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Dist. LIMITED ECLAC/POS/CDCC24/TAC4/2012/1 25 May 2012 ORIGINAL:ENGLISH Fourth Meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee

Dist.

LIMITED

ECLAC/POS/CDCC24/TAC4/2012/1

25 May 2012

ORIGINAL:ENGLISH

Fourth Meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Regional Coordinating Mechanism (RCM) for the Mauritius Strategy for the further implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the sustainable development of Small Island Developing States (BPoA/MSI)

Georgetown, Guyana, 25 May 2012

REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION MATRIX FOR THE MONITORING OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MAURITIUS STRATEGY FOR THE FURTHER IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BARBADOS PLAN OF ACTION FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SIDS 1

1 Previously called the CARICOM Matrix

2

ACRONYMS

ACP

African, Caribbean and Pacific

ACS

Association of Caribbean States

AOSIS ‐

Alliance of Small Island States

BPOA –

Barbados Programme of Action

BSAP ‐

Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

CaMPAM ‐ Caribbean Marine Protected Area Managers CCDRM ‐ Canada Caribbean Disaster Risk Management CANARI ‐ Caribbean Natural Resources Institute

CAP

Conservancy Adaptation Project

CAPE ‐

Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination

CARDI ‐

Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute

CXC

Caribbean Examination Council

CReW ‐

Caribbean Regional Fund for Wastewater Management

CARICOM – Caribbean Community

Complex Adaptive System Convention on Biological Diversity Caribbean Basin Initiative

CBWMP ‐ Caribbean Basin Water Management Programme

CAS

CBD ‐

CBI ‐

CCA

CCCCC ‐

CCNTP ‐ Caribbean Carbon Neutral Tourism Program

Caribbean Conservation Association Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre

CCRIF ‐

Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility

CCST ‐

Caribbean Council for Science and Technology

CDB

Caribbean Development Bank

CDCC ‐

Caribbean Development and Cooperation Committee

CDEMA ‐ Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency

CDKN ‐

Climate and Development Knowledge Network

CDM ‐

Clean Development Mechanism

CDM ‐

Comprehensive Disaster Management

CEHI ‐

Caribbean Environmental Health Institute

CEP ‐

Caribbean Environment Programme

3

CERMES ‐ Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies ‐

CFC

CHAMP ‐ Caribbean Hazard Mitigation Capacity Building Programme

Caribbean Food Corporation

CHENACT ‐

Caribbean Hotel Energy Efficiency Action Programme

CHTA ‐

Caribbean Hotel and Tourism Association

CIDA ‐

Canadian International Development Agency

CIMH ‐

Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology

CIPORE ‐ Caribbean Information Platform on Renewable Energy

CKLN ‐

Caribbean Knowledge and Learning Network

CLME ‐

Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystem

CMA ‐

Caribbean Marine Atlas

CMI ‐

CNIRD ‐

COTED ‐ Council for Trade and Economic Development

CP ‐

CP&SCICC ‐ Cleaner Production & Sustainable Consumption Information Centre for the Caribbean

Caribbean Maritime Institute

Caribbean Network for Integrated Rural Development

Cleaner Production

CPACC ‐

Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change

CPDC ‐

Caribbean Policy Development Centre

CREBAP ‐

Energy Efficiency and Bioenergy Action Program

CRECS ‐

Caribbean Renewable Energy Capacity Support Caribbean Renewable Energy Capacity Support

CREDP ‐

Caribbean Renewable Energy Development Programme

CRETAF ‐ Caribbean Renewable Energy Technical Assistance Facility

CRFM ‐

Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism

CRMI ‐

Caribbean Risk Management Initiative

CSA

Caribbean Shipping Association

C‐SEP ‐

Caribbean Sustainable Energy Programme

CSME ‐

Caribbean Single Market and Economy

CTO ­

CUPIDE ‐ Caribbean Universities Project for Integrated Distance Education

CWWA ‐ Caribbean Water and Wastewater Association Caribbean

CYEN ‐

DEC ‐

Caribbean Tourism Organization

Caribbean Youth Environmental Network

Distance Education Centre

4

DFID ‐

Department for International Development

DRM‐

Disaster Risk Management

DRRC ‐

Disaster Risk Reduction Centre

EC ‐

European Commission

ECACC ‐

Enhancing Capacity for Adaptation to Climate Change

ECCAA ‐ Eastern Caribbean Civil Aviation Authority

ECLAC – Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

ECPA ‐

Energy and Climate Change Partnership of the Americas

ECTEL ‐

Eastern Caribbean Telecommunications Authority

EIA ‐

Environmental Impact Assessment

EMA ‐

Environmental Management Authority

ERI ‐

Environmental Research Institute

EU ‐

European Union

FTAA ‐

Free Trade Area of the Americas

GEF ‐

Global Environment Facility

GEO ‐

Global Environment Outlook

GFDRR ‐ Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery

GIS ‐

Geographic Information System

GIWA ‐

Global International Waters Assessment

GIZ ‐

German Agency for International Cooperation

GM ‐

Global Mechanism

GMOS ‐

Genetically Modified Organism

GPA ‐

Global Programme of Action

GSEII ‐

Global Sustainable Energy Islands Initiative

GSU ‐

Global Support Unit

GWP ‐

Global Water Partnership

HRI ­

Healthy Reefs Initiative

ICT4D ‐

Information and Communication Technology for Development

ICTS ‐

Information and Communication Technologies

ICZM ‐

Integrated Coastal Zone Management

IDB ‐

Inter‐American Development Bank

IDRC ‐

International Development Research Centre

5

IFI ‐

IIC ‐ Iwokrama International Centre

IMET ‐ Italian Ministry for Environment and Territory INC ‐ Initial National Communications INSMET ‐ Institute Of Meteorology IP – Implementation Plan

