCL) Bharat Cooking Coal Ltd. (BCCL)

b. Water Source Sharada Sahayak Canal (main) Dalmau Pump Canal ( from river Ganga)
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E. Requirements
Coal 140 tonnes / hr / unit Water 700 tonnes/ hr / unit

F. Cost of Generation
Rs. 2.40 / Kwh

G. Environmental Aspects
Water Polluton- Effluents from thermal discharges from condenser,wastes from coal handling plant, service areas,oil , DM plant, sanitary waste and effluents from ash pond will be neutralized before being discharged. Air Pollution- Particulate emission will be limited to 150 mg/Nm3 by installing high efficiency ESPs.

H. Layout
The main project consist of following areas : Main plant area consisting of chimney,ESP,Boiler, Control room, turbine, generator, transformers and switchyard Ash handling plant consisting of ash handling pump house, ash handling compressor house, control room, pipeline corridor and ash ponds Coal handling Plant consisting of track hopper,primary coal yard, primary crusher, secondary crusher, secondary coal yard, stacker reclaimer, wagon trippler and connected conveyors. Circulating water system consisting of CW pumps,associated pipelines and cooling towers. Water treatment plant consisting of chlorination plant, pre-treatment plant and De-mineralized water treatment plant.

Figure 4. Unit overview

I. Various Cycles In The Thermal Plant


i. Coal Cycle C.H.P Plant Bunker R.C Feeder pulverize mill Boiler section R.C. Feeder -It is induction motor driven device, which determine the Quantity of coal enter in to pulverize mill. Pulverize mill - Pulverization means exposing large surface area to the action of oxygen. Two types of mill are used in the plant. Ball mill - A ball mill operates normally under suction. A large drum partly filled with steel balls, is used in this mill. The drum is rotated slowly while coal is fed in to it. The ball pulverizes the coal by crushing. This type of mill is used in stage -1. Contact mill - This mill uses impact principle. All the grinding elements and the primary air fan is mounted on a single shaft. The flow of air carries coal to the primary stage where it is reduced to a fine granular state by impact with a series of hammers. This type of mill is used in stage-2.
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ii. Water Cycle D.M. Plant Hot Well C.E.P. Pump Low Pressure heater 1,2,3Derater Boiler Feed pump High pressure Heater 5,6 Feed Regulating station Economizer Boiler Drum. Derater - Feed storage tank of water. To produce sufficient pressure before feeding to B.F.P. Filter the harmful chemicals. Feed Regulating Station - Control the quantity of water in to boiler drum. Economiser - Flue gases coming out of the boilers carry lot of heat. An economizer extracts a part of this heat from the flue gases and uses it for heat the feed water. Drafts System- In forced draft system the fan is installed near the base of the boiler furnace. This fan forces air through the furnace, economizer, air preheater and chimney.In an induced draft system, the fan is installed near the base of Chimney. iii. Steam Cycle Boiler drums Ring Header Boiler Drum (Steam chamber) Super Heater H.P. Turbine Reheater I. P. Turbine L.P. Turbine Boiler Drum - Boiler drum consist two chamber water chambers, steam chamber.Before entering in super heater the steam is going in to boiler drum, where the boiler drum filtered the moisture and stored in to water chamber. Super Heater - The function of super heater is to remove the last traces of moisture from the saturated steam leaving the water tube boiler. The temperature is approx 530C. Turbine -Steam turbine converts the heat energy in to mechanical energy and drives on initial and final heat content of the steam. Turbine having number of stage in which the pressure drops takes place.

Figure 5. Steam flow

III.

SWITCHYARD

The switch yard is the places from where the electricity is send outside. We know that electrical energy cant be stored like cells, so what we generate should be consumed instantaneously. But as the load is not constants therefore we generate electricity according to need i.e. the generation depends upon load. It has both outdoor and indoor equipments.

1. Outdoor Equipments
Bus Bar Lightening Arrester Wave Trap Breaker Capacitor Voltage Transformer Earthing Rod Current Transformer Potential Transformer Isolators PLCC

2. Indoor Equipments
Relays Control Panels

A. Circuit Breaker:
The code for circuit breaker is 52. An electric power system needs some form of switchgear in order to operate it safely & efficiently under both normal and abnormal conditions. Circuit breaker is an arrangement by which we can break the circuit or flow of current. A circuit breaker in station serves the same purpose as switch but it has many
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added and complex features. The basic construction of any circuit breaker requires the separation of contact in an insulating fluid that servers two functions: It extinguishes the arc drawn between the contacts when circuit breaker opens. It provides adequate insulation between the contacts and from each contact to earth. The insulating fluids commonly used in circuit breakers are: Compressed air Oil which produces hydrogen for arc excitation. Vacuum Sulphur hexafluorides (SF6 )

There are two makes of Circuit Breakers used at NTPC Unchahar switchyard : i. SF6 Circuit Breaker manufactured by ALSTOM ii. Gas Circuit Breaker manufactured by CGL

Figure 6. SF6 Circuit Breaker

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TABLE I The specifications of the circuit breakers

Specifications

ALSTOM Circuit Breaker GL 314 245 kV 50 Hz 1600/2500 A 220 V DC 220 V DC 0.85 MPa (abs) 3000 Kg 23.5 Kg 40 kA 3 secs 1.3 15 kg/cm2-g 40 kA 1050 kV (peak)

CGL Circuit Breaker 200-SFM-40A 245 kV 50 Hz 3150 A 220 V DC 220 V DC 6 Kg/cm2-g(20 C) 3900 Kg 21 Kg 40 kA 3 secs 5 15 kg/cm2-g 40 kA 1050 KV (peak)

Type Rated Voltage Rated Frequency Rated Normal Current Rated Closing Voltage Rated Opening Voltage Rated Gas Pressure Total weight with gas Gas Weight Rated Duration of short circuit current First pole to clear factor Rated operating pressure Rated Short-Circuit breaking current Rated Lightning impulse withstand voltage

B. Lightening Arrester
These are provided to combat the effect of over voltages and surges caused due to lighting strokes on the transmission lines. These are generally provided at the end near the instrument which we want to protect. The lightening arrestors provide an easy path to the surge current to the ground thereby not letting the equipments to fail. It saves the transformer and reactor from over voltage and over currents. We have to use the lightning arrester both in primary and secondary of transformer and in reactors. It has a round metal cap type structure on the top called CORONA RING, meant for providing corona losses.
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A meter is provided which indicates the surface leakage and internal grading current of arrester. Green arrester is healthy Red arrester is defective.

