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Behavior of compaction and non compaction concrete filled steel tubes under axial compression

Dr.Manojkumar Praveen pawar

Chitawadagi.,

Abstract
In this experimental investigation total 36 nos of specimen were casted by varying method of compaction, cross section and different grade of infill concrete. Keeping Area(A), thickness(t) and length as constant. It is difficult for compaction in long steel tube columns with the help of needle vibrators so in this experimental investigation the effect of method of compaction is studied for short columns with and without compaction and the load carrying capacity is compared with codal provisions (Euro Code 4, 1994, American concrete institute,1999., American institute of steel construction, 1999). Keywords: method of compaction, strength loss factor, axial load

1. Introductio n
In current international practice, concrete-filled steel tube (CFT) columns are used in the primary lateral resistance systems of both braced and unbraced building structures. There exist applications in Japan and Europe where CFTs are used as bridge piers. Moreover, CFTs may be utilized for retrofitting purposes for strengthening concrete columns in earthquake zones. The CFT structural member has a number of distinct advantages over an equivalent steel, reinforced concrete, or steel-reinforced concrete member. The orientation of the steel and concrete in the cross section optimizes the strength and stiffness It is difficult for compaction in long steel tube columns with the help of needle vibrators so in this experimental investigation the effect of method of

compaction is studied for short columns with and

of the section. The steel lies at the outer perimeter where it performs most effectively in tension and in resisting bending moment. Lin-Hai Han(2003) had conducted an investigation on influence of concrete compaction on Circular concrete filled steel tubes under axial compression and his study is limited to circular cross section only. But in our experiment not only Circular, Rectangular and Square concrete filled steel tubes are also considered. And influence of compacted and non compacted concrete filled steel tubes are studied by varying cross section and by different grades of infill concrete. without compaction and the load carrying capacity is compared with codal provisions (Euro Code 4, 1994, American concrete institute,1999., American institute of steel construction, 1999).

2.0 Experimental details 2.1. Raw materials 2.1.1. Cement For the experimental work Portland slag cement was used, Portland slag cement is less reactive than OPC and gains strength little more slowly during first 28 days and adequate curing is essential. The composition and properties are governed by IS: 4551989. Table-1: Cement proreties

10mm down size crushed granite aggregates are used in the present work. 2.1.3. Fine Aggregate Natural river sand is used confirming to IS: 383 1970, 2.1.4. Water Water used in concrete shall be free from sewage, oil, acid, strong alkalies or vegetable matter, and also shall be free from clay andloam. The water used is potable, and is satisfactory to use in concrete. Tap water supplied in the BVB Engineering College is used for casting and curing of concrete specimen used in the experimental work. 2.1.5. Cold-Rolled Steel Tubes The cold rolled steel sections are produced from strip steel conforming to IS: 1079-1973. Experimental 2 results are as follows. Yield stress fy = 200 N/mm 5 2 ,Modulus of elasticity Es = 2 x 10 N/mm (values are as per data provided by steel tube suppliers) 2.1.6. Superplasticizer Glenium B233 is the type of superplastilizer used for our experimental work supplied by BASF manufacturer Bangalore.

2.1.2. COARSE AGGREGATES 2.2 Concrete mix Design 2.2.1. Mix design Concrete Mixes with targeted characteristic strengths of 20, 30 and 40 MPa using locally available Portland Slag Cement (PSC), crushed granite jelly (12.5 mm down) and river sand and Glenium B233 are used in the present investigation. Mix designs of these three grades of concrete are based on the guidelines of

IS:10262-2009.Standard cubes (150mmX150mmX150mm) were used to determine the compressive strength of the concrete.

Table-2: Detail of Mix design

2.2.2. Preparation of steel tubes Mild steel tubes are used in the present investigation. These tubes are seam welded and the edges of the tubes are finished. The edges of the steel tubes are finished horizontally flat after cutting to avoid

eccentricity while loading. Outer surfaces of all the steel tubes are painted to avoid the corrosion. The insides of the tubes are wire brushed to remove any rust and loose debris present. The deposits of grease Table-3:Details of dimension of specimen used.

and oil, if any, are cleaned. Identification marks for each specimen are put on the outer surface of the tubes.Area of Steel of Circular, Rectangular and Square CFTs are approximately equal.

2.2.3. Placing of the Concrete and Compaction in CFTs In order to ensure proper compaction for compacted CFT samples, higher degree of workability i.e. 100140mm slump is adopted for the concrete mixes. This is accomplished by using super plasticizer as admixtures. Bottom end of the steel tube is covered with polythene sheet tightly and concrete is poured In order to ensure proper compaction for Noncompacted CFT samples, higher degree of workability i.e. 100-140mm slump is adopted for the concrete mixes. This is accomplished by using super plasticizer as admixtures. Bottom end of the steel tube is covered with polythene sheet tightly and from top. Concrete is filled in steel tube in approximately three equal layers and each layer is compacted with 25 blows using a steel tamping rod. Top of the concrete is trimmed using a trowel and steel tube was kept undisturbed until it was taken out from stand to keep in water for curing. concrete is poured from top of the concrete filled tubes. Concrete is filled in steel tube in approximately three equal layers without any compaction. Top of the concrete is trimmed using a trowel and steel tube was kept undisturbed until it was taken out from stand to keep in water for curing.