IRDC ‐

IUCN ‐ International Union for Conservation of Nature

IW ‐ International Waters IWCAM ‐ Integrating Watershed and Coastal Areas Management IWRN ‐ Integrated Water Resources Management

JICA ‐

LAC ‐ Latin America and Caribbean LBS ‐ Land‐Based Sources

LCDS ‐ Low Carbon Development Strategy

LDCs ‐

M.Sc. ‐ Master of Science Degrees

International Financial Institution

International Development Research Centre

Japan International Cooperation Agency

Lesser Developed Countries

MACC ‐

Mainstreaming and Adaptation to Climate Change

MDGs ‐ Millennium Development Goals MEA ‐ Multilateral Environmental Agreement MOU ‐ Memorandum of Understanding

MRP ‐ Master’s Degree in Telecommunications Regulation MSI ‐ Mauritius Strategy of Implementation MSP ‐ Medium‐Sized Project NAPS ‐ National Action Programmes NARI ‐ National Agriculture Research Institute

NCSA ‐

National Capacity Self‐Assessment

NDS ‐

National Development Strategy

NEEC ‐ National Environmental Education Committee

NFPs ‐ National Focal Points NGO ‐ Non‐Governmental Organisations NPA ‐ National Programme of Action

6

NSDI ‐

National Spatial Data Infrastructure

NSDS ‐

National Sustainable Development Strategies

NTFPs ‐

Non‐Timber Forest Products

ODA ‐

Official Development Assistance

ODS ‐

Ozone Depleting Substances

OECS ‐

Organization of Eastern Caribbean States

OPDEM ‐ Office of Disaster Preparedness and Disaster Management

PA ‐

Protected Area

PACT ‐

Protected Areas Conservation Trust

PIOJ ‐

Planning Institute of Jamaica

PISLM ‐

Partnership Initiative for Sustainable Land Management

POPs ‐

Persistent Organic Pollutants

PRSP ‐

Property Reduction Strategy Paper

RCM ‐

Regional Coordinating Mechanism

RDDS ‐

Regional Digital Development Strategy

RE ‐

Renewable Energy

REDD+ ‐

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

RT ‐

Revised Treaty

SEES ‐

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences

SES –

Social Ecological System

SIDS ‐

Small Island Developing States

SLM ‐

Sustainable Land Management

SLR ‐

Sea Level Rise

SNC ‐

Second National Communication

SPACC ‐

Special Programme for Adaptation to Climate Change

SPARC ‐

Support to Poverty Assessment and Reduction in the Caribbean

SPREP ‐

Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme

SRAP‐

Sub‐Regional Action Plan

TAC ‐

Technical Advisory Committee

UB ‐

University of Belize

UG ‐

University of Guyana

UN ‐

United Nations

7

UNCCCD ‐ United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

UNDP ‐

United Nations Development Programme

UNEP ‐

United Nations Environmental Programme

UNFCCC ‐ United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNGCSIDS ‐ United Nations Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States UNCLOS ‐ United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

URC ‐

UNEP Risoe Centre

USAID ‐

United States Agency for International Development

UVI ‐

University of the Virgin Islands

UWI ‐

University of the West Indies

WRI ‐

World Resources Institute

THE REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION MATRIX FOR THE MONITORING OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MAURITIUS STRATEGY FOR THE FURTHER IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BARBADOS PLAN OF ACTION FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SIDS

ACTION FOR IMPLEMENTATION

MAURITIUS

REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION MATRIX FOR THE MONITORING OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MSI 2

ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN 3

GAPS IN IMPLEMENTATION 4

STRATEGY

 

OBJECTIVE

 

a) CARIBBEAN SIDS PROGRAMME

Accelerate national and regional implementation of the Mauritius Strategy through the strengthening of regional and national institutions along with adequate financial resources, including through Global Environment Facility focal area, transfer of environmentally sound technologies and assistance for capacity‐building from the international

a)

Mobilize and increase the effective use of financial resources to support the implementation of the Caribbean SIDS Programme.

Governments and International Financial Institutions (IFIs) continue to assist the region with financial and technical assistance, some of them as grants while the others remain as loans. These include : The Inter‐American Development Bank (IDB), The World Bank, Global Environment Facility(GEF), the United Nations (UN) , German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) , United States Agency for International Development (USAID) , European Commission (EC) (Refer to Appendix 1 for details)

Financing development activities is challenged by the insufficiency of domestic savings to fund the upgrading of traditional sectors and new activities. 10

The Regional Sustainability Fund for Caribbean SIDS agreed to by the Forum of Ministers of Environment for Latin America and the Caribbean, in November 2004, should be embraced

Facilitate the development and implementation of the Caribbean SIDS programme and its continuous review and assessment, so as to reflect the goals of the Mauritius Strategy and the emerging development priority needs of the region.

 

The ODA for implementing the MSI in the Caribbean is both bilateral and regional, although the tendencies seem to point more favourably towards regional initiatives. 5

Increased support from the donor community is needed. The global trend of declining official development assistance (ODA) has been evident in SIDS

2 Activities proposed by Caribbean Working Group (Previously called the CARICOM Matrix , 2007)

3 Activities undertaken as reported in the Caribbean Regional Report for Five year Review of the MSI of the BoPA for SIDS, LC/CAR/L.258 4 th May, 2010

4 As reported in MSI+5 LC/CAR/L.258 5 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

10 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

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OBJECTIVE

 
 

community.

   

Approximately 63% of countries undertaking an ECLAC survey in 2010 to ascertain the status of implementation of the MSI in the Caribbean mentioned that the financial resources at their disposal would only allow them to achieve minimum success in implementing the MSI 11

Support the replication of best practices of sustainable development actions in the region and assist in the determination of priorities contained in the SIDS/POA by inter alia, more effective utilization of available resources and reinforcing their national sustainable development strategies and mechanisms.

b) Periodically monitor and review the Caribbean

Monitoring of key elements of the

SIDS Programme to ensure that it reflects the region’s needs and priorities.

