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FACTS ANALYSIS

ABSTRACT: The electric power generation-transmissiondistribution grid in developed countries constitutes a large system that exhibits a range of dynamic phenomena. Stability of this system needs to be maintained even when subjected to large low-probability disturbances so that the electricity can be supplied to consumers with high reliability. Various control methods and controllers have been developed over time that has been used for this purpose. New technologies, however, in the area of communications and power electronics, have raised the possibility of developing much faster and wide-area stability control that can allow safe operation of the grid closer to its limits. For changing the nature of power transmission systems the most important system and recent innovations is FACTS technology. This paper presents a conceptual picture of these FACTS technology and overview of the existing FACTS devices

WHAT IS FACTS ? Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) is a concept based on power-electronic controllers, which enhance the value of transmission networks by increasing the use of their capacity and has been under development for nearly twenty years and is now entering its third generation. The first generation of FACTS devices used power electronics to control large transmission circuit elements, such as capacitor banks, to make them more responsive to changing system conditions. Second generation FACTS devices were able to perform their functions, such as providing voltage support to a long transmission line, without the need for large, expensive external circuit elements. Both first and secondgeneration FACTS controllers are currently operating on utility transmission networks. Demonstration of a third generation FACTS 1

device -- called the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) -- is just now getting under way

NEED OF FACT FOR STABILITY: All around the world power system stability margins can be observed decreasing. Among the many reasons for this, we point out three main ones. The inhibition of further transmission or generation constructions by economical and environmental restrictions as a consequence, power systems must be operated with smaller security margins. The restructuring of the electric power industry. The restructuring processes decrease the stability margins due to the fact that power systems are not operated in a cooperative way anymore The multiplication of pathological characteristics when power system complexity increases. These include: large scale oscillations originating from nonlinear phenomena, frequency differences between weakly tied power system areas, interactions with saturated devices, interactions among power system controls, Beyond a certain level, the decrease of power system stability margins can lead to unacceptable operating conditions and to frequent power system collapses. One way to Avoid these phenomena i.e., to increase power system stability Margins, is to control power systems more efficiently.

Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) is a technology that responds to these needs. It significantly alters the way transmission systems are developed and controlled together with improvements in asset utilization, system flexibility and system performance.

DIFFERENT MAIN TYPES OF FACTS DEVICES: 1 Static Shunt Compensators Static Var Compensator (SVC):

A Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOM). Thyristor-Controlled and Thyristor-Switched Reactor (TCR and TSR) 2 Static Series Compensators Thyristor-Switched Series Capacitor (TSSC) Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) GTO Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor (GCSC) Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC Phase Angle Regulator (PAR)

3 Combined Compensators Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)

OPERATION OF FACTS DEVICES: Facts devices are normally operated automatically. They can be located in unmanned substations. Changing of set points or operation modes can be done locally and remotely (e.g. from a substation control room, a regional control center, or a national control center).

USE OF FACTS:

Shunt compensators, series compensators as well as combinations of these two types of compensators have been discussed. The application of these devices depends on the problem, which has to be solved. In Table 4, an overview of problems occurring in the grid and which FACTS to be used to solve these problems are given. Subject Problem Low voltage at Heavy load High voltage at low Load High voltage folLowing an outage Low voltage following an outage Thermal limits Load flow Transmission circuit overload Power distribution on parallel lines Corrective action Supply reactive power Reduce line reactance Voltage limits Absorb reactive power Absorb reactive power, Prevent overload Supply reactive power, Prevent overload Increase transmission capacity Adjust line reactances Adjust phase angle Load flow reversal Short circuit Power Stability High short circuit Current Limited transmitssion power Adjust phase angle Limitation of short circuit current Decrease line reactance FACTS SVC, STATCOM TCSC SVC, STATCOM SVC, STATCOM SVC, STATCOM TCSC, SSSC, UPFC TCSC, SSSC, UPFC UPFC, SSSC, PAR UPFC, SSSC, PAR TCSC, UPFC

TCSC, SSSC

ADVANTAGES IN FLEXIBLE AC TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS (FACTS): 1) Increase in amount of power that can be improved over existing transmission line 2) To provide dynamic reactive power support and voltage control 3) Reduce the need for construction of the transmission line, capacitor reactance etc. Which - Mitogate environmental and regulatory concerned

Introducing atheistic by reducing the need for construction of new facilities such as transmission line 4) Improve system stability 5) Control real and reactive power flow 6) Mitigate potential sub-synchronous resonance problem

LIMITATIONS: All FACTS controllers have two major drawbacks. 1) High installation costs 2) Operating costs.

CONCLUSSION: From above paper FACTS are a well-proven technology and its
devices facilitate economy and efficiency in power transmission systems in an environmentally optimal manner