In case of red we first de-energize the arrester and then do the operation.

Figure 7. Lightening Arrester

C. Air Break Earthing Switch


These are used to ground the circuit and to discharge the CB when CB is in off condition. The code of earthling switch is 5, 6, 7.The work of this equipment comes into picture when we want to shut down the supply for maintenance purpose. This help to neutralize the system from induced voltage from extra high voltage. This induced power is up to 2KV in case of 400 KV lines.
TABLE II The specification of earthing switch

Make

Type

Voltage

Current

Motor volt (ac) 415 volts

Control volt (dc) 220 volts

S&S power

Madras

245 kv

10 kA

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D. Bus Bar
There are three buses viz. two main buses ( bus 1 and bus 2 ) and one transfer bus. The two main buses are further divided into two sections thus giving us a total of five buses. Bus bars generally are of high conductive aluminum conforming to IS-5082 or copper of adequate cross section .Bus bar located in air insulated enclosures & segregated from all other components .Bus bar is preferably cover with polyurethane.

E. Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT)


It is used for three purposes : Metering Protection PLCC

The carrier current equipment can be connected via the capacitor of CVT. Thereby there is no need of separate coupling capacitor. The reactor connected in series with the burden is adjusted to such a value that at supply frequency it resonates with the sum of two capacitors. This eliminates the error. CVT is attached at end of each transmission, line and buses. The cvt is used for line voltage measurements on loaded conditions. The basic construction of a cvt is as follows. Each CVT consists of a coupling capacitor (CC) which acts as a voltage driver and an Electro Magnetic Unit (EMU) which transforms the high voltage to standard low voltage. Depending on the system voltage the CC can be a single or a multi stack unit. 245 kV & 420kV CVTs no normally comprise of 2 units. The CC and the EMU are individually hermetically sealed to ensure accurate performance and high reliability.

Figure 8. Capacitor Voltage Transformer

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The main points of difference between a cvt and a potential transformer is that in a PT full line voltage is impressed upon the transformer while in cvt line voltage after standard reduction is applied to the transformer. F. Wave Trap It is used in PLCC system to trap frequency higher than 50 Hz. It is lightly inductive having very less resistance. It is attached at each end of transmission line. It is of cylindrical shape mounted on top of the transmission line. G. PLCC ( Power Line Carrier Communication) In addition to power supply transfer, transmission line is also used for communication purpose. This is done by PLCC system. Here line conductors itself are used as channel for carrying information between two end of line. The PLCC system is used to trap the frequency higher than 50 Hz through high inductance and low resistance along with a coupling capacitor. The main components of PLCC are : Wave trap Co-axial cable CVT PLCC cabinet LMU ( Line matching Unit)

H. Current Transformer (CT)


These are used for stepping down AC current from higher value to lower value for measurement, protection and control. Here N2 gas is used to prevent oil from moisture. Its secondary winding has 5 cores. Terminal 1,2,4,5 protection 3 - metering

Turns ratio - 800/1

I. Isolator
The isolators can be thought of switches that can either make or break the circuit at the operators wish. The difference of an isolator from a circuit breaker can be realized from

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the fact that a circuit breakers making or breaking of a circuit depends upon certain predefined conditions while that of the isolator dictates no condition.

It is used as off line line circuit breaker. It is normally used for purpose of isolating a certain portion when required for maintenance. It operates at 2000 A . In switchyard there are 3 types of isolators : Line isolator Transfer bus isolator Bus isolator

Sequence of operation while opening / closing a circuit : While opening : open circuit breaker open isolator close earthing switch (if any ) open earthing switch

While closing : ensure ciruit breaker is open close circuit breaker. J. Bay

close isolator

System componenets connected in a sequence constitute a bay. The total number of bays is 22. Out of which 3 are spare bays. Bay 1 Bay 2 Bay 3 Bay 4 Bay 6 Bay 7 Bay 8 Bay 9 Bay 10 Bay 11 Bay 12 Bay 13 Bay 14 Bay 16 Bay 17 250 MVA 15.75/242 kV Generator transformer 1 Spare 40 MVA 220/7.1 kV Station Transformer- 3 40 MVA 220/7.1 KV Station Transformer - 1 40 MVA 220/7.1 KV Station Transformer - 2 250 MVA 15.75/242 KV Generator Transformer -2 220 Kv (Chin hut) Luck now Feeder - 1 220 KV Luck now Feeder -2 Bus couplets 220 KV 220 KV Fateful Feeder - 1 220 KV Fateful Feeder - 2 220 KV by Pass Breaker 210 MW Generators -3 40 MVA 220/6.9 KV Station Transformer - 3 210 Mw Generators - 3 220 KV Transfer Bus Coupler- 2
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Bay 19 Bay 20 Bay 21 Bay 22

220 KV Kanpur Feeders - 1 220 KV Kanpur Feeders - 2 220 KV Kanpur Feeders - 3 220 KV Kanpur Feeders - 4

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Figure 9. Single line diagram of Switchyard

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IV.

GENERATOR

The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy is carried out by the generator. The generator also called the alternator is based upon the principle of electromagnetic induction. The stator houses the armature windings and the rotor houses the field windings. The alternator is a doubly excited system and the field is excited from dc supply whereas the output received from the alternator is ac. When the rotor is energised the flux lines emitted by it are cut by the stator windings which induces an emf in them given by E = 4.44 f N Where f frequency in Hz field strength in webers/m2 N speed of rotor in rpm Turbo generators run at a very high speed hence the no. of poles are generally two or four and have a cylindrical rotor construction with small diameter and long axial length.

