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Adsorption consists of two components: Adsorbent Kaolin, pectin, altpulgite, talc, Magnisum trisilicate, Al(OH)3, Simithicone, CaCO3 (Activated Charcoal), Mg(OH)3 etc. Adsorbate Toxins, Strychnine HCl, Digoxin and many other drugs

It is an accumulation of substance at the interface or boundary between two and heterogeneous phases. For example, Solid-Gas, Oil- H2O, Gas- Liquid, or Solid Liquid. It is essentially a surface phenomenon.

It implies the penetration one component throughout the body of a second. The distinction between adsorption and absorption is not always clear.

When there is not any distinction between adsorption and Absorption, then a non-committal word Sorption is used.

Types of Adsorption
Two Types: Physical Adsorption It is an adsorption at the surface through weak van der waal forces. Chemical Adsorption It involves stronger valence forces; it is more potent and usually involves Ion Exchange Process Frequently both physical and chemical adsorption may be involved. For example, in adsorption of Toxins in the stomach by Attapulgite and Kaolin Chemisorption involves cation exchange with the basic group of Toxins and physical adsorption of the remainder of the molecule.

Other Example of Adsorption

Stychinine HCl onto Activated Charcoal (Solid Liquid) Activated Charcoal used in Respirators for civilian and forces (Solid- Gas) Decrease in surface tension is due to surface active agent for example liquid-gas bonding. Emulsifying agent as emulsion stabilizers in case of liquid- liquid bonding.

Langmuir regarded adsorption phenomenon as function of unsaturated valencies and sharing of electrons. Sometimes bonds are strong and sometimes weak.

Positive Adsorption
Solution of Strychnine HCl shaken with activated charcoal resulted into different concentration of strychnine HCl at surface of charcoal than in the bulk. (Volume Concentration) If surface concentration is greater than volume concentration adsorption is called positive adsorption

Negative Adsorption
If surface concentration is less than the bulk (volume concentration) the adsorption is called negative adsorption.

Factor Affecting Adsorption

1. Solubility of the Adsorbate

Highly soluble substance has poor/less adsorption on adsorbent surface due to more firm solute solvent bonds. This empirical rule is known as Lundelius Rule. Example, I2 adsorption on carbon from its solution into CCl4, CHCL3 and CS2 was 1:2:4.5 respectively. It is close to inverse ration for solubility of I2 into these solvents. Phobic substances adsorb more than philic. Keeping philic moiety constant hydrocarbons chains vary, adsorption increases as the series ascended.

2. pH
Ionization is effected by pH which actually affects the solubility of drugs. In drugs with single molecules, adsorption increases when ionization is suppressed. It is maximum when drug is completely unionized. Amphoteric Compound ( +ve and ve Charge) Adsorption is maximum at isoelectric point. pH and solubility act in concert Unionized form of drugs in aqueous soln. has low solubility.

Of the two i.e. pH and Solubility, Solubility has more pronounced effect Example: Adsorption of hyoscine and Atropine on Magnesium Trisilicate. Hyoscine is completely unionized but has less adsorbed than atropine which is 50% ionized. Because Hyoscine is highly soluble (1:9.5 parts of H2O) than atropine (1:400 parts of H2O). So solubilization is inversely proportion to adsorption.

3. Nature of Adsorbent
Physio-chemical nature of adsorbent plays significant role on the rate and capacity of adsorption. Finely divided particles have more adsorption capacity because of more surface area. Adsorbents can be converted into activated form to increase the capacity of adsorption. Example: Activated Charcoal i. Special treatment to remove surface impurities ii. To convert into small particles Activated charcoal is prepared from coco-nut shells. Dust particles removed by steam and air. Then converting into small particles.

4. Temperature
Adsorption is an exothermic process and an increase in temperature will decrease adsorption. Small variation may not have much influence.

5. Pressure
At solid-gas interface amount adsorbed is = KPn Where P = Pressure and K and n were constant.

6. Concentration
At solution solid particle it can be given as = KCn Where C = concentration, K & n = constants.

Separation of components solutes in a solution exploits the principle of adsorption. Smallest difference in their absorbability or differences in their distribution/ partition between two phases.

