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Jun 16, 2013

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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Submitted to:

Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study/Expected Outputs Scope of the Study Research Methodology a. Instrumentation b. Validation of the Instruments c. Data Gathering Procedures

VI.

Statistical Treatment

VII. References

An action research was performed with the main aim of teaching 3rd year high school students on how to get the angles formed by tangents to a circle. Ten (10) students of Bacoor National High School specifically, students from the Special Science Class (SSC) section participated in this action research project. This action research involved students answering pre-test and post-test on the topic Tangent Lines to a Circle. Students also reflected on their progress and the success of the researchers on the researcherrespondents session done to teach them about the said topic. The researchers injected some of the learnings they had from the research they did about the said topic to perform students' activities which have the potential to develop conceptual understanding of the subject. The data collected indicated that some students improved their understanding but some students needs more time to re-learn the subject. This research only presents some practical solutions proposed within the time available. The students of III-SSC in Bacoor National High School-Annex comprises of students from various backgrounds. During their math class, the students are seated based on their average grade every quarter. The students with the highest grades are seated at the back, while those with low grades are in front. So, we decided to do a research towards the students seated in front which we could describe as a bit weak in Geometry facts and search for solutions to increase their ability and understanding in Geometry. Specifically about our topic which tackles about Tangent Lines on Circles. The researchers picked this topic based on our observation and experience. Our observation was this. Everytime our teacher is discussing about this topic, the students find it easy. Everytime the teacher gives us the time to ask her a question about the topic; we seem to have no questions to ask her. This is because during that period of discussion, we understand the things that she is saying. Yes, we understand. That's a fact. But the problem comes everytime

we have quizzes. We all know how important quizzes are. I mean, every student knows that it is a part of the grading process that teachers do. It might comprise of only 5-10 items, but it would pull you up if you ace them. On the contrary, it can pull you down if you CONSECUTIVELY have a score of zero with those. That is why; it would be of great help if those students who consecutively get zero will have the knowledge about this tricky topic in Geometry.

This study aims Circles. Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions : 1. Did the researchers become successful in teaching the to improve the respondents' learnings about Geometry. Specifically, those related to the relation of Tangent Lines and

respondents? 2. Did the session had some effects on the respondents? 3. Was there a big difference on the results of the conducted pre-test and post-test among the two groups? (The Experimental and Control group) 4. Was the researchers' technique of teaching effective? 5. Was the technique applicable to all circumstances?

This research is significant among this group of people: I. Students The students, specifically, the 3 rd year SSC students of Bacoor National High School. The study was said to be significant because it tackles the topic which we think was pretty tricky for them. We all know that not all students have that passion for numbers and shapes. Things that we need study in Geometry. But, finding a teaching technique that could lead them to understand the topic more is a great help to them. According to a web article, many students find that math is the hardest subject in school probably because, you learn a lot of things in a small amount of time, and because numbers are "another language" and your horizons on this language are constantly expanding. That is why, finding an easier way could lead them to at least like the fact that they are learning Math. The teaching method that we used was simple but it is pretty interactive. According to the web article I read about Interactive teaching by Dr. Louis Abrahamson, Interactive Teaching is not something new or mysterious. If you are a teacher and you ask questions in class, assign and check homework, or hold class or group discussions, then you already teach interactively. Basically then, interactive teaching is just giving students something to do, getting back what they have done, and then assimilating it yourself, so that you can decide what would be best to do next. But, almost all teachers do these things, so is there more to it? To answer this question, one has to step away from teaching and think about learning. Over the last twenty years, the field of cognitive science has taught us a lot about how people learn. A central principle that has been generally

