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Interuniversity Programme in Water Resources Engineering

(IUPWARE)

Programme Brochure & Course Syllabi

K.U.Leuven

June 2006

Table of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Programme objectives .......................................................................................................1 Programme structure .........................................................................................................1 Degree...............................................................................................................................4 Admission requirements ....................................................................................................4 Application procedure ........................................................................................................5 Fees ..................................................................................................................................5 Scholarships ......................................................................................................................5 Organizing institutions .......................................................................................................6 List of addresses and websites..........................................................................................6 Acronyms ..........................................................................................................................9 Description of the course content ....................................................................................10 11.1. Description of the 1st year courses .........................................................................11 Advanced mathematics for water engineering.........................................................11 Statistics for water engineering ...............................................................................13 Irrigation agronomy .................................................................................................15 Aquatic ecology.......................................................................................................17 Hydrological data processing and GIS ....................................................................19 Hydraulics ...............................................................................................................21 Surface water hydrology..........................................................................................22 Groundwater hydrology ...........................................................................................23 Water quality assessment, monitoring and treatment..............................................25 Hydrological measurements and remote sensing....................................................27 11.2. Description of the 2nd year courses ........................................................................29 Systems approach to water management ...............................................................29 Social, political, institutional, economic and environmental aspects ........................31 Surface water hydrological modelling......................................................................34 Groundwater modelling ...........................................................................................35 River modelling .......................................................................................................36 Urban hydrology and hydraulics ..............................................................................38 Soil water modelling ................................................................................................39 Irrigation design and management ..........................................................................41 Advanced aquatic ecology ......................................................................................43 Integrated project: humid case study.......................................................................44 Integrated project: semi-arid case study..................................................................45 Thesis research project ...........................................................................................46

Part I: Programme Brochure


1. Programme objectives The programme aims at providing academic training to young engineers and scientists in water resources engineering at the level of an initial master programme, according to the quality specifications as outlined in the directives of the European Higher Education Area (http://www.eaie.nl/pdf/bologna.asp). The programme places emphasis on imparting knowledge and skills in modern data processing, modelling and analysis techniques in combination with advanced engineering tools with application to the field of water resources engineering. The training of juniors in advanced skills in modelling and modern processing techniques is one very important factor to successfully combat the water crisis and improved water governance. This requires an increased insight in modern water resources engineering which cuts across traditional disciplines and institutional boundaries. An important course outcome therefore, is that at the end of the programme successful participants should be able to apply independently simple to complex models for solving day-to-day problems in the water sector in various regions with different climatic, environmental and socio-economic conditions. The employment of graduates is both seen at the academic and the professional level. Upon completion of the programme, graduates should be capable of taking a leading role in the implementation of water resources development and management. Government agencies and water user associations, who play a decisive role in the development and management of aquifers and river basins, need well trained water engineers and managers. Training at academic level means that emphasis is given to the training of future lectures and researchers, so that in many countries a multiplicator effect is pursued. To prepare students for this task, the master programme focuses on the provision of knowledge and skills in advanced engineering tools and modern data processing techniques as a basis for: understanding of the basic principles controlling the water quantity and quality in the land and water phase of the hydrological cycle; optimal allocation of the available water resources, fresh water resources, and drainage and treated sewage water, between competing users; design of water works and the definition of appropriate operation and management regulations for water development, conservation, supply, water use, and excess management; and spatial and temporal prediction of changes in the quantity and quality of the water resource base as a function of the increasing population pressure and economic development. Although the programme objectives are not limited to developing countries, the VLIR-UDC1 has recognized this international course programme (ICP) and awards scholarships to students from low-income countries. The programme is designed such that it fits within the new boundary conditions of the bachelor and master (BAMA) structure imposed by the Ministry of Education (Flanders, Belgium) in accordance with the general reform of the European higher education system. In addition almost 25 years of experience in master level training in the field of water resources by both partners is incorporated. 2. Programme structure The master programme is composed of 2 study years; each year being organized by semesters. Each semester has 13 weeks of instruction. The 1st year contains courses with
1

VLIR-UDC: Flemish Interuniversity Council University Development Co-operation

Programme brochure / page 1

the objective to bring the participants to the same level of knowledge and expertise in water nd resources engineering. In the 2 year of the master programme, the students specialize in a particular aspect of water resources engineering by selecting particular courses and their master thesis. Depending on the prior educational programme followed, attendants might be requested to take remediating courses, to which no credits are associated. The load of each semester, according the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) is 30, making the load of the 1st and 2nd year equal to 60 ECTS. 1 ECTS represents 25 to 30 hours of student time. The 1st year of the master programme is composed of 2 semesters (table 1). The 1st semester contains 4 courses and 1 workshop. There is a course on advanced mathematics and a course on statistics, both related to water engineering; the two other courses programmed in this semester are on irrigation agronomy and aquatic ecology to underline the interdependency of water and agriculture and ecology. Given the importance of the processing of large time series of climate and hydrological data, a workshop is foreseen in which the participants are introduced in the processing of hydrological data using appropriate software, including software for the processing of geographic information. Each of the 4 courses and the workshop has an ECTS load of 6, totalizing an ECTS load for the semester of 30. Table 1: Outline of the study programme of the 1st year in WRE Subject (courses and workshops) ECTS: total of 60 credits 1st 2nd semester semester 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Advanced mathematics for water engineering Statistics for water engineering Irrigation agronomy Aquatic ecology Hydrological data processing and GIS (*) Hydraulics Surface water hydrology Groundwater hydrology Water quality assessment, monitoring and treatment Hydrological measurements and remote sensing (*)
assessment

(*) Workshop without formal examination but mark based on submitted tasks/projects and continuous During the 2nd semester the attendants are given an introduction in hydraulics, surface water hydrology and groundwater hydrology. Given the degrading effect of human activities on the quality of land and water resources, participants receive also a basic training in the monitoring and assessment of water quality, and the principles of water treatment. An introduction to hydrological measurements and remote sensing is presented in the format of a workshop. In most courses of the 1st year, an initiation in numerical modelling is presented. Future engineers will be more and more confronted in their profession with assessing the status of integral systems, the interaction of those systems with their environment, and the way those systems react to varying human activities. To make predictions of system reactions, one needs to be able to simulate the systems using numerical models. Therefore, an initiation to modelling with application to simple situations is given in most courses. Each component of the 2nd semester of the 1st year has an ECTS load of 6, totalizing for the 2nd semester an ECTS load of 30. Courses with a load of 6 allow the most straightforward time-tabling: 5 courses every semester with homogeneous mornings and afternoon sessions.

Programme brochure / page 2

Semester 2

Semester 1

Table 2: Outline of the study programme of the 2nd year Subject (courses and workshops) ECTS: total of 60 credits 1st 2nd semester semester 5 5 5 5 5 5

Systems approach to water management Social, political, institutional, economic and environmental aspects Optional workshop 1(*) Optional workshop 2(*) Optional workshop 3(*) Integrated project(**) - Integrated project: humid case study - Integrated project: semi-arid case study

Semester 4

Semester 3

Thesis research project

30

(*) Workshop without formal examination but mark based on submitted tasks/projects and continuous
assessment. Students should select the three optional workshops from the list below.

(**) Either a project on a humid case or on a semi-arid/arid case List of optional workshops Surface water modelling Groundwater modelling River modelling Urban hydrology and hydraulics Soil water modelling Irrigation design and management Advanced aquatic ecology One optional course/workshop relevant to Water resources engineering, subject to approval by the programme committee. The 2nd year of the master programme is composed of 2 semesters (Table 2). Whereas in the 1st year all subjects are compulsory, in the 2nd year through choosing some of the subjects and the topic of the thesis research project, the students can partially specialize in the quantitative or qualitative aspects of water resources development and management. The 3rd semester is composed of 6 courses (each with an ECTS load of 5), of which 2 compulsory subjects relative to systems approach of water resources management and the social, political, institutional, economic and environmental aspects of water engineering. The programme offers 7 optional workshops of which the students should selected three. The subjects of the workshops are related to surface water modelling, groundwater modelling, river modelling, urban hydrology and hydraulics, soil water modelling, irrigation design and management, and advanced aquatic ecology. The optional workshops are different from regular compulsory courses. Their major aim is to deepen the skills of the participants in modelling, system management and ecology. Last but not least, the students are requested to make an integrated project, based on a case study, with application to either a humid climate or an arid climate. The focus of the humid climate case study is on the handling of excess water and the impact of human activity on the quality of the surface water and groundwater resources system. The 2nd case study deals with the integrated analysis of the water resources system in a water scarce environment, given the presence of large scale irrigated agriculture. Each subject in the 3rd semester of the programme has an equivalent ECTS load of 5, totalizing for this semester 30 ECTS.

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The 4th semester of the programme is entirely designated to the thesis research project. The project ought to be related to the broad field of water resources, either with emphasis on the quantitative or qualitative aspects of water, an experimental or a modelling based project, a project related to the field of surface water, groundwater, river management ecohydrology, the design and management of urban drainage and the evacuation of urban effluent water, the treatment of domestic effluents and the re-use of those effluents as irrigation water, the design, operation and management of irrigation schemes, the ecology of aquatic systems in the subtropics and tropics. The thesis project is made at one of the departments supporting the operation of the master programme. The topic of the master thesis project is often closely linked to ongoing research within those laboratories. The ECTS load of the thesis is 30. A detailed outline of the synopsis of each compulsory and optional subject of the 1st and 2nd year programme is given in Section 11 of this document. The 1st semester of each year usually starts the last week of September and ends before the Christmas holiday period. The 2nd semester normally starts in the middle of February and lasts till the end of May. In the 2nd semester there is a two week break around Easter. The period between the first and second semester is used for studying and examining the students on the subjects taught in the first semester. In June the exams of the subjects taught in the 2nd semester are organized. The deliberation and proclamation is at the end of June or early July. Required re-examinations take place in the period 15 August-15 September. 3. Degree After successful completion of the 2 years of the programme, the diploma of Master in Water Resources Engineering will be awarded. A transcript of academic records will be issued to all the participants after each year of study. The degree of Master in Water Resources Engineering can be awarded with: Greatest Distinction, with or without congratulations of the board of examiners Great Distinction Distinction Satisfaction 4. Admission requirements The 2-year master degree uses the same admission criteria as for the initial master programmes organized by the Faculties of Bioscience Engineering and Engineering of the K.U.Leuven or the Faculty of Engineering of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In practice this means that students possessing a bachelor degree awarded by a university recognized by the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) in engineering (civil engineering, bioscience engineering, environmental engineering, or any other equivalent engineering degree) and sciences (biology, geography, geology, etc.) can enrol in the 1st year of the master programme. Holders of a bachelor (BSc, BEng, or BTech) degree of minimum a 4 year nonEuropean university programme can only be admitted to the 1st year after positive evaluation of their application. Given that the language of instruction is English, applicants should have a good command of spoken and written English (for non-native speakers an English language certificate is required, for the TOEFL written test the score has to be at least 550; the computer based test 213). Students possessing a master degree equivalent to the degrees awarded by the Faculties of Sciences, Bioscience Engineering and Engineering of the K.U.Leuven or the Faculty of Engineering of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel can apply to have an exemption of up to 60 ECTS. Equivalent master degrees typically require a total duration of 5 (European universities) to 6 years (universities in 3rd World countries). Applicants with such a degree can apply for a direct entry into the 2nd year. All applications will be examined in detail on their eligibility. For every course and workshop, clear prerequisites are required. This is done in the format of referring to one or more handbooks, study material on the web, or by taking (a) course(s) at the university. Students