Caribbean SIDS programme has been facilitated through several initiatives.

The ECLAC Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean has embarked on a process of documenting progress made by Caribbean SIDS in implementing the

Many countries did not participate in the ECLAC 2010 survey to ascertain the status of implementation of the MSI in the Caribbean (of the 19 countries covered in the report, only eight countries responded)

c) Develop capacity for monitoring and evaluation at national and regional levels through workshops and

MSI, the concrete actions taken in order to achieve the targets, best practices and any challenges they may be encountering, or anticipate that they may face, in implementing the MSI

 

the development of a review mechanism.

For e.g. ECLAC prepared a Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI in 2010 which included survey to ascertain the status

The establishment of formal systems for monitoring and evaluation of activities is needed. There are a number

11 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

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of implementation of the MSI in the Caribbean.

of challenges, including a lack of benchmarking indicators, processes that are driven by donors, and a shortage of financial, technical and institutional capacity. To date, although such systems exist, they appear to be ad hoc and, in essence, ineffective 12

The starting point of the review process of the BPOA in the Caribbean was at the national level with National Assessment Reports (NAR) that individual countries were required to prepare. To date 5 reports have been submitted 6

Many national and regional reporting processes add further information on the elements within the Caribbean SIDS programme. These include: National Capacity Self‐Assessment (NCSA), National Development Strategies (NDS) and National Progress reports on the MDGs.

 

Caribbean countries are currently engaged in various regional initiatives, such as the multi‐donor initiative, ‘Support to poverty assessment and reduction in the Caribbean’ (SPARC), and an ECLAC sub‐regional project that provides technical assistance to the sub‐region to enhance monitoring and reporting capacities MDGs and other

6 http://www.sidsnet.org/msi_5/nars.shtml. Date viewed : 18thMarch, 2012

12 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

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OBJECTIVE

 
     

internationally agreed development goals. ECLAC’s Regional Coordinating Mechanism (RCM) supports monitoring (refer to section 2)

 

ECLAC’s regional implementation matrix is a useful too l that monitors the implementation of MSI by Caribbean SIDS.

Many national and regional consultations and conferences help to facilitate the monitoring and review process. For example the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) Regional Preparatory Meeting for the UNCSD/ Rio+20 (7‐9 September 2011) assessed progress since the 1992 Earth Summit inter‐alia. 7

d)

Facilitate the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy through the inclusion of its objectives in the relevant technical

Caribbean SIDS have made progress, with regards to the implementation of the MSI since the convening of the UNGCSIDS in 1992. 8

The rate of implementation of the BPoA and the MSI is still slow. Islands face challenges in the area of technical, financial and human resource capacity that have been compounded by

Caribbean SIDS, in responding to an

7 IISD : http://larc.iisd.org/news/latin‐america‐and‐caribbean‐meeting‐discusses‐contribution‐to‐

uncsd/?utm_source=lists.iisd.ca&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Latin+America+%26+Caribbean+Regional+Update+‐+13+September+2011+

+Latin+America+%26+Caribbean+Regional+Coverage

8 United Nations Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States

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components of the Caribbean SIDS Programme.

ECLAC survey on the implementation of the MSI in 2010 9 , indicated that most, if not all, of the thematic areas found in the MSI were articulated in the NDPs.

the financial crisis. 13

Although some progress has been with regards to public awareness on the MSI, the activities are unsustainable as they are dependent on external sources of funding that are also not regularly available

e)

Promote wider awareness of the Mauritius Strategy and the Caribbean SIDS programme at the national and regional level through workshops and other media.

Many countries and regional bodies have developed public awareness programmes and organized workshops on many of the thematic areas of the MSI including climate change, water management, SLM, renewable energy inter‐alia. (Refer to specific thematic areas below for more details)

Access to financial and technical resources to facilitate implementation and public awareness of the MSI continues to encounter many serious problems and constraints, both endogenous and exogenous 14

 

Recently , an increase in such programmes is noted in the region leading up to the upcoming

9 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010) 13 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010) 14 Source: UN ECLAC (Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean). 2010. Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (MSI +5) ,4 May 2010. Unpubl

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OBJECTIVE

 

b)

Support further preparation and development of a well‐ established and well‐defined Regional Coordinating Mechanism (RCM) for the implementation of the SIDS‐POA and the Mauritius Strategy.

Promotion of

a)

Participate in the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to be established for the purpose of coordinating and monitoring the implementation of the BPOA in the Caribbean.

At the 21 st session of the Caribbean Development and Cooperation Committee (CDCC) in January 2006, the RCM for the implementation of the BPoA/MSI was set up. It serves to coordinate the efforts of the Caribbean SIDS countries, the Regional Institutions and the International Partners to help the Caribbean SIDS to implement the BPOA and the MSI.

The RCM is governed by the Ministerial Forum of the CDCC. The Sessions of the Ministerial Forum are held generally every 2 years and in the years where it does not meet, the Monitoring Committee meets.

The realization of the RCM filled a serious need in the process by which Caribbean SIDS sought to work together to realize the objectives set

sustainable

development of

SIDS through inter alia:

(a)

Developing

 

national and regional sustainable development strategies, including nationally owned poverty reduction

strategies and

out in the BPOA and subsequently in the MSI.

The Ministerial Sessions and the meetings of the Monitoring Committee involve a larger participation of Member States and provide an opportunity for greater coordination at that level. All Member States are members of these bodies. However, the effectiveness of the follow up on SIDS issues is limited by the absence of dedicated support staff for the Regional Adviser.

 

sectoral policies

 

and strategies;

(b)

Developing

 

and strengthening legislative,

A Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) for the RCM was set‐up in 2007. The TAC includes representatives of 4 Caribbean SIDS Member States, 4 Regional Institutions and 4

administrative and institutional structures;

(c)

Increasing

 

Resources are still needed to develop the full organizational structure of the RCM, and until that has been achieved, its role remains limited. 18

the awareness and involvement of relevant stakeholders in the implementation of sustainable development

international partners which have ongoing programmes in the Caribbean.

