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RAW and Bangladesh

Mohammad Zainal Abedin

Contents
Preface Chapter - 1: Koutillaya, Raw And Indian Foreign Policy Chapter - 2: Organisation of Raw Chapter - 3: Raw's Handlers, Agents and Operations Chapter - 4: Raw's Objectives Chapter - 5: The Partition of Bengal: Truth and Fallacy Chapter - 6: Attack on Existence, Ideology and Culture of Bangladesh Chapter - 7: Taslima Nasreen Chapter - 8: Bangladeshi Nationalism Versus Bengalee Nationalism Chapter - 9: Cultural Aggression Chapter -10: Bangla Academy Chapter -11: Shilpakala Academy Chapter -12: Raw Targets Bangladshi Youth Chapter -13: Economic Exploitation Chapter -14: Mineral Resources Chapter -15: Garment Industry Chapter -16: Fisheries Chapter -17: BTV and Radio Bangladesh Chapter - 18: Newspapers Chapter -19: Books and Publications Chapter - 20: Farakka Barrage Chapter - 21: 04 08 12 13 15 19 21 27 30 34 36 39 40 44 49 53 58 62 67 70 75 86 2

Chapter - 22: Shanti Bahini Chapter - 23: Bangabhumi Chapter - 24: Mohajir Sangha Chapter - 25: Push Back Chapter - 26: Hindu Organizations Chapter - 27: Armed Forces Chapter - 28: Campus Violence Chapter - 29: Raw and Our Rulers Chapter - 30: Raw's Influence in Higher Echelons Chapter - 31: The Transit Routea Chapter - 32: Anti-Bangladesh Propaganda Abroad Chapter - 33: Other Issues

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Preface
RAW AND BANGLADESH is an illuminating book written by Mr. Zainal Abedin, a senior Journalist of Bangladesh and published by Fatema Shahad in November 1995. It is printed by Madina Printers and distributed by Madina Publications, 38 Banglabazar Dhaka - 1100, Bangladesh. Mr. Zainal Abedin is a former student leader and a freedom fighter who crossed over to India in 1971 for military training, joined the Mujib Bahini and fought for the freedom of Bangladesh alongside the Indian Army. Mr Abedin holds a masters degree and a BEd. In the book Mr Abedin ponders over the events of 1971 and 'one particular incident chastises me the most', he writes, It was in April 1971 in the district headquarters of Noakhali, his home district, where the freedom fighters were gathering, that he met his neighbour. A middle-aged, mature and sober person, his most staunch supporter and admirer. 'He got hold of my hand and took me to a nearby restaurant'. Narrates Mr Abedin, 'As we sipped tea, he started narrating the history of pre-1947 Bengal. He mentioned gory details of how the Hindus used to treat the Muslims and explained the reasons for creation of Pakistan. He said that struggling for one's right is different from break up of the country. He stated that India would first weaken us by breaking our unity and then exploit us. He added that his life time experiences had told him that India would never be sincere to Muslims. With tears in his eyes and hands trembling with emotions he quipped, 'Are you again going to make us the slaves of the Hindus?'. Mr Abedin admits that he did not give any serious thought to the urging of his neighbour at that time as he was too young and emotional. 'The said question now haunts me often', he writes. 'The realization of what lay in store for us started soon after I crossed over to India. The attitude of our Indian handlers and trainers indicated that they treated us (the Freedom Fighters) not as friends but as agents. The real Indian face lay bare after the surrender of Pakistani forces, when I saw the large scale loot and plunder by the Indian Army personnel. The soldiers swooped on everything they found and carried them away to India. Curfew was imposed on our towns, industrial bases, ports, cantonments, commercial centres and even residential areas to make the looting easier. They lifted everything from ceiling fans to military equipment, utensils to water taps. Thousands of Army vehicles were used to carry looted goods to India. History has recorded few such cruel and heinous plunders. Such a large scale plunder could not have been possible without connivance of higher Indian authorities'. From the conduct of the Indian Army it was evident that they treated Bangladesh as a colony. That was the time the question asked by his neighbour seriously surfaced in Mr Abedin's mind. He feels that 'India through her notorious deeds has proved time and again that she is not our friend but an arch roguish foe', which has posed a grave threat to the independence and sovereignty of Bangladesh.

'It is now evident', writes Mr Abedin, 'that India helped the creation of Bangladesh with the aim that it would be a step forward towards the reunification of India'. Soon after the creation of Bangladesh, India let loose all forces at her command to cripple the newly born country. Their aim was to precipitate its collapse and eventual merger with India to realize part of the Brahmanic dream about 'Akhand Bharat'. The most significant player of this heinous game is India's notorious intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing commonly known as RAW. Established in 1968 and still 'eating into the vitals of Bangladesh'. The author explains the main sources of inspiration for India's intelligence agencies and her foreign policy - the ancient pundi-cum-political, Koutillaya, Prime Minister of Chandra Gupta. In his book 'Arthshastra' written about 300 BC Koutillaya laid down three guidelines: when your country is weak pursue the policy of peace; when your country becomes militarily strong follow the policy of war; when another state seeks your help, apply double standards. In his book Koutillaya has recommended six principles as the basis for foreign policy. These deal with peace, war, neutrality, military preparedness, formation of alliance and duel policy. Koutillaya's final dictum is. 'Power is the ultimate truth and the main aim of an organised state should be to obtain power'. The author shows how Mrs Indira Gandhi was an ardent follower of Koutillaya and subscribed fully to his policy of waging 'battles of intrigues' and 'secret wars' to achieve her unholy objectives. She created RAW, a secret intelligence agency functioning directly under the Prime Minister to pursue her ambitious but nefarious agenda particularly in the South Asian region. The Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), explains the author, was raised in September 1968 from the foreign Intelligence Desk of Intelligence Bureau (IB). Mr Rameshwar Nath Kao was appointed its first director and assigned the task of collection, collation and analysis of intelligence from beyond India's national frontiers. A 'Special Operations Branch' was included in its organisation for conducting secret and covert operations. RAW started with a staff of 250 persons and an annual budget of Rupees two crore. It expanded rapidly and by 1990 had a staff exceeding 8 thousand persons and a budget of Rupees 500 crore. Its present budget is around Rs. 1500 crore. It has its own aircraft and helicopters, the headquarters is located in large eleven storey building in Lodhi Estate, New Delhi. The present director is Mr. A. S. Siyali. RAW has its own agenda particularly concerning neighbouring countries and has great influence in formulation of external policy of India. Since the last few years RAW has become so powerful and influential that it has emerged as a major player in the internal politics as well. Besides the usual functions as an intelligence agency, RAW is relentlessly working for attainment of the following objectives. One, to extend Indian sovereignty over unprotected and vulnerable smaller neighbours. Two, to enhance Indian influence particularly in the Indian Ocean region militarily, politically and culturally, so as to

project and develop India as a future super power. Three, to implement the Brahmanic dream of establishment of 'Akhand Bharat'. The book explains how RAW's popularity, acceptability and influence increased manifold after its success in disintegration of Pakistan in 1971 and annexation of Sikkim in 1975. However, its image suffered some setbacks due to debacle in Sri Lanka during 1987 and its failure to have Pakistan declared a terrorist state. Nevertheless it retains its image as the country's premier intelligence agency wielding considerable influence in the formulation of foreign policy and internal security. The book goes on to explain the cardinal principles of RAW inspired foreign policy. Which is to exert influence on other countries under the cover of friendship and cooperation: resort to threat and coercion to achieve desired objective when necessary; insist on policy of bilateralism etc. RAW attains these objectives abroad by conducting extensive espionage activities by the under cover diplomats and staff posted in Indian Missions abroad; recruiting leaders and other important persons; putting pressure or luring through incentives; brain washing intellectuals and spreading cultural influence; promoting internal clashes and developing separatist movements; influencing the government, members of parliament and government officials; forming pressure groups by spreading false, and distorted news; arranging assassination of important personalities etc. The author explains the espionage set up of RAW in and around Bangladesh. Inside the country the prime centres are Indian High Commission at Dhaka and Deputy High Commissions at Chittagong and Rajshahi. Another RAW organisation operates around Bangladesh with its regional office at Malibagh, Calcutta. It has an annual budget of Rs. 20 crore and supervises the conduct of espionage and special operations inside Bangladesh. Its three regional offices are located at Darjeeling in the North Shillong, in the North East and Agartala in the East. Bangladesh is therefore very well covered from all sides. RAW agents employed in Bangladesh can be divided into three broad categories. One, trained Indian nationals who come as diplomats, journalists, businessmen, students, cultural activists, literature etc. Two, Bangladesh nationals for a variety of motives including financial rewards, business interests, ideological considerations (some Hindus). Three, officials of multi-national organisations, NGOs, business houses etc. The book vividly describes how RAW operated in the former East Pakistan and helped in the creation of Bangladesh. After that it has consistently tried to destabilise the new country politically and financially with the aim of merging it with India as planned by the Indian National Congress. This fact is well illustrated by a letter written by Mr. Nehru on 23 May 1947 to Mr Ashrafuddin, a congress leader from Comilla quoted by the author and attached as an appendix to the book. 'The Congress had stood for the union of India and still stands for it'. Wrote Mr Nehru, 'But we have previously stated that we are not going to compel any part against its will. If

that unfortunately leads to a division then we accept it. But inevitably such a division must mean a division also of Bengal and Punjab. That is the only way to have a united India soon after. If we can have a united India straight away without such a division, that will of course be very welcome'. This book is written by a highly educated man who was a student leader, a freedom fighter, a politician, and is now a journalist of great standing in his country. It is written with great perception and knowledge, quoting accurate facts and figures to illustrate his point of view. It should be read by our policy planners and all those concerned with the well-being and prosperity of South Asia. The book does show India's policy, present attitude and future plans concerning her small neighbours.

CHAPTER - 1 KOUTILLAYA, RAW AND INDIAN FOREIGN POLICY The main sources of inspiration for the Indian Intelligence agencies and its foreign policy are ancient Hindu pundit and politician Koutillaya and his book 'Arthshastra' (Economy). Koutillaya is also known as Chanakya and Vishnugupta. He was the Prime Minister of Chandra Gupta. He had written his' book 'Arthshastra' between the era 321 and 300 before the birth of Christ.' The book is divided into 15 parts and has 180 chapters. Koutillaya had applied his treacherous diplomacy to subdue and annex other states. As a result the Mourya Empire vastly expanded under his advice and supervision. For occupation of other states Koutillaya laid down the following guidelines: a. When your country is weak, pursue the policy of peace. b. When your country becomes militarily strong, follow the policy of war. c. When another state seeks your help, apply double standards. In his book Koutillaya has recommended six principles as the basis for foreign policy. These are: peace, war, neutrality, military preparedness, formation of alliance and duel policy. He recommends: a. Peace should be' established with other states through agreements. b . War should be pursued through relentless attacks on the enemy. c. Neutrality means complacence and indifference. d. The 'power of the state should be enhanced by expanding military preparedness. e. Other states should be lured and forced into formation of alliance or friendship to seek common shelter and security. f. Duel policy means to make peace (friendship) with one and enmity with the other (The Daily AI Mujadded : November 3, 1994). Even two thousand three hundred years after theMoyura rule the Indian rulers of today continue to follow the Koutillaya's policy. Koutillaya's dictum 'power is the ultimate truth and the main aim of an organised state should be to obtain power', has been followed by all Indian rulers. Since Koutillaya era till today all Hindu states have been relying mainly on muscle power. In the entire history of the Hindus it is difficult, to find a single Hindu king who had followed the policy of non-violence.

Present day India has also adopted the same policy, though in pursuance of principle of dual policy, Indian rulers keep propagating about following policy of non-violence. This is done with lot of gusto to deceive the outside world about their true motives. Indira Ghandhi was an ardent follower of 'Koutll1aya doctrine'. She subscribed fully to Koutillaya's policy of waging 'battles of intrigues' and 'secret wars' to achieve her unholy objectives. She created RAW, a secret intelligence agency functioning directly under the Prime Minister, to pursue her ambitious but nefarious agenda particularly in South Asian region. The Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) was raised in September 1968 from the skeleton of Foreign Intelligence Desk of Intelligence Bureau (IB). Mr. Rameshwar Nath Kao was appointed as its first head. The new agency(RAW) was assigned the task of collection, collation and analysis of 'intelligence from beyond India's national frontiers. A 'Special Operations Branch' was also included in its organization for conducting secret and covert operations. RAW started its journey with an annual budget of two crore rupees and a staff of 250 persons: The organization grew rapidly and by 1990 its strength of officers 'and staff had exceeded 8 thousand persons while its annual visible budget was above 500 crore rupees. RAW's present budget is estimated to be around Rs 1500 crores. It has its own aircrafts and helicopters. RAW's headquarters is located' in an eleven story building in Lodhi Estate, New Delhi. Mr. A. S. Siyali, a Sikh is its current head (Director as he is officially known). RAW is not accountable to the Indian parliament i.e. Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha have no legal right to question its activities. Neither the Public Service Commission nor the Staff Commission has any role in appointing the officers and staff of RAW. As a matter of fact RAW is one of the few organisations in India which is absolutely sovereign. It also has the power to carry out supervisory functions on othey organisations. Theoretically RAW is accountable to the Prime Minister, but in practice, it is free from any supervisory influence. As a result RAW is known to be following its own agenda particularly concerning neighboring countries. RAW also has great influence in formulation of external policy of India. Since the last few years RAW has become so powerful and influential that it has emerged as a major player in the internal politics as well. Besides usual functions as intelligence agency, RAW is relentlessly working for attainment of following objectives : a. To extend Indian sovereignty over unprotected and vulnerable smaller neighbours. b. To enhance Indian. influence particularly in the Indian Ocean region militarily, politically and culturally, so as to project and develop India as a future super power. c. To implement the Brahmanic dream of establishment of 'Akhand Bharat'.

RAW's popularity, acceptability and influence increased manifold after its success in disintegration of Pakistan in 1971 and annexation of Sikkim in 1975. However, its image suffered some set backs due to debacle in Sri Lanka during 1987 and failure to enlist Pakistan as a terrorist state. Nevertheless, it has retained its image as the country's premier intelligence agency and still wields lot of influence in policy formulation, particularly in matters relating to foreign affairs and internal security. Some observers believe that in actual fact, the foreign policy ofIndia is conceived and planned by RAW, while Ministry of External Affairs is merely an implementing body. The cardinal principles of RAW inspired foreign policy are: a. To exert influence on other countries under the cover of friendship and co-operation. b. To play fake role of friendship while secretly pursuing enmity . c. To resort to threat and coercion to achieve desired objective if necessity arises. d. To insist on the policy of bilateralism. e. To delay resolution of problems when own moral and legal position is weak. f. To work as a lackey of a powerful country but present itself as a super power to the weaker countries. g. To keep the South Asian - region free from foreign influence and interference. Now let us see as to how RAW is working to attain its usual as well as special objectives: a. Conducting extensive espionage 'activities by the under cover diplomats and staff posted in the Indian Missions abroad. b. Recruiting leaders and other important persons of enemy countries. The agents include politicians, military officers and personnel, Government officials, lawyers, litterateurs, journalists, cultural workers, trade union leaders, teachers etc. Use of well trained women agents, offering temptations, blackmailing and threatening the 'targets' are 'common tactics for ensuring their allegiance. c. Putting pressure or luring through incentives to the desired country for entering into unequal and incompatible agreements. d. Offering training to civilian and military officers of other countries and recruit agents from amongst them.. e. Brain washing the intellectuals of foreign countries by arranging scholarships and study tours for them.

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f. Spreading cultural influence through video films, TV and radio programmes, newspapers, magazines and journals etc. g. Promoting internal clashes and violence in the target countries through tribals, aboroginals and minority communities. h. Developing and promoting separatist movements and to arrange shelter, money: arms and training to terrorists and separatist elements in target countries. i. Influencing the Government, members of parliament and Government officials of other countries with a view tQ make them tilt towards India. If some one resists the influence, he is made target of intense pressure exerted through diverse means. j. Encouraging own agents to form pressure groups and through them organise hartal, strike, seige, gherao etc. to create instability and lawlessness in target countries. k. Spreading false, baseless and distorted news through local and international news media about the target countries to hurt their economic interests as well as . their general prestige and image. l. Arranging assassination of important personalities including head of Government or state, if he is considered to be faltering rather excessively. This is done to bring desirable changes in the Government and officials, besides serving as warning to the others. m. Sponsoring military coups or political agitations etc. to bring down a Government which is considered hostile. n. Waging intense propaganda warfare to further own interests. RAW, ever since its inception has been playing a yital role in formulation and implementation of Indian foreign policies. In consonance with Koutillaya's precepts, RAW has been waging relentless secret wars against smaller neighbouring countries. Over the years it has worked assiduously and fulfilled its tasks skillfully and ruthlessly. Nevertheless it has many weaknesses and vulnerabilities too. A detailed knowledge about its objectives, working systems and modus operandi can help in effectively countering its menacing onslaught.

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CHAPTER-2 ORGANISATION OF RAW Director. of RAW,who holds the rank of a Secretary to the Government of India ,works directly under the Prime Minister. He is assisted by an Additional Director of the rank of Additional Secretary to the Government of India. Office of Special Operations (OSO) is responsible for special covert operations. The Joint Directors Areas have specified desks dealing with different regions' (countries). Area one Pakistan, Area two China and South East Asia, Area three Middle East and Africa and Area four other countries. Another Joint Director is responsible of Electronic/Technical Section and Administration including Internal Security. The Director of Security is responsible for the Aviation Research Centre (ARC) and the Special Services Bureau (SSB) which has field detachments in border areas. Aviation Research Centre (ARC) is responsible for interception, monitoring and jamming of target communication, systems. It has the most sophisticated electronic equipment and also a substantial number of aircrafts equipped with state of the art eavesdropping devices. It was strengthened in mid 1987 by the addition of three new aircrafts, the Gulf Streams-3, at the cost of Rs 50 crores. The aircraft can reportedly fly at an altitude of 52,000 ft and has an operating range of 5000 kms. ARC also controls a number of radar stations located close to the Indo-Pakistan and Indo-China borders. Its aircrafts also carry out oblique reconnaissance along the borders with Pakistan, China and Bangladesh.

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CHAPTER 3 RAW'S Handlers, Agents and Operations RAW is conducting its operations against Bangladesh from diverse places and centres. The prime centres are Indian High Commission at Dhaka and Deputy High Commissions at Chittagong and Rajshahi. A large number of under cover diplomatic and other staff are posted in these missions for pursuing RAW's agenda of operations. Such officers and staff actually belong to RAW but on papers are shown to belong to the Ministry of External Affairs etc. Besides, RAW has a regional office at Malibagh, Calcutta headed by a senior RAW officer, for supervising conduct of espionage and special operations. This set up works independently of High Commission and Deputy High Commissions and has separate budget stated to be over :as 20 crores annually. The set up has sub offices at Darjeeling, Shillong and Agartala which control operations within their regional domains. These RAW operatives run and handle a large network of hard core agents. In addition they have a very vast number of supporters, sympathizers and part time agents. RAW agents can be divided into three broad categories: a. Indian nationals who are sent to Bangladesh after proper training in espionage and. sabotage etc. They settle in Bangladesh under false and assumed identity as journalists, businessmen, students, cultural activists, litterateurs etc. for conducting their assigned tasks. b. Bangladeshi nationals who get hooked for a variety of motives including financial rewards, business interests, ideological considerations (more so in case of Hindus). c. Third country nationals i.e. who neither belong to India nor to Bangladesh. These are usually the officials of multinational organisations, NGOs, business houses, corporations and international companies etc. who happen to be either posted in Bangladesh or concerned with projects of Bangladesh.Tasks assigned to RAW agents include: a. To supply secret and sensitive information particularly about national defence and national policies. b. To further Indian economic and other interests. c. To mount malicious propaganda about founding principles and ideological basis of the country and create favourable public opinion for merger with India. d. To create political unrest, promote terrorism and lawlessness and impede economic growth of the country by resorting to hartals, bandhs, blockades etc. These are done to

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ensure that Bangladesh remains dependent and shackled to poverty and hence unable to follow sovereign policies. e. To spread communal and religious disharmony. f. To create disturbances in educational institutions to encourage more Bangladeshi students to opt for admission in Indian educational institutions. g. To encourage and promote separatist and subversive movements in the country. The Weekly Rashtra wrote in its issue of August 11, 1994. "India very carefully uses its mercenaries to arrange hartals and other tactics to destroy country's economy. It employs stooges like Taslima Nasreen to defame the country. Its agents are at work to turn Bangladesh as a market for Indian goods. Indian agents have also been trying to sabotage Jamuna Bridge project and to hinder exploitation of country's mineral resources in order to promote Indian interests". National Professor Syed Ali Ahsan said in an article published in the Weekly Bikram, April 19 1993, "A few people desire to establish political affinity with India. They seldom find, any error in India's attitude and behaviour with us. They do not protest against India's activities detrimental for Bangladesh. They utter comments against Islam to prove their modern outlook. In fact, they are working to prepare grounds for Bangladesh's merger with India. It is an irony that activities of such treasonous and treacherous clique are not checked and that they have been allowed unbounded freedom to speak against country's independence and ideology". From the above, it is apparent that the nature of RAW's operations and activities go much beyond the usual interests of an intelligence agency. No wonder that RAW's agents have Infiltrated everywhere like swarms of locusts.

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CHAPTER 4 RAW'S OBJECTIVES A section of people in Bangladesh preaches that menace of India is a baseless and communalistic propaganda. They argue, why should India over-burden herself by swallowing a problematic and poverty-stricken country ? For their kind information I can note that India has already set several examples of swallowing weak and tiny territories. The world is well aware how treacherously India annexed Hyderabad, Manvadhar, Goa, Daman, Diu, Kashmir etc. How can one forget the illegal and conspiratorial annexation of Sikkim, a tiny and rocky mountainous kingdom of the Himalayas. Thus how can one be naive enough to believe that India is not interested in capturing a strategically important country like Bangladesh. Merging Bangladesh with India is RAW's ultimate goal. It is considered necessary to suppress the ongoing liberation struggles in North-eastern Indian states bordering Bangladesh. Thus constant efforts are being made on multiple' fronts to weaken and cripple Bangladesh to facilitate its swallowing. RAW's policy makers have taken it as their historical responsibility to materialise the dream of Nehru and other leaders for a united India i.e. 'Ram Raj'. It may be mentioned that the Hindu leaders had accepted partition of India in the hope that one day it would be undone. An independent and sovereign Bangladesh remains a thorn in the eyes of Indian leaders which has to be uprooted at the earliest. People of the then East Bengal (today's Bangladesh) had struggled for establishment of an independent Muslim state to get dd of communal mentality and master-like attitude of the Hindu leaders. Muslims apprehended that their interests and even existence may be in jeopardy in Hindu majority India. This led to wide scale popularity of Two' Nation Theory which became the basis for creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims of East Bengal. It is to be noted that the then Muslim leaders had tried their utmost to avoid partition of Bengal and to form an independent and unified Bengal state outside the framework of India and Pakistan. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the undisputed Muslim leader of that time was in favour of undivided and independent Bengal, but Hindu leaders, specially Jawaharlal Nehru and his followers opposed the idea. Nehru demanded that if India was to be divided to create. Pakistan, Bengal and Punjab were also to be divided so that their Hindu majority areas could merge with India. Nehru's motive for dividing Bengal and Punjab was to expedite the annulment of partition of India as explained in his letter to Mr. Ashraf-ud-Din, a Congress leader from Comilla. 'The Congress has stood for the union of India and still stands for it. But w~ have previously stated that we are not going to compel any part against its will. If that unfortunately leads to a division then we accept it. But inevitably such a division must mean a division also of Bengal and Punjab. That is the only way to have a united India

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soon after. If we can have a united India straight way without such division that will of course be. very welcome'. The objective of Indian assistance to the Bengalis during the war of liberation of 1971 was to boost the process of reuniting India, a cherished dream of Nehru and other Hindu leaders. An impartial view of the treaty signed during 1971 war of liberation by India and the Provisional Government of Bangladesh, make it evidently. clear that India actually wanted a crippled Bangladesh, which should . not be able to come out of the claws of Indian grasp. The 7-point secret treaty which our Provisional Government was compelled to sign in October 1971 states : a. After establishment of Bangladesh, the administrative officers who actively participated in the war of liberation would remain in their posts. The rest would be terminated and vacant posts would be filled up by the Indian administrative officers. b. After the liberation of Bangladesh the required number of Indian soldiers would remain in Bangladesh(No time limit was laid down). c. Bangladesh would not form and maintain any formal Indian regular Armed Forces. d. To maintain internal security and law and order a militia would be formed comprisin of the freedom fighters. e. The chief of staff of the Indian Armed Forces would lead the probable war with Pakistan. The Mukti Bahini (freedom fighters) would work under the command of Indian Armed Forces. f. Trade transactions between the two countries would be free and open. The volume of trade would be calculated once in a year and the price would be paid in pound-starlings. g. The Foreign Ministry of Bangladesh would maintain a close liaison with External Affairs of Ministry of India and the latter would assist the former as far as possible( Excerpts from interview of Mr. Humayun Rashid Chowdhury: by Masudul Haque : 'RAW and CIA in the Liberation war of Bangladesh) Mr. Humayun Rashid Chowdhury, who was the Chief of Mission of the Provisional Government of Bangladesh in New Delhi disclosed during the interview that late Syed N azrul Islam, the Acting President of Provisional Bangladesh Government fainted after signing the accord. It is intriguing that the text of this' treaty has not been published till today neither by the Government of Bangladesh nor by that of India. In pursuance of above accord, provisional Government of Bangladesh had to agree to the following arrangements:

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a. Lt. General Jagjit Singh Aurora was appointed as the Commander-in-chief of the Allied Forces instead of General Ataul Ghani Osmani. b. Surrender of Pakistani soldiers to Lt. General Aurora. c. Arrival of Indian civil servants in Dhaka to take over the responsibility of civil administration. d. Continued stay of Indian soldiers in Bangladesh even after surrender of Pak Army on December 16, 1971. . e. Formation of Rakkhi Bahini. India intended to keep its troops in Bangladesh for an indefinite period but it was forced to withdraw the troops due to return of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on January 10, 1972, who publically asked India to withdraw its troops from Bangladesh. Ex-President of India Late Zail Singh exposed Indian plans during an interview. Mr Singh said that the decision of withdrawing Indian troops was not judicious as it hampered Indias interests.This interview was published in Indian newspapers on July 27, 1987. The original RAW plan to keep Indian troops permanently in Bangladesh having failed, efforts were initiated on other fronts to cripple sovereignty of the new state. RA. W policy makers were well aware that it was no longer easy to swallow a country by force. The traditional method of occupying a country is neither appreciable nor practicable. Now-a-days no occupation army gets world recognition. Rather it has to face world-wide condemnation and defamation. But it does not mean that an expansionist bully will leave its aggressive zeal in the New World Order. Now to over run a country an aggressor cripples its citizens psychologically and reduces its economy to shambles to create such a situation that its citizens no longer possess mental strength and inspiration to be self-reliant. That country becomes a market of foreign goods having failed to develop its own resources. And ultimately the country becomes bankrupt and overburdened with foreign debt. The spontaneity, vigour and vitality of the people are wiped out and they loose their spirit to resist an invader. Though the country seems to be independent outwardly but psychologically and culturally its people are made subservient. They become imitative. Their cultural identity and exclusiveness and their spirit of nationalism gradually die down. A day then comes when they fail to perceive the significance and necessity of protecting independence and sovereignty. RAW relentlessly has been endeavouring to create such a situation in Bangladesh. With this end in view India wants to turn Bangladesh into a desert by withdrawing water of forty international rivers. The Chakmas are instigated to snatch away Chittagong Hill Tracts, the soul of Bangladesh. Efforts are made to infiltrate Indian secret agents .under the cover of 'Bangabhumi' and 'push back'. Educational institutions are made to cease work in order to drive away students to Indian educational institutions. Agents are

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engaged to help close the local mills and factories in the name of trade union movements. To create psychological insecurity Talpatti, Muhurir char, Nirmal Char and many other areas of Bangladeshi territory have already been taken away illegally and forcibly. BSF and Indian killers are infiltrated into Bangladesh to hijack or kill Bangladeshi citizens and plunder their belongings. Above all cultural and religious identity of 90% people of Bangladesh is being eroded out by systematic attacks on Islamic values.

RAW side by side creates political instability and unrest through its agents. In such a situation people become reluctant, irritated, disgusted and disrespectful to the leadership of the country as they fail to ascertain the real friend and foe of the country. When this situation goes from bad to worse and the national leaders fail to ensure the security of life and property of the common people they themselves may invite foreign power on their soil as their saviour. Sikkim, a Himalayan Kingdom, went underthe domination of India through this process. RAW is applying above technique in Bangladesh more aggressively and systematically. RAW plans to throw Bangladesh to the brink of such uncertainty and destruction by wiping out its cultural identity, crippling its economy, creating political impasse ,and instability so that the demand for Indian intervention should rise from within Bangladesh. To respond to such a so-called invitation India has prepared before hand the legal ground by compelling Bangladesh to sign the 25 years Peace and Friendship Treaty. In. the meantime, RAW agents like Taslima Nasreen are propagating to wipe out the border of Bangladesh in order to merge with India. Indian intellectuals also do not feel ashamed to plead for re-unification of Bangladesh with India. For RAW Bangladesh is a test case to materialise its blue print of United India.

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CHAPTER-5 THE PARTITION OF BENGAL: TRUTH AND FALLACY A dispassionate analysis of historical events prior to 1947 clearly indicates that Nehru and other Hindu leaders were responsible for the partition of India, specially Bengal. The division of Bengal took place consequent upon decision of Hindu majority districts legislators of the then Bengal Legislative Assembly who at Nehru's behest voted on June 20, 1946, in favour o(partition of Bengal by 58-21 votes. On the other hand the Muslim legislators voted in favour of undivided "Bengal by 106-35 votes. Nehru had created an apprehension in the minds of the Bengali Hindus that administration of undivided independent Bengal would be controlled by the Muslims as they were 6% more than the Hindus. To preclude the possibility of Bengal emerging as a powerful and viable unit and to make it easy for him or his successors to take weak East Bengal back into India's fold as soon as possible, Nehru insisted on the partition of Bengal which he later confessed:"Bengal was divided in a manner that it could easily be merged into India again"( The Weekly Jhanda: May 13, 1992). However, despite above historical facts, Hindus keep accusing Muslim leaders for partition !Jf Bengal. They hold Mr. Jinnah in particular responsible for Bengal's partition. Hindus call Muslim leaders as communal for propagating Two Nation Theory. However, old press reports clearly indicate that neither Mr. Jinnah was communal nor he wanted partition of Bengal. A Deccan Daily 'The Hindu' in its May 9, 1947, issue reported that Mr. Jinnah had no objection to allowing Bengal to 'participate in -the Constituent Assembly if Pakistan was allowed to be created on the western part of the Indian Subcontinent. He virtually had no objection if Bengal would remain outside Pakistan(1. Mahatma Ghandi: The Last Phase: Vol.-II.P-178. Quoted by Badruddin Umar in Partition of Bengal And Communal Politics.) On the other hand Nehru's demand was that Bengal would have to be divided if India was to be partitioned. Lord Mount Baton, the last Viceroy of the British India, explained how Mr. Jinnah Was compelled to swallow the partition of Bengal as a last resort.He (Jinnah) presented very strong arguments as to why these provinces (Bengal and Punjab) should not be partitioned. He conveyed' that these provinces have common cultural characteristics and that partition would be disastrous. Nehru re-iterated that why not the same considerations be applied to the partition of entire India. Mr. Jinnah did not agree and started explaining why India had to be partitioned. However, finally Mr. Jinnah realized that the Hindus and British would either have a united India or a divided India with partitioned Punjab and Bengal. Resultantly Jinnah was left with no option but to accept the proposed partition"( Kamruddin Ahmed: A SocialPolitical History of Bengal: P-83).The proceeding para clearly proves that Bengal and Punjab were partitioned as a pre-condition set by the Hindu leaders for partitioning India. So the sub-continent was not divided according to Jinnah's plan. Jinnah wanted that India should be partitioned into India and Pakistan keeping Bengal and Punjab intact. He also

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favoured an undivided Bengal outside Pakistan. However, when Mr. Jinnah realized that if Bengal and Punjab were not partitioned to meet the obstinacy of Nehru, the subcontinent itself would not be'divided and in that case Muslims would be deprived of any homeland at all, he reluctantly agreed to the partition of the two provinces(Punjab and Bengal). In fact Mr. Jinnah had been left with no option but to accept the partition scheme because Lord Mount Batton had told him that if he (Jinnah) did not accept the 3rd June proposal, British would transfer power to the largest political party i.e., Indian National Congress. RAW has now taken upon itself to distort the history to suit its ulterior motives. Accordingly RAW's agents keep propagating that only Mr. Jinnah was responsible for the partition of Bengal. This is being done to support RAW's bigger game plan i.e., to wipe out the boundary lines separating Bangladesh from India. RAW wants to project the boundary lines as reminiscent of Mr. Jinnah and others so called 'communal' Muslim leaders. The next phase is to make case for undoing these' unholy' lines.