Programme brochure / page 4

who are weak in a particular subject will be requested to take remediating courses. The universities also offer English crash courses. The deadline for the submission of applications is March 1 for non-European students, and June1 for European applicants. 5. Application procedure When applying for admission to the MSc programme in Water Resources Engineering, candidates must send the following documents: the completed and signed application form. The form can be obtained from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the Vrije Universiteit Brussel or at http://www.iupware.be; a certified true copy of the BSc/BEng/BTech or MSc/MEng/MTech diploma/degree (or equivalent); a certified transcript of the candidate's academic records; the results of an English language test (if applicable); and a short personal history, including work experience. The completed application file should be sent to the secretariat of IUPWARE-K.U.Leuven (see list of addresses). Do not come to Belgium with a tourist visa if you want to enrol in a study programme of more than 3 months duration! An authorisation for temporary residence is necessary and should be obtained from the Belgian Embassy/Consulate in your home country before entering Belgium. One of the conditions for acquiring an authorisation for a provisional sojourn (temporary-stay) as a student in Belgium, is the proof of solvency. It is very important that a student has on hand sufficient funds to cover the whole stay at the university. Information on the total amount needed can be found on the website of the organizing universities. After all, material uncertainty can endanger the successful completion of the study programme. Therefore, applicants are advised to request funding from appropriate donor agencies (national and international governmental, non-governmental and private organisations). If a student has no official fellowship, she/he must provide proof that she/he can bear all the costs for living and studying in Belgium. Besides, they must make their own arrangements to be covered by a health insurance during their stay in Belgium. 6. Fees Fees are subject to changes. To know the exact enrolment fee, please consult the website of the K.U.Leuven or contact IUPWARE by email or phone (see list of addresses). 7. Scholarships The programme organisers do not provide scholarships. Therefore, applicants are advised to request funding from appropriate donor agencies (national and international governmental, non-governmental and private organisations). Under the provisions of certain international cultural agreements, the Belgian government awards a limited number of grants to foreign postgraduate students each year. These grants are available from the VLIR scholarship administration (ICP/ITP), see list of addresses for contact information and website. More information on grant awarding institutes can be obtained from the organisations listed in the List of addresses of this brochure. The scientific application for admission to the programme is separate and different from the application procedure for a scolarship.

Programme brochure / page 5

8. Organizing institutions The Interuniversity Programme in Water Resources Engineering is organised by the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (K.U.Leuven) and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. The training, research, co-operation and consultancy activities of IUPWARE are supported by research units of the Faculties of Bioscience Engineering, Engineering and Sciences of K.U.Leuven and the Faculty of Engineering of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. IUPWAREs management consists of a Steering Committee with 4 members of each university, and a Programme Committee containing all lecturers as well as a representative of the teaching assistants and of the students (3 of each year). The tasks of the steering committee comprise: (i) definition of the short, medium and long term objectives of the programme; (ii) organisation of the master programme; (iii) recruitment of visiting staff for courses, seminars and workshops; (iv) co-ordination of thesis research projects; (v) development of the annual budget and the breakdown of the budget; (vi) organisation of internal evaluation sessions; (vii) development of national and international research projects in the field of water resources planning and management; and (viii) development of the international dimension through creating links with programmes of the Commission of the European Community, international and national agencies, international universities and research institutions. For the discussion, evaluation and follow up of specific problems related to educational and programme matters the Programme Committee meets at least twice a year, in February and in October. The Steering Committee prepares the meetings of the Programme Committee and suggests solutions and changes in the programme to the Programme Committee meeting. The subjects in the 1st and 2nd year of the master programme are taught by staff of the K.U.Leuven and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Apart from the permanent scientific staff of both institutes, some of the teaching will be provided by guest lecturers, who are experts affiliated to universities, research institutes, governmental agencies, consulting firms, contractors and suppliers in Belgium and abroad, or by international organisations. This concept offers the advantage that the programme has direct access to a much larger reservoir of up-to-date knowledge and professional experience than would otherwise be the case, and it provides the flexibility in designing and implementing tailor-made courses to special needs at short notice. 9. List of addresses and websites in Leuven, Belgium in Brussels, Belgium IUPWARE http://www.iupware.be/ Organising universities Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (K.U.Leuven) Naamsestraat 22 3000 Leuven Tel: +32-16-32 40 10
http://www.kuleuven.be

Vrije Universiteit Brussel Pleinlaan 2 1050 Brussel Tel: +32-2-629 21 11


http://www.vub.ac.be

Organising faculties Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 3001 Leuven (Heverlee) Tel: +32-16-32 16 19 Fax: +32-16-32 19 99
http://www.biw.kuleuven.ac.be/English/index.aspx

Faculty of Engineering Pleinlaan 2 1050 Brussel Tel: +32-2-629 27 58 Fax: +32-2-629 28 59


http://www.vub.ac.be/english/index.php

Programme brochure / page 6

Faculty of Engineering Arenberg Castle Kasteelpark Arenberg 1 3001 Leuven (Heverlee) Tel: +32-16-32 13 50 Fax: +32-16-32 19 82
http://www.cs.kuleuven.be/faculty/cwis/fac-E.shtml

Faculty of Science Kasteelpark Arenberg 11 3001 Leuven (Heverlee) Tel: +32-16-32 14 01 Fax: +32-16-32 19 95
http://wet.kuleuven.be/English/

Organising departments/laboratories Division for Soil and Water Management Department of Land Management Celestijnenlaan 200 E 3001 Heverlee Tel: +32-16-32 97 21 Fax: +32-16-32 97 60
http://www.sadl.kuleuven.be/lbh/lbw/index_lsw.htm

Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering Pleinlaan 2 1050 Brussel Tel: +32-2-629 30 21 Fax: +32-2-629 30 22
http://twws6.vub.ac.be/hydr/indexEng.htm

Hydraulics Laboratory Kasteelpark Arenberg 40 3001 Leuven (Heverlee) Tel: +32-16-32 16 63 Fax: +32-16-32 19 89
http://www.kuleuven.be/hydr/Index.html

Laboratory for Aquatic Ecology Charles de Briotstraat 32 3000 Leuven Tel: +32-16-32 39 66 Fax: +32-16-32 45 75
http://www.kuleuven.be/bio/eco/index.php

Student registration office Student Administration Office (Registrars Office) University Hall Naamsestraat 22 3000 Leuven Tel: +32-16-32 40 40 Fax: +32-16-32 37 76
http://www.kuleuven.be/english/admission/Index. htm

Accommodation for students Van Dalecollege Naamsestraat 80 3000 Leuven Tel: +32-16-32 44 00 Fax: +32-16-32 44 07
http://www.kuleuven.be/english/geninfo/livingleuve n/b_accomstud.htm

Housing Service VUB Pleinlaan 2 - Building P 1050 Brussel Tel: +32-2-629 28 31 Fax: +32-2-629 36 19
http://www.vub.ac.be/english/infofor/ prospectivestudents/housing.html

Programme brochure / page 7

Office for International students Office for International students and Scholars Naamsestraat 22 3000 Leuven Tel: +32-16-32 42 71 Fax: +32-16-32 37 73
http://www.kuleuven.ac.be/english/about/index.htm

International Relations and Mobility Office Pleinlaan 2 1050 Brussel Tel: +32-2-629 21 08 Fax: +32-2-629 36 40
http://www.vub.ac.be/english/home/ international.html

General addresses Foreign Embassies All information can be obtained from Foreign Affairs, Foreing Trade and Development Cooperation Karmelietenstraat 15, 1000 Brussels http://www.diplomatie.be/en/addresses/abroad/default.asp Tel: +32-2-501 81 11 English language test Several language test centers exist who organize language tests at regular interval throughout the year. Information can be found on the website of TOEFL (www.toefl.org), GRE (www.gre.org) or IELTS (www.ielts.org) Grant awarding institutions/organisations VLIR scholarship administration (ICP/ITP), Bolwerksquare 1A, B-1050 Brussels The VLIR website contains all the information concerning the scholarships: http://www.vliruos.be/UK/02programme/01scholarships/index.htm Belgian Technical Cooperation, Hoogstraat 147, 1000 Brussels, Belgium Tel.: +32-2-505 37 00; Fax +32-2-502 98 62, website: http://www.btcctb.org/ Belgian Development Cooperation, c/o Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation, Karmelietenstraat 15, 1000 Brussels, Tel: +32-2-501 81 11 website: http://www.dgcd.be/en/index.html European Commission (EC), Directorate-General for Education and Culture, Wetstraat 200, 1049 Brussels, Belgium, tel.: +32 (0)2 299 11 11, website: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/allprogrammes/index_en.html Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy, website: http//www.fao.org/ General Commissariat for International Cultural Relations, Ministry of the Flemish Community, Boudewijnlaan 30, 1210 Brussels, Belgium International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse, A-1400 Vienna, Austria website: http://www.iaea.org/ NATO, Scientific Affairs Division, Fellowships Programme, 1110 Brussels, Belgium website: http://www.nato.int/ UN Office of Technical Co-operation, Fellowship Division, UN-Plaza, 666 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA (or) Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneve, Switzerland website: http://www.un.org/english/ UN Information Centre for Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands and Liaison Office with the European Community, Aarlenstraat 108, 1040 Brussels, Belgium, website: http://www.un.org/english UNESCO, Place de Fontenoy 7, 75700 Paris-Cedex, France website: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ WHO: World Health Organisation, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland website: http://who.int/en/

Programme brochure / page 8

WMO: World Meteorological Organisation, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland, website: www.wmo.ch Ministry of the Flemish Community University Education Bestuur Universitair Onderwijs, Koningsstraat 136, 1000 Brussel Tel: +32-2-211 42 57 10. Acronyms BEng BSc BTech BTC DGDC ECTS GIS GRE ICP IELTS IUPWARE K.U.Leuven MEng MSc MTech TOEFL VLIR VLIR -UDC VUB WRE Bachelor of Engineering Bachelor of Science Bachelor of Technology Belgian Technical Cooperation Belgian Development Cooperation European Credit Transfer System Geographic Information System Graduate Record Examinations International Course Programme International English Language Testing System Interuniversity Programme in Water Resources Engineering Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Master of Engineering Master of Science Master of Technology Test Of English as a Foreign Language Vlaamse InterUniversitaire Raad (Flemish Interuniversity Council) Flemish Interuniversity Council University Development Co-operation Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Free University Brussels) Water Resources Engineering

Programme brochure / page 9

Part II: Course Syllabi


11. Description of the course content In this section of the brochure are described the content of the courses, workshops, integrated project and the thesis research project. Initiation in modelling in the courses of the 1st year is restricted to algorithms and numerical computations for solving simple processes within an easy accessible environment (spreadsheet, Matlab, tailor-made software). In the 2nd year modelling will be taught at higher level, applied to more complex and integrated problems. The total load of the study curriculum is 120 credits, spread over 2 years and 4 semesters (2 semesters per year). Each semester has 13 weeks of effective teaching. One ECTS represents 25 to 30 hrs of study time.