A. Main components
The main components of a generator are the rotor and stator. Rotor The electrical rotor is the most difficult part of the generator to design. It is an electromagnet and to give it the required strength of magnetic field a large current is required to flow through it. The rotor is a cast steel ingot and is further forged and machined. Rotor winding:Silver bearing copper is used for the winding with mica as the insulation between conductors. A mechanically strong insulator such as micanite is used for lining the slots. Rotor has hollow conductors with slots to provide for circulation of the cooling gas. Rotor balancing:The rotor must then be completely tested for mechanical balance which eans that a check is made to see if it will run upto normal speed without vibration. Stator Stator frame: It is the heaviest load to be transported. The major part is the stator core. This comprises an inner frame and an outer frame. The outer frame is a rigid fabricated structure of welded steel plate. In large generator the outer casing is done in two parts.
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Stator core: it is the heaviest part and is built from a large no. of thin steel plates or punchings. Stator windings:It is of lap type and employs direct water cooled bar type winding. The stator winding bar is made from glass lapped elementary conductor and hollow conductors. The main insulation is applied by means of mica tape which is wrapped and is compounded with the help of a silicon epoxy compound.
TABLE III Specifications of Turbo Generators

KVA

Pf

Stator

Stator

Rotor

Rotor

Rpm Hz Phase Coolant

Voltage Current Voltage Current (V) 247000 0.85 15750 (A) 9050 (V) 310 (A) 2600 3000 50 3 Water (stator)& hydrogen (rotor)

B. Excitation System Static Excitation System-The generators in stage -1(u-1&u-2) have this excitation system. Static excitation system has slip ring and carbon brush arrangement. It consists of step down transformer, converter and AVR (automatic voltage regulator). Brushless Excitation System The generators in stage -2(U-3, U-4& &U- 5) have this excitation system. It has two exciters, one is main exciter and other is pilot exciter. C. Generator Protection Stator Protection- The neutral of star connected winding is connected to primary of neutral grounding transformer, so that earth fault current is limited by over voltage relay. Differential Protection- In case of phase-to-phase fault generator is protected by longitudinal differential relay.
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Rotor Protection-Rotor winding may be damaged by earth faults or open circuits. The field is biased by a dc voltage, which causes current to flow through the relay for an earth fault anywhere on the field system.

Over Speed Protection Mechanically over speed device that is usually in the form of centrifugally operated rings mounted on the rotor shaft, which fly out and close the stop valves if the speed of the set increase more than 10%.

Over Voltage Protection It is provided with an over voltage relay. The relay is usually induction pattern. The relay open the main circuit break and the field switch if the over voltage persists.

Seal Oil System Hydrogen in the generator is under very high pressure. There is a possibility of this hydrogen to come out of gaps, which is very hazardous. So, seal oil is used to seal the gaps so that hydrogen doesnt come out.

Lubrication Oil System Turbine lubrication-oil system seeks to provide proper lubrication of turbo generator bearings and operation of barring gear. Pumps are used to circulate lubrication-oil inside the generator. The oil of the lubrication and the governing system is cooled in the oil coolers. The cooling medium for these coolers is circulating water.

D. Generator Cooling System Turbogenerator is provided with an efficient cooling system to avoid excessive heating and consequent wear and tear of its main components during operation. The two main systems employed for cooling are water cooling system and hydrogen cooling system. Hydrogen cooling system: Hydrogen is used as a cooling medium in large capacity generator in view of the following feature of hydrogen. When hydrogen is used as a coolant the temperature gradient between the surface to be cooled and the coolant is greatly reduced. This is because of the high coefficient of heat transfer of hydrogen. The thermal conductivity of hydrogen is 7 times that of air and hence good heat conduction is possible. While using hydrogen it eliminates oxygen in the chamber and hence prevents the formation corrosive acids therefore lengthens the life of insulation. As hydrogen is a non-supporter of combustion hence risk of fire is
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eliminated. The density of hydrogen is 1/14th times of air hence circulation is also easier. The cooling system mainly comprises of a gas control stand, a driver, hydrogen control panel, gas purity measuring instrument and an indicating instrument, valves and the sealing system. A great care should be taken so that no oxygen enters the cooling system because hydrogen forms an explosive mixture with air. The purity of hydrogen be maintained as high as 98%.to produce hydrogen in such large quantities a separate plant called the hydrogen plant is also maintained. Water cooling system: Turbogenerators require water cooling arrangement. The stator winding is cooled by circulation of demineralised water through hollow conductors. The system is designed to maintain a constant rate of cooling water flow to the stator winding at a nominal temperature of 40 deg Celsius. E. Cooling Specifications Of Turbogenerators At FGUTPP Stage-I: Water as well as hydrogen cooling is present in stage-I turbo generators with following specifications: Rotor cooling: Hydrogen gas pressure: 3.5 Kg/cm2, Purity: 98% Stator cooling: Water pressure: 3.5 Kg/cm2 , Rate of flow of water: 130 m3/hr

Stage-II & III: Only hydrogen cooling is used for both stator and rotor cooling. Rotor cooling: Hydrogen gas pressure: 3.5 Kg/cm2, Purity: 98% Stator cooling: Hydrogen gas pressure: 2.0 Kg/cm2, Purity: 98%

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V.

TRANSFORMERS

The transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to another through the medium of magnetic field and without the change of frequency. It is an electromagnetic energy conversion device, since the energy received by the primary is first converted to magnetic and is then reconverted to electrical energy in the secondary. Thus these windings are not connected electrically but coupled magnetically. Its efficiency is in the range of 97 to 98 %.

A. Transformer accessories
Conservator: with the variation of temperature there is a corresponding variation in the volume of oil due to expansion and contraction of oil caused by the temperature change. To account for this, an expansion vessel called the conservator is connected to the outside atmosphere through a dehydrating breather to keep the air in the conservator dry. An oil gauge shows the level of oil in the conservator. Breather: it is provided to prevent the contamination of oil in the conservator by the moisture present in the outside air entering the conservator. The outside air is drawn into the conservator everytime the transformer cools down which results in the contraction of the volume occupied by the oil in the conservator. The breather contains a desiccator usually Silica gel which has the property of absorbing moisture from the air. After sometime silica gel gets saturated and then it changes it colour from purple to pink indicating that it has become saturated and hence needs to be replaced or regenerated. Relief vent: In case of severe internal fault in the transformer, the pressure may be built to a very high level which may result in the explosion in the tank. Hence to avoid such condition a relief vent is provided with a bakelite diaphgram which breaks beyond certain pressure and releases the pressure. Bushings: they consist of concentric porcelain discs which are used for insulation and bringing out the terminals of the windings from the tank. Buchcholtz relay: this is a protection scheme for the transformer to protect of against anticipated faults. It is applicable to the oil immersed transformer and depends on the fact that transformer breakdowns are always preceded by violent
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generation of gas which might occur due to sparking or arcing. It consist of two mercury relayed switches one for a danger alarm and the second for tripping the transformer. Temperature indicators: transformers are provided with two temperature indicators that indicate the temperature of the winding and that of the oil in the transformer for an oil filled transformer. The temperature indicators are also protective in nature whereby the first create an alarm and then tripp the respective transformer in case the temperature of the respective parts rises beyond a certain value. Tap changers: these are also provided and are mounted on the transformer. In case some kind of load fluctuations the taps can be changed or adjusted as per the need. There are two types of tap changers On load tap changer and Off load tap changer.