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CHAPTER-6 Attack On Existence, Ideology and Culture OF Bangladesh The Ananda Bazar Patrika of Calcutta recently published a long feature on the so-called crippled economy and political instability of Bangladesh and shamelessly advised Bangladeshis in the following way: Realizing the cruel truth Bangladeshis should rather raise the demand to merge with India'. Getting similar message from her masters in RAW Taslima Nasreen, a derailed writer, wrote in a poem: 'A thorn has been pricked In my throat in 1947 I do not want to swallow it Rather I desire to extort it To reclaim the undivided soil of my ancestors' (1. Quoted in the Weekly Muslim Jahan, January 3, 1995.) Taslima Nasreen has been rewarded by conferring many awards by India for her socalled literary works.Going back to history we find that our forefathers never willingly accepted being part of undivided India. The people of this region never whole heartedly accepted the authority of Delhi-the capital of undivided India. They raised flag of independence and even fought against the exploiters and administrators of Delhi again and again. However, RAW seems to have learnt nothing from history and continues to strive for realization of its dream of an undivided India. Propounding the same thoughts in a seminar about regional cooperation of South Asia held at Dhaka on February 28, 1992, Mr. Mayaram Surgeon, a leader of Indian National Congress and the editor of the 'Daily Ajkal' said:"If Europe can be united, why can't we return to pre-partition India of 1947 ?" The irony is that nobody in the seminar objected to Mr. Myaram's malicious suggestion. Rather some of the RAW agents hailed him for his wisdom. In another seminar organised by the' Center for Developing the Spirit of Bengali Nationalism' to welcome the 15th century of the Bengali Calendar Mr. Hasan Imam, a self- styled champion of the spirit of liberation war supported the call of Mr. Mayaram. He said:'The vast sub-continent was fragmented to pieces, though we wanted to remain united. It cannot be believed that we cannot be united once again in future'( The Daily Inqilab : April 30, 1994) Mr. Hasan Imam is a member of Ghatak Dalal Nirmul Committee (The committee for elimination of collaborators of 1971). The, above statement, evidently proves for whom Hasan Imam and his colleagues work.Why don't these so-called ardent advocates of Bengali spirit encourage the people of West Bengal to secede from India and reunite with Bangladesh? Why do they advise Bangladeshis to merge with India? We in Bangladesh fought and laid down lives for upholding Bengali language and to nurse and highlight distinct Bengali identity. Our merging with India will amount to undoing these achievements. On the contrary they do not advise that West Bengal should break away

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from India and merge with us, given their love for Bengali spirit and culture. Mr. Mayaram and host of others like him see only the reunification of Germany but they are blind enough not to see what has happened to the defunct Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. RAW certainly is aware of the fact that religion and religion-based culture are the prime obstacles in the way of reunification of so-called undivided India. A true Muslim can never relinquish his religion, culture and life-style. Every step of a Muslim is governed and guided by his religion because Islam is a complete code of life. For this reason Bengali speaking Muslims and Hindus though live in the same territory and eat rice-fishdal, they can never become a. homogenous community. There fore, despite living in the same country they have separate and distinct identities. RAW's objective is to undermine Islam in the lives of Bangladeshi Muslims so that their blending with Hindus is facilitated. For the purpose RAW is trying to erode the Muslim culture and replace it by Hindu culture under the pretext of Bengali culture. It may be noted that Muslims have preserved and protected their separate cultural identity despite living alongside their Hindu neighbours for centuries. Although language of both. Muslims and Hindus is the same yet a clear-cut distinction is visible in their way of using idioms. In many cases Hindus use words of Sanskrit origin, While Muslims use words of Arabic and Persian origin. For 'water' Hindus and Muslims use two separate words: 'Jol and 'pani' respectively. To refer to blessing, Hindus say 'Ashirbad ' while Muslims say 'Doa'.For the word 'Pardon', Hindus use 'Khama' (kshma) but the Muslims use the word 'Maaf. Thousands of examples of this kind of differences can be cited. Hindus sound 'Ulu' (sound uttered by Hindu Women on festive or religious occasions) at birth, marriage and 'Puja'(religion worship of the Hindus). This custom is not in vogue among Muslims. Married Hindu women use vermilion in their hairparting. Muslim women do not use it. Hjndus are cremated after their ,death while Muslims are buried. The customs of the two religious communities are totally different and sometimes poles apart. Neither of them relinquished their own customs nor accepted and developed a common one to show their devotion to Bengalee culture or Bengalee spirit. Each of them is glued to its own faith and culture. When any Hindu child is born, Hindus utter b. sound 'Ulu', but when a child is born in a Muslim family, 'Azan' (Muezzin's call to the Muslims for prayer) is articulated in the new born's ears. Muslim boys are circumcised in their early boyhood, whereas Hindu boys are not. Hindus consider and venerate the water of the Ganges as the most sacred (even though it is highly polluted and impure) but Muslims do not think so. Hindus believe in 33 crores of deities and worship idols. Muslims believe in only one Allah. So Muslims and Hindus, though live in the same region, speak the same language and eat almost the same food; they have different customs and developed different cultures. Neither of the two faiths could get over the religious boundaries to create common life style and culture. Each of them belong to a distinct faith and culture and has different historical background. RAW backed intellectuals take infinite pains to prove to the new generation that the liberation war of 1971 disproved the validity of the Two Nation Theory and generated the

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spirit of secularism. However, this is totally wrong. The war of liberation was directed against the then West Pakistani domination and exploitation and not against Islam and our Muslim identity. None of the leaders of the liberation war ever relinquished Islam, Muslim identity and Muslim culture. One of the main characteristics of Islam is that it wants the new converts to set aside all the tenets, rituals, customs and life-style of their previous religion and to accept and practise what is enjoined and approved, by Islam. Our forefathers when they converted from Hinduism to Islam, not only relinquished Hindu :religion but also Hindu rites, customs, culture, norms and way of living. They committed themselves ,totally to Islam. After becoming Muslims they did not continue following their previous (Hindu) practices, such as, uttering 'Ulu', lighting 'Mongol pradep' (an auspicious lamp used by the Hindus, specially, at a religious ceremony), positioning 'Mongal Ghot' (a consecrated pitcher placed in a house to win divine favour). They gave up blowing the conch, sounding the bell-metal disc, cremation of a widow" on her dead husband's funeral pyre, use of vermilion in hair-parting etc.; and began to practise what is granted by Islam. For these reasons, Bengali, speal,ring Hindus and Muslims did not and could not develop a conimon cultural heritage. In recent years RAW hirelings have been assiduously trying to introduce Hindu practices, labeling them as integrai part of Bengalee culture. They kindle Mongal pradepi sound bell-pletal" disc and utter. 'Ulu' in various furictions. Their aim is to promote Hindu culture; in the name of Bengalee culture.' 'But history testifies that the custom of kindling Mongal pradep or sounding bell-metal,or blowing conch shell was not very common, even among the Hindus in any part of Bengal, leave alone the Muslims. Thus these are pot part of Beng-alee tradition or culture at all. No reference to these practices (kindling Mongal pradip, ringing be~l-metal Or blowing conch shell) is found in,the ancient Bengali religious lYrics 'CHARJAPAD' which were composed during the reign of the Paul Dynasty that ruled Bengal from the 8th to the 12th century. After the fall of the Paul Dynasty in the 12th century the Sens from Karnataka became the rulers or Bengal. The Sens were Hindus and they introduced Karnataki Hindu practices in the temples of Bengal. The customs of kindling auspicious lflmp at time of worshipping the deities, blowing conch"shell and beating bell-metal were introduced by Sens. So, the culture the urban-based RAW hirelings try to introduce in Bangladesh in the name of Bengalee culture is not even the culture of the original Hindus of this region. However, the RAW-inspired intellectuals have been pleading for introduction of the said rituals in our important national functions. In this context the comments of the renowned national professor Syed Ali Ahsan are worth mentioning. He writes: "A group of parasitic and invertebrate people who are totally devoid of historical facts, kindle Mongal pradeep and blow bell-metal in the cultural functions. In pursuance of historical evidence I want to say that auspicious lamp and bell-metal are totaIly,idolatrous and communal. Moreover they are by no means related to,the life-style of the people of this region"(The Weekly Bikram : April 19-25 : 1993).

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"According to the dictionary published by Bangla Academy one of the meanings of the word 'Mongol' is poem or lyrics or song praising deities: viz Manasa Mongol (epic in honour of the Hindu snake goddess Manasa), Chandi Mongal (eulogistic literature about Hindu goddess Chandi). Mongal Gnatmeans earthen or any other kind of pot placed with festivities to win the favour of Hindu deities.So Mangol Ghat and Mongal pradep are part and parcel of Hin'du customs and culture"(The Weekly Jhanda: April 30, 1992). These practices never entered into the religious, social or family life of the Bengali speaking Muslims. Yet since 1990 a familiar group of so-called intellectuals has shamelessly started to indulge in these idolatrous practices on our new year's day in the name of Bengalee culture. To display so called Bengali culture this group and their followers dance in the, streets wearing masks of deities,(ghosts, apparition, jackal, monkey and hanuman (the name of the monkey chief who was an ally of the Hindu deity Ramchandra in his expedition to Lanka). Even the Hindus, let alone the Muslims of our country,were never seen before in our streets with such beast-like appearances. If we look into the bistory of British India when Hindus were dominant ip this region we do not get any evidence of celebrating Bengali New year's Day in such a way. Let us again see what professor: Ali Ashan says about this exotic culture: "The truth which history reveals is that these beastly masks and decorations are related to the festivals of Gajan held in connection with the worship of the Hindu deity 'Shiva' (Sri Krishna /Narayan, Vishnu, Shiva, all are Hindu deities)of the untouchable Hindus. In the 'Gajan fair' untouchable Hindus like 'Dom' (a Hindu caste who are assigned duty of burning the dead and looking after the crematorium), sweeper, chandal (one of the lowest caste of the Hindus usually entrusted with the execution of criminals) etc. used to dress up as clowns in multiforms to celebrate".I expect my learned readers to realize how tactfully RAW has been instilling the culture of lower caste Hindus among the Muslims of Bangladesh in the name of Bengalee cuUure. It should be noted here that Bengalispeaking Hindus never recognised Muslims as Bengalees. They considered 'Bengalispeaking Muslims lower even than the untouchables like cobblers,sweepers, fishermen barbers, washermen etc. There is not even a single instance in the history of the Bengali speaking Muslims to prove that such practices were in vogue during the united Bengal days or even thereafter. However, now the so-called progressive elements at the behest of RAW, have become votaries of alien culture. RAW wants to make inroads in the bastion of the Bengali speaking Muslim's faith, with the ultimate object of making the Muslims of Bangladesh to repudiate Islam and its values and disdain their cultural heritage. Perhaps a day may come when RAW's stooges will emerge in our streets dressed as Kali, Lakshmi, Sarswati,Radha-Krishna, Aurjun or Shiva (all are hindu deities) or parade the ,streets in procession as devotees of these Hindu deities. They may start wearing thread (worn by the upper class Hindus) round their necks or decorate their foreheads' or the bridges of noses with sandal wood paste (as painted by vaishnavas worshippers of Vishnu, a Hindu deity or followers of Sri Chaitanya reformer of modern Hinduism) or'carry a trident in

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their hands (used by Hindu deity Shiva and now-a-days by Hindu ascetics). Some of them have already started making an exhibition of their Bengaleeism by wearing 'Dhoti' (a lion cloth worn by Hindus). The people of this region had not seen such efforts for revival of Hindu culture in the name of Bengalee culture before 1990. Sheikh Mujib, the founder of Bangladesh and a Bengalee par excellence, celebrated 4 Martyr Days, 4 Independence Days, 4 New year's Days and 3 Victory' Days after the emergence of Bangladesh. But they never made any attempt to introduce auspicious lamp, bell-metal, conch shell or 'Ulu' in these celebrations in the name of Bengalee culture. Masked demon of Ram's devotee Hanuman was not seen in the streets on Bengali New Year's day. Not a sing (entrance is found in Sheikh Mujib's,thousands of speeches and statements which could indicate that he encouraged the introduction of Hindu culture in the name of Bengali culture. But since 1990 RAW hirelings have started a campaign to promote Hindu culture. After all what is their motive? Scrutiny of background of ardent supporters of Hindu culture reveals that these people are the new converts and hence are acting more holier than the Pope. Here are some details about a few of them. ' Sufia Kamal was an exponent of Islamic values; brotherhood and the territorial integrity of Pakistan till the sixties. She also composed a number of poems in praise of the Quaide-Azam and Pakistan. In the later part of the sixties when disintegration of Pakistan seemed inevitable she allied herself with the pro-Moscow elements. During the n~ne months' of liberation war she stayed in Dhaka quite comfortably. Belfltedly she, emerged as a champion and symbol of independence and the apostle of the spirit of liberation war. She once headed the infamous' Ghatak Dalal Nirmul Committee. Mr.' Sirajul Islam Chowdhury, another ostentatious exponent of the spirit of liberation war has become a supporter of Pakistan's ideology. During Ayub regime he wrote a book for school students named 'Pakistan: The country and her culture' in which he advocated Pakistani nationalism and cultural unity of the then Pakistan.Mr. Shamsur Rehman is yet another ardent preacher of the so-called Bengalee culture. However, till December 16, 1971 Mr, Shamsur Rehman had employed his efforts and talent to safeguard the unity and solidarity of the then Pakistan. His writings in erstwhile 'The Dainik Pakistan' are clear proof of his allegiance to the then Pakistan. These people are turn-coats and opportunists. They now claim themselves to be the custodians of the spirit of liberation war to draw personal benefits. They shamelessly try to introduce alien culture i:l1 Bangladesh the culture which Sheikh Mujib, the architect of liberation struggle himself never prescribed. They think that the more they glorify Hindu culture, the more will they be regarded as pure Bengalees and thus will be able to conceal their past record and gain material benefits. However, the truth of the matter is that these people were neither sincere and loyal to Pakistan in the past, nor are they sincere and loyal to Bengalee spirit at present. They are mere mercenaries doing RAW's bidding' for their personal gains.

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RAW has realized that the sovereign existence of Bangladesh can't be annulled so long Islam exists, as a living force among the bulk of her people and her cultural boundary remains intact. Therefore, RAW has mounted a multi-pronged attack to distort cultural heritage of Bangladesh. It has engaged so called-Muslim pseudo intellectuals to spearhead attacks on Muslim values and traditions and to introduce Hindu culture in the name of Bengalee culture. RAW has recently adopted a novel way to contact and recruit important, religious and political leaders of Bangladesh. They send some of their Indian, Muslim stooges to Bangladesh to approach high religious and political personalities of Bangladesh. Moulana Asad Madni of Deoband, Alhaj Kashani Baba of Dargah Nizam Uddin Aulia and ulema from Ajmer Sharif have been visiting Bangladesh for the purpose. They invite top Bangladeshi leaders to their hotel or place of residence and try to pass RAW's covert message to include: a. Partition of India has not proved good for Muslims. Hence Muslims should try for reunification of India. b. Indian Muslims and their religious places are well protected and looked after by Indian Government (not withstanding the plight of Babri Masjid). , ' c. It is propagated that Pakistan and Bangladesh do not have Islamic laws i.e., Family Laws in Pakistan as well as Bang~adesh are unislamic, while in India Muslim personal laws are being followed. Example of Shah Bano case is often cited to propagate their point. d. Bangladeshi leaders are urged to stop criticism of India. e. Invitation is extended to Bangladeshi leaders to visit India on their expenses. The offers for joint business ventures are also made to lure in the Bangladeshi leaders. RAW's ultimate aim is to affect minds of people particularly of new generation in such a manner so that they forget Muslim traditions, values and culture and adopt Hindu culture similar to that of India. Thereafter it will become easier for RAW to launch the next phase of 'Annex Bangladesh' operation.

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CHAPTER-7 TASLIMA NASREEN Taslima Nasreen, the blasphemous and controversial writer from Bangladesh owes her sudden rise to fame and prominece to RAW. On instigation from RAW she has been writing novels and poems against Islam, morality and independence and sovereignty of Bangladesh. Since many years RAW has been using her for spreading poisonous and preposterous material against Muslim culture. RAW's " love for Taslima N areen is indicated by conferring of an award by the Anandabazar Group of Calcutta, India, for her book 'Nirbichito Column'. Knowledgeable circles disclosed that although the book on its merit did not deserve such recognition, the award was conferred on her due to RAW's recommendations. Some critics pointed out that Taslima in her said book had extensively copied from Sukumari Bhattacharjee's book 'Prachin Bharat: Samaj 0 Shahitya' (old Indian Society and Literature). At places Taslima even used similar words which were written by Sukumari Bhattacharjee. But instead of taking action against Taslima Nasreen for piracy, the Anadabazer Group honoured her by the award. Many poets, writers and literary figures of West Bengal have vehemently protested against awarding Taslima Nasreen for her plagiarism. But the Anandabazer Group continues to patronize her. Obviously it would not have been possible without official patronage. The RAW's aim of doing the same was to establish Taslima Nasreen as a prolific writer to a literary person of substance so that her writings carry greater appeal.Taslima has been frequently writing against existence of Bangladesh as an independent and sovereign country. She openly preaches for merger of Bangladesh in India. In many of her poems and other writings she unabashedly appeals for doing away with artificial boundaries of 1947 and regain the glory of undivided motherland.Her infamous novel 'Lajjya' was aimed at castigating Is1am and Muslim values in Bangladesh: The novel narrates the so saIled sufferings of an imaginary Hindu family in Bangladesh in the wake of demolition of Babri Mosque. It is intriguing. that she ignored plight of thousands of Muslims who were killed in riots in India. Instead she mlide false allegations against Muslims of Bangladesh, who have a good record of treatment of minorities. Infact, RAW had a deeper conspiracy in view while proposing to her to write the, said novel. Beside suggesting to her the novel's plot and characters,' RAW also provided her distorted 'statistics' for building up the story. The novel which was completed within two months was printed imd distributed under RAW's arrangements. Many quartrers refuse to acknowledge that it is a genuine solo work of Taslima. They claim on the authority of inside sources that the final manuscript of the novel was shaped by some ghost Indian writers under supervision of RAW which was later published in the name of Taslima Nasreen.

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The RAW's objectives for publishing 'Lajjya' are listed below: a. To create hatred against Bangladeshi Muslims by projecting'them as fanatics. Also to paint Bangladesh as a Muslim fundamentalist state. b. To bring disrepute.to Islamic values and culture. c. To raise the' demand for obliterating the map of Bangladesh and merge it with India on the ground that minority community (Hindu) is not safe in the country. d. To hit economic interest of Bangladesh by presenting her as a Muslim fundamentalists country where rights of minorities are not safe. RAW hoped that after such adverse 'propaganda' donor countries may cut or reduce econoJllic aid to Bangladesh. e. To promote civil unrest by creatftlg polarisation in the society. RAW knew that TasIima's uttering will be resented by Muslfm masses and will lead to establishment of two camps, one in favour of Taslima and ,the other against her. The ones who support her will be termed as anti-religious by the other group. The polarisation between the two groups will lead to severe unrest and law and order situation in Bangladesh which may de-stabilize the Qovernment and the democratic system.After storm of protests all over the country the novel was banned in Bangladesh. However, its sale and distribution continued in West Bengal and other Indian states under patronage of RA W.,.BJP and other communal parties of India have been using the novel as an ammunition in their anti-Muslim campaign. Although RAW partially succeeded in achieving its other objectives, the economic assistance to Bangladesh was not affected due' to timely counter measures by Bangladesh Government. Mr. Ashoke A. Biswas, a noted Indian analyst and research scholar commenting on RAW's involvement with Taslima said, "The latest examples of RAW's mischief has been the notorious discovery of Taslima Nasreen. This immoral, third rate writer was initially lionized by Calcutta media and then financed by RAW. Taslima's literary mentors in Calcutta encouraged her to challenge the fundamental tenets of Islam, knowing fully well that it would have an adverse reaction among devout Muslims. Here the plan of RAW was to create internal turmoil in Bangladesh as well as to arouse the western feminist and anti-fundamentalist lobby against Islam". Taslima Nasreen is also notorious for immoral utterings. She preaches free sex and does not recognize the institution of marriage. She displays contempt for social values and cultural traditions on the ground that these hinder personal freedom. She argues in one of her writings that why should a woman be expected to bear the child of her husband alone. Why should she not conceive child of a man whom she loves even while married to another man? t'9bviously such writings, besides being provocative are against the tenets of Islam. However, RAW undertakes to propagate and spread her works to spoil the moral fiber of Bangladesh's Muslim society. Taslima Nasreeneven dared to directly utter blasphemous

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words for The Quarn and its teachings. She stated il) an interview with a Calcutta daily in 1994, "The Quran should be re-written to suit the changed present day world" (Nauzubillah). Obviously the devout Muslims of Bangladesh, could not take this direct assault on Islam. Soon the entire country was up against her. In many places of the country protest meetings and demonstrations were held against her utterings demanding severe punishment for her. Some secular and pro-Indian elements tried to defend her initially but seeing public's fury, went quiet after a while. Sensing danger Taslima went under ground. On public's demand Government instituted a case against her under relevant law of the land. RAW's game to earn Taslima fame and prominence was successful. Many organizations and governments of the western countries came forward to defend Taslimsa's right to freedom. of speech and expression. Even the US President Mr. Clinton spoke in favour of Taslima. The Government under international pressure was obliged to allow her to leave the country after staging bail from a court. She is now comfortably lodged in Europe from where she keeps uttering blasphemous statements with impunity. The case of Taslima Nasreen provides good insight about RAW's modus operanda and overall objectives. A person of mediocre literary potentials and dubious personal morals was helped to jockey to fame and riches as reward for furthering their cause. However, RAW made a fundamental, rather fatal mistake in their assessment.They failed to correctly gauge the reaction of Bangladeshi masses-the common Muslims. Indeed the blasphemy issue helped Muslim forces in uniting on one platform to thwart Indian sponsored onslaught against Islam and Muslim values. Such unity could not have been possible in the ordinary course. Thus thanks to RAW and Taslima Nasreen, today's Bangladeshi Muslims are better prepared, united and determined than ever in the past, to fight conspiracies against Muslim identity of Bangladesh.

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CHAPTER-8 BANGLADESHI NATIONALISM VERSUS BENGALEE NATIONALISM RAW strategists have cleverly created disagreement and division even over the issue of national ideology. A debate has been going on whether the country should adopt Bangladeshi nationalism or Bengalee nationalism. Unfortunately RAW has succeeded in making this fundamental issue an aging controversy. Bangladeshi nationalism relates to all the people living in Bangladesh. It is a description of the fee1ing of political cohesion, which inspires Bangladeshis to be proud of their separateness. Since Muslims constitute more than 85% of the country's population., therefore, Bangladeshi nationalism in fact, means nationalism of majority of its population. As French nationalism implies not the nationalism of Algerian immigrants settled i~ France but the national feelings of those Frenchrllen who once were affiliated to the Catholic Church. Bangladeshi nationalism also reflects aspirations of majority community i.e. Muslims. The term Bangladeshi nationalism was adopted by President Ziaur Rahman as a compromise between those secularists who would not favour any description which savoured of religion and those who wanted that the nationalism should reflect aspirations and sentiments of majority community. However, even this secular expression which only indirectly points at Bangladesh's character as a Muslim country with Muslim traditions in art, literature and social life, is not to the liking of RAW influenced intellectuals. They abhor the use of word Bangladeshi nationalism calling it communal and insist on adoption of Bengalee nationalism. Much of this campaign is being waged on wink from RAW. Bengali nationalism encompasses all the Bengali speaking people irrespective of where they live. Going by this definition all Bengali speaking people form one nation.d HOwever, the concept of forming nations on the basis of language has become redundant. If language was the only factor for making of a nation, all Arabic speaking people of the Middle East should have formed one state instead of 22. Going by the logic of language, India has no right to function as a single country as it has 171 languages and 544 sublanguages (RuhulAmin: Our Nationalism: page, 20). Thus the concept of nationhood based on language alone is not in vogue. Besides Bangladesh, the Bengali speaking people are inhabited in West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Orissa and Behar states of India. In the first two states they are the predominant ethnic group. They belong to the same Bengali stock as people of Bangladesh and- in some cases have similar social and cultural behavior. But still they are distinctly different from Bangladeshis in matters of national identity, history, faith, hopes and aspirations. This difference is due to religion. In fact, the difference was created the day Islam came in this region. The advent of Islam brought in a new social culture which gave a new identity. to those who embraced Islam. The Bengali speaking Muslims and Hindus became two separate religious and cultural groups. These differences gradually became the reason for pronouncement of Two Nation. Theory and eventual division of India into Pakistan and India. East Pakistan, after separation from Pakistan in December 1971, became Bangladesh.

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The basic differences between the two communities (Hindus and Muslims) are as evident today as these were thousands of years ago. Common cultural identity. and common nationalism could never grow between the two communities. British writer John Marshall while discussing the peculiarities of ancient Indian culture of the Hindus and the Muslims wrote. "It was never seen before in human history that the two religions and cultures coexisted side by side while one could not swallow the other(quote from John Marshal:by Abdul Mobin: Cultural Mischief, page 80). The separate cultural identities of Bengali speaking Hindus and Muslims remained intact for ages despite conflicts and clashes. Such conflicts rather hardened their separate identities and religious beliefs.The Hindu poets, litterateurs and intellectuals Bever, accepted the Bengali speaking Muslims as Bengalee. They used the term Bengalee only for Benga.li speaking Hindus. The Muslims were not considered Bengalees. Instead they used to be referred as Muslims. On the other hand, the Bengali speaking Muslims did not care much about their' Bangaleeness. They took pride in their Muslim identity and culture. Being a Bengaleecame only after their Muslim identity. Religion based cultural identity in course of time created political conflicts. The differences on political issues specially since the advent of British rule in Bengal led the Bengali speaking Muslims of this region to think that their interests and goals are not the same as of their Hindu neighbours. The Muslims of Bengal opposed the rule of the British East India Company while the Hindus welcomed it and cooperated with the foreign rulers. In return the East India Company allotted vast'lands of Bengal to the Hindus who emerged as Zamind-ars. The anti-British struggle of Titunrir, Haji Sharlat Ullah and the 1857 War of Independence, all ended in smoke due to the non-cooperation and opposition of the Hindus. The Hindus of Bengal once again prov~d in 1905 at the time of partition of Bengal that their interest and that of the Muslims are not the same. Not a single Hindu political.leader or intellectual rose above his communal feelings and interests to support the partition of Bengal in 1905. Rather, inspired by Hindu nationalism., they vowed to fight for annulment of partition. The very inimical attitude of the Hindus towards Muslims gave them a chance to unearth the real face of Hindus. They realized the necessity of preserving their own religious, cultural, economic and political interests. The Bengalee Hindus had shown more affinity with the non-Bengalee Hindus and developed Hindu nationalism. The anti-Muslim attitude of the Hindus made the Muslims of Bengal to welcome the Two Nation Theory of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Based On this theory the resolution for partition of India to create separate home-land for the Muslims was adopted in 1940 in the All India Muslim League's annual session at Lahore. Just before the partition of India in 1947, some Muslim leaders of the then Bengal like Suhrawardy, Abul Hashem and lone Hindu Leader Sarat Bose worked for a united'.Independent Bengal. Bq.t the Hindus, led by Ghandhi and Nehru, vetoed the scheme and thus neutralized the last chance of keeping Bengal united. Had it materialized,

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it could have formed the basis for emergence of Bengalee nationalism. But the Hindus, who preferred Hindu nationalism, themselves gave final burial to the. Bengali nationalism. Pakistan was created on the basis of Two Nation Theory.Partition of India also led to partition of Bengal on the insistence of Congress. Bengal's Muslim majority area i.e.East Bengal joined Pakistan as its province named East Pakistan, while West Bengal, the Hindu majority area,went with India. Thus there remained no chance for a nationalism based on language to take roots.The Bengali nationalism, however, did find currencyduring movement against Pakistani ruling junta. But in actual fact the separatism was an expression of regionalism; phenomenon also noticeable elsewhere. The people of East Pakistan felt deprived due to the exp)oitation and usurpation of their rights by an administration dominated by West Pakistanis. Their demand for emancipation found expression in Bengalee nationalism. This was purely in the context of Pakistan and at no stage the people intended to part with the Two Nation Theory. The emergence of Bangladesh is in consonance with Lahore Resolution of 1940. The resolution says, "It is the considered opinion of this session of the All India Muslim League that no constitutional arrangement would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless they would be based on the following principles viz. (a) that the contiguous geographic areas have to be demarcated as a region. (b) that the territorial adjustments should be such that the Muslim majority areas in the north-west and Eastern India should constitute independent states and that the states should be autonomous and sovereign". After the emergence of Bangladesh, RAW and its stooges have been relentlessly preaching that dismemberment of Pakistan has proved that the Two Nation Theory has failed. Once renunciation of Two Nation Theory is accepted reunification of India becomes obvious. Indians advise that Bangladesh should give up its Muslim identity and adopt so called Bengalee nationalism. RAW's aim In promoting Bengalee nationalism is to pave way for merger of Bangladesh into West Bengal. One may ask that why Hindus of West Bengal do nqt support Bengalee nationalism against Indian (Hindu) nationalism. Why the idea is being drummed to people of Bangladesh only? .During the Pakistan period we used to be known as Bengalees on the b1Jsis qf race and language as we did not then have an independent country named Bangladesh. After the establishment of Bangladesh our territorial identity and sovereignty overrode the linguistic and racial identity. Bengali speaking Hindus and the Muslims could never become one nation in the past. Now that the ideological, cultural and political differences between the two have grown further, how can 'there be any rationale for a common BEmgalee nationalism. Basant Chatterje, an Indian journalist said in his book 'Inside Bangladesh', "The Bengali language had been used as political weapon in the struggle against Pakistan and with the establishment of Bangladesh its usefulness had been exhausted. The Muslims had made no contribution to the culture called Bengalee culture which was essentially an upper caste Hindu culture. It would be impossible for Bangladesh to preserve its sovereignty by insisting on the Bengaliness of its political chara1ter".Another problem with Bengalee

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nationalism is that it excludes those citizens of Bangladesh whose mother tongue is not Bengali. When Sheikh Mujib insisted' on tribal leaders of Chlttagong Hill Tracts, (CHT) to accept Bengalee nationalism, it back fired. RAW capitalized the issue and helped Chakmas to form Shanti Bahini which is continuing to wage armed movement for separation of CHT from Bangladesh. RAW's propagation and promotion of Bengalism is a conspiracy against the very foundations of Bangladesh which must be snubbed and neutralized with the contempt it deserves.

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CHAPTER-9 CULTURAL AGGRESSION It is now well known that RAW is working for unifying Indian sub-continent by disproving the validity of historic Two Nation Theory and by wiping off the independent states that the Muslims carved out for themselves out of the map of sub-continent. With this end in view RAW has mounted a relentless cultural offensive against Bangladesh to influence minds of the people and to create conducive conditions for Bangladesh's merger into India. Here are a few glimpses of the said cultural offensive. RAW is patronizing a number of so called intellectuals and scholars from Bangladesh who claim to be free thinkers and boast of having thrown of the shackles of religious beliefs. They uphold and propagate a culture which traces its origin to yoga, tuntric and sankhya systems of philosophy (adoration of Shiva, Durga, Lakshmi etc), discarding everything that has any connection with Islam. Though born of Muslim parents and brought up in Muslim families these intellectuals have devoted themselves to deflecting our new generation from Islamic way of thinking and life style in the name of Bangalee culture. Their sole purpose is to make our youth pro-Hindu and pro-India. RAW keenly monitors the established and rising litterateurs, journalists and cultural activists and allures them through its local network. If the desired person responds positively RAW arranges for him or her to go for a trip to India under the disguise of attending a function arranged by some Indian literary or cultural organization. In India such visitors are introduced to renowned personalities who eulogize them in superlative terms. They are given grand receptions and prizes and decorated with medals. Naturally these persons are so filled with gratitude to the organization concerned and the Indian Government that they become bonded slaves to that country and start danning to their tunes. In addition monetary rewards, cash prizes and monthly allowances are also arranged for persons considered being more useful. In some cases beautiful women are also provided as guides and companions. The alluring of Bangladeshi literary persons and cultural activists on behest of RAW is being arranged by many organizations who confer drama society medal, Michael medal, Ananda Award etc. These organizations actively assist RAW in talent hunting and tapping. These hired scholars, poets, intellectuals, journalists, artists etc. are assigned to open different kinds of organizations on return to Bangladesh. RAW bears the expenses of these organizations and determines their policies and chalks out their programs. These organizations preach secularism, seek to mould public' opinion in favour of India: conceal her expansionist policy, infiltrate Hindu culture among the Muslims in the name of Bengalee culture, create law and order situation whenever and wherever possible to prevent Bangladesh from achieving prosperity, issue statements in favour of pro-Indian organizations and above all, recruit new faces for RAW. One of the major obligations of these organisatiol1R is to invite those Indian poets, singers, actors and other cultural activists who are recommended by RAW. These organizations arrange receptions in honour of these personalities. They are made chief guests to grace various functions to

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popularize and familiarize them in Bangladesh. With this end in view RAW sponsored organizations also arrange musical soirees, dramatic performances, dance programs etc. These artists and cultural activists from India win new converts for RAW by using various methods. They instruct and instigate RAW hirelings here to create political disturbance, instability and law and order situation. In most cases these guests from India tour Bangladesh freely and deliver lectures at cultural shows and seminars. Some of them make such statements and put foward such suggestions which are contrary to the ideology and even detrimental to the independence and sovereignty of Bangladesh. But surprisingly enough, no protest is made against these objectionable and undesirable statements by the so-called custodians of the spirit of the liberation war and national consciousness. Nor do they object to the invitation and the tour ofthe Indian citizens to Bangladesh.Rather these tours of I RAW sponsored Indian artists, scholars and intellectuals are increasing day by day. To give an idea of the intensity of such cultural invasion I quote from a local weekly. It states "Within five and half months, i.e., from August 25, 1991 to Febuary 16, 1992, sixteen cultural teams from India visited Bangladesh. The delegates of most of these teams spoke against Bangladesh's sovereignty and incited anti-Bangladeshi spirit in one way or the other (The Weekly Bikram: January 9~15, 1995). Most of these artists from India have no position or even minimum recognition in that country yet they are acclaimed as the greatest figures or personalities in their respective fields by RAW hirelings. They are given grand receptions and wide publicity during their visits to Bangladesh by RAW sponsored organizations. Colored embellished with their photos ar~ seen pasted on the walls. News media projects and highlights their activities. The RAW-sponsored dailies and weeklies publish their exclusive interviews. Dances, drama and musical soirees are arranged in the most expensive venues like the ball room of Hotel Sonargaon, the auditorium of Shilpakala Academy or of' the National Museum. Flatterers posing as great connoisseurs, laud these petty artists, obscure poets and so called men of letters to the skies in order to make the audience believe what they (the guests from India) tell as gospel truth. These so-called honourable' guests say things which amount to direct attacks on the sovereignty of Bangladesh. They urge people to repudiate the 'accursed two-nation theory, seek to prove that there is no Bangladeshi culture as distinct from the culture of India and insinuate that to adhere to Islamic tenets is to be back dated and odious. They also use this opportunity to enlist new recruits for RAW. Recently the frequency of visits to Bangladesh by so called Indian scholars and intellectuals has increased manifold. Apparently the RAW's cultural offensive against Bangladesh has entered a crucial phase.

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CHAPTER-10 BANGLA ACADEMY Bangla Academy is an organization financed with the people's money. It was established to promote the Bengali language and literature (of Bangladesh). However, due to dominance of pro-Indian elements BangIa Academy is in effect working for revival of Indian culture. It has. been promoting books written by Hindu and secular minded 'Muslim' writers. BangIa Academy is allergic to anything Islamic. Its doors are shut for all Muslim nationalist writers while works of even third grade pro-Indian writers who claim to be secular are published. In other words, one needs the blessings of RAW to earn attention of Bangla Academy. The Daily Inqilab commenting about the activities of Bangla Academy wrote, "One could easily realize who are preferred by BangIa Academy after casting a look at the list of writers whose books were displayed in the Bangla Academy stall of the International Book Fair 95, held in Calcutta. There were only 8 or 9 kinds of books in the Bangla Academy Stall. Books written by Jatin Sarkar,Sharsiz Sarkar, Devpreya Boruya, Topankar Chatterjee, Sukumar Biswas, Korunanda Vikku, Mamen Chandra,Kaliprosonna etc occupied most of the space in the Bangla Academy stall. By projecting Hindu writers Bangla Academy desired to convey the impression that only Hindus dominate the field of Bengali literature and that although the Muslims of Bangladesh have advanced in education during the last fifty odd years, their contribution to the literature of their country is insignificant and hence not worth showing.Bangla Academy has been playing down the sacrifices of Muslim Bangalees who .laid down their lives to win for Bengali language its rightful place. The irony is that BangIa Academy which is the direct product of historical language movement patronizes such intellectuals and scholars who were not in any way connected with the said movement. It in fact, ignores and neglects those who took part in the movement and who seek to uphold the separate indentity and culture of Bangladesh. The late Abul Kashem, the architect of Bangla Academy itself, was not seen in the BangIa Academy premises during later years of his life. BangIa Academy did not show proper respect to him even after his death. Another pioneer of language movement was late Justice Abdur Rahman Chowdhury. He died as the sitting Chairman of Bangla Academy. But the Academy did not feel any moral obligation to hold even a condolence meeting at his death. Other pioneers of the language movement like Dr. Nural Islam (First Convenor of the Language Movement Action Committee), Advocate Kazi Golam Mahbub (Convenor of the All Parties Language Movement Action Committee), Professor Abdul Ghafur (Editor of the Sainik, the revolutionary mouth-piece of the language movement) Mr. Oli Ahad, Professor Shahed Ali, etc, are all persona-non-grata to Bangla Academy because of their opposition to the expansionist designs of India. If such is the fate of the organizers and pioneers of the language movement, it can easily be imagined what the position of those writers and intellectuals would be who did not

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participate in it and at the same time do not belong to the pro-Indian lobby. On the other hand Bangla Academy never feels any compunction in publishing writings by such atheists and controversial persons as Ahmed Sharif. The irony is that printing of secular work is undertaken with Government money which is collected in form of taxes from the people, 90 per cent of whom are Muslims. Bangla Academy has also honoured many secular and anti-Islamic, pro-Indian writers by conferring its awards. However, it seldom recognises the servi'ces of pro-Islamic writers, scholars and intellectuals. Thus it is no surprise that BangIa Academy has not published a single book by the renowned writer, philosopher and Muslim nationalist, Dewan Mohammad Azraf.The yearly calendar of the pioneers and litterateurs that BangIa Academy published in the past, explicity proves its pro-India affinity. Among the writers mentioned in that list about 65% are Hindus of India. Among the Bangladeshi writers who are lucky enougb to find a place in this list, 70% are known for their pro-India bias. The names of many prominent Muslim poets and writers of medieval and modern times are not included in the list. The one-sided list was prepared intentionally to give the impression that Bengali language and literature have been developed and enriched almost wholly by Hindus, though histroy tells us a different story. BangIa Academy ignored the names of many Muslim poets, litterateursand scholars who not onlydid much to enrich Bengali literature but also played a vital role in its sruggle for survival. In fact, the Muslims freed the Bengali language from the clutches, of Sanskrit and established it as a modern language., But out of tens of thousands of Muslim poets and writers of the middle ages,the list of Bangla Acadeiny contains names of a few of them only and that too merely to camouflage its real colour. Commenting about the said calendar a weekly of Dhaka'wrote, 'This calendar publsihed by BangIa Academy'better be called 'The pocket-calendar of The Ananda Bazar Publications, 'Calcutta"(The Weekly Jhanda :' May 13, 1992). Bangla Academy has published a number of books on Bengalee nationalism but one does not find even a single book on Bangladeshi nationalism-one of the fundamental principles enshrined in the constitution of Bangladesh. The people of the USA and Australia use English as their nationallariguage but they call themselves Americans and Australians. Same is the case with different Arab countries who speak the same language, follow the same religion and culture and even have similar heritage and history, but are identified as Saudi, Omani, Iraqi, Syrian, Libyan, Egyptian etc. in reference to their respective countries. Similarly we who belqng to Bangladesh are Bangladeshis. Bengalee nationalism, if there was one, was given a final burial by the Hindu legislators of West Bengal when they rejected the Bose Suhrawardy formula and opted for India. Then for twenty three odd years were Pakistanis and since the emergence of Bangladesh as a sovereign, independentstate we have become Bangladeshis. The argument put forward by the then Director General of Bangla Academy, Mr. Harunur-Rasheed for not publishing any book on Bangladeshi nationalism was indeed offensive. He argued, "No book had been published on Bangladeshi Nationalism as, it was a controversial theory"(The Daily Dinkal and The daily Meillat :January 10, 1994). Bangla

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Academy had been pursuing a pro-India policy not only by publishing writings of RAW agents and hirelings but also by promoting Hindu culture in its functions. Bangla Academy succeeded in making Sheikh Hasina-the leader of the opposition in the then Bangladesh Parliament, ring a metal bell to inaugurate a function in connection with the Bengali New Year of 1398. Sounding a metal bell (an integral part of Puja or Hidnu form of worship) was unprecedented not only In any function of BangIa Academy but also in the history of indepen4ent Bangladesh. Now link it with kindling of the Mongal Pradeep-first of its kind in the Shilpakala Academy premises by Sufia Kamal and you will easily discoverwhere the reigns of these two organisations actually lay. The sponsors of such practices claim that these practices are only ceremonial. But let me ask them will a Hindu start his work with recitation of 'Bismillah'?The latest evidence of Bangla Academy's honeymoon with India is its Bangla-English Dictionary. It serves to show how some of the intellectuals as well as some officials of our national institutions work for their foreign masters.The fact is that each and every branch of BangIa Academy (more or less) is controlled by -RAW hirelings and henchmen. Therefore, there is no possibility in sight of the writings of those who are still out of RAW's orbit being published by BangIa Academy. In conclusion one can quote Weekly Jhanda which had summed up the BangIa Academy's affairs in the following words: "The BangIa Academy has been suffering from Brahministic and atheistic diseases for the last two decades. It has pre-dominant left-leanings and pro-Indian symptoms"(The Weekly Jhanda : May 13, 1992).