Programme brochure / page 10

11.1.

Description of the 1st year courses

Advanced mathematics for water engineering KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites H0F38B 6 Review (compulsory) course 165 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Basic knowledge of calculus, matrix algebra and numerical methods; use of a spreadsheet, elementary knowledge of a technical computing software package 1st year / 1st semester Lecture notes Quotation on sample problems and oral exam with written preparation Lopez, R.J., Advanced engineering mathematics. Addison Wesley. Arbenz, K. and A. Wohlhauser. Advanced mathematics for practicing engineers. Artech House. Lecture notes on computational hydraulics. Emphasis is on exercises (hand-on experience); although exercises are related to problems in other courses (hydraulics, statistics, ..), emphasis is on the mathematical solution techniques; students will make extensive use of spreadsheet and Matlab (or alternative Octave) software package for the solution of problems.

Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material

Additional information

Learning objective: Become familiar with mathematical formulations in fluid flow problems; Become familiar with some elementary numerical techniques for solving fluid flow problems; Distinguish between exact solution and numerical approximation; and Learn how to deal with different notations in different text books. Mathematical models are common place and are widely used by engineers dealing with water resources. Knowledge of and critical insight in analytical and numerical techniques is however essential not only when one wants to use these models, but also for understanding and evaluating their outcome. Course/workshop description: The aim of the course is to introduce advanced mathematical techniques for analyzing fluid mechanics and for obtaining practical solutions for fluid flow problems. The course covers a selection from each of the three topics given below.

Mathematical theory of fluid mechanics: - Functions, vectors and tensors; - Gradient, divergence and rotation operators; theorems of Green and Stokes; properties of irrotational, conservative and potential flow fields; - Time derivatives; velocity and acceleration, material derivatives; particle paths, equipotential and streamlines; and - Coordinate systems and transformation rules; Jacobian and Hessian matrices. Partial differential equations for describing fluid dynamics: - Characteristics and classification of differential equations; - Properties of first order differential equations; solutions of kinematic wave equations and advection equations; - Properties of 2nd order elliptic partial differential equations; Laplace and Poisson equations related to stationary flow problems; and - Properties of 2nd order parabolic partial differential equations; diffusion problems, advection dispersion equations. Numerical techniques: - Numerical solution of systems of linear equations; relaxation techniques and conjugate gradient methods; - Numerical solution of nonlinear equations, and systems of nonlinear equations;

Programme brochure / page 11

Numerical techniques for interpolation, differentiation and integration; and Least squares fitting and optimization techniques.

Practical: Exercises on functions and vector fields; calculation of potential functions and velocity fields, verification of conservation and rotation properties; Calculation of path lines and streamlines for simple fluid flow problems; Transformation of coordinate systems; Explicit and implicit numerical solutions for the advection-diffusion equation; Explicit and implicit numerical solutions for the momentum and continuity equations in 1 dimension; Solution of a kinematic wave equation problem, determination of wave velocities and mass transport velocities; Computer exercises on solutions of nonlinear problems; Computer exercises on interpolation, differentiation and integration of discrete data sets; and Computer exercises on curve fitting techniques.

Programme brochure / page 12

Statistics for water engineering KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material I0742B 6 Review (compulsory) course 165 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Basic knowledge of calculus, mathematics, statistics, and spreadsheet software 1st year / 1st semester Lecture notes + copy of slides Quotation on PC exercise (for a new given dataset) + oral clarification. Both the PC exercise and the oral clarification are open book. Shahin, M., H.J.L. Van Oorschot and S.J. De Lange, 1993. Statistical analysis in water resources engineering, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 394 pages. Willems, P., 2005. Statistics for Water Engineering, Lecture notes K.U.Leuven. Additional datasets are given to the students to practise the statistical techniques.

Additional information

Learning objective: Fundamental knowledge and practical understanding is given for the common techniques of data processing in hydrology and water engineering. This knowledge and understanding must allow the students to select and apply most appropriate techniques to summarize and organize data. It also allows them to have an insight in the limitations of data collection, and the corresponding consequences for water management and engineering. More specifically, the consequences to the development and the calibration of mathematical models and other predictive tools are discussed. Also the consequences to the evaluation, the exploitation and the management of the water systems are addressed. The understanding of the data limitations and their consequences are useful in setting up most appropriate data collection programs for specific water management and planning problems. Based on the discussions on linear regression and the different uncertainty sources (cfr. ANOVA), also a fundamental insight is given in the general process of mathematical modelling and related limitations/uncertainties. By using examples from specific water fields (surface hydrology, hydraulics, wastewater treatment, etc) in the lectures and the practical sessions, this course has important interactions with the other courses. Course/workshop description: An overview is given of the important concepts of probability and statistics as they are used in hydrology and water management. After an introduction of the basic terminology, an overview is given of techniques for data handling and data processing. These techniques can be classified into two groups: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. In descriptive statistics, most common techniques are considered for summarizing and organizing the data in a sample (a dataset). These consist of both numerical and graphical techniques. In inferential statistics, techniques are studied to draw conclusions about the physical reality (the full population), based on a limited amount of data available (the sample). Regarding the latter techniques, also the notion of mathematical modelling is explained together with the different sources of uncertainty involved. In this way, the students are given a basic understanding of the limitations of mathematical modelling and their consequences to water management and planning decisions. The course uses examples in theory as well as for the exercises. These examples are mainly hydrological and water quality data that are typically available for surface waters. The following topics are addressed in the course, in chronological order: Initial definitions. Descriptive statistics: - Graphical presentation of data - Statistical descriptors of data

Programme brochure / page 13

Probability theory: - Probability distributions incl. overview of distributions typically used in hydrology - Estimation of parameters - Testing statistical hypotheses incl. trend tests, goodness-of-fit tests, serial correlation tests Extreme value analysis: - Periodic maxima method vs. peak-over-threshold or partial-duration-series method (POT, PDS) - Extreme value theory; GEV versus GPD distributions - Extreme value index, distribution classes - Return period - Flood frequency analysis; low flow frequency analysis - Selection of independent extremes from a time series - Combined analysis at different time scales / aggregation levels and introduction to IDF, QDF and CDF relationships Regression and correlation. Linear regression as an example of a simple model to explain the principles of model calibration and validation and model sensitivity and uncertainty analysis: - Model residual analysis - Model goodness-of-fit statistics - Introduction to model calibration and validation (based on the linear regression model) - Model sensitivity analysis - Variance decomposition - Different types of uncertainty sources in mathematical modelling - Calculation of parameter uncertainties and model prediction uncertainties Time series analysis and introduction to stochastic modelling: - Subflow filtering in hydrology - Autocorrelation, autocovariance - ARMA model - Random simulation and introduction to stochastic modelling Spatial statistics: - (Semi-)variogram - Kriging

Practical: In the practical sessions, a number of datasets are considered, such as time series of river discharges, simultaneous measurements of water levels and discharges at a limnigraphic station, BOD concentrations at the influent and the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, etc.

The following techniques are applied to these datasets: Selection, calibration and plotting of probability distributions; Regression and correlation + error analysis + statistical hypothesis tests; Confidence limits for model parameters, model prediction uncertainty; and Calculation of independent POT extremes from the discharge series (independent or dependent on baseflow filter results) + extreme value analysis + return period calculation.

Programme brochure / page 14

Irrigation agronomy KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material Additional information Learning objective: The course of Irrigation Agronomy aims to provide the students a comprehensive introduction in the climatic, crop, soil and environmental aspects that determine the water balance of a cultivated field and in the calculation of the crop water and irrigation water requirement at field and scheme level. During practical sessions the students receive training in the use of software packages that are helpful for the processing of climatic data, for the simulation of a soil water and salt balance and for the design of irrigation schedules. The aim of the homework is to give students extra time to work out in depth some practical examples and to train them in scientific reporting. At the end of the course the students should be able to plan and evaluate the water supply for irrigation schemes. Course/workshop description: Part 1: Agro-climatology Measurement, collection and processing of climatic data such as air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, evaporation and precipitation and an introduction to agro-meteorological field stations; Definition, concepts and measurements pan evaporation, reference (ETo) and crop (ETc) evapotranspiration; Study of the growing period (onset, duration and cessation of the rainy season); and Characterization of the global dryness/wetness of the growing season, based on estimation of the dependable effective rainfall from historical time series of rainfall data. Part 2: Water dynamics in cropped soils Soil physical properties (particle size distribution, bulk density, soil water content, soil water potential, hydraulic conductivity); Water characteristic function (definition, measurement, field capacity and wilting point, total available water, readily available water); Steady state (e.g. capillary rise from a shallow water table under steady state conditions) and unsteady state water flow; Crop water uptake functions; Soil water balance of cropped soils; Soil salinity balance under rainfed and irrigated conditions.

I0736B 6 Review (compulsory) course 165 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment 1st year / 1st semester Lecture notes Quotation on sample problems (open book) and oral examination (closed book), and assessment of homework (1 report) Crop evapotranspiration. Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. 1998. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper N56. Rome, Italy, 300 p.

Part 3: Irrigation water requirements Computation of the net and gross irrigation requirement; Effect of soil salinity on crop water requirement; Yield response to water under unlimited and limited water supply [Ky approach (functional model) and dynamic response based modelling approach]; Yield response to water under saline conditions; Estimation of field and scheme water supply.

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Part 4: Irrigation scheduling principles Theory of irrigation scheduling when water supply is not limiting; Effect of irrigation system [surface irrigation systems (basin, border and furrow), and pressurized irrigation systems (sprinkling and trickle irrigation)] on irrigation scheduling; Theory of scheduling under conditions of water scarcity (e.g. deficit irrigation); Theory of scheduling under conditions of irrigation with low water quality; and Practical planning of irrigation scheduling at field and project level. Practical: The practical exercises aim at training the students in methods for the processing of climatic data, the characterization of the rainy season, the computation of the reference and crop evapotranspiration, the calculation of the salt and water balance of cultivated rainfed and irrigated fields, and the calculation of net and gross water requirements for various conditions. During the practical sessions the students receive an introduction in the use of the following menu driven software packages: ETO: reference evapotranspiration (K.U. Leuven); RAINBOW: frequency analysis of hydrological data (K.U.Leuven); FOACLIM: world-wide agroclimatic data (FAO); BUDGET: a soil water and salt balance model (K.U.Leuven); and UPFLOW: capillary transport of water above a shallow water table (K.U.Leuven). The homework consists in the further development of one particular simulation and the writing of a scientific report describing the method, discussing the results and formulating conclusions.