B. Cooling Of Transformers
Heat is produced in the transformers due to the current flowing in the conductors of the windings and on account of the eddy current in the core and also because of the hyterisis loss. In small dry type transformers the heat is directly dissipated to the atmosphere. In oil immersed systems oil serves as the medium for transferring the heat produced. Because of the difference in the temperatures of the parts of the transformers circulating currents are set. On account of these circulating currents hot oil is moved to the cooler region namely the heat exchanger and the cooler oil is forced towards the hot region. The heat exchangers generally consist of radiators with fins which might be provided with forced or natural type air circulation for removal of heat. The oil in oil immersed transformers may also be of forced or natural circulation type. The oil used for cooling is silicone oil or a mixture of naphthalene and paraffin. When forced oil circulation is used then pumps are used for the circulation of the oil. The oil forced air forced type cooling is used in large transformers of very high KVA rating. i. Simple Cooling

AN: Natural cooling by atmospheric circulation, without any special devices. The transformer core and coils are open all round to the air. This method is confined to very small units at a few kV at low voltages.
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AB: In this case the cooling is improved by an air blast, directed by suitable trunking and produced by a fan. ON: The great majority of transformers are oil-immersed with natural cooling, i.e. the heat developed in the cores and coils is passed to the oil and thence to the tank walls, from which it is dissipated. The advantages over air-cooling include freedom from the possibility of dust clogging the cooling ducts, or of moisture affecting the insulation, and the design for higher voltages is greatly improved. OB: In this method the cooling of an ON-type transformer is improved by air blast over the outside of the tank. OFN: The oil is circulated by pump to natural air coolers. OFB: For large transformers artificial cooling may be used. The OFB method comprises a forced circulation of the oil to a refrigerator, where it is cooled by air-blast. OW: An oil-immersed transformer of this type is cooled by the circulation of water in cooling tubes situated at the top of the tank but below oil-level. OFW: Similar to OFB, except that the refrigerator employs water instead of air blast for cooling the oil, which is circulated by pump from the transformer to the cooler.

ii.

Mixed Cooling

ON/OB: As ON, but with alternative additional air-blast cooling. ON/OFN, ON/OFB, ON/OFW, ON/OB/OFB, ON/OW/OFW: Alternative cooling conditions in accordance with the methods indicated. A transformer may have two or three ratings when more than one method of cooling is provided. For an ON/OB arrangement these ratings are approximately in the ratio 1/1.5; for ON/OB/OFB in the ratio 1/1.5/2.
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C. Main Transformers i. Genrator Transformer: -- This is a step up transformer. This supply gets its primary supply from generator and its secondary supplies the switchyard from where it is transmitted to grid. This transformer is oil cooled. The primary of this transformer is connected in star. The secondary is connected in delta. These are five in number. ii. Station Transformer: --This transformer has almost the same rating as the generator transformer. Its primary is connected in delta and secondary in star. It is a step down transformer. These are 4 in number. iii. Unit Auxiliary Transformer: -- This is a step down transformer. The primary receives from generator and secondary supplies a 6.6 KV bus. This is oil cooled. These are 10 in number. iv. Neutral Grounded Transformer: --This transformer is connected with supply coming out of UAT in stage-2. This is used to ground the excess voltage if occurs in the secondary of UAT in spite of rated voltage.

TABLE IV Specifications of GTs

TA

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TABLE V Specifications of STs

TABLE VI Specifications UATs

KVA

Phase

Hz

1150

50

TABLE VII Neural grounded transformer (NGT) Type of No No Line cooling load load current voltage voltage HV (A) (volts) LV (volts) ONAF/ONAN 6600 250 105.9

Line Current LV (A)

Temp Rise of Oil (C) 50

Temp rise Winding

2655.8

55

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VI.

D.C SYSTEM

A. Requirement Of Dc System
There are some auxiliaries which need to run even when the ac supply fails such as seal oil pumps, the scanner system, valve control,lights,etc. So we require the DC system. All the circuit breakers in the power plant operate on DC. The DC system comprises of batteries, chargers, control circuit to maintain a continuous supply for the DC feeders. There are five units in unchahar power plant and in each unit separate battery rooms are made from which we have 220V as well as 24V DC supply

B. Description of battery:
Capacity = 220 V (1400 AH) / 24 V (400 AH) Per unit cell = 2.2 V Battery plate: Positive terminal = PbO2 Negative terminal = Pb Electrolyte = H2SO4 Reactions occuring in the battery : 1. At the time of charging: At positive plate PbSO4 + SO4 + 2H2O -> PbO2 + 2H2O At negative plate PbSO4 + H2 -> Pb + H2S 2. At the time of Discharging: At positive plate PbO2 + H2 + H2SO4 -> PbSO4 + 2 H2O At negative plate Pb + SO4 -> PbSO4

C. Battery charger
Battery charger normally operates in two modes.
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Float charging: Boost charging:

It is constant voltage mode and works as a trickle charger. It is constant current mode and works as a quick charger.