18 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

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OBJECTIVE

 
 

programmes;

b)

Support ECLAC and CARICOM in its efforts to establish the Regional Coordinating Mechanism (RCM) as a leading mechanism to support SIDS efforts to implement international commitments for sustainable development.

The ECLAC Sub‐Regional Office for the Caribbean serves as the Secretariat for the RCM and the TAC.

The composition of the TAC is limited to 4 countries and 4 regional institutions. There is a gap in terms of the full involvement of other countries and institutions in the TAC .

(d)

Engaging

corporate and

other private‐

 

sector actors to contribute to sustainable development;

ECLAC has established a post of Regional Adviser to act as the Regional Coordinator of the RCM, based at the ECLAC Subregional Headquarters.

(e)

Promoting

 

public/private

Starting with the Ministerial Session in January 2006, there were 3 Ministerial Sessions of the CDCC for the oversight of the RCM in 2006, 2008 and 2010. There were also 4 Monitoring Committee Meetings in 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2011.

The TAC met 3 times in 2008, 2009 and

partnerships;

(f)

Mobilizing

 

resources at the national level to meet the sustainable development goals and priorities articulated in the Programme of Action.

2011.

The third meeting was held in April 2011. 15 Participants included representatives from member states of the CDCC (4 members attended, an associate member , the UN Secretariat , several intergovernmental organizations and regional and international institutions

15 Source: UN ECLAC (Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean). 2011. Report of Third meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee of the Regional Coordinating Mechanism for the Implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (13 April 2011 , Port of Spain) . Unpubl

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OBJECTIVE

 
   

c) Facilitate the development of appropriate institutional mechanisms at the national level to support the effective functioning of the RCM and participate in meetings to finalize the draft terms of reference for national focal points and the TAC.

The RCM works closely with the identified National Focal Points (NFPs) and has provided technical assistance to governments in the sub‐region for the national reporting process or the MSI+5 Review and in their preparations for the high level review of the MSI

The work of the NFPs could be highlighted more effectively to facilitate the sharing of experiences among the SIDS member states in the Region. There is need for feedback from the NFPs on the level of implementation at the National levels of the

elements of the Biennium work plans

d) Contribute to the further elaboration and implementation of the Caribbean regional work programme on the BPoA/MSI drafted by the CARICOM Secretariat to highlight best practices and the identification of partnerships.

The meetings of the RCM at the Ministerial Sessions and the Monitoring Committee support the preparation of elaborate work plans for the Biennium which includes a significant level of activities focusing on the BPOA/MSI

The ECLAC Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean, through its work programme, seeks to provide support to the diverse obligations in the MSI. ECLAC has held several Regional Workshops on issues identified as Caribbean priorities in the BPOA/MSI. These have helped to increase knowledge on these issues across the Region.

9

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OBJECTIVE

 
   

e)

Develop mechanisms and procedures to collaborate with established regional agencies such as OECS‐ ESDU, CARICOM, ACS.

The RCM is engaged in the establishment of a sub‐regional database on sustainable development activities and of cooperative agreements and partnerships among agencies. 16

 
 

Non‐State actors have a consultative status with Caribbean Governments through the RCM. To date, through participation on the TAC, representation has come from the University of the West Indies (UWI), the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI), United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), Caribbean Policy Development Centre (CPDC), Caribbean Network for Integrated Rural Development (CNIRD) and the Cropper Foundation. 17

ECLAC expects, in the 2012‐2013 bienniums to increase its focus on the sustainable development of Caribbean SIDS. It plans to strengthen collaboration with organizations including CARICOM, the Organisation of

16 ECLAC.2010. Institutional Report Of The ECLAC Subregional Headquarters For The Caribbean On The Support Provided To Caribbean Small Island Developing States For The Implementation Of The Mauritius Strategy (5 March 2010). ECLAC

17 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

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Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) and the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) as well as development partners such as the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), IDB, The Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA) , the Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility (CCRIF) and other regional entities.

 

c)

Strengthen the institutional capacity of SIDS at the national and regional level, including access to new and emerging technologies.

Dissemination of information on resilience building technologies deployed in SIDS in collaboration with the Small Island Developing States network (SIDSNET) and tertiary institutions in other SIDS regions.

Promote the

a) Promote

the

SIDS have made progress at the national and regional levels in building institutional capacity for sustainable development, in formulating strategies and action plans, and in carrying out policy reforms. 19

Progress was achieved primarily through the efforts of the Caribbean SIDS themselves, with critical support from international development partners and intergovernmental regional organizations and non‐ governmental organizations, and the international financial institutions.

Systemic institutional as well as governance reforms at national, regional and international levels are essential. The need for short‐ to medium‐ term programming focus, to strengthen policies and capacities in key sectors, such as human resource development, energy, financial and information technology and communication services, is critical. 28

development of a coherent approach to strengthen national and regional institutions responsible for environmental management, promoting implementation of environmental programmes and plans and enhancing their contribution to national sustainable development and poverty reduction strategies.

 

incorporation of

   

appropriate

science and

b) Promote the integration of environmental initiatives and programmes agreed at

Issues related to the Mauritius Strategy

are typically well integrated into the national development plans and strategies of Caribbean SIDS, the majority of which cover the most

Governments of SIDS should take a proactive stance towards systemic capacity building by strengthening

technology

elements into

national

19 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010) 28 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

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sustainable

regional levels and support the development, enhancement and implementation of regional and subregional environmental strategies and action plans.

salient thematic areas of the Strategy.

national sustainable development bodies, enhancing their political and legal status, increasing their staffing levels, and improving their modalities of operation. 29

development

strategies

Significant changes in perception have taken place over the BPoA implementation period about the role of the environment in sustainable development.

emphasizing the

importance of

environmentally

sound

technologies.

