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Prepared by:



Guided by:
Shri A. GOYAL Sr. Proff. Bridge/IRICEN/PUNE.


IRICEN an ISO-9001 institute of Civil Engineers is setting out milestones in imparting outstanding training to civil engineers of Indian Railways .This is one of the dream institute and its most distinguishable feature is that it moulds one into thorough gentleman.It is always open for valuable suggestions and its immediate implementation. We would like to pay our gratitude and special thanks to SHRI SHIV KUMAR ,DIRECTOR,IRICEN . We are thankful to Project Director, Shri Ajay Goyal , SPB and Course Director Shri A.K.Rai and to all Faculty members ,staff of the Institute for their kind cooperation.


I P 2 5 2 01 6 3 5 2 3 3 5 4 0 5 2 4 5 6 5 M A J O 9 0 9 8 3 0 9 6 6 9 6 5 1 2 4 9 1 3 6 1 1 4 1 5 1 0 9 8 9 7 9 2 R M I N O 1 9 8 7 5 4 1 8 7 3 4 9 7 4 4 1 4 5 1 3 4 8 1 7 2 1 3 0 8 1 0 9 3 6 7 R 3 1 2 2 7 7 4 7 4 T O T A 1 1 5 8 3 8 1 9 7 4 5 6 7 5 3 1 8 7 3 1 8 1 9 1 9 1 2 1 9 2 4 L 173 6542 7 B r i d g s a r e c o n s d e r e d a s e o f t h p i v o t l m o d e o f c o m m u i c a t i o n f o r c o n e c t i n g t h e d i t a n t l o c t i o n s a t d i f e r e n t p a r s o f t h i s c o u n t r y a n d h e n c e t h e b r i d g s s h o u l d b e d e s i g n e d n u c h a w a y t h a i t c a n r e s i s t a n d m a i n t i i t s s t a b i l y y a b o r b i n g t h v r e h o c k s a n d v i r i o n s d u r i g e v e e e a r t h q u a k , o h e r w s e t h e s u r f a c e t r a n s p o r t s y s t e m w i l b e b a d l y a f e c t e d a n d r s c u e a n d r e h a b i l t a t i o n o p r a t i o n a r e s e v e r e l y d e l a y e d . T h e a v a i l a b i l t y o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n k i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e e a r t h q u a k e s h o u l d b e t d e s g n e d p h i l s p h y o f e r t h q u a e r e s i s t n d e i g n . B u t v e r y b r i d g e i n t y p i c a l z o n e c a n n o t b e d e s i g n d f o r t h p r o b a b l e s v e r e e a r h q u a k e t h a t m a y o c u r e d i t h t v e r y r g i o n ,s a s b e c a u s e a h u g a m o u n t o f e x p e n d i u r e w i l i n f o r c o n s r u c t i o o f a i n g l b r i d g . H e n c e b r i d g e s h u l d b e s g n d n s u c h a w a y t h a t i t a n r e s i s t e v e r e e a r t h q u a k a l o w i n g o m e d a m a g e t o t h e t rt u r e b u s o u l d n o tc o l a p e .

Bridges are necessary evil for Road and Railway network. The bridges play a key role for whole communication system for a vast country like India. Indian Railways has to spend a huge amount of its expenditure for construction and maintenance for huge number of bridges. The total number of bridges on Indian Railways are as follows: Type CR ER NR NE NF SR SC SE WR TOTA L


2.GENERAL PRINCIPLE: The earthquake cause random motion of ground, which can be resolved in any three mutually perpendicular directions. This motion causes the structure to

vibrate. Thus Earthquake Force F = ma (1) where m= mass of the structure a = acceleration due to vibration The vibration intensity of ground motion expected at any location ,depends upon the magnitude of earthquake, the depth of focus, the distance from the epicenter and strata on which earthquake stands. The predominant direction of vibration is horizontal. Vertical seismic forces are considered significant in bridges with large spans and those elements in which stability is considered significant parameter. Such as incase of prestressed or cantilever beam, girder and slabs special considerations are required for vertical forces. But for important bridges generally the combined effects of all the three components are considered