Trickle Charger It operates at 220V. It is used for continuous charging of the battery. Full time battery is charged by the trickle charger and remains in float condition. Quick charger It is also known as Boost Charger. This is used at the time of overhauling. It operates in two modes i. Constant current (CC) ii. Constant Voltage (CV)

D. Capacity test of battery:


In order to maintain the condition of battery we do a capacity test. For 220V we first discharge the battery at the rate of 140 A for 10 hrs. through a resistance boxes. We keep on monitoring the Specific gravity of electrolyte Temperature Voltage

of each cell. If the voltage level goes below 1.85V, it indicates that the cell is defective and needs replacement. For recharging these batteries we charge them in constant current (CC) mode at the rate of 6% for 1-2 days. During charging the battery gives a total of 270-280 V. In order to maintain 220 V level we bypass some batteries till the supply is maintained. Basic operation of charger: In the charger there are two incomers and at a time only one switch in on. This supply goes to the contactor which is tapped through the coils according to the voltage levels. The diodes rectify ac to dc but since it is not ripple free so we apply the LC filter circuit which lowers the ripple factor and gives us the DC same is the case with 24 V Charger. From the charger one supply goes to the DCDB (Direct Coupled Digital Board) and the other to the battery for charging.

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VII. SWITCHGEAR
Switchgear is an electrical functional switch used for starting any drive and provide protection to the drive during on load condition. It is of two types : Low tension switchgear (below 1000 V) High tension switchgear (above 1000 V)

A. L.T Switchgear
OPERATING VOLTAGE- 415VOLT The main components are : Relays Contactors Isolators Fuses

Relays: the purpose of protective relaying system is to operate the circuit breaker so as to disconnect only the faulty equipment from the system as quickly as possible thus minimizing the trouble and damage caused by faults when they do occur. The general relay used is BMR ( Bi-Metallic Relay). It trips due to thermal overloading when overcurrent passes through the bimetallic strips causes different expansions in different parts as a result the BMR strip is bent. Contactors: these are used on-loadoperations under normal conditions. Contactor is a mechanical switching device capable of making carrying and breaking electric current under normal circuit conditions including operating overload conditions Isolators: These are disconnecting switches used for off-load operations. These are operated manually. Before operation power is switched off. Isolators are kept in closed position when the system components are in operation. During any maintenance work isolators are kept open. Fuses: It is a device used in circuit for protecting electrical equipments against overload or short circuit. The fuse wire melts when an excessive current flows in the circuit and thus isolates the faulty device from the supply circuit.
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B. H.T. Switchgear
OPERATIONG VOLTAGE - 6.6KV For low voltage circuits fuses may be used to isolate the faulty circuit. For voltage higher than 3.3 kV isolation is achieved by circuit breaker. Requirement of circuit breaker: After occurrence of fault the switchgears must isolate the faulty circuit as quickly as possible i.e. keeping the delay to minimum. It should not operate when an over current flows under healthy condition.

Basic principal of operation of circuit breaker: Circuit breaker consists of a fix contact and sliding contact into which moves a moving contact. The end of moving contact it attached to a handle that can be manually operated or may operate automatically with the help of mechanism that has a trip coil energized by secondary of CT. Under normal condition the secondary of CT is not energized sufficiently to trip the coil but under false condition the coil is energized fully to operate the trip coil and the circuit breaker is operated. MOCB (Minimum oil circuit breaker) SF6 (Sulphur hexafluoride circuit breaker)

Here oil and SF6 are used to quench the arc. Bus ducts: These serve as interconnection between transformer and switchgear and are nonsegregated phase type. These are natural air cooled. Bus coupler: It acts as interconnection between the two bus. If the supply of one bus fails then the bus coupler connects the two buses and charges the bus from the other bus. Different relays used: Motor protection system Earth fault relay Over load relay Lock out relay Check synchronizing relay
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Differential protection relay Auxiliary relay

Figure 10. Electical system layout of stage III

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VIII. BOILER Furnace is placed at the bottom of the most important part of the thermal plant where steam is generated. The boiler used at FGUTPP is the water tube boiler type in which, water circulates in tubes surrounded by fire. Hence it takes up heat and gets converted into steam. The steam then rises up and gets collected inside the boiler drum. The boiler is made up of carbon steel. The temperature of steam that comes out of the boiler is around 530 deg Celsius and its pressure is 120kg/cm2. The type of boiler can be further elaborated as natural circulation, dry bottom, and tangential fired, radiant heat type with direct fired pulverised coal system. Once the steam is produced in the boiler, it gets collected inside the boiler drum. Boiler drum is a special type of cylindrical drum like structure which contains a mixture of water and steam. Steam being lighter gets collected at the top portion and beneath it we have the water. It is very important to maintain a safe level of water in the drum since we have two main types of constraints in this regard. If the steam produced and collected is more then it can lead to a blast in the boiler drum else tiny droplets of water can enter the turbine. Hence in order to keep a check we measure the level by hydrastep. Hydrastep is a phenomenon based on the difference in the conductivities of water and steam. Since there is great pressure and temperature at the boiler great care should be taken while going to the site and maintenance. Since coal is burning in the furnace and then we have water tubes of the boiler inside hence constant burning of coal produces ash which gets collected on the water tubes and the start working as insulation, hence its necessary to blow this soot hence for this purpose we use Soot Blowers. Soot blowers are basically pipe like structures that go inside the furnace and the boiler for efficient onload cleaning. Cleaning is done by the superheated steam which is tapped from the superheater for the purpose of soot blowing. The pressure is reduced to 31kg/cm2 at 330 deg Celsius by means of reducing valve. We mainly have three types of soot blowers: 1. long retraceable soot blower 2. wall blower 3. air reheater
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Before sending this steam to the turbine, the steam is again superheated and then its temperature is around 580deg Celsius. This increases the efficiency since the temperature is the measure of energy hence higher temperature higher is the energy. Hence, during the phenomenon of superheating the steam which is dry and saturated, is being heated and hence the temperature of steam again rises. First the steam from boiler drum enters the low temperature super heater (LTSH). After LTSH steam enters the platen superheater and then finally to a high temperature superheater. The steam which is now produced goes to the HP turbine.

Figure 11. Water tube Boiler Schematic Layout

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IX.

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR (ESP)

The ash content in the Indian coal is of the order of 30 to 40 %. When coal is fired in the boiler, ashes are liberated and about 80% of ash is carried along with the flue gases. If this ash is allowed to flow in the atmosphere, it will cause air pollution and lead to health troubles. Therefore it is necessary to precipitate the dust from the flue gases and this work is done by the electrostatic precipitator.