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CHAPTER-11 SHILPAKALA ACADEMY Shilpakala Academy is one such organization where RAW seems to have struck deep roots. This organization has been set up to promote our art and culture and encourage those Bangladeshis who are engaged 'in creative work. But a careful analysis reveals the fact that this organisation has become a toot in the hands of RAW and has been serving the cause of India. In many cases this organisation is seen to favour Indian' artists more than those of Bangladeshi with higher standing. Spending -our hard earned currency, Shilpakala Academy invites Indian cultural activists and seeks to popularize their songs, dance and drama. Does it not amount to squandering our public money to serve the purpose of India? It is beyond our understanding how the patronage of cultural activists from India promotes our culture? In 1991 this organization arranged Rabindra Sangaet Sammaylon (Conference of Rabindranath Tagore"s songs) where 'Mongal Pradeep'was lit up for the first time to introduce a new trend in Bangladesl1 at the beginning of any function. This outrageous and despicable act was' performed by an aged poetess born of MusUm parents. The same act was repeated in 1991 at Bisha Sahitya Kendra to inaugurate the program of the 20th Victory Day. On this occasion a daughter of a martyred intellectual was made to light the Mongal Pradeep. .Since then the clique has made ft a custom to inaugurate every function arranged by them with the lighting of Mongal Pradeep which is a Hindu practice connected with the worship of gods and godesses. This practice has been introduced and given currency with the obvious' purpose of instilling Hindu culture into Bangladesh and leading our young Muslim into Hinduism. Shilpakala Academy organised a national Jatra (open-air, opera, especially popular in rural Bangladesh) festival in 1993. Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia inaugurated this festival on January 4, 1993. A reliable source says that this festival incurred a cost around two million Takas'. Fifteen Jatra parties i took part in it. Its sponsors, actors, actresses and audience were all Bangladeshis. But out of eleven writers of this Jatra ten were Indians. Naturally the dress, decoration and dialogues of these Jatras reflected Indian culture and social values. Muslim characters were very few in all ten Jatras staged during the festival and they were of very minor importance. A good number of reports published in the national dailies suspected that some of the high officials of Shilpakala Academy were hand in glove with-RAW. Some of them who had been transferred from other departments to Sh.ilpakala Academy were alleged to have close relations with RAW. Inspite of grave allegations, no inquiry committee was instituted to look into their activities, rather they were promoted and entrusted with more responsible duties in the Academy. As a result RAW's influence in this organisation has increased leading to it being a resort,for those who are connected to RAW and work freely for spreading of Indian ideas, ideologies and culture. But the microscopic number of artists and performers who are still out of RAW's paw are, in fact, persona-nan-grata to the Shilpakala Academy. It seldom extends patronage and encouragement to this section of artists and intellectuals leave alone recognizing their talents.

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CHAPTER-12 RAW TARGETS BANGLADSHI YOUTH The progeny of any nation are its real force. Today's young generation will serve the nation tomorrow. They are the ones who will lead their nation towards prosperity and save it from internal and external enemies.' The young ones of today will be responsible tomorrow for safeguarding the freedom, sovereignty and integrity of the country. If they (the younger generation) are alert and united then enemies cannot implement their nefarious designs. RAW, which is bent on damaging the independence and sovereignty of Bangladesh, realizes that the country's youth is the most formidable obstacle in the way of its ugly designs. Thus RAW has devised elaborate plans to influence the minds of the younger generation. RAW wants to wipe out spirit of independence and pride from their identity and heritage. It believes that if it can manage to eliminate revolutionary thoughts and high moral from Bangladeshi youth, they will become easy prey for its evil scheme. In order to achieve this goal, RAW is working on various fronts. Some of them are : Promotion of Narcotics RAW is pushing various narcotics through its agents, traders and smugglers into Bangladesh. Under RAW's instructions, Indian border authorities connive with smugglers and help them in trafficking of narcotics into Bangladesh. At a time. when the entire world has declared an open war against narcotics, RAW is patronising drug pushers and smugglers. It is making crores of Takas by this illicit trade, besides converting the youth of Bangladesh into drug addicts. The Bangladesh Rifles and Directorate of Narcotics have seized huge quantities of Heroin, cocain, Aphim, Charas, Ganja and Bhang etc. during the recent years. These drugs originate from India and are infiltrated into Bangladesh through porous borders under patronage of RAW Officials. A senior official of Directorate of Narcotics admitted that the flow of drugs from India can hardly be checked. Despite efforts only five percent of quantity smuggled can be seized by Bangladesh border authorities, while the drug pushers manage to smuggle the rest through the porous border using road, rail and water ways"(The Daily Inqilab : January 21, 1995).Recently smuggling of cigarette pipes filled with 'Ganja' (One kind of narcotic) has also been spotted. Directorate of Narcotics seized 8725 such pipes in 1993 and 6114 in 1994. Directorate of Narcotics also seized pethidine, ID lacquer, local wine, Fattener wine, 'Tari' (one kind of local wine), Spirit, Vinecherd Spirit, Bakar, Patvi, Hilly wine, TD, Genisock injection etc. Trafficking of phensydil has also been discovered In 1993. Directorate of Narcotics seized 29514 cans, in 1994 (jan-Oct) 56,126 bottles and 1058 litre cans were seized. On the other hand Bangladesh Rifles seized 2087 bottles and 32829 bottles of phensydil in 1993 and 1994 respectively. Daily 'AI Mujaddiecl' wrote in its issue of December 6, 1995, "More than one crore bottles of Fencidi have been

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smuggled into Bangladesh. Cost of the same comes to 90 crore takas'. It may be explained that Phencidyl is a very harmful drug. Its addict loses white blood cells. The development of new blood cells stops. This' leads to sure death. Drug trafficking has become a serious problem in Bangladesh. There are more than five hundred illegal sale centres in Dhaka alone. The number of addicts is on the increase. There are more than one lakh drug addicts in Dhaka according to a WHO report but other sources say that number is about four lakh. National professor and prominent physician Dr. Nurul Islam told The Daily Inqilab that increasing drug addiction among the youth may cause shortage of young man power in the coming years. Theinvolvement of youth in immoral and unsocial activities 'will adversely affect country's economy and social fibre. This is exactly what RAW desires. Bangladesh is a poor country but the abuse of addiction is making it worse. According to careful estimates 500 crore takas are wasted every year through use of drugs and narcotics in the country.Whatever its consequences may be for Bangladesh but RAW has earned the singular notoriety of being an intelligence agency which promotes drugs for furthering its nefarious agenda. Supplementing Terrorism RAW has been smuggling arms, ammunition and explosives in Bangladesh to supplement terrorism. Their primary targets are universities and other educationa1 institutions, trade unions and political parties. Due to unabated smuggling of weapons by RAW agents, the country is witnessing unparalleled proliferation of arms. The frequency of armed clashes between various student groups, trade union activists and cagres of political parties has increased manifold. Only in ((Dhaka university 55 students were killed in armed clashes during the last 24 years. The Daily Inqilab reported in its issue of August 7, 1995 that huge quantity of illegal arms was being smuggled into Bangladesh from India. Also included in the category are land mines, mortar bombs and high powered VHF wireless sets. Most of these arms are made in India. The s~uggling of weapons is taking place, through t4eporous IndoBangladesh border. Besides, Shantibahini was also smuggling arms into Bangladesh. Daily Al Mujadded reported in its issue of January 19, 1995 that a number of illegal arms and ammunition factories were operating in Indian towns located near Indo-Bangladesh border. RAW is known to be patronizing these factories. The arms and ammunition manufactured in these factories are mostly smuggled into Bangladesh with the help of RAW agents:- In 1993 some illegal factories were also unearthed in Bangladesh at Chittagong, Mymensingh and Rajshahi. These were carrying out their nefarious business in collaboration with RAW agents. The raw material for these factories used to be smuggled from India. On February 13, 1995, police seized 2016 Indian made chocolate bombs in Demra, when these were being taken to the capital city Dhaka. There are reports .that large quantity of deadly explos.ies is smuggled into the country which is used for preparation of bombs, mines and other sabotage material.According to the Daily Sangram a huge quantity of

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arms and ammunition is regularly smuggfed from India. Smugglers, anti-social elements, armed cadre~ of political parties, terrorists criminals, trade union activists and students are getting modern weapons from RAW agents. These arms are smuggled into Bangldesh using different channels through land, air and waterways. Though police has been seizing a lot of arms but still a large quantity of arms finds its way to unlawful hands. Smuggling is done by RAW agents in such a systematic manner that police and other agencies remain unaware. The newspaper further informs that there are reports that arms producing factories have been established near Bangladesh borders under the patronage of RAW. Existence of such factories at 24 Pargana, Bangaon, Ranaghat, NAdia, Aurangabad and Dalian have been learnt. The Daily states that the provincial and Central Governments. of India are maintaining suspicious silence about these illegal factories. It indicates that the illegal business has tacit support of higher Indian authorities(The daily Sangram : March 8, 1995). The Daily Inqilab reported that Railway police arrested a RAW agent named Ganesh Biswas from compartment No. 3599 of Khulna-Goalando mail train with arms and ammunition on January 6, 1995. Ganesh was smuggling arms and ammunition on behalf of Dilip Boshak of Nadia District, India and was to deliver it to an individual affiliated to a political party. Ganesh told police that he has been involved in trafficking of illegal arms inside Bangladesh for the past many years.The above reports amply highlight the involvement of Indian authroities particularly RAW in smuggling of arms ammuniton and explosive into Bangladesh. Proliferation of Immoral Video and cassettes of Indian films are easily available in urban as well as in rural areas of Bangladesh. There are hundreds of thousands of video shops all over the couAtry.Dhaka alone has about 50,000 video shopswhel\e IndiaI)films are available for sale and hire"(The Daily Jonakantha : October 23, 1994).It is indeed surprising to note that the nation which had fought and struggled against 'Urdu' now proudly watches Hindi films and listens to Hindi music. People who fought against autocratic Pakistani regime, are now watching Indian cultural aggression as silent spectators. The Daily further writes that the business of obscene films is booming under the garb of Hindi films. Most of these obscehe films are prepared in India and smuggled to Bangladesh. The ea.sy availabiltiy of these obscene films is a grave threat for the, plorals of our new generation. RAW is known to patronise this organized dirty game. Their aim is to destroy the moral fibre of our new generation and make it vulnerable to secularistic approach.It is an established modus operandi of RAW to use sex as bait for enrolment and running of agents. It provides obscene reading and video material to its agents and contacts. RAW regularly purchases large quantities of English and Hindi pornographic magazines and blue video films for circulation. RAW's safe houses serve as virtural sex houses where carnal desires of its agents are taken care of Of course such compromising moments are also preserved in the cameras for future black mailing in case the agent shows signs of wavering or slackening. It may be mentioned that such practices are resorted to by other intelligence agencies as well at limited scale. But RAW perhaps is the only agency which

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distributes pronographic literature and video films in bulk to spoil the entire youth of a target country. Indeed for RAW no holds are barred in the ruthless pursuit of its objectives.

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CHAPTER-13 ECONOMIC EXPLOITATION The free and massive flow of commodities from India into Bangladesh reminds us of the colonial era, when an imperialist power would cqnquer a country or a region and use it as its market. India with the assistance of RAW's stooges has been able to turn Bangladesh into an Indian market. without ACTUALLY occupying it. It is most unfortunate that while no preventive steps have been taken by the Government, the opposition parties also show an incomprehensible indifference to this national problem. During the British rule and even during the Pakistan period political parties had been very vocal against economic exploitation of foreign powers but no such reaction has yet been shown against similar exploitation by India. Experienced circles opine that RAW and its agents have manipulated things to the extent that Government officials as well as politicians have become indifferent to sufferings of common people. Besides, a group of dishonest traders who may not necessarily be agents of RAW acts as strong lobby for Indians for their own selfish interests. Large scale smuggling of Indian goods into Bangladesh cannot be carried out without active patronage and abetment of officials of border controlling agencies. Infact, Unscrupulous officials, many of them are on pay roll of RAW, are primarily responsible for flooding Bangladesh with smuggled goods from India. These officials dexterously provide protection for sale of Indian goods in Bangladesh. Since RAWs agents are entrenched everywhere in administration and they support each others illegal activities, therefore, it becomes difficult to expose them. The Government has so far failed to take effective measures to check this illegal business. The Governments unwise economic policies are also responsible for turning Bangladesh into Indian market. As a result the balance of trade has tilted heavily in Indias favour. Reportedly the total India-Bangladesh trade comprises of 97% exports from India and only 3% exports from Bangladesh. Instead of insisting on equitable trade with India, unusual concessions have been granted to promote import of Indian goods. Granting excessive concessions to India without regard to own economy has proved ruinous for the indigenous economy and industry. Giving details of trade between India and Bangladesh, The Daily New Nation wrote, Trade between the two countries stands at 60 crore dollars compared to that of seven crore dollars five years ago(The Daily New Nation: August 29, 1995).It may be mentioned that efforts for undermining economy of Bangladesh were started by India soon after the emergence of the country in December 1971. Almost all Governments of Bangladesh, starting from the one which assumed power in 1971, helped Indians in this regard through grant of unwarranted concessions and unwise trade policies coupled with actions of RAWs agents in higher echelons of Bangladesh. The crippling of Bangladesh economy could be witnessed right from the outset. Some of the examples are:-

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a) During 1971, 100 Pakistani rupees could be exchanged for 110 Indian rupees. In January 1972, the then Bangladesh Government devalued Bangladeshi currency drastically which made the value of Bangladeshi currency 66% lower than Indian currency. b) Bangladesh's economy was made India-oriented declaring economy of India and Bangladesh complementary. c) The Government withdrew ban on exporting jute from Bangladesh to India which was imposed during the Pakistan period. As a result, larg.e scale sale and smuggling of Bangladeshi jute to India started. In no time the jute market was captured by India and our jute industry suffered serious set-back from which it never recovered. d) In 1972 India compelled Bangladesh to sign the treaty of free border trade with India. As a result Indian commodities got free legal access to a belt upto 1O miles inside Bangladesh territory without any customs duty. In practice those commodities did not remain confined to a belt of 10 miles alone. Rather these were freely transported to all parts of the country making Bangladesh a vast market for Indians goods. It may be noted that while the said treaty was used for flooding Bangladesh with Indian commodities, Bangladeshi goods were hot allowed on one pretext or the other to get easy access to even 10 miles inside India. The trade agreement between Bangladesh and India signed in March 1972 states clearly that export and import of the two countries should be of equal value, that is to say, India would purchase the same vQlume of Bangladeshi commodities as Bangladesh would purchase from India in terms of money. But India has completely disregarded the relevant provision of the agreement. India intentionally avoids buying Bangladeshi goods as she manages to have these through smuggling at cheaper prices. As a result the trade balance between Bangladesh and India tilted heavily in favour of India. Some of our Government officials are equally responsible for ruining our trade and industry. They formulate policies which suit India. In return they are rewarded by favours and commissions. It is alleged by knowledgeable circles that India gives handsome commission to some officials of different ministries and directorates who in turn favour India by importing goods from India on one pretext or the other. There are reports that even senior political figures of the Government are involved in the racket. The trade deficit between Bangladesh and India from 1972 to 1976 was Tk 269.89 crores. From 1976 to 1981 it rose to Tk 315.83 crores. Now let us see what happened after 1982. Muchkund Dubey, the ex-Foreign Secretary of India presented the following figures at a meeting in New Delhi(The Weekly Holiday: February 17, 1995) .

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Year 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94

Indian Exports to Imports from Trade Surpluses Bangladesh Rs 32.47. Crores Rs 3.89 Crores Rs 57.40 Crores Rs 29.74 Crores Rs 106.50 Crores Rs 45.51 Crores Rs 128.75 Crores Rs 25.86 Crores Rs 162.01 Crores Rs 23.08 Crores Rs 186.81 Crores Rs 14.79 Crores Rs 261.94 Crores Rs 14.53 Crores Rs 458.03 Crores Rs 19.60 Crores Rs 547.38 Crores Rs 31.42 Crores Rs 798.49 Crores Rs 14.96 Crores Rs 1038.88 Crores Rs 35.99 Crores Rs 1349.69 Crores Rs 56.09 Crores Rs 881.00 Crores Rs 46.40 Crores

Bangladesh Rs 28.58 Crores Rs 27.66 Crores Rs 60.99 Crores Rs 112.88 Crores Rs 138.93 Crores Rs 172.02 Crores Rs 247.41 Crores Rs 438.43 Crores Rs 515.96 Crores Rs 783.53 Crores Rs 1002.89 Crores Rs 1293.60 Crores Rs 834.60 Crores

1994-95 (Firsthalf)

It is surprising that authorities concerned do not feel any need to narrow down trade gap. The only way to bridge this imbalance is to increase the volume of export of Bangladeshi goods to India; but India has so far obstructed import of Banglades.hi goods by keeping its tariff abd custom duty unusually high, specially for those items that Bangladesh can export to India. It is believed that some highly placed Bangladeshi officials under RAW's influence and patronage are mainly responsible for such a massive trade deficit. Indian goods get easy access to Bangladesh as in many cases the tariff and custom duties on foreign goods have been lowered from 95% to 20%. But India has not reduced its duties and kept these at the level of about 85%, especially for those Bangladeshi goods which have a good and excessive demand in India. According to available figures, average tariff rate in Bangladesh is 23% while in India it is 40%. Similarly, the average duty on consumer goods in India is around 90% while it is only 20% in Bangladesh(The Weekly Holiday: February 17, 1992).Resultantly Bangladeshi goods cannot have easy access to India. Bangladesh Government and its officials could have" imposed the same rate of customs duty on Indian goods to compel India to lessen its customs duty on Bangladeshi goods. But some of the Bangladeshi

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officials seem to have mortgaged thefuselves to RA. Wand hence they cannot take any reta1i~tory action against India's trade aggression. The pro-India attitude of these officials is evident not only by their failure to take retaliatory measures but also by their readiness to grant concessions to India. The tariff rates applicable to Indian goods in many cases are lower than the rates for other countries. These tariff concessions lure Bangladeshi traders to import lower grade Indian goods instead of better quality goods from other countpies. Such concessions encourage imports from India despite the fact that Indian goods are inferior in quality to the goods of many other countries. The lower tariffs -on Indian goods result in lower prices compared to goods of other countries, hence despite poor quality they have managed to capture Bangladeshi markets. Moreover, large quantities of Indian goods are also smuggled into the country without paying any tax or duty. As a result they become even cheaper. Under the circumstances goods of other countries cannot compete with Indian goods. However, the main sufferers in the bargain are common people who are forced to buy sub standard Indian goods. Besides it causes grave loss to local industry and economy. Informed circles stated that RAW agents in different Government departments manipulate concesion f9r India in such a way that these appear innocuous to common people. Very few persons are aware of the impact of such hidden concessions granted to India under the garb of mutual and bilateral understanding. It may also be pointed out that despite, knowing the damage-smuggling is inflicting on national economy, no firm anti smuggling measures have been undertaken by Items authorities concerned. If Government departments hadreally been sincere to contain smuggling, Bangladesh would never have been flooded with Indian goods. Indifference to wage concerted antismuggling drive is clear proof of connivance of higher ups in the affair. Indeed these are the people who, for their personal interests, have jeopardised the nation's future and economic well being. "One of the major factors for converting Bangladesh into Indian market is smuggling. It has been learnt that Indian Government and its various agencies including Border Security Forces (BSF) encourage smuggling into Bangladesh. When Indian commodities are smuggled into Bangladesh, BSF personnel pretend not to see anything. But they show their alertness in guarding against goods of Bangladesh being smuggled into India. They, however, remain indifferent and blind when gold, silver, jute,newsprint, Hilsha fish are smuggled from Bangladesh into India as this smuggling is helpful for Indian economy.Union Government as well as some state Governments of India, viz. West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura knowingly and intentionally are engaged in ruining the economy of Bangladesh through smuggling. Goods worth Tk. 8 to 10 thousand crores are smuggled into Bangladesh from India annually"(The Daily Al-Mujadded : January 29, 1995). A prestigious weekly of Bangladesh, The 'Holiday' wrote: "The cross-border trade, or informal trade, or. call it smuggling, if you like, amounts to anything between '100 to 200

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percent of the formal trade, or may be more for nobody knows for sure"(The Weekly Holiday: February 10, 1995).Besides paying huge bribes to corrupt Bangladeshi officials for their help in promoting Indian goods, various measures are being employed by RAW to control t:qe market mechanism. These measures include : a. Bangladeshi traders are offered to obtain Indian goods on credit. All goods, from heavy trucks to onions, can be imported from India into Bangladesh on credit. It is indeed lucrative offer for traders who make huge profits without any investment of their own. However, little do they realize that by so doing they are playing in Indian hands. b. Lucrative commissions are offered to middlemen for securing contracts for the supply of Indian goods. c. In order to sell poor quality Indian goods they even resort to despicable practices e.g., labeling their goods as products of other countries. Similarly practice of marketing Indian goods in packets of other brands is also in vogue. Here we can cite an example of marketing lower quality Indian cement. At present Bangladesh imports 1.8 million tons of cement from Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, China, Iran, Russia, Iraq etc. Cement from these countries meets standard British specifications while Indian cement does not meet the standard in many cases and hence is not popular. However, Indian cement preducing companies have started marketing their cement in bags marked with bull head, eagle etc, similar t9 the cement bags of Indonesia. This is done to deceive illiterate buyers. Moreover, empty bags of Indonesian and Chinese cement are purchased from the marl,t.et. It is alleged that these bags are filled with Indian cement and sold in the market as cement from Indonesia or China. To market this inferior Indian cement, credit. is arranged upto Rs 10 million for Bangladeshi dealers. (Daily Inqilab : January 18, 1995). d. RAW provides support to its agents to set up' joint ventures in collaboration with' Bangladeshi enterprenuer. These companies only import Indian goods and sell them in Bangladesh. Many of these enterprises are totally financed by RAW. The mock Bangladeshi partners of such companies remain dormant while the entire business is conducted by RAW agents and operatives from behind. The net result of above nefarious practices, conducted with active help of RAW, is that Bangladesh's economy has suffered serious set backs. The reason for destroying Bangladesh's economy is to propagate that Bangladesh is economically unviable, RAW hopes that, pver burdened bypoverty and squalor, Bangladesh will abandon its dream of becoming a sovereign and prosperous country. Bangladesh will thus be left with no option but to acquiesceato Indian machination and subjugation. Here I would remind' the esteemed readers about theplight of the erstwhile Soviet Union. The economic degradation of the mighty Soyiet Union was major reason for its fall and disintegration. Let us pray the same fate does not befall on Bangladesh.

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CHAPTER-14 MINERAL RESOURCES The vital role played by mineral resources of a country in its economic development needs no explanation. Experts believe that Bangladesh has been endowed with rich mineral resources. However, unfortunately due to Indian manipulations with the help of RAW's paid agents in Bangladeshi bureaucracy, Bangladesh has been unable to fully reap the benefits of the hidden treasures and put an end to its' economic dilemma. 'RAW's impediments in Bangladesh's efforts for exploration of minerals are for two reasons. Firstly, they fear that Bangladesh may drain oil from India's wells in Assam and secondly Bangladesh's self sufficiency in its mineral resources would enhance its economic stability resulting into the demise of India's long awaited desire of amalgamating Bangladesh and formation of 'Akhand Bharat". "After emergence of Hangladesh, Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman divided the coastal region into six sectors and leased them to foreign companies for exploration of oil and gas. The respective companies took on the job but just after a short span of time for reasons unknown shut downthe projects and left Bangladesh. No inquiry was made and no reason was offered by the Government for this closure.It is said that these companies closed their operations at the urging of KGB and RAW. Professor Abu Sayed in his book 'Facts and Documents' writes that the company which was carrying out exploration at the sea coast adjacent to Barisal was attacked by Indian gun boats in broad day light, dismantling the erected infrastructure"(Daily Rupali, March 2, 1992). "Another example of RAW's influence in abating Bangladesh's efforts of exploring mineral resources is of Feni Gas Field. The gas field was discovered during the regime of late President Ziaur Rahman. But soon after the- death of President Zia the project was abandoned for being 'economically unviable'.However, the experts did not believe the official explanation. The project was re-opened after ten years and is now running profitably thus contributing a lot to the country's economy. Many more examples can be quoted of projects which started with pomp and show but were later stopped or discontinued for reasons unknown"(Daily AI Mujadded : June 2, 1995). "During president Ershad's regime foreign companies were once again given contracts for exploration of oil. Scimitar, one of the companies, was given oil exploration rights in Sylhet. Soon RAW orchestrated allegations through some political parties in Bangladesh that the country's interests were being bartered away to Scimitar. Ultimately the company abandoned the project and left. Thus RAW achieved objective of protecting their vital economic interests beside scaring away other companies from undertaking on such ventures in Bangladesh. Similarly a French Company, B Fistal that had almost struck oil reserves at Shalbahan in Dinajpur, abandoned its project in Bangladesh. Later it was revealed that India had laid a bait for purchase of billions of dollars worth weaponry including Mirage 2000 fighter aircrafts from France beside awarding B Fistal company a big oil exploration project just

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5 Kms opposite Shalbahan at Jamidarpara, West Bengal, India"(Dainik BangIa: August 23, 1994). RAW uses terrorists of Shantibahinf not to allow any oil exploration in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region including Samutang. Understandably no foreign firm will risk an exploration work in the region as long as violence persists in the area.There are reports that oil reserves had been struck at Patbaria, Sylhet (then part of Assam) in 1908. However,further work was not pursued at the site because the British authorities of that time did not feel the need for additional oil as they had already discovered oil in Dibrugarb and Digboy in Assam. In 1947 Sylhet was separated from Assam and became a part of Pakistan. Presently it is a part of Bangladesh. In November 1987 the Government of Bangladesh, with the help of Saudi Development Fund, started exploration for oil at Patharia. But after considerable digging and investment of 40 crore takas it was belatedly realised by the concerned authorities that there were some procedural complexities.Thus on the said plea this project was also shelved. Observers believe that RAW manipulated and' arranged abandoning of this promising project. Similarly the exploration of oil fields at Haripur (reported to be the biggest oil field in Asia) and Kailash Tila (Sylhet) were stopped under mysterious circumstances. All the above examples bring out the fact that RAW is determined to prevent any exploration venture in Bangladesh particularly the exploration of oil in Sylhet area as they fear that underground oil reserves of Assam may drain toSylhet due to proximity. Indians have been using some corrupt Bangladeshi bureaucrats and technical experts for furthering their designs. According to a press report published in the 'Daily Inqilab' during January 1993, Deputy Director Habibur Rahman of Geological Survey Directorate Bangladesh was paid cash money, expenses for travel to India and a phd. degree in exchange for secret survey reports regarding mineral resources of Bangladesh. Besides creating strong impediments in the way of exploring oil reservers, RAW has been creating hindrances in exploratory work of other mineral resurces as well. One glaring example is the hurdles created by India in the exploration of Madhyapara hard rock for simple reason that Bangladesh should remain dependent on India for its hard rock imports. Similarly hurdles were created to prevent exploration of coal at Barapukuria.RAW's agents, instigated the land owners of Barapukuria to resist exploratory work on the plea of inadequate compensations paid for their agricultural lands. Yet another example of nation's mineral wealth lying unexplored is the case of Uranium and Potassium ores at Joypurhat-Sylhet. Despite confirmed reoprts of huge deposits, no further work has been undertaken for the development of the said mines. Dr. G.W. Gableman (a Geologist involved in the exploration of oil and gas) in an article published in Internatiopal Atomic Energy Journal had stated as'early as 1970 that,there are vIsible signs of presence of high grade Uraniu'm in B;;ingladesh. Based on said report an exploration venture was started by the Bangladesh Government in the area' of Fultala, Maulvibazar, Sylhet during 1976. The explorations confirmed the presence of high grade Ur;;inium btit the project was suddenly stopped in 1986 owing to RAW's conspiracies.

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On the contrary,India is extracting Uranium in Meghalaya, only a few kilometres away from Sylhet border. According to 'The Daily AI Mujadded', February 27,1995, Bangladesh has huge lime stone deposits' i.e. 17 million tons in Bolgi Bazar;'1.8 million tons in Takerhat, 2 million tons at Bhanger Ghat, and 40 thousand tons at Balapunji. All these are lying unexplored. The newspaper further reported that experienced observers believe that RAW is involved in preventing exploitation of ' the said mineral resou:r:ces. RAW has bribed high officials of Bangladesh concerned with mineral exploration who do not permit any progress to take place in this sector. The same newspaper in a later review (AI Mujadded, May 16, 1995) wrote that on, account of indecision by the ministry of Science and Technology, 50 lakh tons of Bhlck Gold (Zircon, Rutail, Liukuxin, kayanite, Magnetite, Garnet and Manazite mixed with sand are termed as Black Gold) present in the south-eastern coastal region and adjoining islands is lying unexplored. Needless to mention that the bi-products of Black Gold can be utilized in industries such as paper, electrode welding, aircrafts, space technology and nuclear fission etc. Due to lack of financial resources and adequate indigenous facilities, Bangladesh has to depend on foreign investors for exploration projects. But RAW is continuously discouraging foreign investors, sometimes by using political pressure tactics and sometimes by bribing the concerned officials.RAW's modus operandi in' this regard is summarized as below : a. RAW has been propagating that there are no mineral deposits in Bangladesh, thus discouraging foreign companies form investment in the sector. b . RAW offers huge amounts as bribe to foreign as well as local engineers and staff employed on preparation o( feasibility reports of new projects, to' get 'tailored' reports suggesting that exploration will not be viable and productive. c. Different Directorates and Ministry officials in Bangladesh concerned with processing of new projects in some cases are bribed to hinder br delay the proposals for exploration. The foreign companies thus get disgruntled due to bureacratic hassles and delays and eventually decide to abandon the project. d. Even if some foreign company manages to overcome all the hurdles and starts' a project, its work and functioning are made difficult by local agents of RAW. Since 1972 many companies who had started projects, left midway due to harassment by RAW agents. Obviously seeing their plight no other company will dare to come forward.The ingress of RAW in various ministries, directorates and organisations of Bangladesh is so paramount that it has successfully sabotaged many projects. Large number of abortive projects are clear proof of this treachery. It is believed that until the patriotic people of Bangladesh root out RAW agents from departments and ministries concerned with exploration of mineral resources, no worthwhile progress can be 'made in this field.

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Consequently, Bangladesh will continue to remain poor and subservient to India. The question, however, remains when will the rooting out of firmly saddled RAW agents begin?

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CHAPTER-15 GARMENT INDUSTRY The garment industry has played a pioneering role in the development of industrial sector of Bangladesh. Though it took a rather late start i.e., in 1976 but it soon established its reputation in the world market within a short span of time. Resultantly garment is now one of the main export items of the country. Besides, enriching the country's economy it has played a very important role in alleviating unemployment. At present there are more than two thousand one hundred garment factories in the country employing more than 12 lakh labourers. 85 percent of the labour force are women. Once Sri-Lanka was leader in this field in South Asia and India was its competitor. The Indian intelligence agency RAW activated the Tamils of Indian origin in a separatist movement thus starting a bloody civil war resulting in the quick demise of the garments industry of Sri-Lanka. The international buyers and investors diverted their attention towards Bangladesh. As a result the garments industry of Bangladesh expanded with unprecedented success. During the financial year 1993-94 Bangladesh earned 6199.8 crore taka in 'this sector.India is. envjous of such an unprecedented success of Bangladesh. India has always remained vigilant of even the slightest success of Bangladesh in any sector with apprehensions of loosing contol over Bangladesh. It is an unabated portion of her strategy to ensure that Bangladesh does not make progress in any field. So if Bangladesh makes any success in any sector, India starts conspiring to ruin Bangladesh in that sector. The success in garments industry of Bangladesh had posed a challenge to India. India thus hatched a conspiracy to eliminate Bangladesh from the markets of USA and Europe. For fulfilling this heinous plan RAW, besides utilizing its agents in Bangladesh, developed a strong lobby in Europe, America and Far East against the garments industry of Bangladesh. India's first attempt was to bring within its grip the buyers associations. Through clever manipulations India has succeeded in controlling the buying houses of Korea and Hong Kong. The buying houses generally obtain orders for ready made garments from different countries. The owners of Indian controlled buying houses started concerted campaign to stop foreign companies from giving. any contract to Bangladesh. They try to impress upon the buyers of Europe and America that (1) Bangladesh was not capable of producing good work, (2) the businessmen and industrialists of Bangladesh were not honest and (3) above all, the garments made in Bangladesh were below standard. To establish these falsehoods RAW infiltrated its agents. in different garment factories of Bangladesh. The works that RAW carried out through these agents are listed below: a. To search for fabrics which are not covered by contract. b. To supply garments of low standard, ruffled up with out any stitch. c. Export less number of garments than stipulated in the contract.

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d. Pack the carton with torn pieces of cloth instead of garments. e. Make deliberate delay in exporting the order placed. Such incidents happened many times in the past thus jeopardizing markets of Bangladesh. The owners of the garment factories soon realised this conspiracy and took timely step to remedy. the situation thus foiling the conspiracy of RAW. But this conspiracy was not over for good. RAW agents still carry out such heinous acts where ever they get an opportunity. Another aspect of RAW's conspiracy is to drag the labour of garment industry into trade union movements. Unhealthy trade union movement can playa pioneering role in disrupting the production of industrial sector. In the earlier .stages there were no trade union in the garments industry. But gradually the trade union movement crept into the garments industry. Under the cover of demandingthe legitimate rights of garment iabour RAW created. discontent among the labours, thus seriously affecting production and in some cases the industries had to be closed down. As exports have to be carried out within a fixed time frame and once the exports are not made in time then the contract is cancelled. RAW is engaged in spreading discontent in our garments industry so that the buyers of Europe and USA turn their faces away from Bangladesh. The organisations of labours of the garment industries very often hold meetings, distribute pamphlets and from time to time give statements making various demands. RAW collects these. pamphlets, statements and other publicity materials of the garment labour, even make tape recordings of their statements and send them to the foreign buyers augmenting it by saying that the garment labour of Bangladesh work in a very unhealthy atmosphere and live in a sub human life. In pursuance for the destruction-of the garment industryof Bangladesh RAW has engaged some dishonest traders, fake producers, exporters and in complicity with a section of officers of the Export Promotion Bureau who have been carrying out their heinous activities. Under instruction of RAW they obtain false no objection certificates and through fake documents export garments to USA and other foreign countries. RAW agents have earned crores of takas by fictitious certificates of Export Promotion Bureau. In the financial year 1993-94 a false export consigment of four hundred crore taka was detected which was exported to USA(Daily Inqilab : October 22, 1994). The same issue of Inqilab reported that India in the financial year 1993-94 exported low quality garments to the USA j;ri the name of Bangladesh. This consignment was exported by fictitious certificate of Export Promotion Bureau 'under the category of 320 and 652. In the financial year 1992-93, in a similar m,Slnner India exported below standard garments to 'USA worth 25 million dollars. The customs intelligence officers of the USA after enquiry unearthed this fraud.