accepted is that everything we learn, we "construct" for ourselves. That is, any outside agent is essentially powerless to have a direct effect on what we learn. If our brain does not do it itself, - that is, take in information, look for connections, interpret and make sense of it, - no outside force will have any effect. This does not mean that the effort has to be expressly voluntary and conscious on our parts. Our brains take-in information and operate continuously on many kinds of levels, only some of which are consciously directed. But, conscious or not, the important thing to understand is that it is our brains that are doing the learning, and that this process is only indirectly related to the teacher and the teaching. For example, even the most lucid and brilliant exposition of a subject by a teacher in a lecture, may result in limited learning if the students' brains do not do the necessary work to process it. There are several possible causes why students' learning may fall short of expectations in such a situation. They may, not understand a crucial concept partway into the lecture and so what follows is unintelligible, be missing prior information or not have a good understanding of what went before, so the conceptual structures on which the lecture is based are absent, lack the interest, motivation, or desire to expend the mental effort to follow the presentation, understand the arguments, make sense of the positions, and validate the inferences. However, whatever the cause, without interacting with the students (in the simplest case by asking questions), a teacher has no way to know if his/her efforts to explain the topic were successful. This brings me to the first of (what I believe are) three distinct reasons for interactive teaching. It is an attempt to see what actually exists in the brains of your students. This is the "summative" aspect. It is the easiest aspect to understand and it is well described in the literature. But, it is far from being the only perspective! The second reason is "formative", where the teacher aims through the assigned task to direct students' mental processing along an appropriate path in "concept-space". The intent is that, as students think

through the issues necessary in traversing the path, the resulting mental construction that is developed in the student's head will possess those properties that the teacher is trying to teach. As Socrates discovered, a good question can accomplish this result better than, just telling the answer. The third may be termed "motivational". Learning is hard work, and an injection of motivation at the right moment can make all the difference. One motivating factor provided by the interactive teacher is the requirement of a response to a live classroom task. This serves to jolt the student into action, to get his brain off the couch, so to speak. Additional more subtle and pleasant events follow immediately capitalizing on the momentum created by this initial burst. One of these is a result of our human social tendencies. When teachers ask students to work together in small groups to solve a problem, a discussion ensues that not only serves in itself to build more robust knowledge structures, but also to motivate. The anticipation of immediate feedback in the form of reaction from their peers, or from the teacher is a very strong motivator. If it is not embarrassing or threatening, students want to know desperately whether their understanding is progressing or just drifting aimlessly in concept space. Knowing that they are not allowed to drift too far off track provides tremendous energy to continue. This article gave us the idea that we should do something interactive to motivate the respondents to have interest on our topic. Study shows that Interactive Teaching makes the discussion memorable preventing the students to forget what was studied easily. We have discussed that using this technique on solving for angles formed by Tangent Lines to Circles may consume a certain amount of time. But we are ignoring this fact because our study must focus only on developing our respondents ability to comprehend which is essential on answering tricky problems. We expect that this research can possibly affect the learning capabilities of our respondents and improve their knowledge on solving the angles formed by Tangent Lines to Circles. To conclude, because of the many

supporting studies, we expect that this research project might work and we can develop a method for the students to understand the tangent concept.

II. Teachers The study is significant to teachers especially those teachers having trouble with their students. They could use this teaching method to their students for them to have a fun, yet educational discussion.

The big question to be answered in this research paper is whether our teaching technique used improved the respondents' knowledge in solving angles formed by Tangent Lines to Circles. The teaching technique we used was with the use of a manila paper and marker to draw a sample problem. Each circle (with tangents on it) will have only one given angle and the rest is yet to be solved. As mention before, the teaching technique was described as interactive. What makes it interactive are the colored paper with the correct measures of angles on them. What they will do is that they would put it to the right angle on the circle. Now, this may sound like there are no computations involved. The thing here is, after they stick the paper to what they thought as the right place for the angle measure, they have to explain why they came up with that answer. We wouldn't want to be like a terror teacher or something, so if the student doesn't know the answer, the teacher will have to explain. The most essential part of this research is to acquire the desired results from the different outcomes of the study. The expected and significant outcome of this research must show that the scores in the pretest increased in the posttest and that the method that we have instructed is properly used by our respondents.