EL = (ELX)+(ELY)+(ELZ)


This method is known as SRSS method, and mostly used to find out combined action of earthquake forces. SRSS = square root of the sum of square. When earthquake forces are considered along with other normal design forces , the permissible stresses in materials in the elastic method of design is increased by one third. However for steels having definite yield stress, the stress may be limited to yield stress; for steel without a definite yield point, the stress will be limited to 80% of the ultimate stress or 0.2% proof stress whichever is smaller. Similarly the allowable bearing pressure of soil can be increased in the range of 25-50%,depending upon the type of foundation of the structure. 3 EXISTING DESIGN PHILOSOPHY ON INDIAN RAILWAY: In India IS-1893 and IRC Section-6 provides specification for earthquake resistant design. Existing seismic design practice on Indian Railway is based on horizontal seismic co- efficient method .It involves computing seismic forces that each component of a bridge would face during a earthquake at its centre of mass and carry out elastic design of the structure based on working stress or limit state of serviceability method. Thus Earthquake force

F=Wm h( or



where Wm=wt of mass under consideration h/ v=Design horizontal/vertical co-efficient,

h= I o


=a co- efficient depending upon the soil foundation system, values varies from 1.0 to 1.5. I= Importance factor, considered 1.5 for important bridges, o= Basic horizontal seismic co-efficient varies from 0.01 to 0.08for five different seismic zone. By this method some external force is added on the already available dead load and live load combination. Simultaneously allowable stresses in material and soil also increased. Hence the structure cannot sustain the severe earthquake during its life time period. Another more realistic method for calculation of earthquake force as per IS-18931984 is Response Spectrum method. But according to Indian Railway Bridge rule, this method need not be used for computation of seismic forces in Rly bridges. Earthquake force by modal analysis method is carried out particularly for zone IV and V for special type of bridge, such as Cable Stayed Bridge ,Horizontally Curved Girder Bridge, Reinforced Concrete Arch or Steel Arch Bridge. It should carried out for bridges when either span or depth of superstructure exceed 120m and 30m Respectively. 4.NEW DESIGN CONCEPT BY IS:1893-2002 Internationally, there has been massive research work for analysis design and retrofitting of existing bridges based on behaviour of bridge component in recent earthquakes, so that bridges become earthquake resistant at affordable cost. The 2002 edition of IS:1893 (part-1) and proposed draft of IS;1893(part-3) and IRC-6 have brought new design approach based on international experience. The new development incorporates the ductile deformation, plastic behaviour of structure when higher earthquake occurs causing seismic forces higher than the designed forces adopted for elastic design. Ductility arises from inelastic material behaviour and extra strength arising from additional reserve strength in structure over and above the design strength. The major and important revision made in fifth revision are as follows: (i)the seismic zone map is revised with only four zones instead of five zones ,

zone I. has been merged with zone-II. (ii)The value of seismic zone factors have been changed ;these value now reflect more realistic values of effective peak ground acceleration considering maximum consider earthquake (MCE) and service life of structure in each seismic zone. (iii)Response spectrum are now specified for three types of founding strata namely rock and hard soil, medium soil and soft soil. In this method ,the designed horizontal seismic coefficient of a structure shall be as follows

Ah =ZISa/2Rg


Z =zone factor values from 0.10 to 0.36(for zone ii to v) I=Importance factor, 1.5 for important bridge, 1.0 for less important bridges. R= Response reduction factor, depending on the perceived seismic damage performance of the structure, characterized by ductile or brittle deformation Sa/g=Average response acceleration co-efficient based on appropriate natural period and damping of structure as shown in fig. Below. For obtaining the response factor for a particular bridge, first its natural period of vibration is calculated as below: Where =horizontal displacement at the acting position of inertial force of the superstructure when the force corresponding to 80% of the total weight of substructure above ground surface and all weight superstructure portion supported by it. Thus the calculation of seismic coefficient of a structure is calculated considering all the relevant factors of a structure and from this method a more realistic value is obtained compared to the prevailing method.The vertical co-efficient of earthquake is considered 2/3 rd of horizontal.