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As a consequence Bangladesh suffered on account of the fraudulent activities of India, r;sultantly the quantum of export of Bangladeshi garments got considerably reduced. During the fina,ncial year of 1992-93 Bangladesh had exported to the USA, garments worth 65 crore 50 lakh dollars and in the next year I.e. in the finacial year 1993-94 the export was reduced to 54 crore 50 lakh dollars consequent to India's fraudulent activities. It is viewed with concern that India succeeded in spoiling the good image of Bangladeshi garments. As a consequence Bangladesh has lost many of its foreign markets. In the financial year 1993-94, the target for garments export was 165 crore dollars. But on account of the fraudulent measures of RAW this target could not be achieved and there was a short fall of 22 percent. RAW's agents exported substandard garments to European countries particularly to Italy and Germany through fake GSP certificates on behalf of Bangladesh. Though those substandard garments were not made in Bangladesh, but they did earn a bad name for Bangladesh and also affected future Bangladeshi exports to these countries. Italy substantially reduced the quantum of imports of garments from Bangladesh. These actions have badly harmed the country's economy, but no official inquiry was held to investigate the frauds. The Bangladeshi officers who connived with RAW for the said fraudulent transactions are still holding their respective posts and continue to serve the foreign interests(Daily Inqilab : October 2, 1994). The campaign launched in the USA regarding the employment' of child labour in the garment industry of Bangladesh is also sponsored' by RAW. The Bangladeshi nagents of RAW had prepared a TV documentary about employment of child labour in the garment industry of Bangladesh for ABC Television. RAW collected the video cassettes of that programme and sent them to senators, members of the Congress and other top policymakers of the USA. Influenced by the publicity campaign orchestrated by RAW agents, US Senator Tom Harkins submitted a bill in the Senate known as 'Harkins Bill'. This bill stipulated that those countries which employ child; labour will not be allowed to send their industrial products to the USA. Mr. Harkins while citing example mentioned the name of Bangladesh. Despite passage of this bill RAW did not desist itself from indulging in anti-Bangladesh propaganda and publicity. In its latest move RAW organised a union of 40 children and religious organisations in the USA to be known as child Labour Coalition. This organisation has no local sta.nding and is not even recognised by the USA. This organisation has engaged itself in a systematic propaganda against Bangladesh regarding child labo~r in the garment industry. The Indians went from door to door campajgning . against buying garments from Bangladesh on account of child labour(Weekly Sonar BangIa: May 26, 1995). After the passage of the Harkins Bill nearly 50 thousand child labours have been terminated from the garments factories and the remaining eight thousand would be sacked by October 31, 1995.Inspite of it the child Labour coalition continues to harp on its lethal propaganda with a. view to jeopardizing the interests of Bangladesh. Is it not a known fact that many countries including India employ child labour in variety of industrial sectors? But only Bangladesh has been singled out and targeted in a systematic

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manner. Investigations reveal that it is only India that is bound to destroy the garment industry of Bangladesh. Child Labour Federation was used by RAW in furthering its goal in a cleverly manipulated move. It 'may be noted that according to reliable reports five crore child' labours are presently employed in India's carpet, shoe, garment and other sundry industries(Daily Star: May 31,1995). But the Harkins Bill or the Child Labour Federation seem to have no concern about it or rather they purposely over look it. o.n account of adverse publicity against Bangladesh orchestrated by RAW Bangladesh have been identified as a guilty country.Due to some mysterious reasons no effective step is being initiated to counter the mischievous activities of RAW in Bangladesh. It is the responsibility of the bureaucrats and the policy makers to explain to the world about the emploYment of child labour in different fields. It should be explained very clearly and. explicitly that by employing these unfortunate child labours it has been possible to save them from certain death by starvation, it has been possible to make them self dependent and lead a respectable life. This aspect should be strongly and vigorously projected in the outside world. The western countries should understand that stitching buttons by child labour is not a difficult and inhuman job. This point must be stressed and highlighted to the people of the western countries particularly in the USA. It is suspected that the concerned officials being influenced by RAW mysteriously are not taking any effective steps against RAW and its agents. It now seems that our embassies in the western countries including the USA, our Ministry of Foreign Affairs or the Ministry of Commerce, the Government publicity media or most of the political parties appear to be unconcerned about this important national issue. They did not make even a normal protest. In the face of conspiracy and strong lobbying by RAW everyone seems to be indifferent to this vital national issue and thus RAW has succeeded in proving the fact that the complaints made against Bangladesh have good foundation and Bangladesh has no ground to counter it. It is apprehended that agents of RAW have spread their network in the country in such a manner that they are present in all the relevant Ministries and officies so that no initiative can ever be taken by the government to counter the activities of RAW. The Daily newspaper 'Al Mujadded' in its issue of May 27, 95 alleged inaction by the Embassy of Bangladesh in USA. The paper wrote that the Indian garment industry lobby was destroying the garment industry of Bangladesh and they have spread their tentacles in all the sectors of industry so 'that it does not get any market abroad. The paper in its report said, 'The owners of the garment industry of Bangladesh have not as yet received any information regarding the activities of RAW in the USA in complicity with US officials and the garments industry owners of Bangladesh are very indignant about it'. The paper further says that it is the duty of the Embassy to keep the owners of the garment industry informed about the propaganda that is being carried out in USA against this industry. It would facilitate both the Government and the industry concerned to take effective measures against the propaganda of RAW. But' the Bangladesh Embassy in Washington has failed to take any such initiative. It was further alleged in the report that on account of

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inactivity or lack of initiative by the concerned officials of the Bangladesh Embassy in the USA the Indian garments industry lobby was out to destroy the market of Bangladesh in USA. So naturally the question arises whose interest is being looked after by our Embassy and other concerned agencies and officials and to whom are they really accountable?The Weekly 'Sonar BangIa' in its issue of May 26, 1995 has expressed similar sentiments. The paper says that an international agency. is engaged in making anti-Bangladesh campaign in the USA to ruin the garments market of Bangladesh in the USA and the strangest part of the whole affair is that despite an these uproars Government is conspicuously maintaining silence. It seems that it is not" a matter of concern for either our Embassy in the USA or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Ministries of Industry and Commerce. Earlier when the US Senator Tom Harkins presented the Bill in the US Senate regarding imposing ban on garments 'produced by child labour to the USA, the Bangladesh Embassy in Washington and other concerned ministries and officers had played similar roles. the Daily Inqilab, in its issue. of 26 January 95 wrote, , Senator Harkins infonned that he wanted to discuss the subject of employment of child labour in the garment industry of Bangladesh so that necessary steps can be taken in this regard. He said that the government of India, through a Minister, had discussed the subject with him. But no initiative had yet been taken by Bangladesh side. Mr.Harkins wanted to know why the Government of Bangladesh was so slow in taking any initiative in this regard. The Daily Inqilab further reported that Bangladesh Embassy in Washington did not contact the Senator in this respect. If any such initiative was taken by Bangladesh Embassy in the USA the scheme of RAW to deprive Bangladesh of the Western markets particularly the USA could have been curbed. 'l'he concerned Bangladesh officials by showing such apathy, have upheld the-interests of India rather than Bangladesh. One really ponders so as to at whose behest this inactivity, apathy conspiracy is going on and why the agents of RAW are carrying out their nefarious activities unhindered.

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CHAPTER-16 FISHERIES The fish wealth of Bangladesh can be divided into two broad categories, sweet water fish of the inland waters and the salty water fish of the sea. Owing to its climatic conditions, favourable soil and waters which include rivers,canals, ponds, vast sea and long coast, Bangladesh has an ideal environment for the growth of both types of fisheries.Experts believe that if potential of fish industry is fully exploited, it can hecome the largest foreign exchange earning sector in the country even surpassing garment industry. However, due to Indian machinations, fisheries have not achieved desired development and growth in Bangladesh. By constructing Farakka Barrage and 40 other small and large dams on common rivers, India has already put an end to the sweet water fish industry of Bangladesh. Now RAW is pursuing its objective of destroying the sea fish wealth of Bangladesh. Fish and Rice which were once synonymous with Bangladesh are now a story of the past.The damage done to fisheries of Bangladesh can be gauged from the fact that thousands of tons of fish is now being smuggled in from India into the country which once used to export fish itself. According to a survey carried out by the Zoological Department of Dhaka University, the economic zone of the country in the Bay of Bengal comes to 1lakh 64 thousand square kilometres. 475 varieties of fish and 24 varieties of shrimp are found in the said zone. The survey states that upto 40 meters depth of the coastal region the stock of floating fish is 2 lakh tons, in the 200 meters depth zone there are stock of 20 lakh tons of 42 varieties of general fish and another 20 lakh tons in the inner depth of sea(Daily AI Mujadded : May 31, 1995). The fish resources in the sea belt of Bangladesh include Tuna, Salmon, Mackerel, Johnkis, Sword, Shrimp, Lobster, Roopchanda, Roopan, Hilsha, Laittya and many others totalling 475 varieties. A cautious estimate indicates that Bangladesh can easily export annually upto 4 lakh tons of sea fish(Professor Abul Kalam Azad: Bangladesh Amar Bangladesh: Page 61).The fish wealth of sea is a gift of Allah to Bangladesh. Its collection is not expensive as the only expenditure incurred is on sailing and netting. Fish has been the second largest export item after ready made garments. Similarly shrimp cultivation is one of the best sources of income for Bangladesh. The price or shrimp in intertlational market varies from 366 taka to 736 taka per kg. Bangladesh has very successfully developed its coastal region for shrimp cultivation. The demand for frozen fish products particularly Shrimps was fast increasing in international market. In the year 1972-73 the earning from exporting frozen fish products was 2.38 crore which rose in 1994-95 to 1100 crore taka(Daily AI Mujadded : May 27, 1995). According to a sub-editorial of the Daily Ittefaq, printed on June 3, 1995, if concerted efforts are made to develop fisheries, . Bangladesh will be able to produce lobsters alone worth 24 thousand crore taka annually. India sees Bangladesh as her sole competitor in

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export of frozen fish products in the world market. The three fold increase in Bangladesh's shrimp production made India envious to such an extent that RAW was directred to develop ways and means to destroy the pisciculture of Bangladesh particularly the shrimp cultivation. Indians have, been indulging in our fish stock ever since the independence of Bangladesh. They encourage and help Indian fishermen to net fish stealthily in the sea of Bangladesh. Indian sea food exports have increased manifold as a result of the said piracy. Later the Indians have started using force to catch fish and shrimp from Bangladesh's water areas. The Khulna Bureau of the Daily Al Mujadded reported that during the tidal uproar and flood of May 15-17, 1995, ninety percent of the Shrimp hatcheries of the South coastal region of Bangladesh were washed away. When Banglade"Shi fishermen were recovering the same in their own area, large number of Indian fishermen also arrived with about 50 to 100 trawler boats. They chased the Bangladeshi fishermen out from their own sea and looted the shrimps. The Indians entered Bangladesh territory through Pasur, Hariabangha,Raimangal and south Talpatty Island. Indian pirates not only looted the fish wealth but also took away the fishing nets and other fishing equipment of the poor Bangladeshi fishermen (Daily Al Mujadded : May 21, 1995).The Bangladeshi fishermen could not face the Indian buccaneers because it is learnt that Indian Navy generally backs such operations(Daily Janakantha : December 20, 1994). The looting of fish from the waters of Bangladesh by Indians has now become a common complaint. A UNDP report revealed that an approximate of 40 crore taka worth fish are being annually looted by foreign trawlers from Bangladesh water areas.3 In the month of February 1995, Bangladesh Navy seized 3 Indian trawlers with 33 persons and five Indian trawlers with 54 persons on 10 and 13 February respectively. The names of the five Indian trawlers were FB Mother Ganggar Dhan, FB Mother Monosa, FB Mother Kamala, FB Mother Saroda and FB Mother Katwani(Daily Al Mujadded : February 14, 1995). The Daily Inqilab's reporter from Bagerhat reported that in last week of September 1994 and in the first half of October 1994, Bangladesh Navy captured 17 Indian fishing trawlers with 223 fishermen. Another report states that during the period from 1991 to May 1995 a total of 52 foreign fishing trawlers were seized. Out of these 43 were Inidians. Needless to mention that due to the paucity of Naval vessels with Bangladesh it is not possible for the authorities to seize all foreign vessels entering Bangladeshi sea. Besides, many a seizures did not even reach the news room. The large scale theft of Bangladesh's fish wealth is yet not enough for RAW's satisfaction. They want to completely destroy the fish resources of Bangladesh. For the purpose a very mean strategy has been adopted recently. RAW had got dumped some eight thousand six hundred bags of garlic into the area close to fish hatcheries within Bangladesh waters. These garlic bags were imported through J. R. Trading on a Chinese vessel'Yangmin' and were dumped into the waters of Bangladesh on the plea of becoming unfit for human consumption. The import of garlic worth taka 1 crore 12 thousand under the cover of a non-governmental Bangladeshi firm and then throwing it away in nylon bags in a planned

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manner smells of foul play. RAW's aim was to drive the fish away from Bangladesh waters owing to the foul smell of rotten garlic. Indeed this is a unique example of an intelligence agency damaging economic interests of target country by destroying its pisciculture. It is a clear proof of RAW's vicious designs against Bangladesh. As a result of this unprecedented action the Bangladesh sea-coast was totally denuded of its fish wealth. A daily newspaper reported that on February 6, 1995 a group of experts on pisiculture on their vessel 'Anusandhani' went out in the sea to obtain mother shrimps for the 'Niribili hatchery' at Cox's Bazar. After a trawling of consecutive six days upto 60 nautical miles, only 17 mother Shrimps were captured. The pisiculturists informed that on account of the bad smell of innumerable floating bags of rotten garlic, the environment of the sea coast was adversely affected which drove the fish away. It is reared that. this would have far reaching effects on country's fishing industry(Daily Al Mujadded : February 26, 1995). At the time of independence, Bangladesh had no vessels of its own. She (Bangladessh) hired a vessel from India to export its frozen sea foods. The said vessel on its way'was anchored at Madras and small iron spikes were injected into the body of shrimps. This was done with the intention to earn bad name for Bangladesh. Yet another conspiracy of RAW to diminish our shrimp industry was to create misunderstandings amongst the hatchery owners and rice cultivators of Khlilna region. RAW succeeded in this venture resulting in armed clashes between the two. In the latest conspiracy RAW tnrough its agents has started abducting fishermen of Bangladesh fishing in high seas demanding ransom and killing the poor fishermen if ransom is not paid. Daily Al Mujadded reports that during May 1995 at least 24 cases of dacoity were committed by Indian pirates in the coastal belt of the Bay of Bengal. Eight fishermen simply disappeared after being taken away by the Indian dacoits and 30 fishermen were seriously injured(Daily AI Mujadded, June 5, 1995).To curb this piracy Government had decided to raise a Coast Guard Regiment. But the plan seems to have been put in cold storage. In' this regard Daily Al Mujadded reported, in 1993 the standing committee of The Jatiya Sangsad (National Assembly) on Home Mfairs decided to raise a Coast Guard Regiment. In 1994 a draft policy was adopted under the caption 'Coastal Guard Act '94. The training and expenses were all worked out, but no further steps have been taken till date. Reasons for the delay are not known. Uncertainty still prevails regarding fate of proposed Coast Guard Regiment(Daily Al Mujadded : February 14, 1995). Knowledgeable circles informed that RAW has managed to delay the project through its agents in Bangladesh's higher echelons. This is yet another example of national interests being sacrificed to please Indian masters.Indian Border 'Security Force has also been attacking Bangladeshi fishermen while fishing in frontier rivers. The Daily Bangladesh Observer reported on 13 August, 1995,Two Bangladeshi fishermen were. shot and killed by Indian Border Security Force while fishing in a frontier river in Satkhira District. The BSF men left the area when BDR patrols appeared there'. The aim of such attacks is to

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deter Bangladeshi fishermen from fishing in common frontier rivers thus denying them their legitimate share of the fish in these rivers. Throwing of rotten garlic in the coastal region, vicious looting of fish wealth of Bangladesh, harassment, kidnapping for ransom and killing of poor fishermen are all part of RAW's scheme to hamper growth of fisheries in Bangladesh. RAW is ruthlessly pursuing its agenda of creating hurdles and impeding progress of Bangladesh's economy. The reason is understandable. However, the irony is that appropriate counter measures have not been taken by those who are responsible for the same.

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CHAPTER--17 BTV AND RADIO BANGLADESH Television and Radio are the best mass media for entertainment and creating public awareness. In Bangladesh both are state owned organisations and are run by public money. In'1989 a daily news paper reported that in BTV alone there were 431 dramatists and writers, 1171 drama artists, 181 dance artists, 35 dance directors, 431 instrumentalists, 1202 vocalists, 198 music directors and tuners(Daily Sangarm : June 19, 1989).In 1988 a sum of one crore 46 lakh taka was spent as honorarium for the artists alone in BTV. As majority of the people of Bangladesh are poor and illiterate who can neither afford to buy books nor can they read, therefore the influence of radio and television on the people is more pronounced and far reaching. These two organisations can playa vital role in infusing and nurturing religious feelings and projecting national culture and tradition, But unfortunately both of these organisations are under tremendous influence of RAW and hence failed to fufil national aspirations. In the truest sense of the term BTV and Radio Bangladesh are not playing desired role for proje.cting and developing the national identity and building national character. RAW influenced people have saddled themselves so deep in these organisations that our national identity can't find projection either on TV or Radio. It has been learnt from different sources that in every branch of BTV there are well placed pro-In.dian elements. According to reports the number of RAW influenced officers and staff in the organisation is such that for the coming ten years even if BTV stops recruiting RAW influenced people, still it would not be free of its spell. There is no section in BTV which is free from RAW agents including the News Section. Ninety percent of the officers of BTV have close links with RAW. These officers receive regular monthly allowance from RAW (Weekly Sainik : July 17, 1991). There are 27 codes of ethics for broadcasting and telecasting programmes over radio and television. These include propagation of Bangladeshi nationalism, projection of state policies, traditional Muslim values, development of morality, curbing corruption and anti-social activities,encouraging birth control, promoting national culture and traditions, spreading education and general awareness etc. Besides, BTV has its 'own censor code which states that no fIlm be shown that projects moral degradation, crime or sin. Nudity to include nude shadow image, undressing,symbolic dances, sex, rape and objectionable bed scenes are to be strictly avoided(Daily Sangram : June 19, 1989) .Unfortunatly BTV has utterly failed in following the stipulated code of eithics and 'censor. The entire managment, planning, presentation :1 nd production staff is under RAW's influence. Instead of projecting Islamic values they are promoting Indian culture. So much so that even the main pillar of state policy i.e., faith in Allah and Islam is not reflected in BTV's most programmes. In fact, BTV programmes do not appear to be work of a TV station belonging to the second largest Muslim state. The dialogues, statements, comments, scenarios and dresses

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are mostly repugnant to the main principles of Islam. In most of the dramas, on the plea of necessity of the story,the traditional Muslim culture, norms and social values of Bangladesh are ignored. When any anti-social character is depicted, he is generally shown with a beard and a cap on his head. At times evil characters are shown as Haji,Maulvi, Pir etc. (i.e., personalities respected in Islam). The religion is ridiculed and projected in poor light(Daily Sangram : June 18, 1989). In different BTV programmes including dramas, the Calcutta culture dominates in matters of dress and language, thus shadowing national culture and Muslim identity of Bangladesh. To prevent national integration,plays about Razakars and Albadars of 1971 are repeatedly telecast. Speical programmes and plays are presented to spread disunity and disaffection amongst different classes of people particularly with reference to liberation war of 1971. BTV is also promoting a pseudo to liberal culture. In most of the plays it is shown that young boys and girls rise in revolt against their parents. Wives revolt against their husbands. The main purpose of depicting such acts is to destory our traditional social values and family ties. In many plays explicit love scenes are shown disregarding our social values. The depiciton of smugglers, extortionists, professional murderers, mastans and drug addicts is done in a manner that such characters are glorified on screen. BTV plays-Sangsapatk, Shooktara, Purbodin Purboratri, Ayomoy, Jonaki Jaley, Roopnagar, Tathapi, Phiriye Dao Aronnya, Kothao Keu Nei etc. are examples of disregard of Islamic and national values. BTV has proved its loyalty to RAW by over projecting Rabindranath Tagore in most of its dramas. There is hardly any play where Tagore is not shown, or his songs are not sung or his poems are not read. Even in advertisements Rabindranath Tagore is sometimes seen or heard. On the occasion of observance of Rabindranath's birth anniversary BTV's heroines or heros and dancers display on their foreheads the Hindu symbol of 'Tilak'. Since Tagore's literature is mainly Hindu literature in which Hindu history, culture and traditions are projected, therefore, his over projection amounts to promoting Hidnu i.e., Indian culture in Bangladesh. It may be mentioned that in all the works of Rabindranath Tagore there is no Muslim character except 'Kabuliwala' iWho also does not belong either to West Bengal or Bangladesh, he is, in fact a resident of far off Afghanistan. Most of the officers, producers, presentation organisers, dramatists are under so much obligation to RAW that even on occasions like Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha (Muslim festivals) they do not avoid showing their love and affection for India. Programmes shown on these occasions depict nothing about the significanc"e of Eid, Muslim brotherhood, community feelings and Islamic teachings regarding Eid etc. Instead what they present are absurd programmes which have no relevance to the occasion. Though BTV fails in presenting the real significance of Eid, but the concerned persons do not fail in protecting the Indian interests. Thus between presentation of Eid programmes they punch in Tagore items. In a programme on recent Eid (1995), while presenting an artist to the audience and viewers a lady announcer introduced her as famous in both Bengals'.BTV's love for India was very poignant in the drama titled 'Ta-ra- Ta-ra-ya Khachita'. The dramatist while discarding numerous songs and ghazals of N azrul Islam and

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other Muslim, poets, had sung a devotional poem of Rabindranath Tagore. It was a deliberate attempt to indicate that no programme is complete without Rabindranth Tagore. In the same programme BTV showed Hindi song in one of its programmes. For a nation who fought a war against Urdu, is it not surprising that its BTV programme includes a Hindi song? Who are the persons~that BTV authorities are trying to please? In this connection The Daily Meillat commented, 'When Urdu was swept away from Banglaesh why now Hindi language is becoming so dear to the national broadcasting and telecasting authorities. Instead of showing Bengali song why should the BTV authorities present a Hindi song? A section of dramatists of BTV is very deftly and cleverly trying to misguide the nation and drawing them to a path of destruction (Daily Meillat : May 14, 1995). RAW influenced Persons in BTV, on instructions from RAW, are trying to create an impression on the new generation that only the Hindu poets and litterateurs had enriched the modern Bengali language and literature. To establish this falsehood BTV seldom telecasts, any programme on Muslim poets and litte:yateurs of ancipnt and middle ages. The works of Muslim .poets of ancient era like Alawal, Syed Sultan, Abdul Hakim etc. and of modern age eminent Muslim scholars like Syed Ismail Hossain Seraji, Kaikobad, Mir Mosharraf Hussain, - Dr. Lutfur Rahman, Poet Gholam Mostafa, Dr. Muhammad Shahidullah, Abul Fazal, Poet Farrukh Ahmed, Jasimuddin, Syed Mujtaba Ali, Shahdat Hossain etc. are seldom considered suitable for BTV programmes. However, the proIndian poets like Shamsur Rahaman get good coverage over the BTV. Bpt poetry of much better standing like Ali Ahsan and Al Muhamud are ignored because they believe in Bangladeshi nationalism and the spirit of Islam. BTV follows a path of discrimination even in case of guards of 1952 who had struggled for the Bengali language. Those who were anti-India are intentionally avoided by BTV in the programmes presented on the occasion of observance of language movement day. Sacrifices and struggles of nationalists like late Abul Kashem, late Justice Abdur Rahman Choudhury, Advocate Kazi Gholam Mahboob, Oli Ahad, Dr. Nurul Haq Bhuyan, Professor Abdul Gafoor etc. are never mentioned. On the other hand secular, pro-Indian elements are eulogized. Pro-Indian youngster with the help of BTV have enlisted themselves as intellectuals, whereas recognized and established scholars if they happen to be believers of Bangladeshi nationalism are totally ignored. The eminent intellectual and philosopher Dewan Mohammed Azraf seems to be totally banned by BTV. Language and names are very imporatant factors in a nation's culture and tradition. However, BTV persistently displays characters and names which are alien to our Islamic culture. In dramas, plays and other programmes use of Hindu names is a common practice. This is done to encourage and influence parents to give their children Hindu names. As a result adoption of Hindu nick names by Muslim boys and girls has become quite common in Bangladesh. Hindu name-s like Sawan, Sagar, Somudra,Nadi, Abantika, Saurav, Sujan, Shentu, Rajiv, Torun, Gagan, Anita, Bipasha, Shnata, Shanti, Amit, Ajit etc. have infiltrated into Muslim families. Muslim families could not think to keep such nick names even in the pre-partition era when Bangladesh was part of India- and the Muslims were a minority.

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Soon after liberation, BTV in accordance with the direction of RAW, introduced greetings 'Subrabhat' (Good Morning), 'Subhasandhya' (Good evening) and 'Subharatri' (Good night) in place of 'Asalam-o-Alaikum' or 'Khuda Hafiz'. Again the aim was to eliminate the style of Muslim's greeting and encourage secular way of greeting. But it is interesting to note that the common Muslims in the cities as well as in rural areas still do not use the word Subrabhat, Subhasandhya or Subharatri.Besides, BTV very frequently presents and projects people who are least connected with television, but are blessed by the RAW. The influence of RAW over BTV is such that our disputes with India like Farrakka, Talpatty, Chakma rebellion, Bangabhumi movement, pushing back of Iridian nationals, smuggling, frequent border skirmishes, abduction of Bangladeshis, infiltration of Indians in Muhurir Char ,and other border' areas, erection of barbed wire fencing and construction of watch towers and stealing of sea resources are seldom telecast by BTV. People of Bangladesh are kept in the dark about these basic problems faced by the nation. BTV never telecasted even an odd documentary on these vital national issues for creating public awarencess. RAW's influence over BTV was exposed on the issue of Farrakka once it was announced that BTV would telecast a feature on Farrakka on May 5, 1995 at 8:30 p.m but instead of 'Barrage of Sorrow', an Arabian Night series was telecast. Prior to this, in the month of April BTV made a similar farce, but at the appointed time for telecasting programme on Farrakka they telecasted a programme on art and literature. In the news bulletins of BTV news and features pertaining to India which may create poor impression about her, are avoided. Rarely there is any mention of atrocities committed by Indian forces and Hindu fundamentalists on Muslims in India including Kashmir. Whenever BTV does telecast any such programme on the subject it is only a brief summary of the events which is merely an eye wash. Thus people have to depend on BBC, VOA, CNN etc. to know the truth. The position of Radio Bangladesh is not much different form BTV. The dramas broadcast by Radio Bangladesh are similar to those of BTV. These preach Bengalee culture setting aside Muslim identity, culture and heritage of Bangladesh. Specially the dialogues and the names of the characters of these drames are such that one can hardly think that these can be broadcast from a public media of a Muslim country. Let me cite an example of a drama which was broadcast at 10 p.m on November 2, 1994. The drama,'Shabdeha Neay Sokunir Utshab' (The festival of a vulture with a corpse) written by Mohammad Abdur Rab, included such words in the dialogue which are exclusively used by the Bengali speaking Hindus. First of all the very word of the title of the drama 'Shabdeha' is not used by 90% people of Bangladesh. Secondly, the names of the five major characters of the qrama were: Jibon, Ananda, Aloo, Onanta, Sanggita. It goes without saying that all these names are basically and widely used by the Hindu community. Now let me cite some dialogues: 'May Bidata (to refer to Allah) bless you', 'May Bidata help us', 'Jibon' Attahuti Deachay' (sacrificed himself). Bidata, Sabdeha, attahuti, etc. are generally used by the Hindus.The drama lasted for about an hour in

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which the word 'Bidata' was uttered for more than 50 times. Muslims no where in the world use this word for Allah.The above examples highlight the penetration of RAW in BTV and Radio Bangladesh. These public sector organisatins are serving Indian interests and projecting Indian culture in our society. As long as .the influence of RAW will persist in these organisations, their policy will remain devoid of nationalism.

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CHAPTER-18 NEWSPAPERS The vital role that newspapers play in formulation of public opinion needs no elaboration. RAW, being well aware of the same has chalked out elaborate strategy in this regard for furtherance of its overall objectives in Bangladesh. RAW, directly as well as indirectly, is controlling many newspapers in Bangladesh. It employs diverse tactics to .keep newspapers under contorl. Foremost in this regard is financial incentive. Besides, use of threat and intimidation are also resorted to. In many important newspapers RAW has infiltrated its paid agents who influence overall policy of concerned newspapers. RAW inspired newspapers help in creating favourable public opinion for India. They also promote secularism and Hindu culture in the name of Bengalee culture. The mercenary journalists of these newspapers are used for writing pro-India commentaries. They play down Bangladeshi nationalism and propagate and recommend pro-Indian policies. Besides influencing policies of newspapers owned by Bangladeshis, RAW is running a number of dailies and weeklies through proxy. Many such newspapers sprang up towards the last part of Ershad regime and during BNP Government. Need for the same arose because RAW decided to intensify campaign for realization of its objectives. Outwardly these newspapers are run by Bangladeshis but behind the scene RAW controls everything. The circulation of the said papers is marginal and they are not profit earning concerns, yet RAW is keeping them alive through regular financing. These papers keep churning out RAW's political propaganda. These are also used for vilification campaigns against pronationalist elements. They unabashedly criticize partition of India and directly and indirectly propagate for merger of Bangladesh with India. They spread disinformation, discontent and promote disharmony amongst different classes, particularly with reference to events of 1971 liberation war. The aim is to impede national integration and progress. They also vehemently oppose Bangladesh's friendship with Muslim counties. They write against Muslim ideology and promote. in its place secularism. The language, style and contents of these newspapers are usually similar to the gutter press (or yellow newspapers). An interesting observation is that these newspapers do not have independent and talented journalists. Instead RAW's stooges and agents are employed in these papers. Thus RAW is establishing its agents as bonafide journalists and so-called intellectuals through these dummy newspapers. These newspapers also serve as 'Business Houses' for arranging employment and cover for RAW agents. Different methods are adopted by RAW to provide financial assistance to these papers. Foremost is paying cash money. Other methods include arranging advertisements andr donations from large business houses which are actually used. as the godown of Indian goods. Some traders do not even have their own capital. They work as middlemen. They bring Indian goods entirely on credit. But they have to pay a portion of their profit to some selected newspapers. Sometimes these traders are advised to employ RAW agents in their firms. But their remuneration is actually borne by RAW. It may be mentioned

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that in the past erstwhile Soviet intelligence agency, KGB also used to run some newspapers in similar manner. After demise of Soviet union these newspapers are now financed by RAW. Indian High commission in Dhaka patronizes those printing pressess from where proIndia newspapers are printed. They are awarded contracts for printing of High Commission's stationery and publications etc. Excessive. payments are made for such printing works to cover the cost of publishing propaganda materials.RAW has also infiltrated its men in some of the Government owned newspapers and journals. In this connection I may cite example of Government owned journals Weekly 'Bichitra' and Weekly 'Ananda Bichitra'. A close look at the activities of some of the senior journalists in these two journals can reveal as to how the-yare working for Indian interests. These two journals mostly project pro-Indian writers, poets, litterateurs, Gultural activists etc. The ,weekly Bichitra is more bold in promoting Indian lobby and denouncing Islamic values. The Weekly in its issue of January 7,1994, published a report on 'BAKER' which was provocative and in bad taste. The caption of the 45th edition, 22nd year of publication was 'FATWABAZ'. The purpose of the article was to defame religion and hurt religious sentiments of the Muslims.The Weekly Bichitra has .also been projecting activities of Nirmul Committee, a RAW sponsored organisaiton. Mter the death of Jahanara Imam, (President of Nirmul Committee), Weekly Bichitra published a .special supplemeI.lt on her. Jahanaran Imam had treason case filed against her by the Governement. Thus her glorification by a. Government weekly causes doubts about motives of journal's management. Weekly Bichitra has also been projecting different persons of Sammilita Sangritik Parishad (Combined Cultural Council), a RAW inspired organisation. Similarly it promotes other social and cultural organisations connected with RAW. The Weekly Ananda Bichitra often carries semi-nude photographs of Indian heroines. This is done deliberately to create market fo~ Indian' films besides ct;eating sexual excitement among our younger generation. In this connection a daily of Dhaka had commented: "Ananda Bichitra is partonising nudity. There is seldom any issue of Ananda Bichitra where semi-nude photographs of 'film actresses are not published(Daily Sangram : June 20, 1989). Ananda Bichitra alS'o holds 'Photo Beauty Contest' every year. Young girls are encouraged to participate in the contest. Obviously this practice is repugnant to Islam. Next phase may be to hold live beauty contests to select Miss Bangladesh etc. and ultimately pave the way for participation by Bangladeshi girls in the world beauty contests. Recently the so-called Miss-Bangladesh beauty contest was held at a local hotel. Some of the organisers and judges of the contest have warm relations with RAW.There are reports that some highly placed journalists of Bichitra and Ananda Bichitra are involved in other RAW activities as well. Those who have executive power in Bichitra and Ananda Bichitra have virtually turned them into a club or meeting point for proIQ.dian political and cultural organisations. There are also allegations against one of the top persons that he is the representative in Bangladesh of 'Swadhin -BangIa' of Calcutta,

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the mouthpiece of so-called Swadhin Bangabhumi movement. An assistarit Editor is a member. of RAW inspired organisations Hindu-Buddha-Christian Oikya Parishad and Society for Krishna Council. Another Assistant Editor maintains regular links with Shantibahini, a RAW sponsored terrorist organisation. One of the 24 persons of Nirmul Committee against whom Government had brought charges of treason, is holding an important position in the Weekly Bichitra. ' The most surprising thing is that despite various allegations against different officers of Bichitra and Ananda Bichitra they are still holding their posts. The person who has been serving since the last 22 years has become so powerful and strong that despite various allegations published in different papers about him he is not only holding the post of Editor of Bichitra but also Ananda Bichitra. Recently due to excessive complaints he was removed from the posts and J anab Mansur Ahmed was appointed as the Editor of the Bichitra and Janab Ahmed Zaman Choudhury was appointed as the Editor of Ananda Bichitra. But under pressure from invisible powers, just two days after his removal, he was restored to his old post. RAW has systematically managed to control the 'fourth estate' in Bangladesh. It has succeeded in planting its own men in most of the newspapers, both Governement as well as private owned. In addition, it is running many newspapers and journals from behind the scene. It is ironic to find' so many journalists who are supposed to be eyes, ears and conscience of the nation, falling for RAW's rewards in complete disregard of national interests. However, the redeeming feature is that many journalists and media-men who are aware of nefarious scheme of RAW, are coming forward to expose RAW's game. Odds against them are heavy as they do not have adequate resources and finances. However, their determination and force of conviction are their assets in their battle for upholding national interests.