Fig-1: Showing compaction in CFT specimen.

Fig-2: Curing of CFTs and concrete cubes.

when support is removed. Slump increases with increase in water content. 2.2.4. Curing Curing is done in a curing tank. After 24 hours of casting, the concrete cube specimens are demoulded and immersed in water until the start of the tests. The composite tube specimens are immersed in water as they are. All tests are conducted at the age of 28 days. 2.2.5. Drying After the specimens were removed from the curing tank they were allowed to dry in air for 3 to 4 hours. 2.3 TESTS ON FRESH CONCRETE 2.3.1. Slump Test The unsupported fresh concrete flows to the sides and sinking in height takes place. This vertical settlement is known as slump. In this test the fresh concrete is filled with in to a mould of specified shape and dimensions, and settlement or slump is measured 2.4 TESTS ON CFTS AND HARDENED CONCRETE CUBES The column specimens are tested at 28 days of age. To ensure the application of load on both steel tube and concrete together uniformly, at the top of concrete-filled steel tubes, a small quantity of plaster of paris is applied on top of concrete surface whenever there is a shrinkage of concrete (especially for larger diameter tubes). The tests are conducted in a 2000 kN capacity Column Testing Machine. Least count of the load that can read on the digital display of loading unit of CTM is 0.1kN and in dial gauge least count of axial shortening is 0.1mm. Prior to the actual tests, a pre-load of 5 kN is applied so that the platens of the testing machine are firmly attached to both ends of the specimen. The axial load is then applied slowly by careful manipulation of the loading-valves. The readings of the applied load and axial shortening readings used for testing CFT columns are recorded at appropriate load increments.

Fig-3:Set up Showing testing of CFT specimen. 3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 3.1. Change in load carrying capacity for Circular, Rectangular and Square CFTs with different grades of concrete for compacted and non compacted concrete.

Fig-4:Set up Showing testing of concrete cube specimen.

Concrete inside the steel tube of a CFT column is completely confined due to the surrounding steel tube. This completely confined concrete shares external axial load along with the steel tube. It is observed that the load carrying capacity increases by infilling the concrete in hollow steel tubes. An

increase in grade of infill-concrete increases the axial strength and decreases the axial shortening of the CFT for a given cross sectional area. An increase in load carrying capacity of an uniform compaction is uniform throughout cross section of specimen, leads to increase in overall load carrying capacity. From experimental results it is found that axial load carrying capacity increases with increase in grade of concrete and is more significant for circular columns as compared to square and rectangular column. Strength loss factor is proposed here in accounts in load carrying capacity due to non compaction of concrete in CFTs with increase in grade of concrete Table-4: Comparison of ultimate load carrying capacity for CFTs with different grade of infill concrete for compacted and non compacted.

strength loss factor increases. Hence for higher grades of concrete infill needs better workability or else such concrete contribution in CFTs will be lower if compaction is not made. It is also absorbed that the percentage increasing in axial strength for circular concrete filled steel tubes for M40 is 19.9% and 5.8% more compared to M20 and M30 grade of infill concrete, in case of rectangular concrete filled steel tube for M40 is 19.8% and 11.9% more compared to M20 and M30 grade of infill concrete. Whereas incase of square concrete filled steel tube for M20 is 10.7% and 8.55 less compared to M30 and M40 grade of infill concrete.

3.2. Effect of Shape and grade of in fill concrete on load carrying of concrete filled section It is observed that the increase in the load carrying capacity as the grade of the concrete increases. The load carrying capacity of M4CNCS1 is higher. it is also found that load carrying capacity of M4CNCS1 is higher as compared to M2CNCS1 and M3CNCS1. The load carrying capacity of M4CNCS1 increases 12.51% to M2CNCS1 and 3.72% to M3CNCS1. The failure load or the deflection of 20mm is considered for testing. In case of circular compacted infill concrete specimen voids are negligible the confinement of concrete and core steel tube is good, hence the strength increase as the grade of infill concrete increases. Whereas in case of non compacted infill concrete specimen number of void present are comparatively more as compared with compacted samples, hence the strength decreases with reduction in confinement effect of core steel and concrete.

Table-5: Ultimate load carrying capacity of specimen at 20mm axial shortening.

3.3 Effect of compaction on load carrying capacity of CFTs It is observed that for certain values of longitudinal strain the concrete began to increase in volume due to micro-cracking, which induced concrete confinement by the steel tube. This confinement increased the overall load resisting capacity of the the concrete filled CFTs. However this increase was noted only for Circular tubes, not for Square and Rectangular shapes. It is observed that the load carrying capacity of CFT specimen depends upon the nature of

compaction done while filling the infill concrete in steel tubes. It is observed that the load carrying capacity of compacted circular M20 grade infill concrete is increased 22.5 % compared to non compacted circular specimen, similarly the load carrying capacity of compacted circular M30 grade infill concrete is increased 48.5 % compared to non compacted circular specimen and similarly the load carrying capacity of compacted circular M40 grade infill concrete is increased 62.0 % compared to non compacted circular specimen.