The research will mainly focus only on the topic which is solving for the measure of angles formed by Tangent Lines to Circles. We are discouraging everybody to read this research paper if the topic you are looking for is not related to this topic to avoid wrong concepts and wrong information to spread. As said earlier, the aim of writing this research paper, is to find a method that will help students improve their knowledge on the topic. And because of this method, all results of the pre-test and post-test must show an improvement. The way of our teaching will also be significant to our study because this may also affect the results or specifically the test scores of the respondents. The teaching method can affect because if we failed to explain properly the technique we want the students to use, then we will also fail on getting the desired outcomes of our study. The scope of the study mainly evolves on the tecnique that we are proposing to improve the ability of the students in solving angles formed by Tangent Lines on Circles. And the positive outcome of the project. The negative outcome was not mentioned because during the short period of investigating, there were no negative outcomes. But since we are not certain if it will work for a long period of time, the researchers are open to the negative outcomes. Nevertheless, the negative outcomes can be used to point out the mistakes on the method that we are focusing on in this research paper.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

I. Instrumentation The aim on writing this research paper is to formulate a

technique that could help the students understand the topic without too many things to consider. In short, a simple yet effective technique.

The main tools we used in the method of our study were simply colored papers and a manila paper. Each circle (with tangents on it) will have only one given angle and the rest is yet to be solved. As mentioned before, the teaching technique was described as interactive. What makes it interactive is the colored paper with the correct measures of angles on them. What they will do is that they would put it to the right angle on the circle. Now, this may sound like there are no computations involved. The thing here is, after they stick the paper to what they thought as the right place for the angle measure, they have to explain why they came up with that answer. We wouldn't want to be like a terror teacher or something, so if the student doesn't know the answer, the teacher will have to explain why. The usage of simple materials was done on purpose. It is because my partner and I believe that the simpler the method used, the easier it is to understand. I mean, why make things complicated? After doing this, our technique then progresses. The respondents are then instructed to stick the papers and explain their answers without the aid of the teacher. Again we intentionally instruct the respondents to stick the colored papers to where they think the correct measure of the angle is. In this way, they would be able to analyze the circle carefully. After that, they were asked why they placed the colored paper to that place. But before that. There was a discussion about the Properties of Tangents that they could use as reasons when they are asked why by their teachers. As said earlier, the key concept or method of our study will not just depend on the materials we used but mainly on the technique we instructed. The materials we used may be simple but theyre purpose is very important.

II. Validating of the Instrument The use of these simple instruments are very essential to the study. One of the things that we want our respondents' to learn is to find out the reason behind those angle measurements. Specifically, the angles formed by tangent lines to circles. Based on the method we used and the results that were gathered; the instruments were valid and effective. The placing of colored papers with angle measurements to the manila paper sketched with a circle with only one given angle was very effective in assisting the students improve their knowledge about the topic. As mentioned earlier we do not intend or require complicated and numerous materials because the main purpose of these instruments were only to aid the respondents in the process of solving angles formed by tangent lines to circles. Several parts of this research paper mentions that we know that this technique of Interactive Teaching and reasoning out consumes a certain amount of time. But we are more focused on improving the comprehension skills of students on proving rather than the time they consume. Interactive Teaching is not that new. Actually, it is done by every teacher in the world. Including the teachers in the Philippines. It is used by Mathematics teachers but they have their own way. We are not in the position to question the teachers' way but if we were given the chance to let our voices out. We would like to say that we would be happier if you don't make things complicated for us, students. We have mentioned several times in this research paper the importance of interaction between the teacher and the student. That idea was Louis Abrahamson's. It is because we think that in teaching, especially in math, interaction is more important that memorization. It is not enough for students to just memorize the terms to be used in answering their tests but they must also be able to analyze for themselves the given problem. By doing this, they can easily answer the problem. To conclude, we can say that the instruments we use were valid and effective and so is our technique. Our theory of using simple instruments in the method of simplifying the proving concept did work and that the