A. Working principle
The principle upon which an electrostatic precipitator works is that dust laden gases are passed into a chamber where the individual particles of dust are given an electric charge by absorption of free ions from a high voltage DC ionising field. Electric forces cause a stream of ions to pass from the discharge electrodes (emitting) to the collecting electrodes and the particles of ash in the gas are deflected out of the gas stream into the collecting surfaces where they are retained by electrical attraction. They are removed by an intermittent blow usually referred to as RAPPING. This causes the ash to drop into hoppers situated below the electrodes. There are 4 steps that are involved: 1. Ionisation of gases and charging of particles. 2. Migration of particles to respective electrodes. 3. Deposition of particles on the electrodes. 4. Dislodging of particles from the electrodes.

B. Description
The ESP consist of two sets of electrodes, one in the form of helical thin wires called emitting electrode which is connected to -70KV DC and the collecting electrode in grounded. C. Parts of ESP 1. Basing-: the precipitator casing is robustly designed and has an all welded steel construction. 2. Hoppers-: the hoppers are of pyramidical shape. The angle between hopper corner and the horizontal is never less than 55 deg and often more to ensure easy dust flow.
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To ensure free flow dry ash into disposal system the lower portion of hopper are provided with electrical heaters. 3. Collecting system-: the collecting system consists of electrodes which are based on the concept of dimensional stability. They have a flat uniform surface for uniform charge distribution. These electrodes have larger area and are grounded, hence have zero potential. 4. Emitting system-: the emitting system consist of emitting or discharging electrodes that are in the front of the helical wires for a non-uniform distribution to enhance the rate of charging since a non-uniform field is created. 5. Rapping mechanism-: the Rapping mechanism is a process which is employed to hammer out the ash particles which get precipitated on the respective plates. Hence in order to hammer out those particles rapping motors are employed which hammer at the rate of 2 to 3 cycles per minute. Various motors are employed and are called collecting rapping motor and emitting rapping motor. 6. Insulators-: these are also employed for support since ESP is hung with the help of these insulators. 7. Transformer Rectifier-: a transformer rectifier is employed which steps up the voltage to 70KV and then it is rectified to -70 KV and is given to the emitting electrode

Figure 12. Schematic Diagram of ESP

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D. Electrical scheme of ESP


The following mechanism takes place electrically: Emitter electrode (E) creates a strong electric field near the surface and corona discharge takes place. Positive and negative ions are formed by this discharge. The positive ions move towards anti positive charge line electrodes called emitting electrodes and the negative ions towards collecting electrodes. During this passage ions collide with ash particles and adhere to them. These charged particles stick on the collector curtain which is the dislodged by the rapping motors which is collected by the hoppers. For optimum functional efficiency of the precipitator the supply voltage should be maintained near above the flash over level between electrodes. This is achieved by the electronic control. The efficiency of ESP is about 99.95%. The ESP is divided into 4 passes called A, B, C, D and has various fields per pass. In stage-I we have 7 fields per pass and hence the total no. of fields is 28 whereas in stage-II & III we have have 8 fields per pass and hence the total no. of fields is 32.

E. Variable frequency drive


From the electrostatic precipitator, the flue gases are sucked. It is a type of fan and is called Induced draft fan. It sucks the flue gases from the ESP and then transfers them to the chimney. In stage-I an IM is employed for this purpose but the speed control of that motor is not possible. Sometimes the amount of flue gases coming out is small and other times it is large but since no speed control is possible hence the flow of flue gases become a tedious task. However in stage-II the speed control is possible since here we have variable frequency drive. The motor which is employed here are synchronous motor. Using variable frequency drive voltage is compensated at low frequencies, the torque at low speeds is improved. To obtain the voltage boost, we require a controlled converter as well as a controlled inverter. The panel in Figure 11 is a variable frequency drive panel. First the three phase supply from transformer is fed to the controlled rectifier which the ac to dc. The advantage of using a controlled rectifier is that the average value of the output can be
36

controlled by varying the firing angle. Then its output is fed to the inverter which is a type of load commutated inverter. Before passing it to the inverter a reactor is also employed in between this reduces the ripples. The inverter then converts dc to ac and the ac is fed to the synchronous motor. The speed of synchronous motor is fixed and is given by 120 f / p. since the only thing variable in the expression is the frequency which is directly proportional to the speed. Hence the inverter varies the frequency and hence controls the speed of the motor. The controlled rectifier in the circuit is used for voltage control while the load commutated inverter is used for frequency variation

Figure 13. Electrical scheme of VFD

Two channel arrangement for synchronous motor The stator of the synchronous motor is given supply using two channels. Normally the motor works on both channels but under some faulty conditions on any one of the channels the other channel can continue working since the motor is required for continuous operation

Figure 14. Two channel arrangement of synchronous motor

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Hence the frequency is varied from 0.5 Hz to 47.5Hz. When both channels operate the motor moves at 575rpm and when one channel is in operation the maximum speed is 475rpm. The power and current ratings in case of both the channels is 1414KW & 420Amp. In case only one channel is working then the power is 635KW and current is 380Amp.
TABLE VIII Specification of Synchronous Motor

KW rating 1414KW

KVA rating 1646

P.F.

Speed (rpm)

Stator voltage 2X1200 V

Excitation Insulation voltage 170 V dc class F

Wt. (Kg) 19,000

0.9 (lead)

575

Advantages of Variable Frequency Drive 1. Speed control is fine as the frequency is varied from 0.5Hz to 47.5 Hz. 2. Very low starting current as motor starts on reduced voltage. 3. Power consumption is low. 4. Motor life is improved

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X.

COAL HANDLING PLANT

A. Introduction
NTPC Unchahar gets its coal supply mainly from Bihar. Now coal is also coming from Australia, as coal produced in India is of low grade and ash content is more. The coal being filled in the wagons of the rail reaches plant. The purpose of this plant is to convey the coal to the bunker in the size not larger than 20mm.It handles and transports the coal to the bunker from the wagons by passing through various conveyors, transfer points, crusher houses, etc. BCCL costs Rs.4/kg CCI cost Rs.6/kg

B. Properties of Coal
1. Calorific value: the heat evolved when unit amount of coal is burned. 2. Gross calorific value: the heat evolved when all the products of combustion are cooled to the atmospheric temperature. 3. Net calorific value: it is the value obtained when GCV is subtracted by sensible and latent heat of water in the products of combustion. 4. Grindablity: it is the ease with which the coal can be ground to fine sizes. It is measured on the hard grove scale. Coal used here has a Grindablity index of 55.