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Aquatic ecology KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material G0M22B 6 Review (compulsory) course 165 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Basic knowledge of biology 1st year / 1st semester Lecture notes Oral exam with written preparation (2/3); report on assignment and practical exercises is also evaluated (1/3) Freshwater ecology Wetzel, R.G., 2001. Limnology, 3rd ed., Saunders College Publishing, Forth Worth. Horne, A.J. and C.R. Goldman, 1994. Limnology, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York. Moss, B., 1998. Ecology of Fresh Waters, Man and Medium, Past to future. Third ed. Blackwell Science. Marine ecology Levinton, J.S., 1995. Marine biology: function, biodiversity, ecology. Oxford University Press, New York.

Additional information Learning objective: The course aims to provide an introduction to the structure and functioning of fresh and marine aquatic ecosystems, in such a way that the information can be usefully applied in water quality assessment, water quality management and rehabilitation of natural aquatic environments. It is aimed to provide the student with the necessary background on ecology in general and fresh water ecology in particular, so as to guide him/her in judging on the impact of certain measures or disturbances on aquatic ecosystems, in developing and evaluating restoration measures, interpreting reports on environmental degradation, etc. Through the assignment, the course aims to increase the capacity of the students to engage in scientific discussions and report on topics related to the sustainability of aquatic habitats in relation to human impact. Course/workshop description: Emphasis is on the structure and functioning of freshwater systems, but comparative information on marine systems is provided. Wherever possible, the concepts and ideas developed in the course are also illustrated using examples from and studies carried out in the tropics. Part 1: Freshwater ecology Characteristics of water; Lentic habitats (lakes, ponds,...): - Distribution, genesis, typology and morphology of inland waters; - Physico-chemical characteristics of lakes and ponds: light, thermal stratification, oxygen, salinity, inorganic carbon, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle, micronutrients; - Productivity and structure of aquatic ecosystems; - Living biota: phytoplankton community, zooplankton community, fish and the trophic cascade; and - Human impact, threats and restoration: eutrophication, acidification, fisheries, biomanipulation. Lotic habitats (streams and rivers): typology, community structure, floodplains; Estuaries; and Notes on tropical limnology.

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Part 2: Marine ecology General characteristics in comparison to freshwater ecosystems; Physical and chemical characteristics; Living biota; - Phytoplankton; - Zooplankton; and - Fish and fisheries. Productivity. Practical: Excursion: introduction to sampling equipment for the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of water, the sampling of phyto- and zooplankton, periphyton and benthos, introduction to shallow lake ecology and restoration of shallow lakes; Practical exercises: survey of freshwater communities (phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, fishes): diversity, counting methods, illustration of ecological concepts and experiments, introduction to indicators of biological water quality; and Assignment: students will be engaged in a literature review on themes either related to tropical wetland ecology, to the impact of man on aquatic habitats (threats and restoration measures), or to the monitoring of diversity and ecosystem structure in relation to human impact, discussions will be organized on these themes, and the students will write a report on a theme of their choice, elaborating on an issue that attracted their attention during the discussions, based on a literature survey introduction to marine communities.

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Hydrological data processing and GIS KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material I0Q53B 6 Workshop 180 hrs 120 hrs Elementary calculus and introductory hydrological knowledge 1st year / 1st semester Lecture notes Evaluation by continuous assessment of the exercises and submitted tasks/projects Orvis, W. J., 1996 (2nd edition). Excel for Scientists and Engineers. Sybex, San Francisco: 547 pages. Maguire, D., M. F. Goodchild and D. W. Rhind (eds.), 1991. Geographical information systems: principles and applications. Longman Scientific and Technical, London, UK. Volume I (Principles): 649 pages and Volume II (Applications): 447 pages. Part A: http://www.agr.kuleuven.ac.be/vakken/i840/ Part B: http://pointcarre.vub.ac.be/

Additional information

Learning objective: This course is instrumental in support of general objectives of the programme such as (1) the modelling of process and water systems, (2) planning, budgeting and exploitation of water systems, (3) evaluation, optimization and management of water systems and (4) impact analyses and decision support systems. The learning objective of the first part is to enable students to effectively use Information and Communication Technology for Water Resources Engineering. The objective of training on networked PC's is in establishing skills in finding information, electronic communication, solving quantitative problems, and reporting and presentation of results. Emphasis is on learning how to tackle problems and find solutions rather than on specific (fast outdating) ICTtechniques. The learning objective of the GIS part is to equip the student with a set of spatial data management and analysis tools, which can be applied to different water resources problems. The objective of the course is therefore not to concentrate on one specific water resources aspect or analysis/modelling technique but to stimulate and allow the student to integrate different data sets, analysis and modelling tools into a common environment from where he/she can tackle the water resources problem in an integrated manner. Practical learning objective for the student at the end of the course will therefore be that he/she independently is able to analyze a water resources problem with the help of GIS. Further objective of the course is the build up of a framework of notions and understanding for the student of the diverse GIS systems and techniques in order that he/she will be able to communicate with experts in this field and can follow new trends and technologies. Course/workshop description: Part A: Information Technology for Hydrological Data Processing The fast evolution in ICT requires a continuous update of the content of the workshop and the hard-, and software and network tools. Emphasis is on spreadsheet as an example of software and as a tool for quantitative analysis. A more detailed training in spreadsheet is preferred above a superficial review of many ICT-tools. Introduction to PC, network, electronic communication and WWW; Integrated offices as general toolbox for texts, databases, spreadsheets, presentations. Special attention to equation editing in word processing and graphical illustrations in presentations and documents; Spreadsheet as calculation tool for water resource engineering. General principles of spreadsheet, formulas, used defined functions, graphing, numerical techniques; Editing of Web-pages by WYSIWIG-editors; and ICT aspects of data-logging, transmission, representation and storage.

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Part A of the workshop consists of a combination of time-tabled PC-classes and independently executed tasks. During the organized PC-classes exercises are solved with a hands-on approach and prepare the students for individual tasks, relevant to water resources engineering and tailored to their options. Each student selects a relevant subject as a central theme to all tasks. These tasks are solved as supervised self-activity and submitted for evaluation. Part B: Hydrological Data Processing with Geographic Information Systems The aim of Part B of the workshop is to give the state of the art of spatial information processing using GIS, applied to water resources engineering problems. Students acquisition of practical skills is promoted by computer exercises in GIS analyses using GIS software. The following topics will be treated: Basic principles of digital cartography, LIS and GIS: history and definitions; Spatial data models: vector models, tesselation models, raster, TIN, etc; Data input techniques: digitizing, scanning, and V/R en R/V conversion; Planimetric integration: map projections and coordinate transformations; Spatial interpolation techniques: trend surface analysis, local interpolation techniques; Accuracy of spatial data analyses: type of errors, error modelling, error propagation; and Cartographic modelling techniques: local, focal and zonal operations, model building.

Case studies of practical GIS use in water resources engineering are presented. Future possibilities and impact of GIS techniques are discussed. The practical introduction and hands-on exercises are given in ArcView. Exercises include: Carthographic modelling, Database query, Distance and context operators, Map algebra, Introduction to spatial hydrology, and Catchment water balance determination. This section of the workshop includes an individual GIS-project related to the background of the student and/or the possible next year thesis topic. The definition and guidance of these individual projects is done in cooperation with the lecturers of other courses and promoters of theses.

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Hydraulics KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material H0518A 6 Basic (compulsory) course 165 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Basic knowledge of advanced mathematics 1st year / 2nd semester Lecture notes Quotation on sample problems, written + oral clarification, and on PC exercise (on water surface profiles) + quotation on reports (lab work and pipe network analysis with PC) French, 1985. Open channel hydraulics. Mc Graw Hill. Simon, A.L., 1976. Practical hydraulics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chadwick and J. Morfett, 1998. Hydraulics in civil and environmental engineering, Spon. Douglas, J.F. et al., 1995. Fluid Mechanics. Longman. Potter, M.C. and D.C. Wiggert, 1997; Mechanics of Fluids, Prentice Hall. Street, R.L. et al, 1996. Elementary Fluid Mechanics, J. Wiley & Sons, Inc. Shames, 1992. Mechanics of Fluids, McGraw Hill. Mott, R.L., 2000. Applied Fluid Mechanics, Prentice Hall. Chanson, H., 1999. The hydraulics of open channel flow, Arnold.

Additional information Learning objective: The aim of the course is to enable the students to analyze and design: (i) pipes and pipe networks; (ii) open channels and open channel networks; and (iii) drainage canals. Course/workshop description: Review of relevant hydraulics; Pipe flow: friction losses, local head losses; flow over weirs and through orifices; Pipe networks (branched and looped networks): - H. Cross, Newton Raphson, linear method; and - (Cost) optimization; Pump curves, water hammer, negative possible suction head; Steady flow in open prismatic channels: - Concept of specific energy, uniform depth, critical depth; - Water surface profiles; - Upstream and downstream boundary conditions; and - Determination of water surface profiles; Erosion and sedimentation criteria; and design of stable (unlined) canals. Practical: The students are trained in: Measurement of pipe and orifice characteristics and experimental study of velocity measurement devices; Manual calculations (cfr. objectives); and Use of computer programmes for the design of: - Pipe systems (incl. optimization); and - Open channels.

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Surface water hydrology KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode I0746B 6 Basic (compulsory) course 165 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Undergraduate level mathematics, physics, fluid dynamics 1st year / 2nd semester Lecture notes Examination: the content of the examination (open book; written with oral continuation) includes all the topics that have been discussed by the lecturer and by the assistant (50%); individual reports of the exercises (50%). Chow, V.T., 1988. Applied hydrology. Mc. Graw Hill (ISBN 0-07010810-2). Bauwens, W, 1996. Surface hydrology (Lecture notes and solved exercises).