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CHAPTER-19 BOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS The publication industry is a basic part of a nation's education, art and culture. A country which lacks in publication industry will suffer in development of intellectual activities. Unfortunately the publication sector of Bangladesh has been dominated by Indian inspired publishers. All types of Indian books and periodicals are being imported in large quantities. Indian text books are prescribed in many prestigous private school form K.G. level to higher classes. The influence of Indian books is responsible for decaying of Bangladeshi society as these are affecting our cultural heritage and moral values. After the liberation of Bangladesh in 1971, the publication sector of Bangladesh could not make appropriate progress due to stiff competition by Indian publications. A myth has been created that cultural capital of Bangalees is Calcutta. It is not fully realized that the books and periodicals coming into Bangladesh from the so-called cultural capital are a great threat to our national identity and cultural values as Muslims. The objective of this cultural onslaught from Calcutta is to promote secularism and Hindu culture in the name of Bengalee nationalism and is aimed at distorting Muslim history and heritage. The Indian books and periodicals are now available all over the country at newspaper stalls, book shops and public libraries. Their business is flourishing u.nder the patronage of so ca,lled intellectuals and profit hungry traders. Unfortunately no organised efforts have been made by patriotic circles so far to check the gorwth of this menace. It is indeed surprising that a nation which had asserted to resist imposition of West Pakistani culture has become indifferent to promotion of Hindu culture through mass infiltration of Indian books and publications. Possibly RAW has so much hold on our representative bodies that no dissenting voice is allowed to gain ground. The RAW inspired intellectuals continue harping on pro-India themes. Even the liberation struggle is projected in such a manner that Indian glorification seems their only aim. Sllch intellectuals and writers have taken upon themselves to promote Indian publications in order to earn personal benefits. RAW has developed a pool of publishers, sellers and distributers for promotion of Indian books. They have virtually succeeded in capturing Bangladeshi market.with the direct and indirect help of a particular circle working in governmental and non-governmental sectors. Some of the means and measures adopted for promotion of sale of Indian books and publications are explained below importer, the Indian exporter sends .the merchandise on the term that importer should pay the due amount within 90 to 120 days. Even provision of payment guarnatee by the importer's bank is dispensed with. The importer can therefore, receive the books without making any paYment to his bank. Books are sent purely on good faith. If the importer fails to pay the bill after stipulated time, neither the bank nor the supplier can take any legal action against the importer. Books are sent purely on good faith. Obviously no businessman of India will venture on such trade unless security of his capital is assured by some Government agency (in this case RAW). Since it is a continuing facility, therefore, no Bangladeshi book importer

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defaults on payment. In the bargain Bangladeshi importer earns handsome profit without investing any capital while Indian designs are also satisfied. Supply of Books on Credit In order to sell books, Indian publishers offer huge commissions over sale of their books to Banglade.shi importers and sellers. Most vogue commission is 50%. however, as high commission as 85% has also been paid in some deals. On the other hand commission paid by Bangladeshi publishers is 25% only. Thus due to incentive of earining high commissions the book sellers prefer to sell Indian publications. It is obvious that Indian publishers cannot offer such disproportionate commissions without RAW's support. Export of Unbound Books Taking advantage of liberal book import policy of Bangladesh, RAW has devised a scheme to supply Indian books to Bangladeshi sellers on credit. Any book seller of Bangladesh can import books from India after obtaining Import Registration Certificate (IRC) and a passbook from Chief Controller of Imports and Exports (CCI&E). Once demand for the books is received from Bangladeshi Indian publishers have now started sending printed formats to the Bangladeshi book sellers without binding them into books. Importing of unbound printed formats is more profitable, therefore, the import of printed formats is gaining ground day by day.Besides establishing their own publishing houses, RAW is also known to be paying financial and other incentives to some large Bangladeshi publishing houses in reward for their 'services'. Printing of Bangladeshi Writer's Books in India Indian publishers and sellers obtain rights for printing books of some Bangladeshi writers for 'sale in India only'. But in practice these books are supplied into Bangladesh. The price of Indian edition of a book is much lower than that of Bangladeshi edition. For example the price of Bangaldeshi edition of 'Nakshi Kanta' written by Jasimuddin is Tk. 35 while that of Indian edition is Tk. 25. Naturally buyers are attracted to buy Indian edition of Nakshi Kanta instead of Bangladeshi edition. As a result Bangl~deshi publishers, instead of printing books in Bangladesh, import Indian editIon to avoid loss.' This is a novel way to cripple publication industry of Bangladesh. Publication of Bangladeshi Editions of Indian Books RAW has adopted a new scheme to popularize Indian books by publishing Bangladeshi editions of Indian books. There are many firms in Bangladesh that print and marketise works of Indian writers only. The Daily Sangram had published a documentary report in 1989 about the publication of Indian books by Bangladeshi firms. Here is a brief quotation from the said report :"The Bangladeshi edition of books of Indian writers have been published by a section of publishing houses. 'Muktadhara' is a well-known publishing company of Bangladesh. It publishes books of all grades and categories of wirters from famous Anonada Shankar to unknown Shantimoy Ghosh. The two books of

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Dr. Nehar Kumar Sarkar published by 'Muktadha,ra' are: (1) Children's Politics and (2) Children's Economics. Both the books promote communism. This firm also published books of Marxist writers Gopal Halder and Narayan Chowdhury. Their other writers include Shuvas Mukarjee, Gojendra Kumar Mittra, Provat Chandra Gupta and Shatta Prashad Sen Gupta. Certainly there is no dearth of publishers in West Bengal to publish the works of Ananada Shankar Roy, Suvas Mukharjee, Gojen Mittra etc. Nevertheless, works of alien writers are being, published here. As a result works of Bangladeshi writers are ignored by the local publishers. Because of. economic backwardness' and cultural aggression, Bangladeshi writers are not in a position to publish their works personally. Though we have a good number of talented wirters but most of them Smuggling of Indian Books into Bangladesh RAW has been regularly arranging large scale smuggling of Indian books particularly the ones prescribed by Bangladesh Government. Similarly, smuggling of obscene and pornographic magazines' is also encouraged to affect our young generation. Weekly 'Desh' of Calcutta, which is banned in Bangladesh, is freely available throughout the country. RAW's local agents and greedy book-sellers and hawkers are responsible for it. RAW Sponsored Publication Houses RAW is running some publication and distribution houses in Bangladesh through proxy. They constantly keep printing and distributing books approved by RAW. In recent years some book publishing and sale centres have been opened which distribute only Indian books. In some cases they also publish books of RAW paid agents like Taslima N asreen. The cost of publication and distribution of such books is totally borne by RAW.But our publishing firms are publishing the writings of Indian writers ignoring own writers. Ananda Sankar Roy was all along a son of Indian soil. Gopal Haldar migrated to India prior to the partition of 1947, while Shayatten Sen went to India in 1971 and Shantimoy Ghosh in 1974. Yet'Muktadhara' and some other Bangladeshi publishing firms continue to publish their works". 'Muktadhara' also published Gopal Haldar's 'History of Bengali Literature' (two volumes), Shuvas Mukarjee's 'History of Bengalee' and Shatta Prashad Sen Gupta's 'Biography of Shakespeare'. Question aris~ why an Indian writer's History of Bengali literature was published. Why a Bengladeshi writer could not be asked to compile the same. Similarly is there any scarcity of talented writers in Bangladesh to write the History of Bengalee? Does not Bangladesh possess a son who could write the biography of Shakespeare? Publishing house 'Khosroz Kitabistan' was once famous for pro-Muslim role. Unfortunately it "later changed its stance. The Islamic publications by this firm have reduced to a great extent. On the other hand, it has enhanced distribution of Indian books. They have distributed at least 20 books of Satyajit 'Roy. 'Khosroz Kitabistan' has also taken the resposibility for distributing 'Collections of Shukanta' published by 'Boimonch', Upendra Kishor Roy Chowdhury's 'Gopi Gayen - Bagha Baien' published by 'Beauty Book House'"About half out of 44 books published and distributed by 'Kakoli

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Prokashani' were written by Indian writers. This new publishing house published 12 books of Ashutos Mukherjee's short stories and novel. There is no dearth of novels and short story of wirters in Bangladesh but the firm's decision to publish and distribute Indian books was perhaps motivated by other reasons". "Agami Prokashani' published more than one book of Nlmai Vattyacharya and Premendra Mittra. 'Nobo Prokash Bhavan' published some Indian books which are indispensable for the new recruits of the communists. These include: 'The Politics of the Children', and'The Economics of the Children'. It also published l;>ooks of Rahul Sanskretiyan and Nihar Sarkar on scientific Materialism(Daily Sangram : June 14, 1989).Six years have passed since the publication of the above report in Daily Sangram. But instead of checking the menace many other firms have started promoting Indian books. RAW-Sponsored Educational Institutions A number of RAW agents work as teachers in Bangladeshi educational institutions, specially in urban areas. Through these agents RAW strives to enlist Indian books in school syllabus and curriculum. It is reported that in some cases RAW sponsored publication firms endeavour to influence the Head Master or Headmistress or the Managing Committee members by giving them financial incentives to enlist Indian books. RAW took particular interest in getting Indian books prescribed in English'Medium schools. These books have all Hindu characters and preach and pormote Indian causes, Hindu culture and history. The reason for RAW's special interest in English medium schools is that children of affluent class study in these schools. RAW felt that it will be more useful to subvert the said class. RAW has also encouraged its agents to open private schools and collages.These institutions, besides teaching books of Bangladesh Text Book Board, also teach many books of Indian authors or firms. Experienced circles believe that a section of RAW influenced public servants is playing a vital role to promote marketing of Indian books in Bangladesh. Indeed Government policy makers are mainly responsible for creating market for Indian books. It is alleged that the concerned Government agencies do not take appropriate steps to develop local publication industry. The vacum helps in arranging easy access of Indian books into Bangladesh. The rate of customs duty on import of books is about 8% while tariff on imported white paper includes 45% custom duty and 15% VAT. As a result the price of paper is much higher. .Obviously due to high cost of printing paper, the prices of Bangladeshi books will always be higher than that of India. A survey of the market revealed that a Bangladshi book, 'A great Expedition to the Space' by Md. Jafar Iqbal containing 47 pages costs 28 Taka. The same amount is payable for an Indian book 'Kagajer Boi' containing 101 pages. A novel of Humayun Ahmed 'Saya Bithi' containing 100 pages costs 50 Taka, whereas, a novel of an Indian writer Nimai Vattyacharya containing 211 pages costs 40 Taka. Sanaullah Noori's 'Nijom Diper Upakatha' containing 80 pages costs 30 Taka, while Razia Khan's 'Droupodi' containing 153 pages costs 100 Taka. Sheikh Azizul Haq's'Aurangzeb's Secularism and Islam(an Indian book)

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containing 261 pages costs 50 Taka, while Sheikh Nurul Islam's 'Nazurl Jaboner As'surata Kahini' (Bangladeshi) containing 96 pages also costs Taka 50. Due to such wide difference in prices between Bangladeshi and Indian books, Bangladeshi books are loosing market which in turn is being captured by Indian books. It is high time that the Government of Bangladesh takes some steps to correct the situation. Government can impose ban on import of all Indian books. It can also reduce tariff on the import of printing paper and printing materials to reduce cost of books published in Bangladesh. If the Government fails to take appropriate steps, the publication industry of Bangladesh is likely to face virtual extinction. Book Publishers and Sellers Association of Dhaka alleged that the crisis in printing industry is created by RAW and its stooges. RAW wants to destroy Bangladesh's publication industry like other industries to make Dhaka dependent on Calcutta for supply of books. RAW's objective seems to be to force closure of even our newspapers so that Indian dailies and weeklies can be easily sold here. The crisis in newsprint industry and ever rising cost of printing materials can be attributed to RAW's machinations to achieve that goal. Indians are also earning huge profits from book trading. Daily Inqilab wrote 'It is estimated tliat India earns annually around Tk 50 crores by legal exports of Its books and publications. The amount of illegal trade of books is much higher. But exports of books to India from Bangladesh is worth Taka 10 lakh only every year (Daily Inqilab : December 10, 1994). From the above discussion it is obvious that RAW is making extensive efforts to prevent development of Bangladesh's own publishing industry. It is striving to establish dominating hold of Indian books and publications in Bangladesh. RAW's objectives in this regard, besides financial gains, are as follow : a. To eliminate the spirit of nationalism, religious and moral values and undermine independent identity of Bangladeshi people. b. To inject among Bangladeshi readers the seeds of Indian culture. To introduce them to the Hindu gods and goddess, puja, life-style and above all to inspire them to wipe out cultural boundary of Bangladesh which will ultimately pave the way for doing away with the geographical boundary of Bangladesh. c. To create a reservoir of writers, book sellers, traders and importers dependent upon trade with India. They can be used for furthering RAW's general interests on required basis. d. To cultivate Bangladeshi writers, intellectuals and authors for writing pro-Indian works by luring them through publication of their books.

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CHAPTER-20 FARAKKA BARRAGE India has been conspiring to cripple Bangladesh economically ever since its creation. With this goal in view, she has embarked upon a number of schemes. The most well known and disastrous among them is withdrawing water from the River Ganges thrpugh construction of a barrage at Farakka, 17 kilometresfrom Indo-Bangladesh border. Equitable sharing of water of common rivers is a right of both the countries. The unilateral withdrawal of water by upper riparian country is unjust and unlawful. As a result, colossal damage has been caused to agriculture; industry, afforestation, communication, fisheries and environment etc. of Bangladesh. Farakka Barrage has indeed become a macabre tragedy for Bangladesh. The plan to construct a barrage at Farakka on the Ganges was made in 1951. However, due to the protests of the then Pakistan G,pvernment though meek, India followed 'go slow' policy in constructing the barrage. The golden opportunity came her way in 1971 when East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) seceded from Pakistan. India started construction of .Farakka Barrage at top speed and finished the work by 1974.Prior to commissioning the barrage, India committed to Bangladesh that she would not withdraw water until a solution regarding water-sharing was reached. India cheated Sheikh Mujib, the then President, with fake assurance of operating the barrage on 'experimental basis' for 41 days. The trial was to last from 21 April to 31 May 1975. But the said 'experiment' is continuing even after 20 years. Indian government signed three agreements with three Presidents of Bangladesh i.e. Mujib, Zia and Ershad respectively. In the first agreement of 1975, 44 thousand cusecs of water was given to Bangladesh. In the second the share decreased by 10 thousand cusecs. The third and last was infact, a 'Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed on October 7, 1982. India had insisted on memorandum rather than an agreement. She gained much more advantages through this MOU than she did through earlier agreements. Previously a guarantee clause had assured Bangladesh of 80% of water in any situation. But in the MOU this clause was removed on Indian insistence.The term of the MOU ended on May 31, 1984. Since then India has not been agreeing to renew even this memorandum despite repeated calls from Bangladesh. At present no agreement or understanding exists. in this regard. Exploiting the situation India is withdrawing the Ganges water at will. State Minister for Irrigation, Water Resources and Flood Control, MosharrafHossain Shahjahan stated in the Jatiya Sangsad in reply to a question from an MP, Mr. Niamat Ullah that since 1972, Bangladesh and India have held 77 meetings at various levels including four summits at Prime Ministers level, to solve the issue of sharing water of the Ganges and other common rivers. According to the,statistics presented by the Minister, besides 4 summits, there were 17 ministerial level meetings, 13 meetings at the expert level, 21 meetings at the ministerial level under Joint Rivers Commission (JBC), two ministerial level meetings and 10 secretary level meetings under Joint Expert Committee

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formed in 1~85, six secretary level meetings on sharing of water of common rivers, two secretary level meetings under Joint Expert Committee formed in .1992, two foreign secretary level meetings in New Delhi and Dhaka on May 4, 1995 and June 24, 1995 respectively. The Minister further informed the House that except for the four summits at Prime Ministers level and two foreign secretary level meetings, the total expenditure on 71 meetings amounted to Tk 82 lakh. Indian representatives assure in every meeting for a just solution but refuse to make-any parctical commitment(Bangladesh Times: September 7, 1995).When Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia visited India during 1992, the Indian Prime Minister Mr Narasimha Rao promised to ensure that Bangladesh would not suffer due to Farakka. Three years have lapsed since Narshimah Rao said these words but nothing has still been done to undo Bangladesh's sufferings.I would now enumerate a few sufferings inflicted on Bangladesh due to Farakka Barrage . Decline of Water From the year 1934 to 1974, even in the dry season,Ganges (known as the Padma in Bangladesh) would carry 1 lakh 5 thousand cusecs of water per second to the Bay of Bengal. According to the statistics provided by Water Development Board (WDB), during the second week of January, 1971, the water flow in the Padma was 151 thousand cusecs per second near Harding Bridge. In April 1990 the water flow was only 22 thousand cusecs, in 1991 20 thousand cusecs, in the following year it reduced to 13 thousand and in 1993 a measly 9 thousand cusecs was ayailable. The water flow decreased drastically to thousand cusecs at the same place in 1994. On November 15, 1990, the height of the Padma water at Harding Bridge point was 10.2 meters. Just after 3 years, on the same date in 1993 the height had decreased to 9.8 meters, the next year on the same day it stood at 8.77m.The Padma, once termed as an 'arrogant' river with very strong current, is now a dead river due to a massive decrease in water. The mighty river with a breadth of 1600m has turned into a canal. Near the Harding Bridge itis only 5 to. 6 hundred metres wide. Even then it needs dredging every year. Degree of Salinity (PPM) 1993 1994 1400 2800 4700 4800 6500 7300 6700 7950 3400 6850 The normal level of salinity in these rivers is 480 PPM(Daily Inqilab : December 17, 1994). Recently the same daily published another report : The saline water of the Bay of Bengal could not intrude into the mainland before construction of the Farakka Barrage. The forceful current of seaward rivers(particularly the confluence of the Padma and the Meghna) would prevent the intrusion. But Farakka menace has dropped the flow in dry season from 105,000 cusecs to 4000 cusecs. Resultantly the brine of the Bay now penetrates Khulna, Satkhira, eastern part of Bagerhat, Barisal, Jessore, Madaripur, Shariatpur, Chandpur and even upto Munshiganj

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and Kushtia'. Effect of salinity has been vitiating life and livelihood of the people inhabiting this vast locality. The Daily Ittefaq, a widely circulated newspaper of Dhaka has published a comparative pen picture of salinity increase during 1993-94, quoting Department of Environment (DOE), Khulna. The report shows degree of sever~ increase in salinity in the rivers of South Western Bangladesh. Name of River Xem:. Quantity of E.C Quantity of ChloridePer Centilitre Per litre Rupsha (Khulna) March 94 4500 micromoh 1880 milligram March 95 7000 micromoh 5625. milligram Bhairab (Khulna) March 94 March 95 Pashur (Mongla) March 94 March 95 4100 micromoh 4500 micromoh 10000 micromoh 10500 micromoh 1630 milligram 3500 milligram 6000 milligram 6500 milligram (Daily Ittefaq : April 7).

The experts on environments maintain that according to the standard approved by WHO, water is to be considered as 'polluted' if chloride is found above the level of 250 mg per litre.According to statistics of Water Development Board (WDB), in 1948 the salinity in rivers Khol Petna, Raimangal, Malancha, Mongla, Kalindi, Kobatak, Ichhamoti etc. and their tributaries was 18,000 microtus centimetres. In recent years its level has been continuing to increase and in 1992 it reached upto 42000 microtus cms. The experts apprehended that in 1995 the level will exceed 50,000 microtus cms. Excessive salinity has created serious hindrances to different sectors of development and caused environmental and soil degradation in Banglaesh. The plants growing on such soil lose their vitality. The plants which can grow in salinity have upward roots to respire.When these roo~s are submerged in saline water the plants die. Due to this process the growth of Sunderban Forests is being hampered seriously. Farakka Barrage has slowed the flow of down stream rivers to a large extent and, therefore, these rivers are silted heavily. The saline water comes up during high tide into the Sunderban. But that harmful water cannot go down speedily during ebb-tide due to a decrease in the seaward movement resultantly the saline water remains for days and the plants suffer irreparable damage. Sources from the Department of forestry (DOF) remarked that only in 5 years (1987-92) 85% saplings of Sundari, Kakra, Pashor, Bain, Gewa etc. in Chandpari, Sharankhola, Satkhira and Khulna ranges of forest have died because of increasing level of salinity.As aconsequence the largest mangrove forest of world is on the verge of extinction. Sundari the principal plant in the Sunderbans spreads over a land of 577285 hectares. In each hector, its average number is 296 while the total number of all other plants is only 254. Statistics reveal that there are a total of four and a half crores of Sundari trees in the huge forest, out of them, two and a half crore have been attacked with taproot disease. The DOF on examining found comparatively a high rate of salinity in 14 areas, these are the areas where the trees suffer the most from these diseases(Daily Inqilab : November 21,

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1994).Prior to salinity attacks the forests of Sunderbans had not suffered from any disease(,so intensely. Besides water logging and salinity have gravely affected the habitation of tiger, deer and other wild animals in this forest. Since water has become saline these wild animals enter tJ;1e Indian portion of Sunderbans or the localities inhabited by people in search of drinking water, in doing so they either kill the inhabitants or are killed, thus diminishing some of the rare species of wild life and causing damage to human lives. Adverse effect of salinity can be seen on plants, flowers and fruits of Sunderbans. The amount of honey earlier collected has reduced due to the suffering of the plants caused by Saline water. In 1990-91, 211.1 tons of honey was acquired but in 1993-94 the amount reduced to 27 tons only(Weekly Chitra BangIa: May 5, 1995.Increase of salinity is causing decrease in the number of crocodiles because conditions favourable for their reproduction are hampered. Their eggs become rotten due to salinity. Many migrate to safer areas during mating and laying period. Moreover, migrating birds .arriving in winter have decreased. Besides, cultivation of coconut, betel nut and other plants has been gravely affected. Salinity lessens fertility of soil and particularly the proportion of nitrogen. As a result, this useful ingredient has decreased from 75 microgram to a very meager quantity of 1115 microgram. Normally salinity of soil amounts to 2 EC. But in the South-West region of the country its amount is between 20 to 30 E.C.(Daily Janakantha : January 3, 1994).Saline intrusion has threatened mills and factories of Khulna. As salinity rose in Bhairab River, Khulna Newsprint Mill has been compelled to spend extra Tk 6 lakhs per month since 1991 to get fresh water from River Madhumati of Narail situated 30 miles upstream. The mill requires 400 tons of fresh water everyday. The most exceed 50,000 microtus cms. Excessive salinity has created serious hindrances to different sectors of development and caused environmental and soil degradation in Banglaesh. The plants growing on such soil lose their vitality. The plants which can grow in salinity have upward roots to respire.When these roots are submerged in saline water the plants die. Due to this process the growth of Sunderban Forests is being hampered seriously.Farakka Barrage has slowed the flow of down stream rivers to a large extent and, therefore, these rivers are silted heavily. The saline water comes up during high tide into the Sunderban. But that harmful water cannot go down speedily during ebb-tide due to a decrease in the seaward movement resultantly the saline water remains for days and the plants suffer irreparable damage. Sources from the Department of forestry (DOF)remarked that only in 5 years (1987-92) 85% saplings of Sundari, Kakra, Pashor, Bain, Gewa etc. in Chandpari,Sharankhola, Satkhira and Khulna ranges of forest have died because of increasing level of salinity. As aconsequence the largest mangrove forest of world is on the verge of extinction. Sundari the principal plant in the Sunderbans spread'S over a land of 577285 hectares. In each hector, its average number is 296 while the totalnumber of all other plants is only 254. Statistics reveal that there are a total of four and a half crores of Sundari trees in the

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huge forest, out of them, two and a half crore have been attacked with taproot disease. The DOF on examining found comparatively a high rate of salinity in 14 areas, these are the areas where the trees suffer the most from these diseases(Daily Inqilab : November 21, 1994).Prior to salinity attacks the forests of Sunderbans had not suffered from' any disease logging and salinity have gravely affected the habitation of tiger, deer and other wild animals in this forest. Since water has become saline these wild animals enter the Indian portion of Sunderbans or the localities inhabited by people in search of drinking water, in doing so they either kill the inhabitants or are killed, thus diminishing some of the rare species of wild life and causing damage to human lives. Adverse effect of salinity can be seen on plants, flowers and fruits of Sunderbans. The amount of honey earlier collected has reduced due to the suffering of the plants caused by Saline water. In 1990-91, 211.1 tons of honey was acquired but in 1993-94 the amount reduced to 27 tons only( Weekly Chitra BangIa: May 5, 19Q5).Increase of salinity is causing decrease in the number of crocodiles because conditions favourable for their reproduction are hampered. Their eggs become rotten due to salinity. Many migrate to safer areas during mating and laying period. Moreover, migrating birds arriving in winter have decreased. Besides, cultivation of coconut, betelnut and other plants has been gravely affected.Salinity lessens fertility of soil and particularly the proportion of nitrogen. As a result, this useful ingredient has decreased from 75 microgram to a very meager quantity of 11-15 microgram. Normally salinity of soil amounts to 2 EC. But in the South-West region of the country its amount is between 20 to 30 E.C(Janakantha : January 3, 1994). Saline intrusion has threatened mills and factories of Khulna. As salinity rose in Bhairab River, Khulna Newsprint Mill has been compelled to spend extra Tk 6 lakhs per month since 1991 to get fresh water from River Madhumati of Narail situated 30 miles upstream. The mill requires 400 tons of fresh water everyday. The most alarming thing is that every year the salinity intrudes more into the upstream. Symptoms of salinity are becoming visible even in the Madhumati. Thus in coming years more expenditure will be needed to collect fresh water from further upstream.Mongla port has been suffering froni ,the same menace. In 1992, Tk 5 crores were spent to supply fresh water through pipes to the port. Maintenance of this system require lakhs of takas every year.Most of the industrial units of the area have beenthreatened with closure due to impact of salinity. Fetching fresh water from far off sources is highly expensive and thus increases production cost. Salinity has polluted water of ponds and tubewells in the greater Khulna and even Jessore region. As a result, many water borne diseases i.e., typhoid, hepatitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, kidney troubles etc. have broken out.If the degree of salinity could be limited within the tolerable level, none of the problems mentioned so far would arise. But then the rate of flow in the Padma must be at least 28000 cusecs feet per second near Harding Bridge. The question arises would India allow a discharge of this amount of water through Farakka Barrage?

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Water decreases unusully in the Padma and inimitably monsoon shoals appear. This mighty river has dried up totally from Rajshahi to Charghat through a length of 30 miles. Then 100 miles of the downstream has turned into a pond. 250 miles length of the Padma from Pakishi to Goalundo is densely dotted with 10 thousand shoals. During the dry season even knee level water is encountered in the middle of the Padma(Daily Star: May 7, 1994). In the past, large steamers would ply through the Padma. Now it is unfit even for goodscarrying boats. In the northern and the south-western region of the country, the 600 miles long waterway has shrinked just to 250 miles. Aricha, Nagarbari, Bhuapur etc, ferry ghats become inoperable frequently due to shortage of water in the river. Bridging, transfer of landing stations and other requirements cost every year large amount of money to the Inland Water Transport Authority (IWTA). Before the commissioning of Farakka Barrage 200 launches would ply from Khulna on 35 routes. Now 40/50 launches operate on 12 routes only. 25 rivers of the districts of Kushtia, Chuadanga, Meherpur, Jhenaidha; Magui"a, Narail, Satkhira and Faridpur originate from the Padma. Water flows through the Mathabhanga from the Padma to these rivers. But Farakka has dried up the mouth of Mathabhanga' and as a result these 25 rivers have also dried up. The beds of these 25 rivers are now used for cultivation in dry days. The Ganges-Kobatak (G.K) is the largest irrigation project of Bangladesh. It supplies water from the Padma to 3 lakh acres of land. The project consists of 120 miles long main canal, 292 miles long branch canals and 62 miles long sub-branch canals. But scarcity of the Padma water has made the project ineffective. Agriclture in Kushtia, Jessore and Faridpur regions come to a standstill in dry months. Problem of Water Scarcity Farakka Barrage impedes natural flow of one of the longest rivers of the world. Its effect causes lack of speed of downstream flow. That is why the alluvial carried with high tide water cannot return to the sea during low-tide.This alluvial mud deposits 'at the river bed and causes siltation. So in the dry season, the Padma, its tributaries and other rivers related to them in the South-Western Bangladesh dry up almost completely. Most of the 113 tributaries of the Pamda become dry or have scarce water from November onwards. Decrease in water flow of the Padma has caused damage of $ 85 milhon only in one year (1988-89). M. Majidul Haq, Minister for Agriculture and Water Resources, stated in the Parliament on February 5, 1995 that so far the total damage to Bangladesh due t.o Farakka Barrage amounts to Tk. 11300 crores.As river bed gets settled more and more day by day, its water carrying capacity gradually decreases. So floods have now become a common feature every year due to overflow of river water. Moreover, in rainy season India opens the gates at Farakka releasing large amount of water. This further affects the flood situation in Bangladesh. Such artificial flood caused widespread damage to 240929 hectares of land in 1988.

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Unprecedented ecological damage by Farakka Barrage has already drastically degraded the climate and enviroments of 21 districts in the north-western Bangladesh. 1.2 crore acres of cultivable land is going'to turn into a desert. Gradual decrease in level of humidity in this region indicates desertification. Before 1975, April-May were the driest months while now humidity falls to the lowest in February i.e., 2 months earlier. This has also brought changes in temperature. In 1986, the highest and lowest temperature in March were 38c and 21C respectively. In 1992, it became 42C and 20C. The next years record was 44C and 19C. In 1994 the difference between these two levels remained unchanged but the lowest temperature fell alarmingly to 15C.In the northwestern region rainfall decreased as indicated by the following statistics: 28.75 inches during the period of June to September in 1987, 25.26 in 1988, 14.96 in 1992 and 14.20 in the next year.Huge withdrawal of upstream water has created drastic fall in the navigability of the River Pashur. For this reason, the Government was compelled to shift the second sea-port from Chalna ,to Mongla at downstream. But only after a few years even Mongla has become unsuitable for large oceangoing ships.North Bengal Paper Mill at Pakshi faced serious shortage of water due to shoals in Padma. To overcome the crisis, Tk 33 lakh were spent in Feb 1991 while in the previous year Tk 29 lakh were spent for getting additional water. The mill sources disclosed that everyday it requires 1100 tons of water. To ensure regular water supply deep tubewells may have to be dug but it will cost a large amount of money i.e., Tk 3 crores(Daily Inqilab : March 9, 1991). Farakka's impact has also destoryed fisheries resources of Bangladesh. During 1983-84, a total of 90082 tons of Hilsa fish were caught but it reduced to 66, 809 tons during 199091. More than 4 thousand tons of Hilsa fish were caught in 1980-81 in the Padma alone. But the quantity fell very sharply to 565 tons in 1990-91. Not only in the Padma, but also in the Jamuna and the Meghna, amount of Hilsa catch reduced considerably.There has been decline in production of other species of fish as well. In the fiscal year 1983~84 only the Padma produced 10 thousand tons of fish. During 1990-91 it decreased to only 1 thousand-ton(Daily Star: October 5, 1991). Experts in a seminar 'held at Rajshahi Univeristy disclosed that 'Bangladesh looses Tk 4 crores every year due to decline of fish assets caused by Farakka(Daily Inqilab : November 7,1994).Nature has no geo-political boundaries. Rivers are also an integral component of nature. They flow through different regions and states and ultimately enter the sea. Therefore, no particular country can claim control or prevent the flow of a common river. The said argument fully applies in the case of the Ganges. No power, forum,government, state or authority, nowsoever mighty jt may be, possesses the right to deprive a lower riparian country,as Bangladesh, of the water of an international or transboundary river like the Ganges.One fourth area of the world is situated in the basins of international rivers. 15 out of 19 largest rivers flow over two or more countires. A UN survey report mentions that water of more than 200 rivers is shared by the concerned states on mutual understanding.

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Among these rivers, 148 flow through 2 countries or states, 31 flow through 3 countries and 21 flow through 4 or more(Daily Janakantha : December 20, 1994). More than two hundred agreements have already been signed for sharing the water of the internatiohal rivers.In these circumstances, India cannot deprive Bangladesh of its rightful share of 54 common rivers including the Ganges. The eighth clause of the Helsinki Convention says, 'None can violate the right' of a country regarding use of an international river'. Regulation related to international flow of water of 1911, Barcelona Convention of 1921, Helsinki Rules of 1966 and even the 2nd clause of article No.5 of the rules adopted by Affro Asian legal consultative committee in New Delhi can easily compel unyielding India to agree to give her lower riparian neighbour its due share. Very recently four nations of south-east Asia have reached mutual understanding for sharing the Mekong River water. Different states have been sharing water of rivers like Rhine, Danube, Congo, Nile, Amazon, Zambesi,Chad, .Indus etc. No upstream country generally obstructs water to deprive a downstream nation. But India is a burning exception, no doubt.According to international laws all countries irrespective of their size, population, location, religion, language etc.are equal to one another. So there remains legally no disparity of the status and rights between a huge India and Even if a river originates in a particular country and then crossess border, that country cannot deprive others of its water. The Ganges is not Indian in origin. It originates from Gangotri Glacier of the Himalyas in Tibet, China and also passes through NepaL Thus India has no legal right to exploit the Gl;lnges water alone. The damage caused by Farakka Barrage is much greater than that done by the explosion of atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki'in Japan, during the Second World War. The damage caused by these two atomic bombs was lesser than the damage Farakka Barrage is causing each year to Bangladesh. India is well aware of the grave damage it is causing to Bangladesh through Farakka. She is also aware of vulnerability of her stand if the matter is referred to an international body for adjudication. However, despite this, India is not willing to give rightfull share of water to Bangladesh. She is now conspiring to make Bangladeshi people accept the Farakka menace as a fait accompli.RAW has been given the task to make Farakka palatable and acceptable to the Government and people of Bangladesh.Working according to Kautilliyan precepts, RAW has adopted multi pronged approach in this regard. RAW has hired many mercenary writers, so called experts, Government officials and even political leaders who, with the help of misleading data fed by RAW, propagate that Bangladesh should accept whatever share India is offering. They even unabashedly state that Bangladesh has no other option but to acquiesce to India's offer' as fait accompli. It is indeed ironic to see that Indian lobby in Bangladesh can go to such an extent. The other aspect of RAW's strategy is to link Farakka with other irrelevant issues i.e. Transit Route. Apparently there is no linkage between the two but RAW, through its agents has been propagating adoption of a 'package deal i.e., in return for some water of Ganges, Bangladesh shouJdgrant transit route to India. The irony is that some senior Government officials as well as political leaders particularly of a pro-Indian political

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party have been advocating the said approach for resolving Faraka issue. Yet another method employed by RAW to keep the issue in back burner is through exerting pressure on Government. A Government which adopts obstinate stand on the issue is destabilized through different means. Even assassination of President Ziaur Rahman is stated to be planned due to his stepping excessively out of the line on the issue. RAW has become a tool for persuing dirty tricks of Indian foreign policy. Even a purely humanitarian, techinical and legal problem like Farakka has been entrusted to its machinations in the effort to impose a favourable solutions on a sm~ller, helpless neighbour.It is the resposibility of all patriotic and sensible Bangladeshis to rise in protest against such great injustice. Failure to do so will mean RAW's success in imposing fait accompli. The intellectuals should come fQrward to unite people to snatch our due share of water from India.The construction of Farakka Barrage over the River Ganges and its disastrous effects over economy of Banglad'esh are now well known. However, many Bangladeshis and World community in particular are not fully aware of Indian designs about other common rivers. India enjoys control of 54 common rivers entering into Bangladesh due to her geographical location. India is openly violating all principles and international treaties regarding the use of water of these rivers. India has erected 40 barrages, dams and storage reservoirs including Farakka Barrage on 20 different rivers for the purpose of controlling the water of these rivers. Water withdrawing infrastructures liki canals have been built at 18 places on 17 rivers and five huge reservoirs have been constructed on three rivers. Names of the rivers on which India has constructed barrages, dams and reservoirs are Ganges, Tista, Brahmaputra, Ichamoti, Kalini; Surma, Kushiara, Koai, Monu,Muhuri, Feni, Chiri, Chengi, Gumoti, Punarvoba, Mahananda, Sankosh, Piang, Nile, Komol, Dholai, Dudhkumar, Sallongi, Kherua, Ghora Mara and Kata Chara. The affected districts are Sylhet, Maulovibazar, Hobiganj, Comilla, Feni, Khagrachari, Kushtia, Meherpur, Jessore, Satkhira, Rajshahi, Naogaon Dinajpur, Panchagarh, Lal Monirhat and Netrokona. The environments, communication and economy of all these places have been adversely affected(Daily Al Mujadded : February 1, 1995). Details of some of the completed or under construction projects on common rivers and their effects on Bangladesh are discussed in succeeding paras :Surma and Kushiara. India has planned to construct a barrage at Tepai, Assam on the Borakriver. The barrage will be 161 feet high and will take 14 years for completion. The Borak river before entering into Bangladesh gets divided into two branch rivers named Surma and Kushiara. Thus construction of said barrage will blockade water of Surma and Kushiara rivers. If it comes into operation the whole north-eastern region of Bangladesh including districts of greater Comilla, Netrokanaand Syslhet will face shortage of water of Manu, Dholai and Khoai. The 176 Km long Manu River enters Bangladesh near Gobindapur. in Maulovibazar District and merges with Khusiara River after running 85km into Bangladesh. India has constructed a barrage on Manu River near Kanchanbari'in Tripura state. The 95 metres long barrage which cost Rs 89,crore has resulted in denuding water for irrigation projects of Bangladesh and. 30,000 acres of Bangladesh soil has been

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turned barren. Many deltas have appeared in Bangladeshi part of River Manu because of the said barrage. Communication, environments and fisheries have been seriously affected due to tL-. said barrage. It is feared that the Sylhet region will gradually turn into desert due to construction of this barrage.1 The barrage in Kanchanbari also affected flow of two other small rivers, Dholai and Khoai. The water level of these rivers has declined to such an extent that heavy vehicles can pass through these rivers. Bangladesh can not undertake irrigation projects on these rivers, thus nearly 1,30,000 acres of cultivable land is not being utilized due to lack of water. Brahamaputra. It is a mighty river which originates from Koilash peaks glacier. .After entry into Bangladesh it is known as 'Jamuna'. It joins the Ganges near Aricha. India has built a dam on one of its branch rivers in Assam.She now plans to construct a link canal to divert its water into Ganges upstream of Farakka. The details of this project have been explained seperately in another chapter. Tista. This is a vital river for the northern districts of Bangladesh. It is a tributary of the Brahamaputra. The Government of Pakistan had commissioned an irrigation project on the river in 1958-59 to provide water to 14 million acres of land besides saving 1.9 million acres of land from flood in the. river. Later India built a barrage on the upper riparian of this river near Kazal Doba which neutralized the Tista Barrage project in Bangladesh. After lot of negotiations in 1983 Bangladesh was able to get released 36% of the water which is not sufficient for meeting water needs of the area. Muhuri. Emanating from the Indian state of Tripura, Muhuri River enters Bangladesh in Feni District. India has built a barrage on this river to provide irrigation facilities to Tripura, thus changing the route and normal flow of the river. It has resulted in severe damage to the irrigation in Bangladesh due to shortage of water.Mahananda. Mahananda enter into Bangladesh from India in N awabganj District. India has constructed a barrage over the river at Tatutiya near the Indo-Bangladesh border. The whole Nawabjanj district which dependp on the water of this river is now facing serious water shortage. Punarvoba. After entering Bangladesh River Punarvoba flows across the districts of Rajshahi and Dinajpur. India has made a barrage over the river near Karmudanga. Thus Bangladesh has been deprived of the legitimate share of water of this river as well. Gumoti. River Gumoti originates from the Indian state of Tripura and flows into Bangladesh near Bibirbazar of Comilla district. The entire irrigation of the district Comilla depends on this river. Indians have constructed a barrage on Gumoti River as well depriving the entire Comilla district of its rightful due of water. Ichamoti. It enters into Bangladesh from the western side of Khulna. It is the mainstay of the entire district's irrigation. India has. constructed a barrage near Sharupnagar on the river which has adversely affected the irrigation in Khulna District. Talma. Indians have started constuction of a barrage on Talma River. India intends to divert the waters of Talma for irrigation projects in U.P. and Bihar states by constructing

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a link canal. After completion of this barrage almost 10 rivers including River Talma will have no water and DinR,'pur district will face an acute water shortage. All the irrigaL;on projects in the district will be adversely affected. The erection of such infranstructures has also caused loss of valuable soil of Bangladesh which has been captured by Indians to satisfy their evil hegemonistic designs. For example construction of dam over Muhuri River tesulted in creating a Char near Feni district in Bangladesh. The same, comprising of t 100 acres of land belonging to Bangladesh has now. been captured by Indians violating international rules and norms. Similarly, they have usurped 12 sq miles land in Sylhet due to creation of Char in Kushiara River. The irony is that Bangladesh authorities have not taken any bold steps to check evil Indian designs regarding the common rivers of India and Bangladesh. So much so that the sixth session on Internation River Law Convention held in Oct-Nov. 1993, the proposals forwarded by Bangladeshi delegation were against the interests of Bangladesh. This was disclosed to the prime Minister by a secret source. The Prime Minister discussed the matter with a hydrology expert Dr. Saiyad Moinuddin Hussain who confirmed the laws in the aforesaid proposals. Resultantly the Prime Minister in consultation with the Cabinet, decided to authorise Dr. M. N. Hussain to put forward new Bangladeshi proposals in the session but to his utter surprise the Foreign Ministery foiled the move. Poeple question what more evidence is required to prove RAW's hold over the. Foreign Ministry of Bangladesh(Daily Inqilab : October 23, 1994).The Daily Inqilab also reported that during the said conference a proposal in favour of upstream countries came up fOf consideration. Bangladeshi representative did not oppose it. He rather spoke in favour of the upper riparian countries. Representatives of other affected countries were taken aback by such suspicious behavior of the Bangladeshi delegate. It should be amply clear to the Bangladeshi nationals that if the existing international river laws are amended, Bangladesh will have no right to protest on international forums against Indian evil designs with regard to common rivers. India will be able to cause colossal damage to Bangladesh by withdrawing water of these rivers with impunity. HoweveJ, RAW's agents, and coterie in Bangladesh are as usual ready to help India even at the peril of supreme national interests.