 

Promote science development and inter‐sectoral synergies and undertake targeted investments along with the development of appropriate programmes to enhance SIDS‐ appropriate science and technology capacity, given its importance to resilience building.

Support for

 

Caribbean SIDS have reported mixed success in integrating national sustainable development strategies, where they existed, into the National Development Plans (NDPs) 20

Many of the institutions that have responsibility for implementing the MSI are constrained by the lack of inter‐institutional and intersectoral cooperation. Strengthening legal and operational mandates of key institutions and developing strategies for promoting and enhancing inter‐agency collaboration would greatly enhance the capacity for implementing the

30

National initiatives :

Some Caribbean SIDS have now embraced major policy shifts, adopting various approaches to transform their economies into green economies . (Refer to Appendix 3 for more details)

Several regional mechanisms and institutions have developed programmes to support efforts. These include : CARICOM institutions addressing aspects of environmental management , Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC), CDEMA, Caribbean Regional Fisheries

 

technology

20 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

29 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

30 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

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transfer on mutually agreed terms and for capacity building.

 

Mechanism (CRFM), CCRIF, Caribbean Environment Programme (CEP), Caribbean Maritime Institute (CMI), Caribbean Food Corporation (CFC), Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI) , Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI), OECS EMS, ACS

 

UNEP , EC and the ACP Secretariat and several other partners are supporting the ACP MEA’s project enhance the capacity of Caribbean and other regions to implement MEAs. The Caribbean Hub of the project is hosted by the CARICOM Secretariat and is expected to be completed in 2013. 21

(Refer to Appendix 3.a for details) Caribbean countries have been working with many international partners to strengthen efforts. (Refer to list in Appendix 1.a )

c)

Assist SIDS in the integration of

21 http://www.acpmeas.info/hubs-cari-overview.asp

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OBJECTIVE

 
     

implementation of the Bali Strategic Plan into regional and subregional programmes, including:

   

Support and initiate the work of research institutions in SIDS focusing on locally and regionally defined problems and priorities for environmental management.

Many national and regional institutions, supported by regional mechanisms and international partners in some cases (refer to list in Appendix 3a) support research initiatives related to environmental management.

Investment in research and development in the Caribbean SIDS is fairly minimal and accounts for an average of 0.13 per cent of GDP, leading to extremely limited domestic development of technologies.

31

 

Several national and regional universities support environmental management programmes (Refer to Appendix 8 for more details). Fore.g the Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies (CERMES) of UWI, conducts research on a wide range of resource management and environmental issues in the Caribbean.

Regional institutions such as CEHI promote and coordinates applied research relevant to the environment. CARDI provides market research and analysis in the agriculture field, and the

There is a lack of capacity for research‐based analysis and scientific experimentation. 32

Increased research is needed on several major areas, including on the economic impacts of climate change on the economies of SIDS, the complex nature of vulnerability, coral reef protection and regeneration and sustainable forestry.

31 United Nations General Assembly. 2010. Five‐year review of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States : Report of the Secretary‐General (6 July, 2010). United Nations

32 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

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Caribbean Energy Information System (CEIS), undertakes research in the field of energy. ECLAC in collaboration with the CCCCC conducted research on the potential economic costs of climate change in the Caribbean 22

Soliciting of international support and cooperation among SIDS to promote and enhance research into existing natural resources for traditional and alternative use is needed.

It would be useful for Caribbean SIDS to identify commonalities with respect to skills requirements and address them on a regional basis, especially in areas where collaboration in research and training could provide solutions to national resource constraints, facilitate the exchange of best practices, and increase cost‐ effectiveness. 33

Promote and support South‐ South cooperation in the transfer of environmentally sound technologies and best practices.

Several initiatives support this effort:

The South‐ South Cooperation between Pacific and Caribbean SIDS on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk

22 Assessments were conducted in eight sectors identified as vulnerable by Caribbean stakeholders, across 14 countries. The research was conducted in collaboration with the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC), with funding provided by the Department for International Development (DFID) of the United Kingdom . Source: ECLAC : http://www.eclac.cl/cgi ­bin/getProd.asp?xml=/portofspain/noticias/noticias/2/44622/P44622.xml&xsl=/portofspain/tpl­ i/p1f.xsl&base=/portofspain/tpl ­i/top­bottom.xsl

33 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

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Management Project supports the transfer and exchange of technologies currently being used by SIDS for disaster risk management and climate change adaptation, between the Pacific and the Caribbean regions.’ It is coordinated by the UNDP Pacific Centre, with extensive support from the Caribbean Risk Management Initiative (CRMI). Regional partners include:

CDEMA, CCCCC and UWI.

Contribute and guide the efforts of donors to support Science and Technology capacity in SIDS in areas such as infrastructure development, energy, water and sanitation.

UNESCO promotes science and technology in SIDS. Regional initiatives include Cariscience which functions as the regional policy framework for science, technology and innovation in the Caribbean, and the Caribbean Council for Science and Technology (CCST). 23 CCST prepared a Regional Policy Framework for Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) 24 which identifies priority areas for Caribbean development. These include environmental management , waste

Despite the relatively high levels of education in SIDS , investment in science and technology has been very limited. Such under‐ investment in technology innovation is directly associated with the decline of traditional sectors and has hampered efforts to diversify into new, high value added sectors. 34

23 United Nations General Assembly. 2010. Five‐year review of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States : Report of the Secretary‐General (6 July, 2010). United Nations

24 http://www.ccst‐caribbean.org/projects.html#PolicyFrameworkSTI 34 United Nations General Assembly. 2010. Five-year review of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States : Report of the Secretary-General (6 July, 2010). United Nations

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management, Integrated Water Resources Management, alternative energy and energy management and disaster management

There is a significant science and technology gap that Caribbean SIDS must bridge to modernize production and institutional structures to pursue self‐sustaining growth and development. 35

Increased focus on capacity‐ building and science and technology projects and programmes is needed. 36

EUCARINET is a four‐year INCONET Coordination Action, supported by the EC (DG RTD‐INCO), whose main goal is to strengthen bi‐regional sustainable dialogue on Science and Technology between Europe and the Caribbean. (OCTs). 25

Several regional institutions and

 

d) Development of a framework and strategy for strengthening technology support and cooperation and supporting the creation of an enabling environment for technology transfer.

mechanisms (refer to list in Appendix 3a) with support from international partners in some cases support these efforts. Some examples:

The international community can support capacity‐building for technology transfer and assistance with education and training.