Complementary study material

Additional information Learning objective: The course provides the basic knowledge about the hydrologic cycle, the rainfall-runoff process and flood routing techniques. An introduction to hydrologic modelling is also provided. With this background, the students should be able to deal with the classical hydrologic design procedures. Moreover, these basics should allow them to understand the concepts used in more elaborate techniques and in integrated hydrologic models. Course/workshop description: Water and sustainability; The hydrologic cycle, runoff mechanisms and water balances; Rainfall data for hydrologic design (IDF relations, aerial rainfall, design storms,); Rainfall losses (interception, storage, infiltration, lumped loss models); The runoff concentration (surface routing, linear systems, unit hydrograph, reservoir models); Flood routing (hydraulic routing: equations of de Saint Venant; hydrologic river routing and reservoir routing); and Introduction to hydrologic modelling (use, types, characteristics and examples). Practical: A first series of exercises aims at the illustration of the course material through relatively simple problems, using pocket calculators or spreadsheet software. The exercises relate to the calculation of rainfall losses, the unit hydrograph, hydrologic routing and reservoir routing. During the second part of the exercise sessions, the students will be trained on similar problems; however, using real world hydrologic data and a software tool (WMS) that includes lumped hydrologic models and that uses GIS data for assessing the major basin characteristics.

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Groundwater hydrology KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode I0748B 6 Basic (compulsory) course 165 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Hydraulics, hydrology and notions of geology 1st year / 2nd semester Course notes The exam is open book. The students are tested on their insight in fundamental understanding of the theory and their ability to interpret and process information concerning groundwater occurrence and dynamics. The overall result is obtained as 1/2 on the exam, 1/3 on marks given for the exercises, and 1/6 for the homework assignment. A series of handbooks are available in the library.

Complementary study material Additional information

Learning objective: The goal of this course is to give the student a fundamental understanding of the principles and practical applications of groundwater occurrence and behaviour, such that the student will be able to interpret observations in a correct way, calculate and predict groundwater amounts and movement, design groundwater abstraction installations, determine the groundwater quality and possible pollution, and in general be able to manage groundwater in a safe and sustainable way. The theoretical principles of groundwater hydrology are thought in class by means of classical lectures, divided into 7 chapters covering the major subjects of the course, with emphasis on the fundamental physical and mathematical foundations. The practical applications consist of 7 exercise sessions corresponding to the different chapters of the course. The exercise are intended to reflect real world problems that students might encounter in their later professional career, and which will enable to reflect on the applicability, usefulness and reliability of the theoretical principles. The assignment is intended to bring students into contact with worldwide groundwater problems, practical applications and scientific developments, and to increase their awareness of groundwater vulnerability and sustainability in relation to human impact. Course/workshop description: Fundamentals: groundwater and the hydrologic cycle, occurrence of underground water, basic properties of ground bearing layers: porosity, water content, groundwater potential, flux and velocity, Darcy's law, measurement techniques for groundwater potential and conductivity; Natural groundwater flow: hydro-geological classification of ground layers, aquifer types, groundwater flow systems, unsaturated zone, saturated groundwater flow and storage in artesian and phreatic aquifers and in aquitards, the hydraulic groundwater flow approach and the flow net theory; Groundwater flow equations and useful solutions: mass balance equation, general groundwater flow equation in three dimensions and boundary conditions, hydrostatics, unsaturated flow, saturated flow and water table boundary conditions, the horizontal flow approach, Dupuit equation; Groundwater abstraction techniques: advantages of groundwater use, abstraction techniques: wells and galleries, principles of well flow: drawdown, cone of depression, radius of influence, maximum and specific capacity, interference between wells and aquifer boundaries, design of well fields, safe yield and groundwater management; Pumping test analysis: practical aspects of pumping tests, analysis of pumping test in confined aquifers by the Theis and Jacob method, analysis of pumping test in semiconfined aquifers by the Hantush method, analysis of pumping test in phreatic aquifers by the Theis and Neuman method, analysis of pumping test in fractured rocks, analyses of recovery tests;

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Groundwater modelling: basics of finite difference techniques, finite difference solution for aquifer flow, basics of finite element techniques, finite element solution for aquifer flow, introduction to well known groundwater flow models; and Groundwater chemistry: groundwater chemical constituents and main processes, oxygen status and organic matter decay in unsaturated and saturated groundwater layers, mineral dissolution and ion evolution cycle, groundwater isotopes, groundwater pollution sources and major pollutants, measurement techniques and interpretation and classification of water types, groundwater quality assessment and protection techniques.

Practical: Laboratory and fields measurement techniques: determination of porosity, water content, density, hydraulic conductivity and permeability of soil samples, field measurement techniques for determining hydraulic conductivity: interpretation of slug tests in auger holes and piezometers; Flow net analyses using piezometric data and field reconnaissance for hydro-geological mapping and interpretation; Analyses of groundwater flow and balance in confined and phreatic aquifers using piezometric readings and solutions of groundwater flow equations; Analyses and interpretation of drawdown around pumping wells and influence of well interference, aquifer boundaries, and induced recharge by rivers; Design of groundwater sustainable pumping wells and well fields; Analyses of pumping test experiments: application of graphical techniques for the Theis and Jacob methods, graphical interpretation technique for a recovery test; and Interpretation of groundwater chemical data: representation in Stiff and Piper diagrams, classification of water types and identification of chemical evolution, estimates of pollution spreading.

Assignment: Literature and internet search and review of a well known groundwater problem as for instance the Woburn groundwater pollution case; the students are asked to prepare a term paper of about 10 pages which will be graded.

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Water quality assessment, monitoring and treatment KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material Additional information I0787B 6 Basic (compulsory) course 165 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment General courses on physics and chemistry 1st year / 2nd semester Lecture notes (based on a compilation of books and publications on the subject) Oral examination (1/3) with presentation of a study report (2/3) Various books and scientific publications either from the lecturer or from EU-funded research projects, legislative texts. The lecture notes should contain sufficient information to help the students for their assignments.

Learning objective: Water quality must be understood by the students primarily as an "indefinite" characteristic of water (vs. quantity which is definite). The many sources of pollution (of anthropogenic nature) and deterioration of water quality due to natural causes, and the unlimited water quality variables, must be recognized in an integrated approach. This concerns the need for screening and/or modelling tools, allowing for further detailed analysis if and when needed, e.g. with respect to treatment processes and regulation measures on the short- and longterm. The distinction between water quality standards linked to environmental considerations and standards linked to water uses is being stressed in the light of existing water policies such as the EU Water Framework Directive which will be used as an example of legislation integrating scientific and technological developments. Aspects of quality monitoring, including monitored parameters, measurement methods, and data quality assurance represent a key component of water quality assessment and will be described and discussed. Case studies concerning various types of waters (freshwater, coastal waters, estuarine waters, ground waters) will examine how the sources of pollution are being tackled and regulated. The selection and use of computer models for water quality will be introduced and students should understand the limitations of such models. Finally, basics of water and wastewater treatment processes and their limitations will be approached in the context of integrated river water management requirements. Assignments aim at elaborating, through literature search, a more advanced study topic according to the interest of the student and his/her background (focusing in particular on integrated water resources management issues). Invited lecturers will introduce topics of broad interest, such as economic or agricultural aspects linked to water quality assessment, or the EU Water Initiative. Course/workshop description: The course aims to provide an introduction to water quality assessment and integrated water resources management (IWRM), including water treatment aspects. The following subjects will be considered: Definition(s) of water quality; Types and sources of pollution; Physical/chemical and biological/bacteriological water characteristics and physicochemical processes; Integrated river basin management concepts; Introduction on the selection and use of computer models for river water quality. Water legislation; Risk assessment of anthropogenic pressures and impacts; Water quality monitoring; Water clean-up and treatment; and Water quality research trends.

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The course will be concluded by a lecture by a visiting professor, and preparation of assignments. In addition, a short session will be devoted to communication tips in view of preparing the students workshop, and advice on scientific writing. Practical: Sampling/measurement experience at K.U.Leuven. Assignment: Students will have to write a report on a case study (about 10 pages) and present a short PowerPoint presentation (10 min) on a chosen or assigned topic related to the course content and based on a literature search, using a real case as an example. The presentations will be held in the framework of a students workshop organised at the end of the course. Examples of topics: pollution risk assessment, monitoring strategy, clean-up measures, IWRM in students home country, drafting of research proposal, etc.

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Hydrological measurements and remote sensing KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material I0Q59A 6 Workshop 180 hrs 120 hrs Basic knowledge of hydraulics 1st year / 2nd semester Lecture notes Quotation of the field and laboratory exercises report.

Additional information

Herschy, R. W., 1984. Streamflow measurement. E&FN Spon. Herschy, R. W., 1987. Hydrometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Schultz, G. A. and E. T. Engman, eds., 2000. Remote sensing in hydrology and water management. Springer Verlag. Part A of the workshop consists of 3 x 3 hours of theoretical introduction and 2 full day sessions of practical training: 1 day laboratory measurements and 1 day field exercises. Part B consists of lectures and computer sessions.

Learning objective: The overall goal of this workshop is to familiarize students with different direct and indirect measurement methods and techniques for hydrometric, hydrological and geographical data acquisition. As data is a first requirement for all matters, this workshop meets the fundamental learning objectives of the programme. The workshop is therefore instrumental in support of general objectives of the programme such as: (1) the modelling of process and water systems, (2) planning, budgeting and exploitation of water systems, (3) evaluation, optimization and management of water systems, and (4) impact analyses and decision support systems. The objective of introducing different measurement techniques, including remote observations, of surface, soil and groundwater conditions should equip the student with a set of measurement/analysis techniques, which can be applied to different water resources problems. The practical learning objective at the end of the course is that he/she independently is able to select and set-up measurements for a water resources problem. A further objective of the course is the built-up of a framework of notions and understanding for the student of the diverse field and remote sensing technologies and systems in order that he/she will be able to communicate with experts in this field and can follow new trends in measurement techniques. Course/workshop description: Part A: Hydrometry The aim of Part A is to get the students acquainted with different devices and techniques for flow, velocity, pressure, water level and sediment transport, measurements in pipes, open channels, rivers and laboratory. The following subjects are explained: (L = laboratory exercise; F = Field exercise) The need for data; Water-level determination (L & F): - Importance - datum plane; and - Instruments for water-level determination (direct stage read off gauges, recording limnimeters, pressure and ultrasonic devices). Water depth and bottom-level (mechanical and electronic devices, practical stage and depth measurements) (F); Flow velocity measurement: - Surface velocity (F); - Velocity in a single point (propeller type current meter (F), Pitot-tube (L), electromagnetic current meter (L), hot wire/hot film anemometer, laser Doppler anemometer, acoustic - ultrasonic - velocity meter (L)); and - Mean velocity (salt screen (Allan's method), floats, etc.) (F).

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Measuring discharges: - Single measurement [methods based on the measurement of volume and time (L&F), volumetric and chemical methods (F), methods based on the measurement of the main velocity, methods based on the integration of the velocity field over the cross section (F)]; - Continuous discharge measurements [gauging stations with limnimeters (L&F), ultrasonic methods, electromagnetic methods (L)]; and - Discharge measurements in laboratory (L). Sediment transport measurements: - Bed load samplers (trap sampling, bed form tracking) (L&F); - Suspended load samplers (classification of sampler, point-integrating concentration measurements (bottle and trap samplers, pump-samplers, optical and acoustical sampling methods), point-integrating discharge measurements, depth-integrating concentration measurement) (L&F); and - Computation of sediment transport and presentation of results (rivers, estuaries).