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CHAPTER-21

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CHAPTER-22 SHANTI BAHINI Besides pressurizing Bangladesh through political and economic measures including water blockade RAW has been instigating and promoting separatist movements to completely destabilize and disintegrate the country. RAW has been providing training and arms to various separatist movements to create anarchy in Bangladesh. One such organisation is named Shanti Bahini. It is fighting for creating an independent state named Jhumland in Chittagong Hill Tracts region. Historically Chittagong Hill Tracts region has been a part of ancient Bengal. Previously, it was' within Chittagong district. The Birtish government made it a separate district in 1900 A.D. Thus it was not even a district before 1900, let alone an independent state. At the time of partition in 1947, Hindu leaders including Pundit Nehru had desired that Chittagong Hill Tracts should be included in India. At that time there were oJ:?ly 10% Hindus among the tribals of Chittagong Hill Tracts only 'Tipra: and 'Hajong' are Hindus among 11 tribes of Chittagong Hill Tracts. According to census of 1981 Tipras are 12.31% of the tribal population while the 'Hajong' are negligible. Since their demand did not have any historic, cultural or religious basis therefore it was not accepted. Indians have been eying this strategic area' even later. During sixties, Indians instigated Tipras to start trouble in the region but they did not take the bait. Thus Indian design to separate Chittagong Hill Tracts from Pakistan remained unfulfilled. After the emergence of Bangladesh in 1971 RAW got confident that any country can be disintegrated through a series of conspiracies and covert actions. Its confidence was further bolstered after annexation of 'Sikkim' by India. RAW had hoped that due to its support during 1971 War of Independence, Bangladesh will ever remain grateful and subservient to India. RAW even hoped that in due course they will turn Bangladesh into the next Sikkim or at least Bhutan. But they were disappointed to see Bangladesh asserting for sovereignty. Indians were forced to withdraw troops form Bangladesh due to clear and unequivocal stand by Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman. Leter when Bangladesh joined OIC in 1974 and announced that Banglasdesh will play its due role as a memebr country of Muslim Ummah, it was not liked by Indian leaders. After assassination of Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman in 1975, the new Government in Bangladesh identified itself more closely with Muslim nationalism and started following independent foreign policy. RAW was indeed taken aback by this courageous posture adopted by what they considered a satellite state. They feared that if Bangladesh grows stronger and ber.nmes truly sovereign, it can be a big hurdle in path of their designs in the region. Therefore RAW decided to rein Bangladesh. Indian policy makers thought if Bangladesh is allowed to prosper, the North-Eastern states of India which are adjacent to Bangladesh will be inspired further for independence. Even the insurgents of these states may get shelter and support form Bangladesh in days to come. To blockade this chance RAW thought it wise to use some ambitious Chakmas

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who are majority among the tnbals to destabilise and disintegrate Bangladesh. So RAW began to patronise late Manobendra Larma and others in organising a group named Janoshanghati Samity (JSS). Shanti Bahini was organized as its military wing. Training and arming of its cadres was undertaken in Tripura under supervision of Indian instructors. thus the Indians did despite a clear clause in 'Bangladesh-India Friendship Treaty 1972' which stated that neither country would allow the use of its territory for committing any act that might cause military damage to, or constitute a threat to the security ofthe other country.Unveiling Larma's link with .f(AW, the weekly Friday reports. 'Mr. Manobendra Larma met Indian intelligence agency officers after crossing the broder in 1976(Weekly Friday: June 3, 1988).Yet when Larma realized his errors and tried to reach a peaceful settlement with Bangladesh Government, India foiled it. The Friday adds, 'The attempt to negotiate a settlement failed as the armed wing of Janoshanghati Samity (Shanti Bahini) initiated armed operations under Indian pressure in mid 1976'. Ever-since the Shanti Bahini has been waging a bloody insurgency for creating a separate state called 'Jhumland' in Chittagong Hill Tracts region. It not only attacks security forces personnel but also targets innocent civilians who have settled in the Hill Tracts. The details of their cowardly acts are well known and we need not go into details of the same. However, the magnitude of Shanti Bahini cruelties can be assessed from the fact that it has so far (till Jul 95) killed over 25000 persons of security forces and non tribal civilians. They also have coerced some 50,000 Chakma tribals to migrate to Tripura, India where they are lodging in camps set up for them by RAW. Although majority of these so called refugees want to return to their homes, but they are not being allowed by RAW as it wants to use them in its .nefarious game. These refugee camps also serve as recruiting grounds for Shanti Bahini. RAW has created divisions and factions in Shanti Bahini to stop emergence of leadership, who may come to terms with Bangladesh. On instigation by RAW, Mr. M. N. Larma was assassinated by rivals in his party on 10 December 1983 in Kallanpur camp of Shanti Bahini in Amarpur Sub Division of Tripura state. There are reports that his assassination was arranged after RAW concluded that M.N Larma would no longer serve their interests. This allegation gets credence due to the fact that the rival leader Mr. P.K. Chakma who was involved in murder of Mr. M.N. Larma is residip.g in Agartala as a state guest under protection of RAW. After the death of M. N. Larma, his borther Mr Santoo Larma became leader of Shanti Bahini. He started talks with Bangladesh Government to solve the dispute but RAW arranged divisioh in his party which led to failure of talks.RAW also arranged a 'World Chakma Conference' at Calcutta, capital of West Bengal in April 1987. The four day long conference adopted several resolutions regarding separating the Chittagong Hill Tracts from Bangladesh and establishment of 'Jhumland'. The details of RAW's covert acions and involvement in Chittagong Hill Tracts insurgency have been exposed by many Chakma leaders themselves. Mr. Shamiron Dewan,Chairman of Khagrachari Local Council disclosed in a press conference that Indian Government is helping Shanti Bahini by giving shelter, money, arms and training. He added that the Chakmas have no genuine

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eco-political cause. They are being used by RAW for achieving India's geo-political interests. Mr. Tridip Chakma a regional commander of Shanti Bahini ,for thirteen years, who later surrendered to Bangladesh authoritieR told the newsmen that 25 training camps are being run by RAW for Shanti Bahin} guerillas'in the Indian states of Tripura and Mizoram. Some separatists also received training in Deradoon, Uttar Pradesh. He said that Shanti Bahini compels tribal people to migrate to India and stay in refugee camps. Nine refugee camps have been set up at Sabrum, Shikichari, Boalpara, Kadamtolly, Daek, Barachara, Ralma, Trimakha and Ratnanager. He alleged that India continuously keeps propagating against Bangladesh regarding Chittagong Hill Tracts in a bid to make it an international issue(Bangladesh Observer: September 2, 1994).A Nepalese fortnightly 'The Spot Light' in its April 29, 1988 issue alleged that a group of Indian policy makers inimically uses Shanti Bahini to launch destructive activities inside Bangladesh. It said that the Chakma insurgents flee to their bases in India after their operations. It added that on several occasions the Chakma insurgents left behind huge India made arms and ammunition including sub-machine guns, carbines, SLRS, sten guns, 303 rifles while fleeing to India on being chased by Bangladeshi security forces. In an interview with the 'Asia Age' Mr. Farooq Subhan, the' Ex-High Commissonner of Bangladesh to India, who is otherwise considered to be soft towards India alleged. 'The Government of Bangladesh felt that the main support for the Shanti Bahini was being provided by the Research and Analysis Wing in India(Daily Star: Decemebr 20, 1994). Indian propaganda experts spread news of human rights abuses in Chittagong Hill Tracts. RAW sponsored video films which falsely show brutalities by Banagladeshi Security Forces in Chittaogng Hill Tracts have been sent to the donor countries to suggest stoppage of aid to Bangladesh for violating human rights. Question arises why India is helping this secessionist movement in Bangladesh.The answer lies in the following: a. India does not want a stable, prosperous and strong Bangladesh. An ongoing insurgency will be a constant drain on Bangladesh's economy. Indians hope that by such tail twisting they can render Bangladesh to the status of a client state. b. India wants to keep Chittagong Hill Tracts issue alive to pressurize Bangladesh and prevent her from adopting independent foreign policy. India wants that Bangladesh must align itself with Indian camp. The Chakma. Refugees and continuing insurgency are the tools in their hands to punish Bangladesh, should it ever falter in this regard. c. Creation of a separate state in Chittagong Hill Tracts will weaken Bangladesh who can then be forced to abandon its claim of sovereignty and reduced to the status of Bhutan or even turned into Sikkim. d. RAW maliciously propagates that insurgent groups of seven North-Eastern states use Chittagong Hill Tracts region for shelter and passage of arms and ammunition. They

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propound that setting up an Indian dominated state in Chittagong Hill Tracts will result in drying up of supply sources to militants and thus will cause serious setback to revolutionary movements in these Indian states (Assam, Tripura, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Arunachal Pardesh and Meghalaya). In other words according to RAW's theory, for consolidation of Indian North Eastern region, separation of Chittagong Hill Tracts from Bangladesh is essential. e. Indian dream of getting transit through Chittagong Port to North Eastern states can be realized with establishment of a pro-Indian state in Chittagong Hill Tracts.

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CHAPTER-23 Bangabhumi RAW is actively pursuing its agenda to disintegrate Bangladesh. They always remain in search of an issue for fulfilling their objective. Since there is no division amongst masses with regards to language, ethnicity and culture, RAW has been relying upon religious differences to initiate and develop separatist movements in the country. Bangabhumi is the proposed name of a homeland for the Hindus who had migrated to India from East Bengal in the past. It is stated that one and half crore Hindus uprooted from the basins of Rivers Padma, Meghna and Madhumati who were forced to leave the area on account of economic deprivation and communal riots, now claim to have a right to settle in their own motherland. The state is planned to comprise of the districts of greater Khulna, Jessore, Kushtia, Faridpur, Barisal and Patuakhali of Bangladesh. The start of Bangbhumi movement was announced on August 15, 1977. Its office is located in Ramlal Bazar of South Calcutta. The organisation styled itself as 'Nikhil Banga Nagarik Sangha' (All Bengal Citizen's Organisation). Mr. Sri Partha Samanta is the President and Mr. Kalidas Vaidya is the General Secretary of the Organisation. On March 25, 1982 'Nikhil Banga Nagarik Sangha' officially declared the formation of 'Bangabhumi'inside the territory of Bangladesh.Besides forming the 'Nikhil Banga Nagarik Sangha',RAW has also set up some paper organisations i.e., 'Bangla Liberation Organisation' styled on the pattern of 'Palestine Liberation Organisation' and 'Liberation Tigers of Bengal'on the pattern of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elarn. Before we expose RAW's support to the Bangabhumi activists, it is pertinent to analyze rationale of their demand. It is a known fact that after partition in 1947 Hindus had the option to settle either in Pakistan or migrate to India. While many Hindus stayed back in the then East Pakistan, many others migrated to India. Likewise many Muslims left India and migrated to Pakistan. Such migrations were final and cannot be revoked on any pretext' now. The question arises that on what pretext RAW wants to create a separate homeland for Hindus who had migrated to India voluntarily at their own will from East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1947. During the united Pakistan, and even prior to 1977, such a preposterous claim was never raised. Such an attempt amounts to interference in the independence, sovereignty and regional integrity of Bangladesh. The total area of proposed Bangbhumi comes to 20 thousand square miles which is more than one third of the total area 'of Bangladesh. The border of Bangabhumi runs in the north along River Padma, in the east along River Meghna,in the west along IndiaBanglade'sh border and in the south along the Bay of Bengal. The declared capital of the s.tate is at Samantanager (Mukti Bhaban or Freedom House) which has no apparent existence. According to reliable sources Samantanager is nom de plum for Bangabhumi HQ established in a house named 'Sunny Villa' in Bhabanipur, Calcutta. This house is owned by Mr. Chittaranjan Sutar, a famous RAW agent. 'Sunny Villa' had once played a pioneering role in organising activities for disintegration of Pakistan and creation of Bangladesh. That very Sunny Villa is again active and is being utilised this time for

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disintegr,ating Bangladesh. The reason is that Bangladesh has declined to bow before Indian designs thus it ought to be taught a lesson. The flag of proposed Bangabhumi state comprises of one third green colour and the two third of saffron colour. In the middle of the saffron colour is the white sun. On the top of the stand is' a circle. The National Anthem is the faIrlous song of poet Dijendra Lal Roy: 'Dhana Dhanye Pushpe Bhara, Arnader Ei Basundhara'. (This land of ours filled with crops and flowers). The National Symbol is depicted by a green circle in another saffron coloured circle with word 'Sri', (Symbol of beauty and prosperity) written in the saffron circle. The state policy proposed to be adopted ~s non-communal and humanism. The name of propsed radio station is 'Bangabani' keeping in line with 'Akashvani' and its' call s-ign is 'Joy Banga' in line with 'Jai Hind' of India. An armed wing of the organisation named 'Bangasena' has also been formed. The Commander of this armed force is Mr Kalidas Vaidya. The main organiser and trainer of Bangasena is Arun Ghosh. The only condition for enlistment in 'Bangasena' is that the recruit should be a resident or had been a resident or born in East Bengal. If either of the answers is in affirmative then he is considered eligible to be enlisted in 'Bangasena'. The daily Anandabazar Patrika of Calcutta, while writing about ''Bangasena' reported, 'The majority mempers of this Bangasena which is a voluntary force lack any plitical consciousness. They are utterly communal in their outlook, semiliterate and very emotional (Daily Anandabazar : September 13, 1989). RAW has deliberately recruited Hindu fanatics and extremists in the organisation so that it is easy to get any mischief done from them. However, the experts say that though Bangasena apparently comprises of riff raffs of Calcutta, but many former officers and personnel of the Indian Armed Forces are also working behind the scene.The supporters and activists of Bangabhumi had threatened to enter into Bangladesh from India many times in the past. But all their attempts failed. In Bangladesh they had circulated posters and publicity material printed in India through agents of RAW. Many such posters, leaflets and pamphlets were seized by police from Naryanganj, Kushtia, Jessore, Khulna and Barisal. Besides, police also seized many so-called flags of Bangabhumi which the agents of RAW had smuggled from India for hoisting on Government buildings. However, the RAW agents did manage to hoist Bangabhumi flag at three places in Tala Thana of Jessore. But the local people and the police immediately seized the flags. Bangabhumi leaders also sent letters to the Deputy Commissioners and other senior officers of the area threatening them to ex-communicate with Government of Bangladesh by March 23, 1985 and owe their allegiance to the so called Bangabhumi Government failing which they will be killed alongwith their families. To create harassment amongst Bangladeshis of this region and to attract international news media, RAW provoked its agents to launch an ,attack on the office of the Bangladesh Deputy High Commission in Calcutta (April 11, 1994). The agents of RAW justified their actiQn by saying that since Bangabhumi has come into being, therefore,

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they were justified to own .and occupy Bangladeshi Mission in Calcutta. They attacked building of Bangladesh Deputy High Commission in presence of Indian police, entered into the premises of the Mission and hoisted the flag of so called Bangabhumi. . RAW had enacted similar drama through its agents at the office of the Bangladesh High Commission in New Delhi on August 15, 1984. RAW wants to create disturbances, terrorism and communal trouble in Banladesh on the plea of Bangabhumi movement. The agents of 'Bangasena' who are armed with mo~ern weapons are looki"ng for an opportunity to infiltrate into Bangladesh. Thereafter they will create such conditions in the region through blood letting and rioting that India may be justified to march in its regular Armed Forces into the area to establish 'peace and order'. That is how Indians are ultimately planning to separate western part of Bangladesh. However, this is a long term plan. For the time being, the Bangasena is being nurtured by RAW to function as a pressure group to compel Bangladesh to adopt a Pro-India policy. Nevertheless they are being prepared for the fore mentioned greater objective to be pursued in due course. After all RAW is not an orphan house that it will keep spending crores of rupees on such organisations without any ultimate aim in view.

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CHAPTER-24 MOHAJIR SANGHA There is no end to RAW's anti-Bangladesh activities. RAW is relentlessly pursuing the agenda to harass and subjugate Bangladesh. A net of conspiracies is being regularly dished out from its research cell for this purpose.As part of its strategy to destabilize Bangledesh, RAW is promoting a mushroom growth of organisations involved in antiBangladesh activities covering all fields including political, economic, cultural and terrorist activities. Some of the RAW ,partronized organisations in India are Bangabhumi Movement, Bangladesh Udvastu Kalyan Parishad (Bangladesh Refugee Welfare Organisation) and Bangladesh Mohajir Sangha (Bangladesh Mohajir Organisation) etc. The first organisation i.e., the 'Bangabhumi Movement' is demanding establishment of a separate homeland for the Hindus in Bangladesh comprising the district of greater Faridpur, Kushtia, Jessore, Khulna, Barisal and Patuakhali. It is threatening to launch an armed movement for realizing its objective. The second organisation is composed of Hindus who at the time of partition in 1947 had migrated to India on their own after disposing off their movable and immovable properties. Now they are complaining that they were forced to leave the then East Pakistan and they claim to return to Bangladesh. They also want to get back their properties. The third organisation, 'Bangladesh Mohajir Sangha' claims to represent Muslims of Bangladesh who had entered India illegally in the past under various compulsions and now they want to come back to their motherland i.e., Bangaldesh. The organisation is a front for the Indians to help in push back of so called illegal migrants from Bangaldesh. In this chapter I shall briefly explain the origin, activities and objectives of Mohajir Sangha. Bangladesh Mohajir Sangha was formally launched by its so called leaders on February 12, 1991 by holding a press conference at Calcutta press club. The dramatic emergence of this organisation was given wide coverage by radio, television and newspapers in India. Since radio and television are government controlled, so it can be easily and safely presumed who the actual sponsors were. The statement of Mohajir Sangha broadcast by All India Radio and telecasted by Dooradarshan says, "We are the Muslims of Bangladesh who had illegally entered India in thousands. Now being fed up ofliving in India we appeal to World Human Rights Commission for our repatriation"(Monthly Kalam : February 1992). The question arises that how was it possible for such a large number of Muslims to illegally cross the borders without the Indian border security forces even noticing them. More so how did the Hindus allow them to settle in India for such a long time and that they were never arrested or jailed. Now all of a sudden they emerge from no where and start demanding repatriation to Bangladesh.The president of Mohajir Sangha is a rickshaw driver named Raisuddin Ahmed. He is assisted in his anti-Bangladesh activities

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by Chittaranjan Sutar. Intrigued by the activities of Mohajir Sangha and the unprecedented interest of Indian Government and media, a correspondent of Indian Monthly 'Kalam' conduct~d detailed inquiry to ascertain how this organisation was established and financed. 'Kalam,' in its issue of February 1992, published a lengthy report comprising of 14 pages regarding Mohajir Sangha and Udbastu Kalyan Parishad. The correspondent of 'Kalam' also held two intimate interviews with the President of Mohajir Sangha Raisuddin Ahmed. As a result of the investigation the magazine correspondent was able to trace the true details and addresses of this organisation. The President Mr. Raisuddin lives in a hut in the slum area on the banks of Ganges-Kashipur in Calcutta. He used to drive a hired rickshaw of one Nimai Gosh. He claimed that he originally belonged to a village in the District of Jessore in Bangladesh and had illegally migrated to India some years ago. However, he could not substantiate his claim about being Bangladeshi national. He is illiterate. The magazine noted that it is virtually impossible for an illiterate person like Mr. Raisuddin to draft such sophisticated leaflets containing appeals in the name of human rights supported by English quotations, leave alone getting them printed and distributing amongst international community. Raisuddin admitted during interview that Hindu babus make these arrangements and also provide finance for the organisation. Actually it is RAW that finances its members. Raisuddin now does not drive the rickshaw and mostly remains busy in meetings and processions. According to the publicity leaflets the head office of Mohajir Sangha is shown at 5/1, Khagendranath Chattejee Road, Calcutta-2, but actually the headquarters is located at Bhabanipur in a house named 'Sunny villa', (House No 21, Dr. Rajendra Road, Northern Park, Calcutta700020,telephone 751032 and 756935). The long time resident of palatial Sunny villa is RAW's most trusted, faithful and successful agent Chittaranjan Sutar. It is common knowledge that in the year 1970 the Indian intelligence had handed over this multistoried building to Chittaranjan Sutar for organising operations against erstwhile East Pakistan. From this villa were initiated all strategies, plans, instructions, coordination and supervision, for disintegrating Pa~istan. Chittaranjan Sutar originally belonged to Barisal, Bangladesh. He and his two other colleagues Kalidas Vaidya and Nirod Majumdar were engaged since 1952 in activities aimed at disintegration of Pakistan. He migrated to India in 1969.After emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state Chittaranjan Sutar returned to Bangladesh with pomp and show. During 1973 elections he obtained nomination from Awami League and contested elections from Swarupkathi constituency. He won the election and became member of Bangladesh Parliament. After assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1975 he went back to Sunny Villa in Calcutta and stationed himself there for good. Chittaranjan Sutar is not satisfied with the disintegration of Pakistan and consequent emergence of Bangladesh. His aim, as, directed by RAW, is to gradually integrate Bangladesh with India. But due to the changed scenario he could not implement his vicious designs. RAW drew a new strategy; that of partitioning Bangladesh. Chittaranjan Sutar is involved in implementation of the new game plan. As a part of this scheme the plans were drawn to constantly keep on harassing Bangladesh on different issues.

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Mohajir Sangha was one such weapon to harass Bangladesh. Through Mohajir Songha, Indians wanted to convince the rest of the world that illegal immigration of Bangladeshis into India was not merely propaganda but it was really happening. Thus creating. Justification for eviction of lakhs of Muslims from Indh{where they had lived for generations. Such mass exodus into an already over populous country like Bangladesh will spell doom for the country. Besides, under the garb of these so-called Mohajirs, RAW would infiltrate into Bangladesh its trained terrorists. India can provoke the socalled Mohajirs to claim a separate homeland and may even instigate them to wage subversive actions against Bangladesh culminating into a limited war. Meanwhile in different Indian states lakhs of Muslims have been discriminated by not enlisting them as voters. They have been denied this right despite the fact that they are Indian nationals and are residing in India since generations. Some who were earlier enlisted as voters and had been casting their votes "in the past elections have also been denied entry in new election roles. The main purpose of this scheme of RAW is to establish that lakhs of Muslims had illegally infiltrated into India from Bangladesh and prepare a strong base for th~ir repatriation. During the visit of Bangladesh Foreign Minister to India in 1991 RAW arranged a mass sit-in and hunger strike by the Mohajir Sangha. A leaflet circulated at the occasion by Mohajir Sangha read, 'foreign aid misappropriated, sovereignty at stake, basic principles of constitution framed after independence abandoned, a few people have usurped all the wealth of Bangladesh and have destroyed the economic base of B"angladesh, the labour class has been rendered into beggars.Their demands included holding trial of killers of Bangabandhu, rehabilitation of labour and restoration of the human rights. A memorandum was also submitted to the Bangladesh Foreign Minister on this occasion. From the language of the above mentioned leaflet the objectives of the Mohajir Sangha can be easily guessed. Needless to mention that the memorandum presented to the Foreign Minister was given wide publicity through the government media i.e.; All India Radio and Doordarshan.Copies of the memorandum were also sent to the foreign embassies and missions in New Delhi.RAW arranged wide media publicity for the activities of Mohajir Sangha. Incredible editorials and articles were published in newspapers like Ananda Bazar Patrika, Bartaman, Jugantar, Statesman, Sunday, Swatikatha, Ganashakti etc. All these papers gave wide coverage to the statements of Mohajir Sangha. The papers expres~ed their indignation at the failure of the Government in identifying the infiltrators and arranging their eviction. Curiously enough Mr. Raisuddin, the man who confessed himself of illegally infiltrating into India was not arrested. The media did not utter even a single wort! to say under what right of the law such an illegal infiltrator had started an organisation in India, held a press conference, took out a procession with the slogan of 'Allahu Akbar', held mass hunger strike and how their activities were given wide coverage through government media i.e. Doordarshan and All India Radio. The papers did not raise any question about it, because they knew that Bangladesh Mohajir Sangha was, in fact, their weapon for Bangladesh bashing. They understood that

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this weapon should not be blunted, rather it has to be kept sharpened ever and always. The establishment of organisations such as Mohajir Sangha is proof enough of the fact that RAW and in turn the Government of India is actively and continuously harassing Bangladesh. The most unfortunate part, however, is that no effort is made in Bangladesh to expose these Indian designs. Our common people and even the educated class in the urban areas do not know any thing about it. Experienced observers are of the view that RAW has strong influence over important state organs and individuals who connive with RAW. Unless RAW's agents in various echelons of Bangladesh are eliminated the country's interests and sovereignty will remain at the risk of being compromised.

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CHAPTER-25 PUSH BACK 'Push Back' is the common term used to describe Indian scheme to send hundreds of thousands of Indian citizens into Bangladesh. India claims that these' people had illegally entered into -India from Bangladesh and thus should be 'pushed back' to their country. At occasions Indians did try to push back some people, but prompt action by Bangladesh authorities thwarted their efforts. However, a critical analysis indicates that the issue has been coined by RAW with long term ulterior motives. These include : a. To raise bogy of an imaginary threat of large scale infiltration from Bangladesh into India and thus arousing public sentiments against Bangladesh. RAW believes that to have real or imaginary enemies is necessary for maintaining national integration. b. A large number of agents can be penetrated and permanently settled in Bangladesh by RAW using the cover of push back. These agents can then work for disintegration of Bangladesh from within. c. The issue can be used as an excuse to wage war against Bangladesh in the name of securing rights of large number of Bangladeshi refugees. Ever since the creation of Bangladesh various Indian Governments have been endeavouring to whip up the issue. Dr. SS Bindra in his book 'India and Her Neighbours' (page 166) writes, "During Sheikh Mujib's regime, theGovernment of India protested to Bangladesh that large number of Bangladeshi nationals had entered into West Bengal. The Bangladesh Government denied that any of their nationals had crossed over into India. They argued that these immigrants were actually 'Indian nationals' who had traveled to Bangladesh when the freedom struggle in Bangladesh was going on. But after some time they returned to their own country. Commenting on the issue The Daily Statesman wrote on 13 October 1974, "It is possible that a sizeable number of 1947 refugees had returned to their original homes in 1971. But Bangladesh Government considers them aliens. Many of them returned to India who are now considered as Bangladeshi nationals by India. It is obvious that Bangladesh cannot accept such an absurd claim. The migration in the wake of partition of 1947 was final. No body has the right to reclaim his original nationality after 48 or 24 years. Actually after 1971 Hindus of West Bengal had wanted to regain their lands and property in Bangladesh which they sold while migrating to India in 1947. They 'thought Bangladeshi Muslims would not dare to face these Indian Hindus because of Indian pressure. With these hopes they had returned to Bangladesh after the surrender of Pakistan Army. Bangladesh authorities could not check this exodus because no organized authority existed in the country at that time due to the war. However, these people were never officially recognized as Bangladeshi nationals. When these people returned to India, in fact, they returned to their own country. Thus Indian claim that these people are Bangladeshis, is totally untenable.

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The Indian propaganda about infiltration of Bangladeshis into India has continued unabated. It is used as a means to divert attention of the people from internal problems of the region (West Bengal and North Eastern states). Recently Indian Home Minister Mr. SB Chaven stated in an interview to BBC that hundreds 'of thousands of Bangladeshis are entering India illegally everyday (Daily Janata : May 14, 1995). One should ask India that how it was possible for such large numbers to cross over the border in the presence of elaborate network of Indian border, security agencies? There are 882 Indian border outposts along the Indo-Bangladesh border. In comparison Bangladesh has only 462 border outposts. ' Mr. Tapan Sikdar, President of West Bengal BJP unit told in an interview to Monthly Kalam, January 1994, 'There are 7.5 million Bangladeshi Muslim immigrants in West Bengal and in total 20 million throughout India. Again one is at a loss to understand how such a large scale, migration could take place without being noticed and checked at the borders. Actually RAW wants to inflate figures to pressurize Bangladesh and in the process obtain her commitment to take back at least token numbers. In this regard RAW had also organized 'Muhajir Sangha', a movement of so called Bangladeshi immigrants in India who claim to go back to Bangladesh. ,Details of this organisation are given in another chapter. An interesting point to note is that while Central Government is crying hoarse about illegal immigration, the state Governments of West Bengal and Assam have been stating that no illegal immigrants are staying in their states. Similarly before assumption of power by BJP Government in Maharashtra, there was no talk of illegal Bangladeshi Muslim immigrants in Bombay. The dichotomy in stands of various state Governments clearly indicates the falsehood of the claim. While BJP is fuelling the issue due to its communal out look, the Central Government has other ulterior motives. Foremost is the diversion of attention of the people from their grievances and giving them a plausible justification for their sufferings. Let us first take the case of West Bengal. People of West Bengal feel that they have been exploited and deprived of their due share. In Calcutta 68% houses and 80% industrial units are owned by non-Bengalis. Out of 80 jute mills in West Bengal, 79 are owned by 10 non-Bengalee families. 60% of the labour force in Calcutta are non-Bengalis. Almost all top positions in industrial sector are held by non-Bengalees. The Bengali language has virtually become alien in its own home. Particularly in urban areas Hindi has become the lingua franca. Hindi films are screened in most of the cinemas. Sign boards of Government offices as well as number plates of motor vehicles are forbidden to be written in BangIa language.Calcutta which was the most developed city of India at the time of partition has turned into virtual slum due to constant neglect and lack of development work. Similarly lack of industrial development added to people's

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economic miseries. As a result many people have migrated to other states and cities in search of jobs. These include Muslims as well as Hindus of West Bengal. While the Hindu migrants from West Bengal are accepted by other states, the Bengali Muslims of West Bengal are discriminated against and labeled as Bangladeshis. This is indeed display of sheer prejudice against Muslims in so called secular India. The exodus of Muslims from West Bengal is evident from the fact that while at the time of partition, population of Muslims in West Bengal was 45%, now it has shrunk to 29%. Where have the others gone? Certainly there have been no reports about such large scale migration from India to Bangladesh. Situation in Assam is no different which has been systematically deprived of its natural wealth by Central Government. As stated by Mr. AK Das in his book Assam's Agony', 'There has been serious lack of interest on part of the Government for developing communication, power, education, health, social welfare, agriculature and industries in Assam'. .Mr. Das further writes-in his book,'The Government of India neglected the North East Region in the development of industnes: in the public sector. The Government has made about 20 percent of its investments in Maharashtra and Gujarat as compared to only 5 percent in this region. The North East Region has only 21 large and medium scale industrial units out. of 15,000 in India. India has 1,750,000 small-scale industrial units with investments of Rs 12,000. million. But this region has only 3,000 units with a paltry investment of Rs. 150 million. The industrial employment is only 4 percent as compared to 20 per cent in India'(Assam's Agony, Page -233).Assam produces 58% tea of total Indian production and 30% of total tea productfon of the world. But only one - ninth of the total tea is auctioned in Gauhati. Rest is auctioned in Calcutta and other places. Agriculture goods'worth 30,000 million rupees are taken llway from Assam to other parts of India annually. 60% crude petroleum of total Indian production is extracted in Assam. Similarly large quantity of natural gas is also extracted in Assam. But Assam's share in Government funds is not proportionate to its contribution. 60% Government employees in Assam are outsiders. The share of Assamese working in Assam in railways is 14%, telegraph and postal services is 10% and, plywood industries lis 15%. The remaining employees in these departments are all from other states.In such a situation, the growth of discontentment is natural. Therefore separatist movements have grown in Assam and other North Eastern states. The seriousness of the situation was acknowledged by no body less than Indian Army Chief himself who recently stated that insurgency situation in North East region was next only'to Kashmir. However, instead of taking appropriate corrective measures' to obviate people's sense of deprivation, the Central Government created the bogy of infiltration from Bangladesh as an excuse for poor development of the region. Initially some people in Assam bought the idea. 'Assam Gano Parishad' adopted it as election slogan in 1985 and came to power. However, gradually truth has dawned, on the people. They now understand Central Government's machinations. That is why Mr. Saikia, the present Chief Minister of Assam categorically stated recently that there were no illegal Bangladeshis in Assam.

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On the other hand Central Government ministers still keep harping on the same old theme.Let us also discuss, the illegal immigrants issue propounded by Maharasl1tra Government of BJP. Reportedly many Bengali speaking Muslim families have been uprooted from Bombay, but independent observers noted that all of them belonged to West Bengal. AFP after sampling 100 such families reported that these people had come from West Bangal and not from Bangladesh. However, Maharashtra Government is bent upon calling them Bangladeshis as they. happen to be Bengali speaking Muslims. Do they want.to say that only Hindus have right to belong to West Bengal?It is quite apparent 'from the above discussion that so called 'Push Back' is a ploy used by India to pressurize Bangladesh, besides diverting attention of the people of aggrieved states. RAW cleverly and wickedly uses the issue to raise antiBangladesh hysteria whenever necessary for internal or external reasons. RAW' believes that by such tactics it can keep Bangladesh under pressure and hence push it to total subjugation. Moreover, use of the issue by the Indians in combination with their bigger game plan i.e. invasion of Bangladesh claiming that their national interests have been endangered due to large scale alien immigrants, cannot be ruled out.