The Global Water Partnership (GWP)‐ Caribbean provides a regional mechanism for knowledge and technology transfer, including best

All countries in the region suffer from a lack of access to improved technologies.

e) Strengthen capacity of

practice and its replication.

A review of the Technology

25

35

36

http://www.eucarinet.eu/

Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

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SIDS to adopt these technologies.

The CCCCC has implemented many projects which support technology transfer. For e.g. through the Special Programme for Adaptation to Climate Change (SPACC) project , a solar‐ powered reverse osmosis plant was set‐up to purify seawater at Bequia in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 26

SIDS DOCK, an initiative developed jointly by the CCCCC and the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), provides a vehicle for mobilizing financial and technical resources to catalyze low carbon economic growth in the Caribbean and other regions.

CREDP has provided technical assistance to identify Renewable Energy (RE) potential and to develop RE systems in several Caribbean countries.

Countries are supported also through their participation in MEAs. For e.g. the UNFCCC has established a Technology Transfer Clearinghouse and a

Assessment Reports, that were prepared for a number of the Caribbean countries, indicates that 37 :

The transfer and development of technologies for mitigation must be integrated with a country’s energy policy and must reflect its development goals.

Capital costs are the main barrier to technology transfer.

Attitudes, perceptions and lack of information are key barriers to the transfer of technology.

Improved access to, and transfer of, environmentally sound technologies related to climate change by, inter alia, assessment of its technology needs, identification of

26 IISD : http://larc.iisd.org/news/unisdr‐highlights‐caribbean‐efforts‐towards‐carbon‐neutrality/

37 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

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Technology Mechanism was established at the 16th session of the UNFCCC COP in 2010. This is expected to increase opportunities for the region.

barriers to technology transfer, improvement of enabling environments for technology transfer and the identification of capacity‐ related needs to facilitate technology transfer would support adaptation to, and mitigation against climate change. 38

The region should maximize access to, and use of, the of the CDM in order to promote renewable energy (RE) use and to achieve substantial technology transfer. 39

Through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) some countries in the region are receiving support in the area of transfer of technology. Guyana , Jamaica , Cuba and the Dominican Republic have registered CDM projects in the pipeline.

The EUCARINET initiative aims to create the conditions of the sustainable multi‐stakeholders policy dialogue on technology between EU, its Member States and the Caribbean Region, inter‐ alia

There has been increased advocacy for measures that specifically support technology transfer in the Caribbean. Many national and regional policy and plans reflect the need for capacity building for technology transfer For e.g. the need for increased support for technology transport is reflected in the 2011 CARICOM submission to the UNCSD (Rio+20) 27

 

27 November 2011, http://www.uncsd2012.org/rio20/index.php?page=view&type=510&nr=483&menu=20

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d) CLIMATE CHANGE AND SEA LEVEL RISE Continue support to the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) as a means of strengthening the region’s institutional and technical capacity to adapt and respond to the adverse impacts of climate change and to develop cooperative initiatives with similar institutions within Latin America and the Caribbean.

(a)

Fully

a)

Continue support of the countries of the region in the formulation of national adaptation strategies for climate change.

Several countries have prepared national climate change action plans and policies with support from regional and international partners in some cases. For e.g the CCCCC’ Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change (CPACC) project supported development of vulnerability assessments, adaptation planning, and capacity building activities in several countries. The CCCCC’s Mainstreaming and Adaptation to Climate Change

Continued development of national climate change action plans is a key step towards building of legal, institutional and technical capacity

implement the

United Nations

Framework

Convention on

Climate Change

and further

   

promote

international

A serious impediment faced by Caribbean SIDS in the building of institutional, legal, and technical capacity to

cooperation on

climate change;

(b)

Continue to

   

take, in accordance with the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, as applicable, steps to address climate change, including through adaptation and mitigation in accordance with the principle of

(MACC) project supported the development of National Adaptation Strategies for several countries.

Most CARICOM Member States have ratified the UNFCCC and several have also ratified the Kyoto Protocol (KP). 40 Almost all CARICOM members have submitted their Initial National Communications (INC) to the UNFCCC 41 and many are preparing their Second National Communication (SNC) and

adapt to climate change is a clear lack of scientific data throughout the region

Several islands of the Caribbean have highlighted the need for continual capacity‐building as an adaptation option. For e.g. Bahamas has identified a number of projects which will require

38 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010) 39 Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

40

41

http://unfccc.int/national_reports/items/1408.php

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common, but differentiated, responsibilities and respective capabilities, and the effective implementation of the Kyoto Protocol by those countries that have ratified it; (c) Promote increased energy efficiency and development and the use of renewable energy as a matter of priority, as well as advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies, inter alia, through public and /or private partnerships, market‐oriented approaches, as well as supportive

 

some have submitted theirs. These reports generally include a vulnerability and adaptation assessment.

both research and effective capacities to be built. Grenada has noted a number of institutional systems which are needed for vulnerability analysis and adaptation assessments

The CCCCC and CCRIF signed an MOU in August 2011 to formalize their growing collaboration in assisting Caribbean countries to develop climate change adaptation strategies. The objective of the MOU is to help Caribbean governments better understand the risks of climate change to their economies. 42

b)

Enhance regional institutional capabilities for coordination of national responses to negative effects of climate change.