Part B: Remote sensing in water resources engineering Part B intends to give the state of the art of earth observation techniques and image processing methods, applied to water resources engineering problems. Students acquisition of practical skills is promoted by computer exercises in remote sensing processing techniques with a remote sensing software package. Introduction to remote sensing: physical principles of earth observation, energy sources, radiation principles, energy interactions, data acquisition and interpretation; Remote sensing scanning techniques: optical spectrum, multispectral, thermal, and hyperspectral; Microwave remote sensing: physics, platforms, sensors, image processing and interpretation; Present and future observation platforms, sensors and their characteristics; Digital image processing: rectification, restoration, enhancement, multi-image manipulation; and Image classification and post processing: image interpretation, unsupervised, supervised classification, accuracy analysis, data merging. Case studies of practical remote sensing use in water resources engineering are presented. Future possibilities and impact of remote sensing techniques are discussed. Practical introduction and hands-on exercises are given with the IDRISI remote sensing analysis package. Exercises include: Image exploration, Supervised classification, Principal Components Analysis, and Unsupervised classification. The course includes an individual project in remote sensing related to the background, field of interest of the student and/or the next year thesis topic.

Programme brochure / page 28

11.2.

Description of the 2nd year courses

Systems approach to water management KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material Additional information I0874A 5 Advanced (compulsory) course 150 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Advanced mathematics for water engineering, statistics for water engineering 2nd year / 1st semester The assessment will be based on the evaluation of the individual reports and on the presentation of the project results

Learning objective: This course aims to give general knowledge and understanding of generalized techniques used in mathematical modelling to support the model calibration, the model validation, the parameter calibration, the model uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, etc. All modelling oriented optional courses of the 2nd year will make use of these techniques. Also a discussion is given of different types of models and modelling procedures and on the linking of various types of models in integrated water and river basin management. The course thus forms the technical glue between the different modelling courses. A last block of techniques discussed are techniques for decision support on how model results can be processed, summarized and applied on the basis of various types of water management decisions. Course/workshop description: Different modelling approaches: detailed versus simplified modelling, physically-based versus conceptual and empirical models; Model type selection (incl. complementary use of detailed and simplified models, required space and time scales, different modelling concepts); Linking of (sub)models at different complexity level; Numerical modelling: basic conservation equations, numerical techniques (refresher from Advanced mathematics course in the 1st year), time and space discretisation, solution schemes, stability, convergence; Model parameter calibration, model validation; Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, risk-based analysis and design; Use of model results for decision support: multi criteria analysis, cost-benefit analysis, consideration of boundary conditions, etc.; The role of modelling in decision support systems: simulation strategies; Introduction to expert systems and genetic algorithms; Optimal control theory; and Basics of neural network modelling. Practical: The exercises of the course are directly applied to the Integrated Projects (IPs) in the 2nd year. Examples of exercises and links to the IPs are given hereafter: Model linking: applied in the Humid IP to link a hydrological catchment model, an urban drainage system, a WWTP, and a river; Model calibration and validation: applied to all models considered in the IPs; Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis (Link with the Statistics for water engineering course in the 1st year): applied in the Humid IP to the hydrological catchment model results; Risk-based analysis and design: applied in the Humid IP - based on the results of the uncertainty analysis - to the probabilistic design of a dike;

Programme brochure / page 29

Optimal control: applied in the Humid IP to the optimization of hydraulic control and sizing and operation to detention storage (e.g. applied to hydraulic structures implementation in the River modelling course, or storage sedimentation tank design in the Urban hydrology and hydraulics course); Optimal control: applied in the Semi-arid IP to the optimization of reservoir operation (e.g. multipurpose reservoirs, hydropower systems), incl. stochastic operating rules; and Optimal control: applied in the Semi-arid IP to cropping patterns and intra-seasonal allocation of supplemental irrigation.

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Social, political, institutional, economic and environmental aspects KUL-code Integration of Social, political and institutional aspects of water engineering (I0792a), Economic analysis of water resources projects (I0997a) & Environmental impact assessment (I0793a) 5 Advanced (compulsory) course 150 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment 2nd year / 1st semester The assessment will be based on the evaluation of the individual reports and on the presentation of the project results. Gittinger, J. P., 1982. Economic Analysis of Agricultural Projects, 2nd Edition, EDI Series in Economic Development, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. The exercises of the course are directly applied to the Integrated Projects (IPs) in the 2nd year

ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material Additional information

Learning objective: The course consists of 3 parts, respectively Part A: Social, political and institutional aspects; Part B: Economic analysis of water resources projects; and Part C: Environmental impact assessment studies related to water resource projects. The aim of Part A is to make the students better aware about the variety of problems and issues related to the social, political and institutional aspects of water resources development projects and water resources management. The objective of part B is to familiarize students with the economic and financial concepts and methods in project evaluation. With the course, they will be able to do such an evaluation themselves, except determining shadow prices of resources, which an economist must do. They will also be able to fully understand the results (criteria) of such project evaluation. The aim of Part C is to learn the students: How to make an elementary environmental analysis of a project proposal, in order to determine wether or not a more complete environmental evaluation is needed; In the case a more complete evaluation is needed, how to determine its scope and contents in order to be able to give precise instructions to the specialists responsible for the final EIA; How to evaluate the general value, the correctness and the completeness of an EIA that has been made by those specialists; How to identify possible mitigating measures for reducing the negative environmental impacts of water resources projects; and How to integrate the conclusions of an EIA in the final decisions about a project proposal. Course/workshop description: Part A: Social, Political and Institutional Aspects of Water Engineering Part A of the course starts with a general presentation of water engineering projects, showing various examples of water engineering and management (river, lake and reservoirs, works and management in relation with droughts and floods, hydropower, agriculture, navigation, etc). Preparation, TOR, funding and management of the projects will be discussed, emphasising the role of the different stakeholders, funding organisms and consultancy companies. Notions of water engineering, water management, development projects will be clarified, showing why and how projects are set up, on whos initiative. This part of the course is based on the lecturers experience in a large variety of water resources projects, showing how, why and when the approach to these aspects has succeeded or failed. It aims at developing the consciousness of the students about the role of the various actors in relation to water resources systems development and management. It also aims at showing how politics - from international to the very local scale - may affect the so much needed sustainable, integrated water resources management, and the implementation of water resources development projects. It should make the students aware of the social implications

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of water resources engineering projects, either the direct or the indirect ones, eventually through an environmental impact. It is important for the student to realise that it is not possible to dissociate the various aspects: social, political, socio-economic, and institutional. In Part A of the course the following material is covered: Definitions: What is a water resource (WR)? How to define a WR system on which to work/engineer (description, limits)? What do we call engineering, management, development? The accent is put on the way each society is having its own view, its own approach, depending on the 3 factors: availability of water resources, of financial resources and awareness about the water issue; Presentation by the lecturer and discussion of some results, conclusions and recommendations by international organisations (Mar del Plata 1977, Rio de Janeiro 1991, 1991 WMO-UNESCO report on Water Resources Assessment Activities, EU-SAST 6 - 1992, etc.); Presentation and discussion by the lecturer of case studies in Asia, Africa and South America. These cover a large variety of situations, such as lakes, coastal areas, large and small rivers, master plan studies, floods and droughts, fluvial problems, water development, irrigation schemes, conjunctive use projects, etc. Special attention is paid to aspects such as correct problem definition, setting up relevant Terms of Reference, multidisciplinary approach. For this part, illustrations are given with slides, photographs and video, among which After the Floods (BBC Horizon); and Each student will have to prepare a presentation of a project or a case study, preferably one in which she/he was actively involved. Presentations are short (10 minutes), followed by a 5 minutes discussion and a confrontation within the group. A panel session is organised at the end, if time allows. Sufficient time is allowed for the preparation of the students presentations. Part B: Economic Analysis of Water Resources Projects General principles of project evaluation, including economic and financial analysis, shadow pricing, discounting and undiscounted measures of project worth; Nature of costs and benefits in water resources projects; Techniques of comparing costs and benefits: benefit-cost ratio, present net worth, internal rate of return and net benefit-investment ratio; Sensitivity analysis and treatment of uncertainty, including inflation; Farm accounts as the basis for preparing farm plans, making financial projections, and aggregation to project level; Applications to water resources projects; and Manual exercises and case studies.

Part C: Environmental Impact Assessment of Water Resources Projects The aim of this section of the course is to provide information and training on procedures to be followed when assessing the environmental impacts of water resources projects, especially in the third world. Its final aim is that the students should be able to do themselves the environmental screening and scoping of a project proposal, to propose mitigating measures for it and to determine the contents of a complete EIA, meeting internationally accepted standards. They should also be capable of making a correct judgment on the value of an EIA: Principles, structure and contents of an EIA: general principles, comparison of the different kinds of procedures; Environmental screening of projects: aim and typology of screening procedures (lists of project types, check-lists, combinations of both), examples, documentation (procedures of several organizations, with special emphasis on the computer-assisted screening developed in the framework of IUPWARE); Scoping of projects: identification of data, analysis of the proposed action, search for possible alternatives, techniques to identify the relations between the proposed action and the expected environmental impacts (check-lists, matrices, networks), identification of the significant impacts (use of criteria and standards), determination of the contents (items to analyse and techniques to use) of the complete EIA; Overview of the most common negative environmental impacts of water resources projects and some corresponding mitigating measures;

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More detailed analysis of the environmental hazards of water resources projects to human health; Practical training, making an environmental analysis of two projects, one in an early planning phase and another in an advanced planning phase.

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Surface water hydrological modelling KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material I0868A 5 Optional workshop 150 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Surface hydrology, water quality assessment, monitoring and treatment, Hydrologic data processing and GIS, irrigation agronomy 2nd year / 1st semester Lecture notes The assessment will be based on the evaluation of the individual reports and on the presentation of the project results Rules for responsible modelling, Computational Hydraulics. Di Luzio et al., 2002. SWAT Arcview GIS Interface Manual. Blackland Research & Extension Center & Grassland, Soil & Water Research Laboratory, USDA. Neitsch et al., 2002. SWAT Theoretical documentation. Blackland Research & Extension Center & Grassland, Soil & Water Research Laboratory, USDA. Neitsch et al., 2002. SWAT User Manual. Blackland Research & Extension Center & Grassland, Soil & Water Research Laboratory, USDA. WMS Tutorial Manual, Scientific Software Group. HEC1 Manual, Scientific Software Group.