Types of Chromatography
Adsorption Chromatography Adsorbents like Kreselgur, charcoal, cellulose, MgO, CaO, PO4, CO3, etc are packed in column (Stationary or Fixed Phase) Water, alcohol, chloroform etc as mobile phase. Partition chromatography Two immiscible liquids are used H2O and CH3Cl (liquids) with silica gel which acts support for liquid as fixed phase and CH3Cl or other liquids as mobile phase. Paper Chromatography Normally filter paper is used. Two types: Ascending Descending When mobile phase is at bottom or at the top respectively

Working of Chromatography
1. 2. 3. 4. Preparation of sample and its injection Sample goes to column (Fixed phase) It comes across and mobile phase and separation of components solutes complete Separated components is taken to detector and recorded.

Application of Adsorption
Adsorption has the application in: 1. Preparative and Analytical Chromatography 2. Heterogeneous catalysis 3. Water purification 4. Solvent recovery

Medical and Pharmaceutical Applications

Adsorption of noxious substance from alimentary canal
Universal and antidote (activated charcoal, MgO and Tannic acid) when used orally, reduces toxic levels of poisoning.

Removal of Toxic Elements from Blood

Some adsorbents are used to remove toxic elements by subjecting its dialysis through hemodialysis membrane over charcoal and adsorbents (chlorpheniramine, colchicine, Phenytoin, aspirin etc.)

Treatment of severe drug overdoses

Extracorporeal method has been developed named Haemoperfusion Microencapsulation of activated charcoal by Arcylic Hydrogel, a biocompatible material preventing Embolism and removal of platelets. In vivo In vitro relationship regarding adsorptive capacity of adsorbents. No relationship exists.

Reason: GIT and biological system have many other things which alter the adsorption ratio. Example: In vitro 5g activated charcoal bin 8g of Aspirin In vivo 30g of activated charcoal inhibits the GIT adsorption of 3g of Aspirin by 50%.

Adsorption problems in Drug Formulation

Drugs containing antacids and other drugs, when given, the above problem results. Adsorbents are nonspecific nutrients, drugs and enzymes when given orally. Example: Promazine given above or adsorbents

Lincomycin Kaopectate is a combination of Kaolin and Pectinic acid.

PAS (para- aminosaliculic acid) and Rifampicin Availability of rifampicin is reduced due to bentonite used as an excipient. Bentonite is naturally occurring mineral (montmorillonite) and hydrated aluminum silicate. B.P.C mixture of Mag.trisilcate and belladonna. Complete adsorption hyoscine onto magnisum trisilicate which is an adsorbent. Cardioactive Glycosides (Digoxin, Digitoxin, Digitonin etc) adsorb onto antacids.

Other Uses of Adsorption Phenomenon

During purification (by partitioning, crystallization and precipitation) chemical is tinted so colour is removed by adding activated charcoal or other appropriate adsorbents

Precaution: Adsorption active principle like alkaloid drugs on kieselguhr, adsorption is decreased.

Adsorption of water Vapors:

Alumina and silica gel remain in solid forms even after 40% adsorption of H2O. CaCl2 and P2O5 also adsorb H2O but liquefy after water adsorption. Alumina and silica gel are preferred.

Adsorption of Pyrogens
Pryrogen are low molecular weight drugs (glucose, sodium citrate, calcium gluconate etc.) can be pyrogen free but high molecular weight drugs get adsorbs highly on adsorbents so cannot be pyrogen free.

Surface Area Determination

Properties of powders are highly influenced E.g. rate of soln. rate of oxidation, hygroscopic, sedimentation behavior, resistance to gas flow, bulk density and associated packing problems.

Monitoring of Pore Size of Filter Papers

Membrane filtration for sterility pore size decreases to 450 nm.

Stability of Colloids
Protective colloids (lyophilic colloids for lyophobic colloids stability)

Stability of Emulsions
By using emulsifying agents of appropriate HLB no. (Hydrophilic lipophlic balance) Pharmacological Activity due to Adsorption at Receptor Sites.

Rheological Properties of Suspensions

Heterogenous system behave differently than homogenous system behave differently than homogenous systems. Adsorption at walls of container also adsorption into the containers wall.