C. Coal analysis
It is done in two ways: 1. Proximate analysis: it gives the behaviour of coal when heated. 2. Ultimate analysis: it tells the elementary composition of coal . it is useful in determining the air required for combustion and in finding the weight of combustion products.

D. Different methods of unloading the coal


1. Manual Unloading: - Previously, manpower was used for unloading the wagons. But it was very time consuming and more workers were required for the job to be done.
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2. Box in (using wagon tippler for unloading): - This method is still used in stage-1 of NTPC Unchahar. For this method, Indian Railway grants 10 hours for

unloading the 58 wagons. In this method, Wagons are separated and tippled by using wagon tippler. The Beetle Feeder is used to move the wagon on wagon tippler. The coal from the wagons gets accumulated in The Track Hopper. At this time; the size of the coal is approximately 300mm.

3. BOBR: -

This method is used in used in stage -2 and stage-3 of NTPC

Unchahar. Indian Railway grants only 2.5 hours for Unloading 58 BOBR wagons. This is an advanced technology in which we use the compressor system. In Bottom Open Bottom Release (BOBR) technology the wagons are opened from side.

Pressure is applied by the compressor to open the bottom gates of the wagon so that the coal gets released over the track hopper and wagon get unloaded quickly.

E. Various equipment used in CHP


i. Marshalling Yard: it consist of railway tracks provided to receive the loaded trains, to unload them and to put them back in formation without interference between loaded and empty racks. ii. Wagon Tripler: The wagon Tripler is a most important device in thermal power project. The Wagon Tripler turns back the wagon at 135-degree angle and the structure of the wagon tippler is to be very heavy. Upper side of the wagon is fixed with the many angles for supporting the wagon. When the wagon is fixed on the Platform then whole platform is turned back and the coal fall down in the wagon tippler hopper. The unloading time of the Rack is 6hours. Here the type of the rack is Box C / Box N type. Wagon Tripler Hopper: - The Wagon Tripler Hopper is a part of the wagon tippler where the coal is stored from the wagon tripler. The size of the coal here is less than 300mm. Vibrating Feeder: - The vibrating feeder is used for falling the coal on the conveyer through Wagon tippler Hoper. Before Wagon tippler Hoper and Vibrating Feeder the gate is providing to control the flow of the coal.

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Beetle Charger: - The Beetle charger is a traveling device that is used to carry the wagon on the wagon tippler platform. Dust Suppuration: - Dust Suppuration is a useful device. When the wagon are tippling then the dust is mixed in the air and that area becomes very dusty then Dust Suppuration operates and water flows through its points and the dust settles down. It is an automatic device.

iii. Paddle Feeder: - They have been installed on conveyors below the manual unloading track hopper. There are 6 nos. of paddle feeders, 3 on each conveyer. 3 Paddle Feeders of each conveyer move to and fro within a limiting range. The rotating part of the paddle feeder is called as plough wheel. Plough wheel has 6 blades. By the rotation of the plough wheel, the coal of the track hopper gets accumulated between the blades and is discharged on the conveyor below it. The main components of paddle feeder are: Plough wheel - It is the rotating part consists of 6 blades. It is attached with the rotor of 3-phase slip ring induction motor. Reduction gear box It is installed to control the speed of plough wheel.

End limit switch (left or right) - It provides the limiting motion of the paddle feeders. Anti-collision switch - It provides the prevention from collision between two paddle feeders. Interlock system - It is provided for safety purpose. By this, the conveyor belt moves first then paddle feeder starts.

iv. Vibrating Feeder: - They have been installed below the track hoppers of wagon tippler. The coal is accumulated over the vibrating feeder so by giving vibrations to the vibrating feeder we discharge the coal from track hopper to the conveyors. Their main purpose is to provide uniform feeding on the conveyors. The vibrating feeders consist of a tray to which vibrator body is fixed on the rear end.

v. Transfer Points: - Transfer Point is provided with flap gate and Conveyer. In transfer Point the coal is transferred from one conveyer to other conveyer.
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vi. Flap Gate: - The flap Gate is a two-way device. It consists of two gates. Both gates cannot operate together. By help of the flap Gate, we change the way of coal that fall down on the conveyer.

vii. Conveyers: - The Conveyer Belt is a moving device. It travels on its platforms. The shape of the conveyer belt is to be flat but on the platforms it is to be in curve shape. The coal falls down the conveyer and goes to the primary Crusher House Platforms. The capacity of conveyer in Stage I is 800MT/ hr. & in Stage II is 1200MT / hr.

Figure 15. Forward Conveyor

Figure 16. Return Conveyor

viii.

Protecting devices provided to the Conveyer Zero Speed Switch: - The Zero Speed Switch prevents the Conveyer from over load run. When the conveyer is over loaded, the speed of the conveyer is reduced and Zero Speed Switch is operated and stops the conveyer. This device is provided at Head End of the Conveyer. The Zero Speed Switch is a Centrifugal Switch.

Pull cord Switch: - This is a manual protecting device. When the Worker sees any mistake like big stone or any dangerous fault, pulls this cord. The Pull Cord Switch is to be operated, and the Conveyer stops.

Belt Sway Switch: - The Belt Sway Switch also protects the conveyer. This device is provided on both side of the conveyer. When the conveyer leaves its way the switch is operated and the conveyer stops. This is also an automatic protecting device.