Additional information Learning objective: The aim of the workshop is to familiarize students with the problems associated to the building, the calibration and the use of hydrologic models for scenario analysis, including aspects of water quantity, erosion and sediment transport. Additional aims are the fostering of the self-learning capacities of the students, training on multidisciplinary group work, on the search for information (including the use of the website), on the editing of scientific reports and on the presentation of research results. Course/workshop description: Responsible modelling: - Spatial and temporal discretisation in hydrological modelling. Overview of different types of hydrological models and surface water catchment models; - Data availability and data assessment; and - Relation between model characteristics and design problems. Introduction to SWAT: - Water quantity processes; - Erosion and sediment transport; - Diffuse pollution wash-off; and - In stream oxygen and nutrient processes. Introduction to WMS and HEC1. Practical: Practical exercises are linked with the integrated project and consist for the humid and semiarid climate case study in the building and calibration of a SWAT model, and the application of the model for scenario analysis.

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Groundwater modelling KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material Additional information I0864A 5 Optional workshop 150 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Groundwater hydrology, and advanced mathematics for water engineering 2nd year / 1st semester Course notes are available The assessment will be based on the evaluation of the individual reports and on the presentation of the project results. Anderson, M.P. and W.W. Woesner, 1992. Applied groundwater modelling: Simulation of flow and advective transport. Academic Press, 381 pages. The case studies are linked to the Integrated Project, so that the results of the simulations can be transposed and further developed if necessary.

Learning objective: The goal of the course is to teach the students how to use professional software for simulation and prediction of groundwater flow and pollutant transport, so that they are able to analyse and solve groundwater problems that they will encounter in their professional career. In addition, the students should be able to transform the field data into model inputs, estimate or approximate missing data, select appropriate modelling tools, set up a numerical model, select appropriate boundary conditions, solve problems numerically, analyse convergence and stability criteria, interpret modelling results in a correct way, and present results by means of a professional report and oral presentation. Course/workshop description: Introduction to groundwater modelling mathematics, basic parameters and variables, continuity equation, momentum equation, flow equations for different conditions, boundary conditions, approximate groundwater flow equations; Numerical techniques for groundwater modelling: steady and transient flow, numerical approximation of boundary conditions, matrix inversion techniques and iterative solvers, linear and non-linear problems, stability and convergence criteria; Numerical techniques for groundwater pollution modelling: numerical approximation of transport and dispersion for simulation of groundwater pollution, boundary conditions, flow tracking, numerical solvers, stability and convergence criteria, influence of sorption and decay processes; Hands-on computer introduction to the MODFLOW model: grid design, input of aquifer characteristics and boundary conditions, choice of solvers and stopping criteria, output facilities and graphical representation of results; Hands-on computer introduction to MT3D: input of pollutant transport parameters and boundary conditions, choice of solvers and stopping criteria, output facilities and graphical representation of results, modelling of techniques for pollution containment and remediation; Introduction to the case studies; Students are divided into groups of maximum 3 persons to analyse a case study, and to prepare a report and presentation. The assignments and goals of each group are defined; and Preparation of the reports, presentation in class and discussion of results.

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River modelling KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material Additional information Integration of Engineering hydraulics (I0870A) & Hydraulic modelling (partly) (HOF40A) 5 Optional workshop 150 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Advanced mathematics for water engineering, hydraulics surface water hydrology, and water quality assessment, monitoring and treatment 2nd year / 1st semester Lecture notes and copies of slides The assessment will be based on the evaluation of the individual reports and on the presentation of project results.

Linked with the course Surface water modelling: the hydrological model results will be used as input for the hydrodynamic river model during practical sessions. Linked with the course Statistics for water engineering for the flood frequency analysis.

Learning objective: An overview is given in the course of issues related to river modelling, as a core subject in the field of hydraulics, covering at the same time contemporary approaches to modelling as well as new developments. The use of computer models will be learned as a basic skill for water engineers engaged in river studies. This will be done on the basis of a modelling tool such as MIKE11, which is routinely used for river modelling. Flood risk management, floodplain studies and design of flood defence works rely heavily on these tools. River modelling is also of great benefit to managers and planners dealing with water quality, water resources and environmental impacts on the water environment. While the main emphasis is on computational modelling, hydraulic scale modelling is also covered. Valuable insight is furthermore given in the design and operation of hydraulic structures, in flood wave propagation and river flooding, in the tidal influences, and in sediment transport. The course considers different types of models used in the current practice, with emphasis on their limitations and the range of useful applications. Hands-on exercises are given linked with the Integrated Projects (humid and semi-arid case studies), where common difficulties in model use are covered, thus building up the modelling skills, at the same time deepening the physical knowledge and insight in hydraulic engineering problems. Course/workshop description: Overview of different types of open channel or river models and fields of application (1D, 2D, 3D); Application of a full hydrodynamic model (water surface profile computations under unsteady flow conditions, flood wave propagation); Implementation of hydraulic structures (weirs, spillways, control and regulating structures, sluices, bridges, dikes, culverts, etc.); Implementation of floodplains (full 2D, quasi 2D, use of DEM); Simplified modelling: theory of kinematic wave, reservoir routing, etc.; Solution schemes: theory of explicit versus implicit schemes, finite differences, method of characteristics; Tidal influences; Sediment transport: riverbed processes, channel stabilization, and dredging; and Principles of hydraulic similitude (theory of physical models, dimensional analysis).

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Practical: Practical sessions of the course are linked with the integrated project (humid and semi-arid case studies), and include use of a full hydrodynamic modelling system (MIKE11), i.e.: Flow simulation for a selected river stretch: - Using input from a conceptual rainfall-runoff model (link with the course Surface Water Hydrological Modelling) for a historical simulation period; and - Using design hydrographs (for given return periods). Implementation of a floodplain along the selected river stretch + creation of a flood map + validation with a historical map; and Scenario-run: analysis of the influence of hydraulic structures (change in regulation on the flood modelling results).

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Urban hydrology and hydraulics KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material Additional information New course partly based on Hydraulic modelling (H0F40A) 5 Optional workshop 150 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Advanced mathematics for water engineering, hydraulics, and water quality assessment, monitoring and treatment 2nd year / 1st semester Lecture notes and copies of slides The assessment will be based on the evaluation of the individual reports and on the presentation of the project results.

The course is linked to the course on River modelling and the Integrated Project. The impact of an urban drainage system (combined sewer overflow) on the receiving river can be considered as an application of water quality impact modelling and assessment.

Learning objective: The primary objective is the demonstration and understanding of the fundamental concepts and processes associated with the hydraulic and water quality design, operation and performance aspects of urban drainage systems. Modelling tools will be used to support the design of urban drainage systems (incl. pumping stations, overflows, and other flow regulating structures). The tools will also be used to develop understanding in current urban pollution problems, and to identify mitigation/rehabilitation measures. In this way, the students will gain a sound understanding of the modelling tools, which can be used to aid decision-making in urban pollution management, and will get experience in the use of modelling tools through applications within the Integrated Project case studies. Course/workshop description: Application of a full hydrodynamic model for pressurized systems; Design of sewer systems (diameter, layout, self-cleansing, overflow), using design storms; Design of pumping stations and implementation in a hydrodynamic model; Combined versus separate systems (design criteria); Source control (possibilities, design); Calculation of storage-throughflow relationships; and Combined sewer overflows (CSOs), conceptual emission modelling. Practical: Practical exercises which are linked with the case studies in the Integrated Projects aim at providing hands-on of a full hydrodynamic sewer modelling system (Hydroworks) and consist of: Flow simulation for a given full hydrodynamic sewer model, using given historical rainfall and design storms; Design of selected sewer pipes and a pumping station, using design storm simulations; Calibration of a conceptual sewer model (calibration of storage-throughflow relation and advection-dispersion implementation); including the simulation of long-term historical rainfall series, frequency analysis on CSO volumes and sediment concentrations; and Scenario-run: implementation of a storage sedimentation tank, and its impact on the CSO volumes and sediment concentrations.

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Soil water modelling KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material New course 5 Optional workshop 150 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Advanced mathematics in water engineering, irrigation agronomy and groundwater hydrology 2nd year / 1st semester Lecture notes The assessment will be based on the evaluation of the individual reports and on the presentation of the project results Novoty, V. and H. Olen, 1994. Water quality: Prevention, identification and management of diffuse pollution. Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY, 1054 pages. Schnoor, J. L., 1996. Environmental modelling, fate and transport of pollutants in water, air and soil. Wiley-InterScience Inc., 682 pages. Stephens, D. S., 1995. Vadose zone hydrology. Lewis Publishers: 368 pages.

Additional information Learning objective: This workshop provides the theoretical and practical basis for understanding and quantifying the hydro-physical properties of variably saturated soils. The impact of irrigation and drainage, in relation to farming can be better controlled given a good understanding of the soil physical and chemical processes and using appropriate numerical models. More specifically water and energy exchange and associated transport processes in partially-saturated porous media at multiple scales are studied. As required for irrigation and drainage applications the coupling with the atmosphere and the role of plants in the hydrological cycle is covered. Attention is given to modern measurement methods for data-collection in the unsaturated zone and parameter estimation required in numerical/analytical models. Furthermore, attention is given to the transport and fate of chemicals in the variably saturated zone between the surface and the top of the underlying aquifer system. It is expected that a successful student at the end of this workshop can collect relevant data, use conceptual and practical tools, like numerical and conceptual soil water quantity and quality models, in order to solve irrigation and drainage problems with associated environmental issues like agrochemical and pollutant transport in soils. Course/workshop description: Physics of water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated or vadoze zone (physical concepts for soil water models): - Basic concepts and theory of variably-saturated flow (steady and transient) and conservative and reactive chemical transport; - Basic concepts and theory of colloid and microorganism transport; - Soil-water budget, flow partitioning, root uptake, and atmospheric feedback, coupling of soil models to crop models, preferential flow and transport in structured medium; and - As numerical tool for solving transport problems the HYDRUS model is introduced. The model is applied to simple cases of water and solute transport like infiltration, soil water balance with simple boundary conditions. Simple quantitative biochemical reaction kinetics for soil models (fate of agrochemicals and pollutants in soils): - Rate expressions for chemical reactions, temperature influence and reaction order; - Michaelis-Menten kinetics, consecutive reaction chains; - Adsorption, precipitation and dissolution; - Redox reactions; and - Examples: modelling of the salt, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphate balance in soils, the decay of pesticides, and the mobility of arsenic influenced by redox reactions.

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Characterization of transport properties, monitoring water and pollutants in the soil (techniques for data collection and determination of soil parameters): - Characterization of local-scale unsaturated hydraulic and mass transport properties: experimental techniques, mathematical functions, inverse modelling for determining water and solute transport properties using the HYDRUS-1D and -2D model; - Hysteresis, anisotropy, and temperature effects on the hydraulic properties; - Characterizing spatial heterogeneity of hydraulic and transport properties: geostatistical tools, scaling techniques, pedotransfer functions; - Measurement of water content, tracers, soil water monitoring strategies for irrigation and drainage applications; and - Electromagnetic methods (like TDR) for the measurement of water and electrical conductivity in soils and for monitoring the pore liquid/solute concentration.