Many regional institutions, mechanisms and initiatives with support from international partners in some cases are supporting climate change initiatives. These include: CCCCC, CRMI , CCRIF , CDEMA, CARDI, CEHI, CREDP, CEP and CaribSave, inter‐alia Many of these are supported by partners including IDB and the World Bank

Capacity‐building is critical for the Caribbean to address the challenges posed by climate change, and this capacity‐building must be a dynamic process. 62

42

CCRIF: http://www.ccrif.org/news/caribbean-countries-benefit-partnership-develop-climate-change-adaptation-strategies

62

Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

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public policies and international cooperation, and support their use in small island developing States (SIDS), where appropriate, and in accordance with their national policies; (d) Implement the Buenos Aires programme of work on adaptation and response measures, in particular those elements that are relevant to SIDS; (e) Work to facilitate and promote the development, transfer and dissemination of

 

Regional financial institutions such as the CDB are helping to build capacity. For e.g CDB is expected to receive a Climate Action Line of Credit equivalent to EUR 50 million from the European Investment Bank (EIB) to address the severe vulnerability of CDB’s borrowing member countries to the effects of climate change, inter‐alia. 43

 

In 2009, the Heads of Government of CARICOM approved the Liliendaal Declaration on Climate Change and Development which defines the national and international positions of the CARICOM member states.

They also approved “A Regional Framework for Achieving Development Resilient to Climate Change”, prepared by the CCCCC which articulates the strategic direction for the Caribbean’s response to climate change risks (2009 to 2015) 44 In 2012, they approved an Implementation Plan (IP) to deliver the

43 Source: CDB (January 6 th , 2012) : http://www.caribank.org/titanweb/cdb/webcms.nsf/AllDoc/38ABAEE11854EC260425797D00468788?OpenDocument Date accessed: 14 th March, 2012

44 CCCCC. (2009), Climate Change and the Caribbean: A Regional Framework for Achieving Belize

Development Resilient to Climate Change (2009-2015), CCCCC, Belmopan,

22

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SIDS of appropriate technologies and practices to address climate change; (f) Build and enhance scientific and technological capabilities, including in SIDS, inter alia, through continuing support to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for the exchange of scientific information and data, including, where relevant, to SIDS; (g) Enhance the implementation of national, regional and international strategies to monitor the Earth’s atmosphere, including as appropriate,

 

actions envisaged within the Regional Framework. The IP is expected to support the strengthening of regional institutions.

 

c) Institutional support for the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC).

The CCCCC was officially opened in

2005

to coordinate the Caribbean’s

response to climate change.

A

major initiative supporting the

 

Centre was the signing of an agreement

between the Centre and AusAID in May,

2011

where AusAID is providing a total

of

Au$4.7 million for institutional

support to the Centre through 2015.

d) Enhance the capability of the center to procure and offer technical support services to Caribbean SIDS.

Through its programme of collaboration with other regional institutions and support from

international partners in some cases ,

the

Centre promoted a number of

 

climate change‐related workshops and

projects:

CPACC, ACC and MACC (these have been completed)

Enhancing Capacity for Adaptation to Climate Change (ECACC) in the UK Caribbean Overseas Territories Project.

23

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strategies for integrated observations, inter alia, with the cooperation of relevant international organizations; and work with SIDS to strengthen their involvement in monitoring and observing systems and enhance their access to and use of information. (h) SIDS, with necessary support of the international community, including through the facilitation and improvement of access to existing resources and , where appropriate, through allocation of dedicated financial resources, will as an integral

 

The SPACC: Implementation of Adaptation Measures in Coastal Zone Project 45

 

The Caribbean Carbon Neutral Tourism Program (CCNTP)

The IP was developed by the CCCCC with financial assistance from the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the Climate Development and Knowledge Network (CDKN).

In June, 2011 an agreement was signed between the Centre and the European Union (EU) where the EU has allocated €8 million to meet the challenges of climate change in the 17 CARIFORUM countries in the Caribbean. The CCCCC will be managing the project.

The CDB Clearinghouse Project

(Refer to Appendix 4 for additional details and activities of the Centre )

e)

Support the centre in the

In May 2011, an MOU was signed

45 As of March 27, 2012

24

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component of their national sustainable development strategies, where appropriate, develop and implement national adaptation strategies and facilitate regional and interregional cooperation, including within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (i). SIDS, with assistance from regional development banks and other financial institutions, as appropriate, should coordinate

strengthening of linkages with counterpart agencies in other SIDS.

between SPREP and CCCCC to strengthen collaboration between the two agencies

 

Caribbean countries have been

f) Organization of national and regional seminars on CDM technology and assist in the development of appropriate CDM projects

participating in seminars, workshops and other forums to strengthen their capacity to develop and implement CDM projects. For example, the CCCCC and the UNEP Risoe Centre (URC) organized a Caribbean Regional Workshop for

There are a few countries in the Caribbean that have registered CDM projects. There is a need for the maximization of the region’s access to, and use of the CDM 63

g) Assist the CCCCC in assessing and realizing potential to serve as a regional operational entity for the CDM.

Designated National Authorities (DNA) of the CDM in March 2011 in Cuba.

Belize is participating in a CDM capacity building programme, implemented through the UNEP RISO Centre and the CCCCC

 

Most Caribbean SIDS have ratified the

h) Continued support in international forum on the vulnerabilities of SIDS.

UNFCCC, and many play an active role in the official UNFCCC negotiations and collaborate with wider groups including the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) to develop global positions 46 .

In order to build resilience, it is necessary to seek the assistance of the international community for the development of climate

46 http://unfccc.int/national_reports/items/1408.php

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further, on a regional basis, to establish or strengthen national and regional climate‐ change coordination mechanisms.