III. Data Gathering Procedures In order to gather data, the typical process of investigating was done. The respondents were given the Pre-test and Post-test. By instructing the respondents to answer these tests, we were able to gather data and to conclude whether the technique we used were effective or were not. To elaborate, we gave the pretest before we taught the respondents. This is to evaluate the things hey know about the topic. After we gathered this data, we can now assess the technique on how we should teach the students based on their average intellectual capacity. To summarize, we can say that the test scores of the students were low and that we can say that they have insufficient knowledge to comprehend the process or concept of solving for the angles formed by tangent lines on circles. Because of this, we have had a hard time teaching our fellow classmates and as moments passed by, they were able to apply the technique we instructed. After teaching them the Tangent Properties and other topics related to our topic, the next thing we did was to instruct them to use our technique. Our strategy, as mentioned before was described as interactive. What makes it interactive are the colored paper with the correct measures of angles on them. What they will do is that they would put it to the right angle on the circle. Now, this may sound like there are no computations involved. The thing here is, after they stick the paper to what they thought as the right place for the angle measure, they have to explain why they came up with that answer. The final data gathering procedure was the assessment test or the

post test. The exam was almost similar to the pretest. We intentionally copied most of the questions to assess whether the respondents figured their mistakes and corrected it using the technique we taught them. However, the last question was a little more difficult to evaluate whether the students did learn and comprehended the topic of solving angles formed by tangent lines to circles.

Statistical Treatment The pre-test and post- test results were statistically analyzed and interpreted by subjecting it to T- Test. The formula used was:

Where t = t- test X1 = Pre- test Mean of the Experimental Group X2 = Pre- test Mean of the Controlled Group X3 = Post- test Mean of the Experimental Group X4 = Post- test Mean of the Controlled Group

S1 = Standard Deviation of Pre-Test of the Experimental Group S2 = Standard Deviation of Pre-Test of the Controlled Group S3 = Standard Deviation of Post-Test of the Experimental Group S4 = Standard Deviation of Post-Test of the Controlled Group N1 = Total Number of Respondents in the Experimental Group N2 = Total Number of Respondents in the Controlled Group

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation The Table below shows the pre-test and post-test of the students. Right below each group is the computed mean of each test.

Pre- test and Post-test Scores of the Members of the Controlled Group and Experimental Group Controlled Group Student no. Pre-test Post-test Score Experimental Group Student no. Pre-test Post-test Score

12

12

2 3 4 5

12 12 12 12

12 12 12 12

2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3

9 12 10 11

12 0

12 0

1.4 1.14018

10.2 1.30384

REFERENCES:

- http://www.bedu.com/interactive.html What IS Interactive Teaching? by Dr. Louis Abrahamson, bE staff http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tangent_lines_to_circles ^ Paul Kunkel.

"Tangent circles". Whistleralley.com. Retrieved 2008-09-29. -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2uoEMwuyak Tangents and Circles YourTeacher.com - Geometry Help -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OfIvTh2gqA8&feature=related PROPERTIES PART 4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BrNA6G4THUo&feature=related TANGENT

TANGENT PROPERTIES PART5 -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WejESWLyrps PART 6 - GEOMETRY: Testbook for Third Year. Cecile De Leon, Soledad Jose-Dilao TANGENT PROPERTIES

https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:AUKCeWEHyR0J:www.fit-

ed.org/ictcongress/paper/fullpapers/quizon_redona.pdf+format+of+action+re search+for+high+school+student&hl=tl&gl=ph&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShZgB VTZIfrSgeHQcyj77XXyKbOfxusKN_TzaVVRI0lXh3OGmMvbhrHyJdIO8aIGecxN4 V0h-GBLnOoRKo5hU10RUNw_2scN-Ucrjcr2BiZIQ6BMPXxxxL-kRkGypZLDlxjEa3&sig=AHIEtbTB559SzmwHGzF04zBL1gzZvDQGww The Effectiveness of Using Graphing Calculators on the Achievement of the Senior Students of Pasay City West High School, School Year 2004-2005