Practical: The practical sessions consist of the application of models simulating the transfer of water and agro-chemicals in irrigated and drained fields. Likely applications are the distribution of water under emitters in drip irrigation systems using the HYDRUS-2D model; the harvesting of surface runoff water and the interaction with the soil water in the unsaturated zone using the PARCHED-THIRST model; and the analysis of the water, nitrogen and salt balance of drained fields under rainfed and irrigated conditions using the DRAINMOD model.

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Irrigation design and management KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material Integration of irrigation engineering and technology I0C03A) & Planning, operation and management of irrigation systems (I0717A) Optional workshop 150 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Irrigation agronomy, hydraulics and social, political, institutional, economic and environmental aspects 2nd year / 1st semester Lecture notes The assessment will be based on the evaluation of the individual reports and on the presentation of the project results. Articles from peer reviewed journals. Reference manuals and Installation disks for the required software are made available on the web. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Papers (# 26, 33 and 56).

Additional information Learning objective: While the design and construction of irrigation schemes receive considerable attention and is generally carried out with great care, little attention is paid to the proper operation and maintenance of schemes. Low efficiencies are more often related to lack of technical knowledge among the people operating the system and man-management issues than to technical deficiencies in the system. The chief objective of the workshop is to provide techniques, calculation procedures and software packages which are helpful for the proper design, operation and management of irrigation schemes, and this for conditions of unlimited and limited water supply. A proper operation can, given the constraints of the physical infrastructure, results in a saving of considerable volumes of irrigation water and an overall improvement of the performance and water productivity of the system (more crops per drop). The students will also be exposed to the design and operation of water distribution networks, the structures to control and manage the water distribution, and the monitoring of the water distribution. The workshop consists of two parts; Part A focuses on the design of irrigation systems at individual field level, and Part B on the operation and management of entire irrigation schemes. On completion candidates should have an advanced understanding of irrigation design, canal operation principles and operation; be able to formulate operational plans for large irrigation networks; be able to determine the cost of irrigation and drainage services and formulate appropriate pricing policy. Course/workshop description: Part A: Design of field irrigation systems Field design of irrigation systems: - Design and modelling of surface irrigation systems (basin, border and furrow) ; - Design of sprinkler irrigation systems (hand-move, mechanical systems, center pivots, linear-move irrigation systems, LEPA irrigation and precision irrigation developments); and - Design of micro-irrigation systems (surface drip and sub-surface drip systems; control and automation devices in micro-irrigation systems). Monitoring of the irrigation performance at the field level (indicators, assessment of the design performance of surface and pressurized systems. Design and modelling of subsurface drainage systems (steady and unsteady equations/criteria for groundwater table and salinity control and as sub-irrigation system).

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Part B: Planning, operation and management of irrigation schemes Planning the operation, i.e. preparation of Irrigation Plans to match supply with demand as closely as possible for different type of irrigation schemes. Development of an irrigation plan that provides information to the irrigation supervisor for various weather conditions: - Development of an irrigation plan for a multi-crop system; - Development of an irrigation plan for a rice scheme; and - Design of the rotational delivery of irrigation water in block of fields. Operation of irrigation systems with focus on the efficient distribution of irrigation water supplies: - Required hydraulic infrastructure to control the water flow in the canal network. Type, function and place of the hydraulic structures; and - Matching supply with demand in an irrigation scheme. Monitoring the water supply and performance of the system, consisting in the management and control of the water supply in the ongoing season and the planning and implementation in forthcoming seasons - At scheme level: Collecting information at short (ongoing season) and long (forthcoming seasons) term; and - At field level: Efficiency and uniformity performance indices.

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Advanced aquatic ecology KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material I0C05A 5 Optional workshop 150 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Basic knowledge of aquatic ecology and ecological concepts. 2nd year / 1st semester Lecture notes Quotation on a personal work and an oral exam with written preparation.

Lampert, W. and U. Sommer, 1997. Limnoecology: the ecology of lakes and streams. Oxford University Press. Gillman, M. and R. Hails, 1997. Introduction to ecological modelling: putting theory into practice. Blackwell Science. Moss, B., 1998. Ecology of fresh waters, man and medium: Past to future (3rd edition). Blackwell Science. Payne, A.I., 1986. The ecology of tropical lakes and rivers. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.

Additional information Learning objective: The workshop aims at providing the students an in-depth insight into central concepts and new developments in aquatic ecology, with emphasis on topics that are particularly relevant to tropical and subtropical systems. Building on a basic knowledge of the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems (e.g. course on Aquatic ecology), it is the purpose that the student obtains the necessary insight and skills to design monitoring and experimental studies in aquatic ecosystems. Concepts are introduced in such a way that they can be incorporated into models describing ecological relationships within aquatic ecosystems, such that their responses to perturbations and management practices can be evaluated. In doing this, much emphasis is also given to the design of field and experimental studies that are intended to collect the data and parameter values necessary to build realistic models. Course/workshop description: Ecological concepts: - Concepts in population biology: dynamics of competitive and predator-prey interactions (data, case studies and models), meta-population dynamics; - Patterns and dynamics of biodiversity; - Concepts in landscape ecology; - Concepts in evolutionary biology (e.g. life history evolution, dispersal in time and space, diapause strategies, uncertainty and bet-hedging). Tropical and subtropical aquatic biomes: - Tropical rivers and pseudo-terrestrial ecosystems; - Ephemeral pools; - Ancient lake biota; - Salt lakes and salt marshes. Applied issues: - Monitoring of water quality - Resistance, resilience, recovery; - Dynamics of overexploitation; - The introduction of exotic species; - Global change and large-scale impacts; - Lake management. Tools: - Strengths and weaknesses of the experimental approach, experimental design; - Modelling of ecological processes: descriptive and predictive modelling, parameter implementation, simulation exercises.

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Integrated project: humid case study KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material Additional information Learning objective: The main objective of the Integrated Project: Humid climate case study is to expose the students to the analysis and development of an integrated project and to obtain in this process technical expertise in (sub)-humid river basin modelling. The goal is to increase the students understanding of the web of interactions between the different technical and nontechnical relations in managing water resources on an integrated river basin scale. Guidance in the web of interactions will be the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), which plays a central role in learning to set up a fabric of technical and non-technical knowledge to support integrated water management. Course/workshop description: Students are introduced in the structure of the case study, the objectives and the way the project work will be assessed. The geographical, hydrological and water management characteristics of the catchment are made available to the students at the beginning of this workshop, and the need and requirements for an integrated river basin management plan are described. Elements that will be considered during the implementation of the integrated project are: The social, legal and environmental requirements for an integrated river management plan (an expert from the water authorities will provide the information concerning the creation of such a plan); The European Water Framework Directive and its requirements and consequences; Overview of the project team (students, lecturers) and database, the capacity, role and task of each participant; Overview of the importance and requirements for analysis and modelling within an integrated framework for the aspects: surface water, groundwater, river flow, urban water aspects, agricultural (irrigation and soil) water, aquatic ecology, and water quality; The schematic analysis of structure of web of water interactions; The layout and start-up of cooperative modelling of the web of water aspects; The discussion with catchment water managers and visit to the case study river basin; The integration of different modelling exercises; The integration of social, legal and systems approach to water management; The wrapping up of integration, reporting and joint formulation of conclusions; and The presentation of the integrated project and handing-in of a final report. New workshop, partly based on integrated project design (I0718A) 5 Compulsory workshop 150 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Courses of the 1st year 2nd year / 1st semester Lecture notes Group report and presentation with additional individual oral exam. Web-based learning environment, guidance documents on the implementation of the water framework directive (general and for the catchment), report on database for sub-humid catchment.

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Integrated project: semi-arid case study KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material Additional information Learning objective: The main objective of the Integrated Project: Semi-arid climate case study is to expose the students to the execution of an integrated project and to obtain in this process technical expertise in (semi)-arid river basin modelling. The goal is to increase the students understanding of the web of interactions between the different technical and non-technical relations in managing water resources on an integrated river basin scale. An important aspect will be the integration of irrigation systems management into the overall basin management. Course/workshop description: Description of the concept of the Integrated Project: Semi-arid climate case study. The structure of the project is given, the objectives and the way of assessment. An introduction to the geographical, hydrological and water management characteristics of the catchment is given. The need and requirements for an integrated river basin management plan are described; Social, legal and environmental requirements for an integrated river management plan are given. An expert from the water authorities will provide the information concerning the creation of such a plan for the semi-arid river basin; An overview is made of the project team (students, lecturers) and database, the capacity, role and task of each participant; An overview is given of the importance and requirements for analysis and modelling within an integrated framework for the aspects: surface water, groundwater, river flow, urban water aspects, agricultural (irrigation and soil) water, aquatic ecology, and water quality; Schematic analysis of structure of web of water interactions; Layout and start-up of cooperative modelling of the web of water aspects by group work; Discussion and integration of different modelling exercises; Integration of social, legal and systems approach to water management; Wrapping up of integration, reporting and joint formulation of conclusions; and Presentation of integrated project and handing-in of a final report. New workshop, partly based on Integrated project design (I0718A) 5 Compulsory workshop 150 hrs 30 hrs of theory / 30 hrs of practical / 30 hrs of assignment Courses of the 1st year 2nd year / 1st semester Lecture notes Group report and presentation with additional individual oral exam. Web-based learning environment, guidance documents on the implementation of the water framework directive (general and for the catchment), report on database for semi-arid catchment.

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Thesis research project KUL-code ECTS-credit Type Study load Contact hours Prerequisites Time Course material Assessment mode Complementary study material Additional information I0729A 30 Research project, including the writing of a dissertation

2nd year / 2nd semester Quotation on submitted thesis and oral presentation.

Thesis research project is conducted under the supervision of a promoter, and normally is related to ongoing research within the research unit the promoter/advisor is affiliated. Instructions on how to write the dissertation are available on the following website: www.iupware.be

Learning objective: The main goal of the thesis project is to give the students an initiation in the conduction of a small-size research project, to oblige the students in conducting an extensive review of related literature, to analyze data and/or to collect data, to process and interpret data, and to summarize the objectives, methods, materials, results and discussions into a dissertation. All students will be subjected to the process of conducting a research project and writing a dissertation. Students are able to choose from an extensive list of topics related to fields of expertise covered by the lecturing staff and the researchers associated to the research units supporting the programme. Students can also choose a research topic related to problems in their home country.

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Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 3001 Heverlee Tel: +32-16-32 17 44 Fax: +32-116-32 19 56 E-mail: greta.camps@biw.kuleuven.be

Vrije Universiteit Brussel


Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel Tel: +32-2-629 30 21 Fax: +32-2-629 30 22 E-mail: hydr@vub.ac.be

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