 

The UNFCCC is supporting many climate change adaptation and mitigation initiatives in the region. Countries can benefit through new mechanisms such as the Green Fund, the Cancun Adaptation Framework, the Adaptation Fund and Technology Mechanisms . For e.g. in June ,2011, the UNFCCC Adaptation Fund Board endorsed a project concept for Jamaica 47 The UNFCCC has supported countries in preparing their SNCs. GEF has been financing many projects in the region.

change models at scales appropriate to SIDS. 64

Many countries have been actively

i)

Integrating climate change into development issues particularly land use planning, tourism, fishing, forestry, disaster mitigation.

involved in developing initiatives to mainstream climate change in their development process.

Efforts should be made to build on the work already achieved in mainstreaming adaptation to climate change into other sectors and to incorporate climate change adaptation concerns in national sustainable

For e.g. one of the major goals of Barbados’ National Strategic Plan (2006‐2025) speaks specifically of building a Green Economy 48 .

63

47

Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the MSI (ECLAC ,2010)

http://larc.iisd.org/news/adaptation-fund-board-accredits-national-and-regional-implementing-entities/?referrer=latin-america-&-caribbean-regional-

update&utm_source=lists.iisd.ca&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Latin+America+%26+Caribbean+Regional+Update+-+5+July+2011+-

+Latin+America+%26+Caribbean+Regional+Coverage

48 http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/AdvisoryServices/Barbados/tabid/56246/Default.aspx

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development plans.

Guyana’s Low Carbon Development Strategy (LCDS) sets out a development path for the country that is based on Guyana deploying its forests to mitigate global climate change.

Adaptation and mitigation efforts have to be vertically integrated from the regional, national to community levels, as well as horizontally integrated across the various sectors, and supported by appropriate institutional, legal and policy mechanisms 65

Cuba’s IndEco project integrates climate change into its broader institutional, policy and national goals and programmes.

Many disaster management projects implemented include considerations for climate change. For e.g. a Project Cooperation Agreement was signed in February 2011 between UNEP and the Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ), for the “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Project.

A lack of legal authority and institutional capacity (appropriate legislative and regulatory frameworks for coordinated management and monitoring) needed for implementation and enforcement.

Some countries are adopting sustainable tourism initiatives which help to reduce the impacts of climate change in the long term. In 2009, the

64 UN ECLAC (Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean). 2010. Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (MSI +5) ,4 May 2010. Unpubl

65 UN ECLAC (Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean). 2010. Caribbean Regional Report for the Five‐Year Review of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (MSI +5) ,4 May 2010. Unpubl

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Caribbean’s public and private sector tourism groupings, the CTO and the Caribbean Hotel and Tourism Association (CHTA) launched a project to help the Caribbean hotel sector move towards energy efficiency. 49 The CCCCC’s Caribbean Carbon Neutral Tourism Program (CCNTP) aims to reduce the sector’s vulnerability to climate change

 

Several countries have set‐up climate change offices or departments. For e.g. in 2011, Suriname established a Climate Compatible Development Agency (CCDA) to help formulate a more structured approach to climate change matters.

Also some countries have set‐up national climate change committees which includes representatives from major sectors including land use planning, tourism, fishing, forestry, and disaster mitigation.

Sectoral assessments have been carried

49 UN ECLAC (Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean). 2010. Caribbean Regional Report for the Five-Year Review of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (MSI +5) ,4 May 2010. Unpubl

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j) Conduct sectoral impact assessment studies.

out with the support from Organisations including CCCCC and ECLAC.

Capacity building is needed development of detail technical models to aid vulnerability analysis in the Caribbean.

There is a clear lack of scientific data throughout the region. This affects the building of institutional, legal, and technical capacity to adapt to climate change

The CCCC’s MACC project conducted Vulnerability and Capacity Assessments (VCAs) and developed National Adaptation Strategies in several countries for key sectors such as agriculture, water , health and tourism ECLAC in cooperation with the CCCCC conducted a study on the potential economic costs of climate change in the Caribbean subregion by 2050 if mitigation and adaptation actions are not taken. 50 Sectoral assessments are also developed through SNC Projects.

The Caribsave study, ‘Modelling the

 

k) Consider the impacts of changing weather patterns on coastal

Transformational Impacts and Cost of Sea Level Rise (SLR) in the Caribbean’ provides a detailed analysis to date of

Climate change models should be developed at scales appropriate to SIDS, so as to

50 Assessments were conducted in eight sectors identified as vulnerable by Caribbean stakeholders, across 14 countries. The research was conducted in collaboration with the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC), with funding provided by the Department for International Development (DFID) of the United Kingdom . Source: ECLAC : http://www.eclac.cl/cgi‐bin/getProd.asp?xml=/portofspain/noticias/noticias/2/44622/P44622.xml&xsl=/portofspain/tpl‐

i/p1f.xsl&base=/portofspain/tpl‐i/top‐bottom.xsl

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communities particularly their ability to successfully adapt.

the damages and costs associated with SLR for the CARICOM nations 51

afford them support in planning for adaptation to climate change.

CCCCC has supported the establishment of a regional network of stations for:

 

the collection, analysis, and dissemination of hydro‐ meteorological and sea‐level data

 

relevant to the observation of climate

change,

and the measurement of

climate change‐related impact on potentially vulnerable sectors of the region’s economies, such as agriculture, health, tourism, etc.

The CCCCC in a cooperation with the Cuban Institute of Meteorology (INSMET) , is actively engaged in calculating climate models and projections for the Caribbean. The Centre has provided training in the region in the use of climate model outputs in impact studies

ECLAC published a report in 2011 that examined current and future trends in climate variability and their likely impacts on the Caribbean and Latin American’s extensive coastline. 52

51 http://caribsave.org/index.php?id=5

52 http://larc.iisd.org/news/eclac-report-examines-climate-change-impacts-on-latin-america-and-caribbean-coasts/

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