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THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

Three phase induction motor is the most popular type of a.c motor. It is very commonly used for industrial drives since it is cheap, robust, efficient and reliable. It has good speed regulation and high starting torque. It requires little maintenance. It has a overload capacity.

CONSTRUCTION
Essentially consists of two parts- stator and the rotor. Stator is the stationary part and rotor is the rotating part.

Stator is made of high grade alloy steel lamination to reduce the eddy current losses. The laminations are supported in a stator frame of cast iron. The stator conductors are connected to form three phase winding. It could be either star or delta connected.

ROTOR
It is the rotating part of the machine. It is build up of thin laminations same material as stator. There are two types of induction motor rotors.

1. SQUIRREL-CAGE ROTOR
In overall shape, it is a cylinder mounted on a shaft. Internally it contains longitudinal conductive bars (usually made of aluminum or copper) set into grooves and connected at both ends by shorting rings forming a cage-like shape. The name is derived from the similarity between this rings-and-bars winding and a squirrel cage. The solid core of the rotor is built with stacks of electrical steel laminations. Figure 3 shows one of many laminations used. The rotor has a smaller number of slots than the stator and must be a non-integral multiple of stator slots so as to prevent magnetic interlocking of rotor and stator teeth at the starting instant.

SLIP-RING ROTOR
In this type of rotor windings are connected through slip rings to external resistances. Adjusting the resistance allows control of the speed/torque characteristic of the motor. Wound-rotor

motors can be started with low inrush current, by inserting high resistance into the rotor circuit; as the motor accelerates, the resistance can be decreased. Compared to a squirrel-cage rotor, the rotor of the slip ring motor has more winding turns; the induced voltage is then higher, and the current lower, than for a squirrel-cage rotor. During the start-up a typical rotor has 3 poles connected to the slip ring. Each pole is wired in series with a variable power resistor. When the motor reaches full speed the rotor poles are switched to short circuit. During start-up the resistors reduce the field strength in the stator. As a result the inrush current is reduced. Another important advantage over squirrel-cage motors is higher start-up torque. A wound-rotor motor can be used in several forms of adjustable-speed drive. Certain types of variable-speed drives recover slip-frequency power from the rotor circuit and feed it back to the supply, allowing wide speed range with high energy efficiency. Doubly fed electric machines use the slip rings to supply external power to the rotor circuit, allowing wide-range speed control. Today speed control by use of slip ring motor is mostly superseded by induction motors with variable-frequency drives.