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NAME: CLASS: EXPERIMENT 1: PENDULUM

Inference: The length of pendulum, l influences the period of oscillation, T. Hypothesis: As the length of the pendulum, l increases the period of oscillation, T increases. OR The longer the length of a simple pendulum, the longer the period of oscillation. OR The greater the length of a simple pendulum, the greater the period of oscillation.

Aim of the experiment: To determine the relationship between the length of the pendulum, l and the period of oscillation, T. Variables: Manipulated: The length of the pendulum, l Responding: The period of the pendulum, T Constant: The mass of the pendulum bob Apparatus/Materials: Pendulum bob, length of thread about 100 cm long,

retort stand, stopwatch, metre ruler, small piece of plywood and protractor. Setup :

Procedure: 1. A simple pendulum is prepared. 2. The apparatus is arranged as shown in Figure. 3. The thread is adjusted so that the length, l from the centre of the bob to the point of suspension is 10 cm. 4. The bob is displaced to the side and allow to oscillate at a small angle of oscillation. 5. The time, t1 for 10 oscillation is measured with a stopwatch.

6. The time, t2 for another 10 oscillations is measure. The mean value t is calculated. 7. The period of oscillation, T = t/10 is calculated. 8. The process is repeated for l = 20cm, 30cm, 40 cm, 50 cm, 60 cm and 70 cm. 9. A graph of period, T2 against length, l is plotted.

Data:

Analysis :

Discussion: 2 The graph of T versus l shows a straight line passing through the origin. This means that the period of oscillation increases with the length of the pendulum, with T2 directly proportional to l.

Conclusion: The longer the length of the pendulum, the longer the period of oscillation. The hypothesis is proven valid. Precaution : 1. The experiment was carried out in an enclosed room to avoid the influence of wind. 2. Displace the pendulum with small angle to make sure it will oscillates in a straight line. 3. Avoid parallax error by make sure the position of

the eyes is perpendicular to the reading on the stopwatch