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CHAPTER-26 HINDU ORGANIZATIONS RAW has sponsored the establishment of a large number of Hindu organizations in Bangladesh for a variety of purposes to include; rendering support to pro-Indian political parties, to give shelter to Indian terrorists, to divide people on various issues, to spread communal and class hatred and finally to create favourable conditions for merger of Bangladesh into India. Common people are not fully aware of all such organizations and their activities. They mostly know only about some political groups and cultural forums who are widely reputed to be pro-India. However, there are many other organizations that are working against national interests and it is important that their activities should be brought to the notice of our people. Of particular interest in this regard are the RAW sponsored organizations of minority community. The Hindu communalists have not till today reconciled with the partition of India in 1947. They may be living in Bangladesh but their loyalty and allegiance are with India. Many of their communal organizations are working to undo the partition. In other words they are working against the integrity of Bangladesh. RAW is their main financier. However, these organizations also get financial and other support from various extremist Hindu parties of India including BJP, VHP, Shiv Sena, Bajrang Dal etc. The only overt organisation of minorities is Hindu Buddha-Christian Oikya Parishad. Other organisations work so discreetly that not much is known about their activities out side their own community. Names of some of these organisations are : a. Bangladesh Jatiya Hindu Samaj Sanskar Samity (BJHSSS). b. Pranab Moth Shevasharam (It was re-organised from defunct Bharat Shevasharam). c. Bangladesh Sant Mohamandal. d. Bangladesh Hindu Foundation. e. Vishwa Dharma Shanti Shammelan Bangladesh. f. Bangladesh Chaitanna Shanskritic Shangh. g. International Society for Krishna Conciousness(ISKcoN). Its head Office is in Mayapur, District Nadia, West Bengal, India. h. Ananda Marg(Daily Meillat : June 7, 1992). Besides above, a number of other small organisations also exist which virtually work as the Bangladesh branches of communal extremist Hindu organisations of India. These

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organisations outwardly profess to be doing humanitarian work i.e. alleviation of illiteracy etc. but actually these are dedicated for doing communal work.Some minority organisations also publish newspapers and magazines etc. A Hindu magazine 'Samaj Darpan' is published by Bangladesh Jatiya Hindu Samaj Sanskar Samity (BJHSSS). Its office is located at Vholagiri Ashram, K. S. Lane, Dhaka. The cover page of their magazine .is printed in Calcutta, India, due to the lack of photographs of Hindu gods and goddesses in Bangladesh. It is believed that the entire expenses on printing and publication of this magazine are borne by RAW. Reportedly BJHSSS also published booklets - and leaflets supporting Bangabhumi movement and Akhand Bharat.The head of BJHSSS, Mr. Shiv Shankar Chakarvarti,who is also the editor of Samaj Darpan is reported to have close links with Indian Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP). He is also a supporter of Bangabhumi movement. His close associates include Mr. Bijoy Nandi, head of India Shevasharam, Mr. Vinod Bihari Chowdhury, President Bangladesh Hindu FOl1ndation and Mr. RN Das Gupta, Secretary General Vishwa Shanti Shammelan. According to the Daily Meillat, June 10 1992, Mr. Bijoy Nandi told in a meeting of Bangabhumi activists at Bangaon, West Bengal that in 1972 the then Government of Bangladesh had given permission to the organisation (India Shevasharam) to work in Bangladesh due to personal influence of Mrs. Indira Ghandi. After the assassination of Sheikh Mujib on 15 August, 1975 all officials of the organisation fled to India. Later they returned to Bangladesh and formed another organisation named Pronab Moth Shevasharam. The Daily Meillat, 8 June, 1992 wrote: 'Mr. Shiv Shanker Chkarvarti holds positions in different organisations. He is a member of executive committee of VHP in India and the chief co-ordinator of VHP in Bangladesh. He is also member of executive committee of Nepal based Hindu Mahasangha, President of Hindu Samaj Sanskar Samity, Editor of the Samaj Darpan and above all, chief cashier of Apex Group of Industries. He earned much recognition from RAW for working as a sincere local agent. His magazine 'Samaj Darpan' is notorious for making massive anti-Bangladesh and anti-Muslim rhetoric. He spreads message of communal hatred and continuously propagates that "Hindus are being persecuted in Bangladesh. At times his writings are so provocative that these amount to inciting Hindus to take up arms for getting their so called due rights. Mr. Bijoy Nandi, who is the President of pronab Moth. Shevasharam, in his speeches, launches ferocious attacks against Bangladeshi Muslim community. He has been inciting and urging Hindu youth to join Bangabhumi movement. The Daily Meillat, June, 10, 1992 quoted him saying: 'You (Hindus) laid down your lives to secure independence of India. Your forefathers fought against the aggressor Pathans and Mughals to save the temples ofIndia. Your forefathers also fought to safeguard our religion and civilization from the atrocities of Aurangzeb. My dear fellow beings! the youth of Bengal and India! Come and join Bengasena and attack Bangladesh to establish Bangabhumi in six south western districts (Faridpur, Kushtia, Jessor, Khulna, Barisal and Patuakhali). Let the UNO and the USA be damned. Let Bangladesh know our strength.

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Let Indian Muslims understand that Hindus are still alive and powerful!The biggest Hindu organisation in Bangladesh is'Bangladesh Sant Mohamandal'. Its members are spread all over Bangladesh. It has 267 -member Central Committee. It also has a 10member Presidium Council. Bangladesh Sant Mohamandal has close links with the Communist Party of Bangladesh and 5 Parties Alliance who are blamed to be pro-India. It tries to control rural politics of Bangladesh through Hindu voters. It also co-ordinates electoral policy of Hindu voters in collaboration with a large national secular political party. The organisation also serves as a recruiting ground for RAW. All-- these organisations are engaged in relentless propaganda against Bangladesh. They spread misinformation, rumours and false reports to paint Bangladesh in poor light. On the contrary India is depicted as a mighty super power. The aim of such propaganda is to convince people that existence of Bangladesh as an independent country is not viable. They quote fictitious figures to prove their point and argue that merger of Bangladesh in Indian union will be in the larger interest of the Bangladeshi people. Members of these organisations are willing and dutiful supporters of RAW in its campaign against Bangladesh. They are very motivated for the cause of 'Akhand Bharat' and in many cases work without any financial or other rewards. They are hardened Hindus who are willing to render any sacrifice. They provide all types of support required by RAW in its operations. From managing safe houses to the conduct of terrorist activities, these volunteers are willing to accomplish any task. Due to their discipline and dedication it is difficult to penetrate these organisation. Hence they are able to do their activities in total secrecy. RAW is indeed lucky to have a large community of hard core and motivated Hindus in Bangladesh who is ready to. do anything for the cause of Akhand Bharat. This situation can indeed be compared to the support enjoyed by MOSSAD from all Jewish people. These extremist Hindu organizations are posing grave threat to country's independence and communal peace. Due to their extreme secrecy and discreet working, very little is known about their activities. Taking advantage of the situation, RAW is sponsoring more such religious organizations day by day. It is time that our Government realizes the threat from such communal organizations and necessary steps are taken to regulate the working of these so called religious organizations.

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CHAPTER-27 ARMED FORCES Nobody now refutes the proposition that India in engineering dismemberment of Pakistan in 1971, had really aimed at taking a step forward to re-establish united India. In view of her said goal, India ensured right from 1971 that Bangladesh does not become a strong country. India wants that Bangladesh should remain a nominally independent country like Bhutan and Sikkini which could be occupied later by India when she desires. In furtherance of the said aim India had forced the 1971 Interim Government of Bangladesh to sign a treaty of subservience. One of the clauses of the treaty was that Bangladesh will not raise any Armed Forces of its own. Indians had told the then Interim Government in exile that Bangladesh does not need an 'Army' because she is surrounded on three sides by India and the other side by natural sea. Since India was a friendly country, therefore, there will be ne danger of an aggression by her. If any other power resorts to an aggression against Bangladesh, Indian Army would defend Bangladesh, they advised that for internal security Bangladesh should raise a militia force. That is why Rakhi Bahini was formed after creation of Bangladesh. When Sheikh Mujib still decided to raise national Army it was opposed by India. However, he decided to go ahead with the raising of the Army despite India's opposition. Thus a small Army was raised comprising of soldiers of Pakistan Army who had taken part in freedom struggle. Later most of the army personnel repatriated from Pakistan in 1973 were also enrolled in Bangladesh Army. RAW apprehended that if Bangladesh succeeds in building powerful Armed Forces, it will become difficult for India to realize her dream about merger of the new country into India. The Indians knew well about the courage and skill of the Bengali army men. The experience gained during -the liberation war was an additional asset for Bangladesh Army. Indian policy planners concluded that even small Bangladesh Army might in future pose a threat to their aggressive designs. Indian designs against Bangladesh Army were evident from the very beginning. They did not leave any military equipment captured from Pakistan Army in the then East Pakistan. In this regard the Daily Meillat reported, "The Indians took away the abandoned military hardwares(tanks, artillery, guns etc.) worth Taka 80,000 million of the Pakistan Army's Eastern Command in order for materialization of their goal i.e. not to permit Bangladesh Army to grow strong(Daily Meillat : May 26, 1993).When Indians realized that Sheikh Mujib is determined to raise an Army in defiance of the treaty signed by Interim Bangladesh Government and India, they encouraged a dissident party to take up the issue of raising a people's Army or 'Gano Bahini'. The dissident leaders started propagating that Bangladesh does not require a regular professional Army. They labeled the Army as God's Khasi (castrated of God). They organised so-called 'Revolutionary Soldier's Council' to realise the goal of 'Scientific Socialism'. It was actually formed to create division and disunity among the rank and file of the Armed Services.

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Soon after the change over of 1975 some cadres of Gono Bahini attempted to create chaos and lawlessness in the country. RAW also stage-managed fake kidnapping in Dhaka of Mr Samor Sen, the then Indian High 90mmissioner in Bangladesh. The aim was to create plausible excuse for India to move in Indian Army into Bangladesh. However, the 'kidnapping' drama did not go too far and thus Bangladesh was saved from direct Indian aggression. After coming to power the late President Ziaur Rahman re-organized the Armed Forces. He gave them an honourable position in the society. But RAW did its best to obstruct him. That is the reason for so many coups staged against Ziaur Rahman. He was killed in the 19th coup attempt. Although apparently the coups were aimed at ousting Zia but the ultimate goal was to weaken or liquidate the Armed Forces. RAW engineered conspiracies to divide rank and file of the Bangladesh Army in various groups. The division between 'Freedom Fighters' and 'Repatriated' was fuelled to pave way for internal strife and disintegration. RAW has also been endeavoring to project Bangladesh Army as'anti-people'. During the peak period of anti-Ershad movement, RAW spread a rumour that the Army was supporting Ershad. The rumor was aimed at damaging the popularity of the Armed Forces of Bangladesh.In order to protect country's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity there is no substitute to adequately strong Armed Forces. If Sikkim had an effective and strong Army she would not have been occupied and annexed by India.On the other hand Srilanka could withstand Indian pressure because she has her own effective Army .The Maldives, on the contrary, had to seek Indian Army's help to drive out Indian henchmen from Maldives, because she had no Armed Forces of her own. Bangladesh must have its own Army not only to thwart aggression from abroad but also to quell internal troubles and rebellions. The credit goes to valiant Bangladesh Army for checking nefarious designs of Shanti Bahini. If Bangladesh did not have an effective Army, Indian supported Chakma insurgents might well have succeeded in dividing the country. Similarly Indian Army would have marched into Bangladesh on any flimsy pretext. The need for strong Army is further highlighted by growing internal threats supported by- India in form of secessionist movements in Bangladesh in the name and style of Jhumland, Hinduland (Bangabhumi) and Garoland etc. However, the RAW sponsored henchmen have been unleashing constant propaganda against the Armed Forces primarily on financial grounds. Every year before the presentation of budget, discussion starts in newspapers calling for reduction of military expenditure. While need for increasing budgetary provisions for education and health is acknowledged, such increase cannot be made at the cost of Armed forces. Appropriate military expenditure is necessary if country's existence and sovereignty are to be safeguarded. Everything else comes after the safety of the state. Let us now have a look at comparisons between defence expenditures ofJndia and Bangladesh published in Daily Sangram. "India's population size and economy are both seven and a half times larger than that of Bangladesh. But her defence spending is 23 times higher than that of Bangladesh. It is, therefore, a matter of simple arithmetic that our military expeJ1r1iture should be increased three-fold to match the Indian expenditure.

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The defence expenditute of Bangladesh in 1995-96 was increased only 2.5% over the previous year. India in contrast increased her defence expenditure by 18% in 1995--:96 over the last year's expenditure"(Daily Sangram : June. 23, 1995). India is one of the poorest countries of the world. 30% of Indian people live in slums or bastees.50% dwellers of Bombay, 45% of Delhi and 65% of Calcutta live in the slum areas. 90% of Indian children live in malnutrition. 50% of Indian youth suffer from energy deficiency due to malnutrition. 216 million Indians do not have access to clean drinking water. 55 million children in India are engaged in child labour. 75% of the primary school going chilldern cannot afford to attend primary school due to extreme poverty. A World Bank report says "By the year 2000 A. D. the largest number of illiterates will live in India". This poor country (India) has been building her military might and creating tension, rivalry and scare in the region. But RAW's stooges in Bangladesh are totally mum about it. If India agrees to cut her military expenditure, other regional countries will be too willing to reduce their military expenditure.Our defence forces are the protector and guardian of our independence. Despite RAW's. efforts, the Armed Forces are possibly the only institution in Bangladesh which have still remained relatively free of RAW's influence. ,But it does not mean that RAW has given up her designs against our Armed Forces.RAW has organised an elaborate espionage apparatus through its agents who are relentlessly trying to collect classified information and documents about our national defence. In the past many such RAW agents were arrested by police and our intelligence agencies. Here are a few examples. "Some RAW agents who were engaged in collecting maps and other secret documents of restricted area at Rajshahi have been arrested at Rajshahi. They include Sanjib Roy, Gaynath MandaI, Balram Mehata, Rampada Sardar and Ayazuddin. Most of them were hired to work for RAW man in the Indian Deputy High Commission at Rajshahi"(Daily Sangram : Decemebr 26, 1992). "The police has arrested 5 persons for smuggling of valuabel state documents. Indian intelligence Agency RAW is believed to be involved"(Daily Sangram : December 11, 1992)."The law enforcing agencies have detained 10 persons including a former cabinet member of the deposed President Ershad in connection with a spy ring allegedly run by RAW. The agencies are looking for ,a number of other persons for their involvement in the smuggling of confidential documents of the country"(Daily New Nation: August 15, 1993)."A former Indian diplomat, M.r.GR Makashi was expelled from Bangladesh on June 6, 1993. Mr. Makashi, who earlier was First Secretary in Indian High Commission in Dhaka was reportedly expelled on the charge of espionage. and anti-state activities. A local newspaper reported that Mr. Makashi had returned to Dhaka after resigning from service. He set up a garment factory in Dhaka's posh Dhanmondi residential area in partnership with others. He was being kept under watch by police due to his suspicious activities"(The Hindu International: June 19, 1993). Indian High Commission at Dhaka and Deputy High Commissions at Rajshahi and Chittagong serve as hubs for espionage activities against Bangladesh Armed Forces. Besides, large scale trans-border espionage is also carried out by agents of Indian

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Military Intelligence, Border Security Force Intelligence, Intelligence Bureau and. notorious RAW as well. RAW's evil designs against Bangladesh Armed Forces are still continuing. We pray that this vital institution remains safe from RAW's menacing onslaught.

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CHAPTER-28 CAMPUS VIOLENCE The force that can effectively foil Indian hegemonistic designs is our student community. RAW has applied maximum efforts to extend its influence in our campuses to materialize her master plan. RAW is working on a long term programme directed to misguide and mislead student community and to spoil the congenial academic atmosphere in our educational institutions. Indians had been working in our educational institutions since the Pakistan period. Indian intelligence agencies had succeeded in influencing a group of student leaders during the student's movement of 1962. This influence was further expanded during the 6-point movement. After creation of RAW in Septemebr 1968, India's influence on the student leaders increased substantially. As a result student-led mass movement of 1969 went, more or less, under the control of RAW influenced student leaders. It has now been confirmed by researchers, writers and journalists at home and abroad, including Indians that RAW had played pioneer role in creation of 'Joy BangIa Bahini'in 1970 and 'Mujib Bahini' in 1971.During the Pakistan days Indian secret agencies had kept their activities limited to influencing only the top student leaders. But after creation of Bangladesh RAW extended its canvas and now even middle and lower ranking student leaders are directly controlled and handled by RAW.Initially RAW spread its tentacles among the students and teachers of Dhaka University.. However, gradually they spread their operations to other universities and colleges including medical, engineering and other professional colleges all over the country. RAW has three designs to achieve by paralyzing our educational institutions : a: No resistance should develop against India and her cultural aggression, economic exploitation and political subjugation of Bangladesh. RAW has attained almost full success in this regard. During the last 24 years our educational institutions have played almost no role in protests against the aggressive designs of India. RAW's propaganda has made them a desperate, confused and misled force. Instead of resisting evil designs of India, they are engaged in negative politics, anti-social and even anti-national activities. Many students have started practicing Hindu culture in the name of Bengali culture. b: India, through her agents, has constantly been creating clashes and conflicts in the campuses which have destroyed academic environments in Bangladesh. Due to ever increasing violence many students have started preferring to go to India for higher education. India thus not only earns a lot of foreign exchange but also is in a position to brainwash these students. When these students will return to Bangladesh after finishing their studies to take up responsible positions in Bangladesh, they will be more likely to have soft corner for India and thus will directly or indirectly serve her cause. c: RAW has cultivated a strong pro-India pressure group among the students. Due to fear of pro-India students lobby the government can neither take any action against India's

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hegemonies designs nor even adopt an independent foreign policy. RAW has used a portion of our student community to put pressure on all governments from Mujib to Khaleda Zia by inciting the students to create disturbances and law and order problems. Commenting about the state of affairs of Dhaka University, The Daily Meillat wrote, "The Dhaka University, once known as Oxford of the East, had given birth to all the movements in this region since the British period. Many national movements were born in Dhaka University. RAW knows well that the anti-India movement, if any, would one day start from Dhaka University. This is why a large section of the teachers and student leaders of the University have been engaged by RAW to keep 'development of any anti-India movement' under check. Many of them do not feel ashamed of openly acting against national interest. The University has become. a safe sanctuary for the terrorists and the murderers. Some RAW activists among the students and the teachers have become so bold that they have virtually made the whole University a hostage to their evil deeds. The University seems to have retreated from the main stream of our national hopes and aspirations. The terrorism which started from the Dhaka University campus has now spread over to other campuses as well. The atmosphere for learning and teaching has withered away. That is why the college and university campuses are full of clashes, infighting, chasing, counter-chasing, demonstrations, gherao., gun-fights, arrests, injuries, killing, strikes, deferment of examination and even beating of teachers by students"(Daily Mellat : August, 25, 1995).There is not a single college or university in the country form Tetulia to Teknaf where clashes among the students do not occur. Many of these clashes are. not even reported in the media, thus the true statistics in this regard are difficult to compile. However, following statistics published in The Daily Sangram detailing an account of clashes of four years (from January 1, 1991 to Febuary 15, 1995) provide some insight about state of affairs : Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 (upto February 15) Number of Clashes 200 250 350 200 35 Iniured 2000 2000 2500 2200 1000 Killed 15 25 40 30 6

Clashes have occurred not only in the major universities of Dhaka, Rajshahi, Chittagong, Jahangirnager and Islamic University but also at far flung college of the island of Hatiya and at the mountainous region of Khagrachari. During this period due to Occurrence of clashes, the~nstitutions were closed down unscheduled for 250 times"(Daily Sangram :

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February 18, 1995).The Daily Ittefaq reported, "Including the death of Students League activist Joydip Dutta Chowdhury on January 21, 1995, 54 persons have been killed in Dhaka University premises since the inception of Bangladesh in 1971. Among them 20 were outsiders. Among them only two persons were killed in police firing, the rest were killed in clashes between rival students"(Ittefaq : February 28, 1995)."The students are killed in campuses due to internal feuds, power rivalry or personal quaI1rels. Enquiry committees are formed to investigate into these killiIgs.But none of the reports are ever made public for reasons unknown. Nobody has heard about any formal trial of the killers(Daily AI Mujadded : March 7, 1995). According to Daily Janakantha,"In the Rajshahi University campus 23 perosons were killed in the last 23 years. Five of them were outsiders. The figure of injured is 1000. Nearly one thousand rooms were burnt down. The estimated value of loss on account of these clashes was Taka ten cr.ores. The University remained closed for thousands of days during the last 23 years"(Daily Janakantha : February? 14, 1995)."Some institutions were closed down again and again. The Agriculture University Mymensingh was closed down unscheduled for ten times. In many cases when an institution opened after a long closure, it had to be closed again following bloody clashes"(Daily Meillat : August 25, 1995). The RAW controlled terrorists continue their evil acts unabated in educational institutions due to patronage and support provided to them by influential RAW henchmen form within administration, businessmen, politicians etc. Some of our educational institutions have turned into mini cantonments through illegal import of arms form across the border. Commenting on the situation, The Daily Inqilab reported, "At present over 200 armd men are staying in the Dhaka University residential halls. Half of them are not students. These armed outsiders also reside in the halls. The statistics of the armed cadres staying in different halls are: Zahurul Haq Hall-30, Jagan Nath Hall-35, Zia Hall-20, Mujib Hall-35, Surja Sen Hall-30, Shahidullah Hall-25 and Fazlul Haq Hall-25. Among the arms held by these terrorists are cut-rifles, revolvers, sten guns, S.M.Gs, pistols etc. These terrorists are connected with influential persons who readily supply them with more sophisticated arms like sub machine guns, sten guns, mortars, SLRs, British carbines etc. whenever required". The Daily Meillat published following report based on information obtained from intelligence and police sources, "The Dhaka University has become a hostage in the hands of 2000 armed cadres. Many of them permanently reside in different halls of the University. Most of them are outsiders. Among them there are 200 professional killers"(Daily Meillat : August 25, 1995). RAW constantly remains on the look out to exploit issues for creating disturbances. When there is no issue, RAW uses its stooges to make a non-issue into an issue. RAW even creates dissentions in the same party,organisation. or institution. A big student organisation has been kept divided into Faridpur and Barisal groups. In the Jahangirnagar University campus, the students have been kept divided over locals and non-locals rivalry. At the Agriculture University campus, occurrence of fights between two groups--Dhaka and Mymensingh is common phenomenon. Besides, there are also occurrences of cutting

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tendon, veins, cutting off or breaking hands and feet, pulling out eyes, disabling or killing of rival students in various educational institutions. "According to statistics available from Manabadhikar Samannaya Parishad, a Human Rights Organisation, some 30 educational institutions were closed amidst frequent clashes between activists of student organisations from January 1 to July 31 this year (1995). At least 16 persons were killed and about 8 hundred others injured in clashes. During this period 150 incidents of violence took place across the country"(Daily Morning Sun: August 15, 1995). RAW engineered lawlessness in campuses has ruined educational environment. The situation has been further worsened due to dubious role-played 'by RAW influenced teachers. The institutions remain closed due to teachers' involvement in politically motivated agitation as well. During such closure, these teachers work with some NGOs for extra earning. Consequently the standard of education has fallen. As a result certificates awarded by Bangladeshi institutions have lost their value abroad. Commenting on the situation The Daily Janakantha wrote, "the guardians and parents being afraid of the falling standards of education and the session jams, prefer to send their wards to India for higer education(Daily Janakantha : February 20, 1995). Over one hundred organisations have come up during the last few years that arrange admission of Bangladeshi students in Indian educational institutions. Advertisements are published in Bangladeshi dailies inviting students to seek admission in India. II Of late it has become fashionable for sons and daughters of bureaucrats, businessmen and politicians to study abroad particularly in India. They are going to India not only for higher technical education but also for subjects like fine arts, dance, music, ,fashion, hair cutting, hair styling etc. It seems that the firms engaged as consultants for arranging admission of Bangladeshi students in Indian institutions have waged a crusade to attract as many students as possible. Incredibly even children of class I to V are also being sent to India for education. According to conservative estimates nearly 100,000 students from Bangladesh are studying in Indian institutions. If we assume that average expenses per student per month are Taka 5000/-, the total expenditure comes to Taka 50 crore monthly and Taka 600 crore annually. These students are likely to be influenced by Indian culture, system and traditions. Their love for Bangladeshi literature, culture, history and tradition is likely to wane. Thus even ~f RAW does not directly recruit them, the Indian curricula would shape them as Indians at least in out 100k..It is also likely that a section of them would develop indifferent attitude towards our religious and cultural distinctiveness. These people are likely to be RAW's future lobby to demolish our independent identity and to work for merger with India. It may be recalled that for Sikkim's merger with India the politicians and bureaucrats educated in India had played a vital role. Similarly some top leaders of Nepali a political party who had studied in India acted to make Nepal subservient to India even at the cost of national interests. Soon after the party rose to power, it rescinded arms purchase from

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China, adopted Indian diotated foreign policy and even abandoned King Birendra's initiatives for making Nepal a zone of peace (which was supported by 116 of the 159 members of the United Nations). the party also accepted unequal terms in case of the hydroelectric projects. All these things happened because minds of its leaders had been influenced by Indians while studying in India. Their education in Indian institutions had made them pro-India in their outlook and they became tools to serve for Indian interests. RAW has also been using our student-folk for working against Islamic traditions and identity. They have also recruited some teachers for the purpose. These teachers give statements in newspapers and make speeches in seminars etc. in favour of secularism. They criticize Muslim traditions and identity. Due to lobbying by such secular minded teachers, the educational curricula of our universities have been based on secularism. Thus nobody was surprised when a teacher of History Department of Dhaka University recently demanded. for rem~Yal of Islamic history and culture from the syllabus. After independence of Bangladesh Quranic verse 'Iqra Bisme nabbikallazi Khalaq' was dropped from the emblem of the Dhaka university. Similarly the word' Muslim' was dropped from. Salimullah Muslim Hall and Fazlul Haq Muslim Hall. Although Islam has now been recognised as state religion in the constitution but no step' has been taken by University authorities to re-introduce Quranic verse in the University emblem and the word' Muslim' in the name of the said two halls. When on June 8, 1994, in the annual sen,ate meeting of Dhaka university, Dr. Quamrul Ahsan Chowdury, the provost of Salimullah Hall proposed to reintroduce the word 'Muslim' alongwith the names of those two residential halls and the Quranic verse in the University emblem, the RAW influenced teachers and students rejected the proposal. Dt;. Qamarul Ahsan was labelled as communal. His office was attacked twice in succession by RAW terrorists-cumstudents. They also threatened him for life. The University authorities took no steps to punish those terrorists. RAW thus succeeded in its design to stop reintroduction of word Muslim and Quranic verse. Irony is bat it was accomplished through so called Muslim students.'The Bangladesh Times' reported that Hindu-Christian -Budha Oikya Parished had subinitted a memorandum to the VC Dhaka university stating that recitation of Bismillah and Quranic verses was contrary to the spirit of Liberation War. The news item says. 'The use of Bismillah in the programme of Dhaka University Platinum Jubilee celebration and DUCSU reunion has created resentment in a sedion of students of the University. It was revealed in a memorandum of DU unit of Bangladesh Chhatra Juba OikyaPrishad. (BCJOP), a sister organisaiton of Hindu- Budha-Ghristian Oikya Parishad, which was submitted to the VC. It was claimed in the memorandum that 'Bismillah' is contrary to the spirit of the Liberation War. The memorandum was signed by more than 70 students (all belonged to Jagannath Hall). It was stated in their memorandum that in the original constitution of 1972 the pledges of the martyrs had been reflected, although these pledges have been stamped out through the cruel dissection of the constitution. The inclusion of Bismipah and reading of Qui-an fn the reunion programme of DU Platinum Jubilee celebration has struck a blow to the non-

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communal spirit of the University which will encourage to destroy the values of the Liberation War"(Bangladesh Times. September 24,. 1995).RAW is now pursuing an agenda to convert Dhaka University campus into a museum of statues. The aim is to gradually spread the statue culture all over the country. New statues are constantly being erected on flimsy pretexts and baseless grounds. Many statues have already been erected in the campus. The plans are to erect many more statues of Hindu personalities by falsely associating them with the University It is well known that Hindus including Rabindra Nath Tagore had opposed the establishment of Dhaka University. When the University was finally established despite their opposition, Hindus sarcastically called it as Makkah University: The tragedy is that Dhaka University has now become main centre for spreading Hindu culture proposed by Rabindra Nath Tagore. If the process of erecting statues is continued, a day will come when visitors will find it difficult to believe that Dhaka University belongs to a Muslim country. It is to be remembered that Islam prohibits erection of statues.The Daily Meillat reported in this regard. "Keeping in view a particular objective, a neighoburing country has been pursuing the process of erection of statues in the campus of Dhaka University. In the span of ten years from now RAW plans to erect 200 statues in the campus alone"(Daily Meillat : May 27, 1995). The Dhaka University which was established for the uplift of the down-trodden Muslims of this region preservation of their rights and identity, has now become' a tool in the hands of enemies of Muslim history and traditions. No one knows when Dhaka University will be free from the RAW's influence. The plight of other educational institution is not any better either. One can only pray to Almighty Allah to save our students from the clutches of RAW.

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CHAPTER-29 RAW AND OUR RULERS Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of Bangladesh and its first Prime Minister is regarded as a RAW agent by many analysts. However, the contention is not supported by many others. They argue that Mujib had elicited Indian nelp to liberate Bangladesh. India, on the other hand, used him to disintegrate its perpetual enemyPakistan. Their support was not due to any love for Muslim Bengalees. However; Sheikh Mujib utterly failed to foresee Indian game. It was only after creation of Bangladesh that Sheikh Mujip realized true Indian designs. Indians expected that due to their help during liberation war Bangladesh will ever remain grateful and indebted. Particularly after signing of Friendship Treaty in 1972, Indians thought that Bangladesh will remain subservient and dependent on her. However, when the new country occasionally started conducting as a sovereign state, it was not liked by Indians. RAW's apprehensions about Mujib grew due to the following reasons: a. RAW feared that Mujib's popularity, towering personality and his ability to mobilize masses could pose a threat to India's overall objectives in Bangladesh. b. Indians were annoyed when Mujib asked Indian Army to leave Bangladesh. c. Indians were further irritated when Mujib ordered for return of Indian civil administrators who were sent to Bangladesh to take over the key positions after the fall of Dhaka on December 16, 1971. d. Mujib's decision to attend summit at Lahore was not liked by Indians. India wanted that Bangladesh should remain a secular and a client state. They did not want it to develop relations with other states, especially with the Muslim countries. In order to ensure that Indian interests are fully looked after, RAW arranged inclusion of its hard core agents in Mujib's cabinet as well as on higher positions in Awami League. These agents made all efforts to make Bangladesh a subservient state of India. This alienated the people from the Government. Yet RAW was not contented. Following 'divide and rule' policy, RAW managed divisions in Mujib's political followers soon after emergence of Bangladesh. Such is the ruthlessness of RAW that it did not hesitate from plotting against its friend and ally to further their own interests. Mujib's opponents later floated a political party which openly. preached and propagated severe bitterness and discontent against Mujib and his Government. Using it-RAW introduced in the country, a neW trend of political violence through hartals (general strike), blockades, sit-ins, bombings, arson and secret killing to halt the process of rebuilding the war devastated country. In the name of Gano Bahini (People's Army) an armed terrorist group was also formed by Mujib's opponents. In ensuing fights more than 10 thousand Gono Bahini cadres were killed (openly and secretly) by the then Mujib Government. Many of them

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included real patriots who had joined Gano Bahini with good intention of saving Bangladesh from Indian influence. RAW used its stooges to forge Bangladeshi currency notes, arson jute godowns, created panic here and there by bombings, smuggled Bangladeshi goods and assets to India, organised insurgent groups like Shanti Bahini to disintegrate Bangladesh. Above all, RAW indirectly instigated Sheikh Mujib to form BAKSAL and one party rule which defamed him in home and abroad as a dictator and killer of democracy. RAW used Rakhi Bahini (a para military force created under Indian pressure which was virtually controlled by RAW) to eliminate nationalist forces. Mujib did try to restrict RAW's influence but RAW's agents had infested his Government and party to such an extent that he virtually became helpless accomplice in RAW's game. Moreover his gratitude to Indians curtailed his will and ability to check RAW's activities. This led to sharp erosion of his popularity and mass support. Mujib alongwith his family members was assassinated on 15 August, 1975 in a military coup. After Mujib's assassination, Khondakar Moshtaq Ahmed took over the power. He announced to follow nationalist and Pro-Islamic policies. However, he was soon ousted in a counter coup master minded by RAW through Khaled Mosharraf. Later Ziaur Rahman became the President of Bangladesh. He followed pro-nationalist policies and resisted Indian hegemonism. Zia's independent and Pro-Muslim foreign policy and above all, his obstinate stand on Talpatti Island made him the eye sore of India. Therefore, RAW turned against him. They instigated series of military coups to oust him. Ultimately RAW succeeded in killing him during 1981 after 18 aborted coups. The role of RAW in assassination of Zia is well documented in author's booklet titled, 'The Secrets Behind the killing of Zia'. A noted Indian parliamentarian Mr. Subramaniam. Swamy,provided important insight about RAW's plan to assassinate Ziaur Rahman. He stated in an interview given to the weekly magazine 'Sunday', 'RAW had plotted the assassination of President Ziaur Rahman with approval from Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Mr. R. N Kao, the RAW Chief and Shankaran Nair, a senior official of RAW had plotted to kill General Ziaur Rahman. The scheme was already at an advanced stage with Ganghi's approval. But the Congress Government fell and Mr. Morarji Desai became Prime Minister. Mr. Desai was appalled to learn about assassination plan. He called halt to the murder plot. The RAW warned the Prime Minister that it was too late to back out now and that many RAW assets would be endangered if the plan was aborted at this stage. However, Desai remained adamant and finally RAW abandoned the assassination'. Mr. Subramaniam Swamy commented, 'Zia continued to rule Bangladesh for many more years. He was assassinated after Indira Gandhi returned to power but India said that she was not involved'. After Zia, Justice Abdul Sattar became the President of the country. He vowed to continue Zia's policies. However, soon his Government was overthrown and the then COAS Lieutenant General Hussain Mohammad Ershad assumed power on March 24,

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1982 in a bloodless military coup. Ershad had attended an army course in India during 1974.There are stories that he was picked up and cultivated by RAW during the said course. He was gradually nursed and supported to rise to the rank of COAS. It is widely believed that General Ershad captured power with the support of RAW. Reportedly Ershad had sent a special envoy to inform Mrs. Indira Gandhi about the planned military coupe to seek her blessings. Mrs. Gandhi gave her blessings on the assurance that Ershad would hold elections at the earliest and help in bringing into power a 'particular' political party. However, later Ershad ,developed his own ambitions. He started following independent foreign policy. He declared Islam as state religion. These moves annoyed RAW, who unleashed series of movements to topple him. Hartals, bandhs, blockades etc. which outwardly meant to fall his Government, also weakened the economy of Bangladesh and discouraged foreign investment. These factors impeded country's progress and development. During Ershad regime RAW regained ground lost during Zia era. He patronized Indian lobby and allowed RAW to conduct its activities virtually at will. The appeasement policy followed by Ershad enabled RAW to dig its roots deep in administrative, cultural and political echelons of Bangladesh. Ershad's belief was that by giving maximum concessions to the Indians, he could win their support, however, proved misplaced. He failed to understand that Indians did not want merely concessions, but total subservience, which perhaps was a little. too much for him. Ershad was forced to resign on December 6, 1990 in the wake of popular uprising and wide spread public agitation.After Ershad, Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), led by Begum Khaleda Zia came to power by winning elections on anti India and pronationalist stance. People hoped that BNP would follow bold and courageous policies. However, the performance of BNP Government so far (1991-95) is indicative of the following : a. BNP has been trying to outdo Awami League in the ideological and other fields which were once considered the latter's domain. b. The basis of foreign policy of BNP Government has been appeasement of India. c. RAw's activities and operations in Bangladesh have continued unabated. The RAW agents and stooges in higher bureaucracy and the Government continue to thrive. On the other hand, the nationalist and anti- Indian officials have been targeted and side lined. A glaring example of the same is tpe transfer of Mr. Assafudollah, the then Secretary of Agriculture and Water Resources Ministry. He was sent out of the Ministry due to his uncompromising and obstinate stand on Farrakka issue. On the contrary, Mr. Farooq Sobhan the Foreign Secretary, who reportedly has been advocating for grant of transit rights to the Indians still continues to occupy the coveted appointment, despite serious allegations leveled against him by the nationalist press. d. Under the cover of free market economy Bangladesh has been over-flooded with Indian goods,which has caused grave harm to country's industrial development. Many of

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the existing Bangladeshi mills and factories are on the verge of closure due to unplanned in-flow of Indian goods. The New Nation, an English daily wrote on 29 August 1995, under caption 'India seek cooperation from Bangladesh'. 'Trade between the two countries now stands at 60 crore dollars compared to that of seven crore dollars five years ago'. It may be mentioned that balance of trade is favourable to India by 97% to 3%. e. A large number of newspapers', magazines, publishing houses, business firms etc. have been floated by RAW under dummy ownership. These are relentlessly engaged in sabotaging the country's ideology, independence and sovereignty. f. Polarization on account of Freedom Fighters versus Non Freedom Fighters received a new surge. g. Educational institutions experienced highest frequency of violence and terrorist activities. This situation actually was arranged by RAW hirelings and the process spread throughout the country like contagious disease. Because of violence, murders and session congestion in the educational institutions, large number of students went to India to study in Indian universities and colleges. As a result a huge amount of foreign exchange is draining down to India. Moreover, it has provided good opportunity to RAW to brain wash our younger generation during their stay in India. h. No action has been taken against RAW stooges who work or speak openly against our independence and sovereignty. Our Government failed to take appropriate legal action against Taslima Nasreen, Ahmed Sharif, Hassan Imam and leaders of the Hindu-BhudhaChristian Okkayea Parishad for speaking and writing against our country and religion. On February 28, 1992, an Indian journalist and Editor of Dainik Ajkal, Mr. Myaram Surgeon in a seminar held in the National Museum Auditorium Dhaka, urged Bangladesh to merge with India. But no protest was made instantly or later, though the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Begum Khaleda Zia, the Leader of the Opposition in Parliament Sheikh Hasina and other top-level leaders were also present there. It is apparent that most of our rulers have been following the course of least resistance against RAW's onslaught. Some even resorted to appeasement to get RAW's blessings. There is a fallacious dictum in Bangladesh: 'To rise to power you need to be anti-India but to survive in power you need to appease India'. Perhaps due to belief that no Government in Bangladesh can survive if it invites wrath of RAW, our rulers do not dare to challenge and bridle RAW. However, I vehemently oppose this supposition. A Government which boldly, courageously and righteously pursues national interests will become so popular that no body will be able to shake its foundation. Here I also want to dispel fears propounded by some cowards and pessimists that since Bangladesh is surrounded by India on all sides, therefore, it is defenseless. They argue that due to its size and power, India is in a position to destabilize Bangladesh at will. I want to draw their attention towards history which proves that it. is not the size alone which determines a country's defensibility. After all, small countries like Cuba and Taiwan have existed despite presence of mighty hostile countries around them. Similarly

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examples of Afghanistan and Vietnam can be given who being much smaller and poorer, still defeated super powers like Soviet Union and the United States respectively. Thus the true guarantee of a country's independence and sovereignty. are will and determination of its people. The size, affluence and resources come later. The Bangladeshi people are indeed very patriotic and motivated. History has proved that they are willing to Fender any sacrifice for their motherland. Hence our rulers should rely on our nation's spirit and motivation for upholding and safeguarding country's integrity and independence. They should understand that unnecessary appeasement of foreign powers will not earn them any good. Our adversary is too wicked and has too ambitious an agenda. Mere appeasement does not satisfy his greed and hunger, hence it will prove futile. Those who propound the 'appeasement theory' are either myopic or fifth columnists. Let it also not be misunderstood that I am advocating anti-India hysteria. Certainly that" is not my aim or objective. What I am trying to put across is' that we must develop the will and conviction to preserve our independence and sovereignty. We must not allow anyone a free hand to subvert our ideology, independence and national interests. We should assert ourselves whenever required for claiming our just rights. That is the only course for an honourable existence. Let us hope that our rulers and leaders will realize this' simple fact in their own as well as in country's interest.