Linear heat sensing cable: - This protection is for any type of heat related procedures. If by any means the temperature of the conveyor belt increases beyond a certain limit then this protection comes into action. In this
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protection a special temperature sensing type wire runs through the periphery of the conveyor structure. ix. Primary crusher (rotary breaker): - In Primary Crusher House, the coal breaks in Rotary Breaker. Here the coal comes from the Transfer point; breaks here and the stone fall down to a separate place. Coal is converted from 300mm to 150mm size. Parts of the Primary Crusher House Rotary Breaker: - The Rotary Breaker has a rotating mechanism. It is rotated on the shaft. The coal come from the conveyer through the Flap Gate falls down into the rotary breaker. The rotary breaker is to be rotated and coal moves up and down and collides and hence breaks. The Rotary Breaker is H.T. 170KW Belt Feeder: 6.6KV Motor. The Belt Feeder is a small size of the conveyer. It is used

for feeding the coal to the conveyer through Flap Gate. x. Secondary Crusher (Ring Granulator): - In Secondary crusher House first the magnetic part separate from the coal and then feed to the Secondary Crusher. This Crusher breaks the coal in 20mm size and coal is sent to the Flap Gate and then feeded to the conveyer. The Secondary crusher is hammer type. H.T. motor are used for breaking of the coal. Specifications are 700KW 6.6KVMotor. xi. Cross Belt Magnetic Seprators: - They will remove the ferrous particles, which passes along with the coal. It consists of electromagnet around which a belt is moving. It is suspended from top, perpendicular to the conveyor belt at certain height. Whenever any iron particle passes below the CBMS, it is attracted by the magnet and stick to the cross belt below it. The CBMS capacity is of 50kg. xii. Metal Detector: - The purpose of installation is to detect any metallic piece passing through the conveyor. Whenever the pieces pass below the search coil of the metal detector, it gives the trip command to the conveyor. Simultaneously, sand bag marker will fall on the conveyor belt so that the metal can be searched easily and removed.

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xiii.

Stacker/Reclaimer: - It is a very important device. The whole Structure of

it is called Super Structure. It stacks the excessive coal and reclaims the coal on its requirement. It is a two-way device. It consists of following main parts: Stacker: - The Stack is a position (1). When the rack comes, the

excessive coal is send to the stacker through the conveyer from Secondary Crusher house. The coals are stacked at the Secondary Crusher Coal Heap. The coal falls down from the stacker through Boom Conveyer. Reclaimer: - The Reclaimer is position (2). When the rack is not coming

and there is a shortage of coal, then reclaiming is to be started and the coal is lifted from the Secondary Crush Coal Heap and fed to the bunker. Boom Conveyer: The Boom conveyer is a Bi-directional conveyer. It

moves clockwise & anticlockwise direction. In stacking position, it is moving in clockwise direction and in the reclaiming position its moving in anticlockwise direction. They are provided with Center Chute and End Chute on the both end. Boom hoist: - The Boom hoist is a link of the Super Structure. The hoist

is moved up and down. For controlling the up & down position, limit switch is provided. Slew drive: - The Slew Drive moves at 180-degree. When the coal is

stored on both the side of the track of travel, then the Slew Drive moves and lifts or fall the coal from Boom Conveyer. For control the rotation of Slew Drive, the limit switch is provided. Bucket wheel: - The Bucket Wheel is used when there is a requirement of

the coal. It is a rotary device. It is always rotated in anticlockwise. In the Reclaiming position, the Center Chute is to be up and End Chute of the Boom Conveyer is fixed on the conveyer. The Bucket Wheel rotates; when the Bucket of the wheel is full with coal and the wheel is rotated the coal fall down on the Boom conveyer and the coal is send to the Super Structure. Travel: - It is a slip ring induction motor driven system. The Super

Structure moves on it. The normal speed of the Travel is 10 meter / minute. It moves on its track from one end to other end. The stacker reclaimer does the following three functions: 1. travelling (movement in forward and reverse direction)# 2. luffing (up and down movement)
44

3. slewing (left and right movement) The stacker reclaimer also has two cable reeling drums in which the reeling action is done by electrical medium and the unreeling is done mechanically. Great care has to be taken during this operation since any loop hole can lead to accidental results. During the stocking operation the coal from the crusher house is diverted towards the stockyard conveyor at a transfer point. The above conveyor discharges coal to the boom conveyor through a discharge chute. The boom conveyor running in the forward direction creates coal stacks. During reclaiming, coal from the stockyard falls on the boom conveyor with the help of bucket wheel and the boom conveyor during this period rotates in the reverse direction. The coal from the central chute falls on the conveyor belts used for transferring the coal from the stockyard. Advantages: 1. It can operate at full load capacity in bad weather. 2. It is productive at all times as no return journey is to be performed. The only drawback is that it is expensive. xiv.Transfer Tower: Here the coal is send to the Tipper. Transfer Tower is

provided with a coal sampler. xv. Tipper: - The Tipper is a three-way device to feed the coal in Bunker. It is moveable device. It is move on its track. xvi. Bunker: - Here the coal is collected from the tipper and stored. The capacity of the bunker for Stage-I is 4800MT & Stage-II is 8700MT.

F. Some Special Motors Of CHP


1. Secondary Crusher house motor :450 kW Supply 6.6 kV P.F. = 0.77 746 rpm

2. Primary Crusher house motor:700 kW Supply 6.6 kV 3. Stacker Reclaimer:45

P.F. = 0.78 742 rpm

5.5 kW Supply 6.6 kV

P.F. = 0.70 965 rpm

4. Wagon Trippler motor:175 kW Supply 415 V 5. Rotary Breaker motor:175 kW Supply 6.6 kV P.F. = 0.8 1485 rpm

6. Vibrating Feeder motor:40 kW Supply 415 V 1470 rpm efficiency = 93 %

G. Power and Distribution Diagrams


Stage-I

Figure 17. Power distribution diagram of CHP in stage I

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Stage-II

Figure 18. Power distribution diagram of CHP in stage II

XI.

CONCLUSION

On completion of my vocational training at NTPC Feroze Gandhi Unchahar Thermal Power Project, I have come to know about how the very necessity of our lives nowadays i.e how electricity is generated. What all processes are needed to generate and run the plant on a 24x7 basis. NTPC Unchahar is one the plants in India to be under highest load factor for the maximum duration of time and that to operating at highest plant efficiencies. This plant is an example in terms of working efficiency and management of resources to all other thermal plants in our country. The operating plf of the NTPC as compared to the rest of country is the highest with 87.54% the highest since its inception. The training gave me an opportunity to clear my concepts from practical point of view with the availability of machinery of diverse ratings.
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