Response reduction factor Sl. No Structure, component or connection (i) (ii) (iii) Superstructure, RCC Superstructure, steel, PSC Substructure

R 3.0 2.5

(a)RCC piers with ductile detailing, cantilever and 2.5 wall type (b) RCC piers without ductile detailing, cantilever 2.0 and wall type (c) Masonry type 1.5

(d) RCC framed construction in piers with ductile 3.0 detailing, (e) Steel framed piers 2.5

(f) steel cantilever piers (g) Steel trussed arch (h) RCC arch (i)Abutment of mass concrete , masonry (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Bearings Expansion joints and connections Structure hinge Stoppers in bearings and all type of foundations

2.0 2.5 2.0 2.0 0.8 0.8 3.0 1.0


SOIL STRUCTURE: As far as possible firm soil with coarse granular materials should be considered suitable for bridge foundation. The bearing capacity of soil layer, that is assessed as extremely weak clay layer or silty soil reduces to zero due to liquefaction or lateral spreading.Hence a soil layer of greater stiffness should be selected as far as possible. FOUNDATION: Bridges are built either on spread footing or deep foundation. Bridges on spread footing supported by firm soil have performed well during earthquakes. Pile foundations have performed well except massive soil failure. Generally the column yield first; thus limiting the earthquake demand. Generally plastic hinge occurs in the zone shown in figure

It should be fully ductile section; axial reinforcing bar joints should be avoided. Hoop ties should be of deformed bar more than 12 mm dia and interval between the bars in direction of height shall not be less than 15cm.Hoop tie in the middle portion should not be changed abruptly but gradually. Stirrups should be hooked at 135 degree, otherwise these stirrups open up under the force due to earthquake. Even with confinement R.C members are sufficiently ductile in bending action only. This can be assumed by designing the R.C members in such a way that their shear and axial load capacity is higher than the capacity in flexure. This is called capacity design process. Moreover the footing and pile cap should be in deeper level to gain passive ressistance. The fixidity of pile to cap connection should be increased. The number of piles should be increased if possible.


During pass earthquakes, Expansion joints have been found responsible for numerous damage on collapse. Bridges design with End-diaphram abutment and without Expansion joint may be considered in high seismic area. When transverse joints are used, ample seat with is essential. Bridges with large skew angle have performed poorly during earthquake. Skew angles greater than 30degree should be avoided whenever possible Heavy superstructure should be avoided as earthquake force is proportional to bridge mass. In California, new columns are designed with closely spaces welded hoops or spirals as transverse reinforcements. Hoops and Spirals confine the concrete and longitudinal reinforcement and they also provide much of the shear strength of concrete. Generally abutments are designed and detailed for service load and then they are checked for seismic performance. At top of abutment adequate width, minimum 750 mm should be provided to prevent unseating of girder. On a pier with two greatly different levels at top, a very large seismic force may act due to collision between girder and portion of different levels, greatly damaging the base of double level portion of girder. Hence at pier level should be same as shown in fig. below.

BEARINGS:. A seismic isolation structure is defined as structure consisting of isolation bearings that integrate rubber bearings and an energy absorbing device.


6 CONCLUSION: The aim of above presentation and discussion is not to describe the vast field of design aspects but only to compare the provision of existing code and revised edition regarding seismic effect in engineering structures and simultaneously on soil structure, design aspect and materials used for construction purpose. Experiments in this regard are going on and everyday we are getting more information from different parts of the world. Development of new theories and its successful implementation improving the character of the soil with addition of some other agent, innovation of new building materials and technique will definitely improve the scenario and the civilization will be benefited.


(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) IS- 1893-1984 for earthquake resistant design of structure. IS-1893-2000 (part-1) and draft para of IS-1893-2000 (part-3) Seminar paper on Emerging Seismic Design Criteria For Bridges On Indian Railways by A.K.Gupta, National Technical Seminar on design ,construction ,inspection of Railway Bridges 2006. Design Specification of Road Bridges part-v seismic design, published by Japan Road Associates. Fundamental of seismic protection for bridges by Mark yashinskyand M.J.Karshenas.



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