Fig-4: Axial load v/s grade of concrete with different cross section 3.4 Axial shortening From the below Fig. comparing the load displacement curves for M2CCS1, M2RCS1 and M2SCS1 specimens for Compacted M20 grade concrete, it is shown that the all the curves are different. and it is concluded that load carrying capacity of M2CCS1 is higher as compared to M2RCS1 and M2SCS1. The load carrying capacity of M2CCS1 decreases 19.68% to M2RCS1 and 31.32% to M2SCS1. The smooth curves are observed in case of Circular CFTs for both in case of compacted and Non compacted samples and incase of Rectangular and Square CFTs are different.

From the below Fig. comparing the load displacement curves for M2CNCS1, M2RNCS1 and M2SNCS1 specimens for Non Compacted M20 grade concrete, it is shown that the all the curves are different. and it is concluded that load carrying capacity of M2CNCS1 is higher as compared to M2RNCS1 and M2SNCS1 . The load carrying capacity of M2CNCS1 decreases 47.52% to M2RNCS1 and 52% to M2SNCS1. 3.5 Comparison of Experimental results with Lin Han model: Lin Han proposed a model to determine the axial load carrying capacity of CFTs. Formulae for fscy is given as follows, For concrete filled steel CHS columns: fscy = (1.14 + . 1.02) fck eqn 4.1 For concrete filled steel SHS columns: fscy = (1.18 + . 0.85) fck The validity limit of Eq. is 0.1 < < 5 =

Table-6: Comparison of test results with Lin Han model.

Asc f

Ac fck
The axial load is given by, P =

Asc. fscy 1000

This above equations are used for calculating the Axial load carrying capacity of Lin Hai-Han model and those values are compared with actual values obtained from experimental investigation.

eqn 4.2 3.6 Comparisons of Test Results with EC4, ACI and AISC Codes These design codes are most widely used in codes of practices for design of steelconecqrnet4e.3 composite members. These are either reinforced concrete or structural steel approaches. The design approaches described in EC4 (Euro Code 4, 1994), ACI (American Concrete Institute, 1999) and AISC (American Institute of Steel Con s tr u c t ion, eq n 4 .4 1999) are different in concept. The experimental results are compared with the provisions in the design codes EC4, ACI and AISC for the design of high strength composite columns. With the material properties of the specimens are known and all the material safety factors specified in the codes are set to unity in the calculations; calculations are made as per codes to compare the ultimate load of the CFT specimens.

Table-7: Comparison of test result with codes. 4.0 CONCLUSIONS It is observed that the load carrying capacity of hollow steel tubes can be increased by increase in grade of concrete in-fill. b) The load carrying capacity of compacted sample is more compared to rectangular and square CFT specimen. i. The load carrying capacity of M4CNCS1 is higher as compared to M2CNCS1 & M3CNCS1 by 12.51% and 3.72% respectively. ii. The load carrying capacity of M4CCS1 is higher as compared to M2CCS1 & M3CCS1 by 42.44% and 16.33% respectively. iii. The load carrying capacity of M20 grade non compacted circular specimen is more and is decreased for rectangular and square section by 47.52% and 52% respectively iv. The load carrying capacity of M30 grade non compacted circular specimen is more and is decreased for rectangular and square section by 11.02% and 11.37% respectively. v. The load carrying capacity of M30 grade compacted circular specimen is more and is decreased for rectangular and square section by 32.45% and 49.18% respectively. vi. The load carrying capacity of M40 grade non compacted circular specimen is more and is decreased for rectangular and square section by 25.47% and 32.58% respectively. vii. The load carrying capacity of M40 grade compacted circular specimen is more and is decreased for rectangular and square section by 26.67% and Fig-6:Expt.result comparison with 69.27% respectively. codes c) It is observed that the ultimate strength of M4CCS1 is more compared to all other samples. The Ultimate loads of the specimens were calculated d) It is also observed that as the confinement increases based on the specifications in the EC4, ACI, and axial shortening decreases. AISC Codes. The safety factors in the specifications e) It is evident that compaction in CFT is necessary and were set to unity so that predicted values obtained in in absence of compaction, the contribution of the codes could be used for comparison with concrete in load carrying capacity decreases with experimental results. it is observed that higher grades. experimentally predicted axial capacity of CFT f) For CFTs other than circular samples compaction has sections used in the present investigation with a mean higher influence in load carrying capacity of value of 17% higher, ACI and AISC codes do not specimen. consider the effect of concrete in fill and hence the REFERENCES predicted axial load of the CFT samples is lower as compared to experimental values. 1. ACI 318-99. Building code requirements for a)

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