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CHAPTER-30 RAW'S INFLUENCE IN HIGHER ECHELONS RAW has carefully nurtured a strong pro-Indian lobby amongst top political leaders and highly placed Government officials for promoting Indian interests in Bangladesh. Many of them are wooed through financial rewards in cash or kind. The others tow Indian line due to their ideological leanings. RAW's amazing success in penetrating in our top echelons is a cause of grave concern. Indeed vital national interests will continue to be jeopardized if the situation is not remedied. Here are some. examples of top level betrayals.The Weekly Bikram of Dhaka, in its issue of 29th November, 1993, published an interview of the then Assistant Secretary of the Ministry of Shipping and Water Transport. A relevant part of the same is reproduced below: 'In 1972 the Ministry of Shipping had no sea-going vessel. The Prime MinIster's Secretariat directed this Ministry to procure a ship of its own. Soon we processed the file and sent that to the Finance Ministry. The Finance Ministry in their note told us to look into the matter whether India could supply us such a ship, otherwise India's approval would be required if we wanted to procure it from some other country. General Osmani was in charge of Shipping Ministry while Mr. Tajuddin was Finance Minister. After receiving the note of/the Finance Ministry(Daily lnqilab : December 16, 1994)took the file to the Prime Minister's office. Sheikh Mujib, the then Prime Minister got furious after seeing. the note. He summoned Mr. Tajuddin to his office. No sooner had Mr. Tajuddin entered the Prime Minister's office, then he burst at top of his voice and said, 'What else have you, Tajuddin conceded to India?' The Daily Meillat in its editorial titled 'Allocation of money for the Ganges Barrage' exposed the extent of RAW's influence on our highly placed persons. It wrote : "The Agriculture Ministry has stated that the Government does not consider the Ganges Barrage project as an alternative to the Farakka Barrage. This amounts to denying the utility of the Ganges Barrage. It is not known whether the comment was based upon facts and findings by the water experts or it was yet another attempt to please the Indians. The feasibility of Ganges Barrage has been well assessed by many experts who had recommended implementation of the project. Based upon the evaluation of experts, late President Ziaur Rahman had started the project and he himself laid the foundation stone of the Barrage. India and her local agents have been opposing the project for ulterior reasons. Indian agents in Bangladesh's higher echelons have been delaying the implementation of the project on one pretext or the other(Daily Meillat : May 24, 1995).The Daily Janakanta reported how some of our senior administrators and bureaucrats work for India, relinquishing country's interest. The report alleged that although the Government had prohibited import of granulated SSP fertilizer from India, yet the Ministry of Agriculture issued a circular on April 17, 1995 to import Indian fertilizer. It is further stated by the newspaper that the Agriculture Ministry in a meeting on October 24, 1994 had decided to

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stop production of SSP fertilizer in Chittagong TSP Complex and instead decided for production of 100% TSP at the complex. Bangladesh is self sufficient in TSP production -and can even export some surplus stocks. But production of SSP is lesser than the domestic requirement. SSP and TSP can be produced in the Chittagong factory at the ratio of 60% SSP and 40% TSP. Bangladeshi SSP is considered superior to Indian SSP. The use of SSP can increase agricultural yield by 10%. Even being aware- of all these facts, - the Agriculture Ministry asked the Industries Ministry to stop production of SSP. The newspaper alleged that this was done to import larger quantities from India to make up the shortage at later stage. Indian SSP which looks similar to Bangladeshi TSP, can be sold at higher price (price of TSP is higher than SSP). The Daily comments that the said lobby is working actively to make Bangladesh a market for Indian goods. They do not care if in the process country's economy and industry are totally destroyed(Daily Janakantha : June 20, 1995). The Daily Inqilab reported about appointment of an Indian in Bangladesh T & T Board. The Daily stated that a Director of the Delhi Communication Centre of India got the appointment at the T&T Board without prior approval of the concerned ministry. The appointment was made disregarding the time frame that was given to the. International Telecom Union for sending their nomination for the post. The Board had not even cared to look for an expert from another country. According to the details T&T Board had approached International Telecom Union to nominate an expert for Data Exchange Centre built by it. The International Telecom Union sent the name of an, Indian expert. The concerned Ministry did not approve the proposal and asked for a panel of three names for final selection. However, disregarding the Ministry's instructions and before getting the desired response from Telecom Union, T&T Board decided to appoint the Indian expert who was previously rejected by the Ministry. The Indian expert reached Dhaka and assumed his new assignment. When asked, the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications expressed its ignorance about the said appointment (Daily Inqilab : December 7, 1994).After publication of above news, the T&T board sent a clarification to the Daily Inqilab justifying their decision. But the reply was unconvincing. They could not give any justification about why an Indian was appointed on such an important and sensitive position. The transport sector of Bangladesh is dominated by Indian vehicles. The Suzon Tempo of Bangladesh has lost its market due to Indian Bajaj and API auto rickshaws, which have been given excessive concessions. Similarly, Indian locomotives have been preferred over better quality locomotives from Britain, Germany and Canada. This was made possible by winks from right quarters despite the fact that the Railway Tender Committee had rejected the offer of Indian Locomotives Company. The Tender Committee had concluded that maintenance cost of Indian locomotives will be, seven times higher(Daily Inqilab : November 23, 1994). The main objective of importing Indian locomotive engines is to make Bangladesh Railways dependent upon India and also infiltrate Raw agents in Railways in the guise of

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experts and engineers who will be coming from India to maintain and repair the locomotives. Let us see what The Daily Inqilab Comments: 'India is going to succeed in grabbing Bangladesh Railways beca1,LS,e of the intrigues of a section of vested interests. India began assembling locomotive very recently and the industry' is still in initial experimental stage. The Railway's Tender Committee had mentioned in its report that Indian locomotive engines are totally unfit and unacceptable for Bangladesh and had recommended that Bangladesh should not purchase these engines under any circumstances. The committee also mentioned that yearly maintenance and' running cost of the current engines with Railways is one tenth of the total cost of the engine, whereas the said cost of the Indian locomotives will be more than seven tenth. Thus Railways will have to incur seven times more expenditure on their maintenance. Besides, the Indian engines are of lower quality and the engineers of Bangladesh are not experienced and habituated in managing and driving them. Hence Indian experts will have to be hired to supervise and maintain these engines. Despite such strong opinion of experts committee, the decision was made to purchase Indian locomotives(Daily inqilab : November 23, 1994). The above case makes RAW's influence in the Ministry of Roads and Communication amply clear. As a result of the said arrangement Bangladesh Railways will be required to spend extra amount on maintenance. Besides, the Indian engineers will stay in Bangladesh for seven years to maintain and repair these engines costing additional 60 million US dollars. It is apprehended that RAW will be able to place its agents in 'Bangladesh" Railways in the guise of experts and technicians. Bangladesh is self sufficient in salt production.. There are huge stocks of better quality iodine salt in the country. But still some dishonest businessmen have been given permits to import salt from India. They import non iodized cheaper salt which is full of adulteration of sand, stone, glass particles etc. The Indian salt is also inferior in chloride content i. e. 55% as compared to 99% in Bangladeshi variety. Consumption of low quality salt causes various diseases, hence its import should not have been allowed. On December' 11, 1994, a unit of Bangladesh Navy captured an Indian Trawler alongwith 15 Indian fishermen in Bangladesh waters, They also had Rs. 126853 (Indian currency) in their possession. A case was registered in the Mongla Thana in this connection on December 12, 1994.But for mysterious reason the ministry of Home Affairs issued an order to the Magistrate of Bagherhat. Accordingly, the concerned Magistrate on December 26,1994, withdrew the case and ordered the authorities of the Bagherhat 'prison to release the Indian citizens alongwith their possessions. When contacted, the Home Ministry refused to explain why the case against the illegal infiltrators was withdrawn (Daily Meillat : December 30, 1994). Bangladesh needs to import sugar from abroad to meet short fall in local sugar production. But the irony is that sugar imports from India far exceeds country's actualrequirements. As a result the Bangladeshi sugar remains unsold due to dumping of cheap Indian sugar.The Daily Al Mujadded reported on June 22, 1995, that 133, 200 tons of Bangladeshi sugar remained stock piled and unsold. The Daily Sangram reported on June 21, 1995 that Bangladeshi sugar worth taka 4000 million remained unsold. The daily also

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reported that although import of more sugar was no more allowed, yet a dealer opened an L. C. account with a bank for import of 200,000 tons of sugar primarily from India. In addition smuggling of sugar from India is a common practice. Low quality cheaper sugar imported from India has adversely affected the domestic sugar need to pay VAT at Taka. 2.42 per Kg,whereas sugar entering Bangladesh market through smuggling need not to pay any tax or tariff.As a result Indian sugar is sold at a cheaper rate. Often it is found that Indian sugar contains adulterated items like urea, sand and even glass particles, but no remedy is available to redress the complaint. Indian edible oil has also captured Bangladeshi market. Smuggled Indian edible oil is cheaper by Taka 18/- to 20 per Kg as no duty or VAT is levied on said edible oil. Faced with inequitable competition; oil refining mills in Bangladesh are being closed. Out of 60 mills, 40 have been already closed down. Production of oil has fallen from seven lakh tons to only three lakh tons. It is estimated that four takh tons of edible oil is smuggled into Bangladesh from India each year (Daily Sangram : June 21, 1995). When the Government recently decided to import food grains to make up the shortage, some highly placed RAW agents were able to persuade the Government to import maximum food grains from India on the ground of its proximity. A little quantity of food grains were also imported from other countries including Pakistan, which was merely an eyewash. There are complaints that most of the Indian rice did not meet the conditions of sample of the tender. Indian rice was sub-standard, adulterated (with stone, gravel and grit), rotten and worm-eaten. Numerous reports were published in local newspapers ventilating the sub-standard and inedible position of the Indian rice. However, defying all criticisms the concerned authorities accepted the rice. The role of the officials of the Ministry of Food in the case of 8 thousand metric ton's of cotton and unfit rice imported through Khalil & Co. is indeed revealing of their subservience to India. The said rice consignment reached Mongla Port on June 11, 1995 by an Iranian flag vessel. The firm appointed to off load the rice refused to do so' as the rice was rotten and worm-eaten. Local food officials inspected the rice and informed the Ministry of Food in Dhaka. To handle the situation the Chief Marketing Manager of the Indian State Trading Corporation, Mr. Tendon rushed to Bangladesh. This reversed the situation completely. The contractor that had refused to unload the rice was fined taka 11 lakhs and black listed on the instruction of concerned authorities in Dhaka. Another firm was assigned the responsibility to unload the rice at higher rates. The firm refilled the rice in new sacks inside the ship, though the rice was really rotten and worm-eaten(Daily Al Mujadded : June 19, and 25, : 1995). Another step taken by RAW towards crippling the agriculture and economy of Bangladesh is the supply of poisonous pesticides to Bangladesh which are prohibited even in India itself. These include Thiodine, Hilbil, Bittil, Hexactol and Thionyl etc. These pesticides are also prohibited in Bangladesh but their smuggling from India is exceedingly rampant. Informed sources claim that RAW has arranged the production of these illegal and destructive insecticides in India for supplying these to Bangladesh through smugglers, who are i~ fact RAW agents. It is but natural that prohibited items

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cannot be produced by any private firm without direct instructions and protection of Government authorities in India. Thus it can be easily inferred that their production and smuggling into Bangladesh is taking place with connivance of RAW. These insecticides are injurious not only for the crops but also for human beings. They are so poisonous that their destructive power cannot be destroyed even at 600 degree centigrade temperature. People who eat the vegetables on which these insecticides were used or applied may suffer from paralysis, dyspepsia, heart and liver problems etc. They also weaken different important internal organs of human body. Thiodine and some other insecticides reduce the fertility of the earth. Besides; those who eat the rice from the field where Thiodine was applied may suffer from dysentery, weakness and dyspepsia. Agricultural experts predict that within next 15 years the fertility of the land of Bangladesh would be reduced to an alarming extent. Observers believe RAW produces and send these insecticides to cripple the economy, ecology and human resources of Bangladesh. Insecticides are available on cheap rates which easily attract the illiterate and poor tillers of Bangladesh. For unknown reasons no firm step has yet been taken to stop the illegal trade of these poisons. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is another hot bed for RAW stooges. It is notorious for its pro-Indian stand on all issues, national as well as international. The influence of RAW on our Foreign Ministry 'was clearly-unveiled when our Foreign Secretary Mr. Farooq Sobhan himself took the initiative to propagate for grant of transit facility to India.The Daily Inqilab informed that Mr. Farooq Subhan had urged some journalists to create favourable public opinion for awarding transit facility to India. It is to be noted here that prior to his current assignment, Mr. Farooq Sobhan was the High Commissioner of Bangladeshi in New Delhi. Daily 'Inqilab further commented, 'It is clear that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bangladesh has taken the responsibility of safeguarding the interests of India. The recent statements and propagation of this Ministry to neutralize the displeasure of people against India due to her anti Muslim role, prove its pro-India bias(Daily Inqilab : July 29, 1995).At a premier institution concerned- with national defence, students frequently ask the guest speakers, 'Since Bangladesh does not have viable defence potential, therefore, would it not be feasible to come under security umbrella of India?' Apparently the question denotes mere academic probe, but its ramifications in terms of thinking and belief of those who are supposed to work and plan national defence are indeed much larger. RAW, through its continuing propaganda seems to be affecting even partiotic minds on the plea of inviolability of national defence. RAW's involvement in internal politics of Bangladesh is deep rooted. Since the days of erstwhile East Pakistan RAW has been patronising and funding a particular group of political parties(The Gentleman, Bombay,November, 1985).RAW's interest in political activities remained alive even after establishment of Bangladesh. The RAW operatives based in Indian High Commission Dhaka, maintain regular contacts with Bangladeshi political leaders and uses them for furthering Indian interests.

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A report about involvement of RAW with certain political party in Bangladesh, compiled by Mr Rajesh Joshi was published in Daily Indian Express. It was later re-produced in Dainik Bangla on 3 April 1992 and Daily Meillat on May 7, 1992. The report says, 'RAW had given 4.50 crore rupees to a political party of a neighbouring country (Bangladesh) for elections held on 27 February 1991. Mr B B Nandi (a high official of RAW) had given the money at Calcutta. But ultimately that political party failed to win the elections'. There are reports that money was paid to some other smaller parties and individuals as well. There are also reports that RAW had offered to pay money to some other parties including pro Islamic and pro-nationalist parties. But they declined to accept the money. The point to be noted is that RAW tried to enlist support of diverse political groups who are ideologically opposed to each' other. It proves that RAW is working on the policy of having two types of clients in Bangladesh i.e. A team and B team. This is to ensure that irrespective of which political party is in power, their purposes should be properly served. In pursuance of above policy, RAW has cultivated agents and supporters in almost all major political parties. These highly placed persons are provided material incentives in cash as well as in kind. Grant of agencies of Indian companies, promoting business, helping in securing loans, arranging medical treatment in India for them and their families, granting scholarships to The children of favoured politicians are only some ways to dole out incentives to their agents and supporters. A recent example of RAWs influence over the Government circles of Bangladesh was th~ proposal of giving the responsibility of preparing the voters lists and laminated identity cards to Indian companies. Sixty companies, both local as well as foreign, had submitted tenders for this work. But the concerned quarters selected only Indian companies to undertake this work of national importance. It may be' pointed out that necessary material, technology, organization and expert manpower were available in Bangladesh for doing the said work. A Bangladeshi firm, Swapta Sindhu Limited had offered to do the job using local technology and manpower within 100 days at a cost of 150 crore taka. But despite their competitive offer the work was assigned to Indian companies. Had not the patriotic people of Bangladesh protested against this grave security lapse, RAW would have succeeded in its nefarious designs. Taking advantage of this opportunity RAW would have been able to enlist many Indian Hindus as voters in Bangladesh to achieve favourable election results. By such manipulation RAW may have succeeded in bringing to power a puppet Government in Bangladesh to serve their purpose. Such a Government could even be expected to go to the extent of proposing in the parliament to incorporate Bangladesh into the Indian Union. Another important benefit for the Indians would have been that once credentials of these Hindu Indians were established as citizens of Bangladesh, it would have been easier to push them back for permanent settlement in Bangladesh. Even the Hindus who had left Bangladesh during 1947, after disposing off their movable and immovable properties and had been settled in India as permanent citizens, might be

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brought back to work as agents of RAW. A campaign had already started propagating that nearly one crore Hindus were forcibly compelled in the past to leave Bangladesh. An organization called Hindu-Buddha-Christian . Oikya Parishad, which works as an offshoot of Indian BJP in Bangladesh, in their national conference held on May 4, 1995 demanded to bring back these one crore Hindus from India. Although after storm of protests from all over Bangladesh the award of said work to Indian companies' was cancelled, but an important point to be noted is that some of the opposition parties who otherwise routinely criticize every Government action did not utter a single word against this decision. Is it not proof enough of RAW's influence on Government as well as on many political parties in the country? However., the redeeming feature is that people of Bangladesh stand solidly together to thwart Indian designs. Indeed that is the real guarantee for country's independence and sovereignty. The above are only some of the examples of RAW's influence in higher echelons of Bangladesh. I could go on narrating endless details of the same but the paucity of space restricts further narration. However, I hope that the readers would have grasped the magnitude of RAW's penetration.

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CHAPTER-31 THE TRANSIT ROUTEA India has been demanding grant of transit route through Bangladesh for providing supplies to its seven north-eastern states. The proposal is that Bangladesh should provide road and rail transit between Calcutta, Agartala, Shillong and Gauhati via Dhaka. Besides, use of Bangladesh's inland water-ways for Indian steamers is also t )ing demanded. India also wants to use Chittagong Port for transportation of goods to Tripura and Mizoram states. To make these proposals profitable a toll payment is being promised. Such transit facility arrangements do exist in several parts of the world, therefore Indian proposal at the out set may appear innocent and innocuous. But the problem arises due to India's expansionist and evil designs against her smaller neighbour. The fear is that the use oftransit facility will not remain restricted for commercial purposes. Rather it will be used for subverting Bangladesh's sovereignty and economic well being. It may be pointed out that the north-eastern Indian region is not isolated or cut off from mainland. Already good communication links exist between India's mainland and the seven northeastern states. These channels are already being used not only for supplying consumer goods but also for movement of troops. Thus there is no dire necessity for a transit facility through Bangladesh. A dispassionate analysis suggests that these proposals should not be accepted by Bangladesh for the following reasons: a. A wide trade gap in favour of India already exists due to Bangladesh's weaker economy, Indian machinations, unbridled smuggling and dubious economic policies by our Government. The grant of transit facility to India will facilitate smuggling, thus increasing the trade gap even further. .. b. It will not be possible for our police and security forces to supervise Indian vehicles and commodities throughout the proposed transit routes. At best the checking may be possible at entry and exit points though even that will depend upon cooperation of the Indians. India may cooperate during checking of vehicles and commodities in the initial days, gradually she would backout. It should not be forgotten that India has already earned a name for breach of promises and wriggling out of her international commitments. c. India may initially sign an apparently amicable transit agreement to make a beginning. But at a certain stage she may start demanding amendments in the terms and conditions of the original agreement.It will then be difficult for Bangladesh to get out of the net. d. RAW will certainly use this facility for furthering, and pursuing its own agenda of subversion. It will become easier to smuggle arms and explosives throughout Bangladesh. Besides, it will facilitate movement of RAW's agents, terrorists and stooges to and from Bangladesh.

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e. Owners of Indian buses and trucks will be greatly benefited by transit facility. On the contrary, Bangladeshi transport sector will suffer due to adverse competition. f. Another fear is that the said transit facility will not remain restricted to commercial use only. It is almost certain that the Indians will use it for military purposes on the pretext of utmost necessity. The movement of troops and supplies of arms to the northeastern states will gradually become routine. This can be used by India for massing troops even inside Bangladesh. g. The said facility will also be used by India for troop. movements against China. This will hamper. Bangladesh's relationship with a friendly country. " h. In the name of ensuring security of indian property and personnel, India may demand from Bangladesh for allowing her to station her troops inside Bangladesh. RAW may arrange feint attacks on Indian vehicles through its agents and thus create enough justification for India's demand to station her troops to protect her persons and property. In this garb RAW may get free hand to physically annihilate patriotic forces opposed to Indian expansionist design. Another danger is that RAW may even arrange mock attacks on Indian troops to 'prepare grounds for India to undertake offensive action against Bangladesh. ' j. Eventually it will become impossible for Bangladesh to exercise her sovereign authority on the transit route. But once allowed it will be very difficult to close the same. India may argue that the transit route is vital for her economy and security and its closure will amount to hostile action. In such a situation India may even force war on Bangladesh and capture her, to protect her vital interests. RAW has recently stepped up campaign to press for 'transit facility'. Its stooges are engaged in propagating the advantages Bangladesh would have if she accepts India's proposal for transit facility. Beside India is exerting relentless pressure on Bangladesh for grant of transit facility at least on experimental basis. Of late efforts are being made to' link the issue with Farakka Barrage and proposals far joint resolution of the two' issues are being put across. It has also been offered that as a reciprocal measure Bangladesh may be granted transit route to' Bhutan and Nepal. However, we must not fall prey to' any such tactics. We must not forget the character of Indian leaders. If Indian bus and truck services once start plying through Bangladesh, it will never be possible to' stop them under any circumstances. We remember how India withdrew water of the Ganges at Farakka on an experimental and temporary basis. Sheikh Mujib trusted the sweet promise of Indian leaders, in good faith. But that trial operation of Farakka still continues and perhaps it will never came to' an end. It is obviously difficult to' stop anything if it once starts. Sa if Bangladesh once grants transit facility an experimental basis, it will be next to impassible to stop it given India's track record. It should be remembered that India may even apt far open hostility including declaring war against Bangladesh, if she considers that her vital interests are being endangered by our actions at same stage. On the other hand India can withdraw the

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reciprocal concessions given to us in exchange of transit facility on any flimsy ground and we would not be able to do anything about it. In the face of such possibilities we have no reason to be attracted to the sweet bait of Indian leadership. It will never be beneficial far Bangladesh to grant transit facility to India in return far same monetary benefits no matter what it amounts to. Why should we allow India to use our land in the name of transit facility when we are certain that it will impinge an our sovereignty and national interests?

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CHAPTER-32 ANTI-BANGLADESH PROPAGANDA ABROAD RAW is continuously spreading false propaganda against Bangladesh specially, in Europe and United States of America. RAW's objectives in this regard are: (1) TO defame Bangladesh. (2) TO isolate Bangladesh from the community of nations. (3) TO project Bangladesh as a fundamentalist country where religious minorities do not enjoy basic human rights. (4) TO influence policies of Western World through misinformation as that their economic and political support to' Bangladesh decreases. With a view to achieving above objectives RAW is pursuing vigorous anti-Bangladesh campaign in Europe and USA particularly far the last few years. In 1992 RAW engineered the setting up of Bangladesh-USA Human Rights Group based in the United States. The stated aim of the organization is to maintain human rights situation in Bangladesh. However, it has become a forum far spreading anti-Bangladesh propaganda. Its reports to the contrary tend to serve Indian interests. Commenting about the said organization Weekly Dhaka Courier wrate, "Initially people welcomed its inception but it failed to conceal its ugly face and started doing what served India's interest better. Just after its inception it wrote a letter to the US Congressman Tom Lantos, Co-Chairman of the Congressional Human Rights committee bringing multiple charges of human rights violations on minorities in Bangladesh. This group appealed to the US Congress to stop American financial assistance to Bangladesh unless the religious minorities are properly treated. The letter alleged that Bangladesh Government had reaffirmed Islamisation in Bangladesh and ignored the rights of minority communities. It alleged that Bangladesh violated UN Human Rights charter by infringing upon religious rights of Hindus, Buddhists and Christians. Copies of this letter were circulated among the high ranking members of the Congress and' the Senate (Dhaka Courier: February 5, 1993). A 3-day international conference was held in London from October 18 to 20., 1991 on the status of minorities in Bangladesh. A number of so-called delegates were invited from different parts of Europe and The United States to represent Hindu, Buddhist and Christian communities of Bangladesh. However, in actual fact, most of the so-called delegates were either Indian citizens or Americans or Europeans of Indian origin. Only a few delegates belonged to Bangladesh. The speakers at the conference spoke about grossly exaggerated accounts of maltreatment, discrimination, atrocities and forceful exodus of the minorities in Bangladesh.

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Dr. Sabyasachi Dastidar, a Professor of New York University who had migrated to India in the late 40.s from Barisal District of Bangladesh presented a paper at the conference on behalf of the US branch of the Hindu-Buddhist-Christian Council. The paper was later published in South Asia Forum, a quarterly brought out from New York to draw the attention of the United States Government and people towards fake charges against Bangladesh.During the later part of 1992, RAW arranged numerous seminars, meetings and demonstrations in New York highlighting the subjects related to mistreatment of Bangladeshi minorities. Guest speakers were invited from foreign countries in these seminars and meetings to use them in anti-Bangladesh campaign. Articles, features and newspaper reports about discrimination against minorities in Bangladesh published in pro-Indian newspapers in Dhaka were translated and distributed to different activists and organisations. RAW has also been making concerted efforts to internationalise CHT problem. In 1992 RAW stooges arranged a conference in New York School for Social Research on tribal minorities in South Asia with speical reference to Bangladesh. One Bangladeshi speaker tried to draw a parallel between the 1971 war of liberation and the armed struggle of tribal people in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. RAW arranges posting of fake letters to the US Congressmen, Senators, human rights groups, United Nations affiliated agencies etc. about alleged human rights abuses in CHT. Further it arranges publication of articles in the media to draw attention to the so-called atrocities of the Bangladesh Armed Forces on the tribal people of CHT. Priests and posters of churches are also approached in the United States to write letters to local Congressmen and put political pressure on the US Capital Hill on the issue. A lengthy memorandum was submitted to the UN Secretary General requesting him to send a UN team to Bangladesh for investigation of alleged war crimes. Copies of protest letters and leaflets were distributed in the streets of New York to create favourable public opinion in this regard. RAW selected New York as the main centre for anti-Bangladesh campaign because: (1) It is the nerve centre of world politics and business where leaders,intellectuals and businessmen from all over the world get. together. (2) USA is now the only super power. Besides it is the 2nd largest donor country to Bangladesh and the largest buyer of Bangladeshi garments. Hence the effort to hamper Bangladesh-US warm relations. (3) To create an anti-Bangladesh public opinion so that USA does not put pressure on India to resolve its disputes with Bangladesh. Influenced by these organised campaigns in the USA during the last couple of years, 17US Congressmen ina joint letter to Prime Minister Khaleda Zia expresed their concern on the reported discrimination and mistreatment of religious minorities in Bangladesh. In the letter they said, "The esta~lishment of Islam as the state religion continues to cause concern among Hindus, Buddhists and Christian minorities. We are concerned that these events are part of mistreatment of religious minorities.Among the Congressmen who signed this letter (from Democratic as well as Republican Party) are: Thomas Foglietta of

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Pensylvania, Gary Ackerman, Eliot Engle and Edolphus of New York, Henry Waxman and Nancy Pelosi of California, ehristopher Smith of New jersey and Bernard Sanders of Vermont. The RAW stooges like Bidut Sarkar, Stephen Gomez, Shambal Chowdhury are being protrayed as leaders of the Hindu-Buddhist-Christian Council in some US newspapers. A Buddhist monk named Bimal Vhikhu has been going strong lobbying in Washington and the United Nations. Bimal Vhikhu had migrated to Calcutta in 1986 and permanently settled in India. CR Dutta, Bimal Vhikhu and other leading activists met several members of the House of Representatives and Senate including Senator Kennedy in Washington. It is learnt that RAW has been using Indian missions in Washington, New York and other. US cities for arranging interviews of dissident leaders with the leading Congressmen and Senators. RAW has also been using various UN bodies for propagating against Bangladesh. In 1992 Centre for Human Rights based in Geneva arranged a conference on the International Year of the World's Indigenous People.RAW arranged inclusion of an Indian citizen Mr. Bimal Vhikhu in the list of the NGO speakers. He addressed the conference claiming to represent the tribal community of CHT. He castigated Bangladesh for all sorts of actions and excesses against tribal people of CHT. RAW, has also been arranging visits to UN Human Rights Commission by Chakma leaders almost every year. After the demolition of Babri Mosque, Bangladeshi Muslims showed highest degree of restraint in ventilating their anger' and grief. However, some spontaneous anti-Indian demonstrations were staged in Dhaka and elsewhere in Bangladesh. No Hindu was killed in these demonstrations. Bangladesh Government took unprecedented precautionary measures to check any untoward happening. Nevertheless RAW stooges based in the United States shamelessly launched vigorous anti-Bangladesh campaign about alleged excesses against Hindus in Bangladesh. Scores of antiBangladesh demonstrations took palce in front of the UN building and the Bangladesh Consulate in New York. Anti-Bangladesh slogans condemning so called communal and racial violence were raised in these demonstrations. Memorandums were submitted to the UN Secretary General, Bmlgladesh Consulate General and other Human Rights organisations levelling charges against BangladeshGovernment on its supposed failure to protect the rights and properties of the Hindus.RAW is also using local Indian magazines including News India and India Abroad etc. for anti-Bangladesh propagation. Distorted facts and figures are published in these magazines for furtherance of RAW's objectives. Special articles are written by RAW hirelings to defame Bangladesh. RAW stooges project Bangladesh as a worthless country whose people are. fanatics, uncivilised and devoid of civic sense. Thus what they say about Farakka or Talpatti or about Indian involvement in CHT affairs is senseless.The above are some examples of RAW's antiBangladesh propaganda campaign abroad. It is imperative for Bangladesh Government to take appropriate steps to thwart RAW's propaganda.

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CHAPTER-33 OTHER ISSUES Erection of Barbed Wire Fence Along Borders India is pursuing an ambitious and higly expensive programme for erection of barbed wire fence along the Indian border with Bangladesh. It is amazing that India has embarked upon the programme at a time when the trends all over the world are to remove physical barriers between nations and the people. The removal of infamous Berlin Wall is an example of same phenomenon. The walls, fences and other physical barriers are constructed to protect a country against external threat. Question arises as to what threat Bangladesh poses to India's security? Obviously there is no threat to India from Bangladesh. Then why India is implementing the programme despite very high costs? The usual explanation given by Indian authorities is that they want to seal India's borders with Bangladesh in order to check illegal infiltration. However, their real aim is indeed sinister. The Indians want to convert the borders into a one way valve whose control will be with them. This will enable them to pursue their various nefarious designs against Bangladesh with ease including 'push back', launching of terrorists, saboteurs, spies, organising one way smuggling and drug trafficking etc. The erection of wire fence is being undertaken in a phased but rapid programme. Work is already in progress in various sectors of Indo-Bangladesh border. Reporting about progress of the work in Dinajpur, Thakargaon and panchagarh areas, Daily Janakantha wrote: "Day and night work is going on to build metalled roads along the border. Similarly erection of wire fence is also being undertaken at rapid speed. Already 507 kilometre long fence has been erected. Moreover Indian Border Security Force (BSF) has instructed the farmers who have lands along the border not to cultivate crops which grow tall enough to obstruct observation. The expenditure on construction of the roads and erection of fence is estimated to be Rs 468 crores(Janakantha : May 1, 1994).The Daily Sangram reported in its issue of July 27, 1995, "Fence is being erected in three rows from Sona Moque topposite Chakpara) to Karimganj-Kaliganj area. Besides, observation towers and metalled road have also been constructed withhin 200 yards of the border." The Daily Al Mujadded reported, "The barbed wire fence in Jibannagar sector of Chuadanga District has three rows. The first row is 9 feet high fenc,e mounted on angle iron pickets. The middle row is 4 feet high straight fence and the last row is 6 feet high coil fence. The centre row is electrified. The rows are 3 feet apart from each other. A 20 feet wide metalled road has been constructed at a distance of 10 feet from the fence. Steel gates have been fixed in the fence at each 2 kilometre distance"(Al mujadded : May 14, 1995)."Along Indo-Bangladesh border in Satkhira sector, India has constructed barbed wire fence all along the border. The fence has three rows. The middle row shall be later electrified. Observation towers are being built at close intervals(Mujadded : April 10,

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1995)."India has also erected barbed wire fence at Garo Hills area, Sylhet-Maulvi Bazar border and along border of Tripura state(Daily Janata : May 12, 1995). Erection of fence along the border is part of a bigger consipiracy by RAw to cripple Bangladesh. There are repotts that after construction of barbed wire fence, push back operations will be undertaken with maximum vigour as RAW believes that after erection of fence, it will be impossible for p.eople pushed into Bangladesh to return. Similarly there will be tremendous increase in infiltration of Indian agents and smuggling of all types 'of goods including drugs into Bangladesh. Illegal Occupation of Bangladeshi Land India has illegally occupied Bangladeshi land in many border areas. No where in the world a country occupied a neighbouring country's land the way India has Bangladesh's land. India is determined to perpetuate her illegal possession of such land. That is why in the past 23 years of Pakistan and in another 24 years of Bangladesh,India never seriously sat down to solve the border issues.At many places she did not even give areas allotted to Bangladesh by Radcliffe Award. India has been persistently refusing to undertake joint survey and demarcation of borders. In many border areas Indians evenremoved old border pillars and encroached upon Bangladeshi territory. In areas where middle stream of the river is recognised as the border, India diverted the river course towards Bangladesh territory and grabbed Bangladeshi area. The illegal occupation of Bangladesh's land by India has taken place at over one hundred places. However, due to paucity of space, here I whould' give details of only a few cases to inform my readers about Indian manipulation and tactics in this regard. "India is in adverse occupation of 200 acres of Bangladeshi land at 'Berubari sector in the district of Jalpaiguri. A survey team consisting of members from both countries visited the area in 1991. Sensing that solution to the problem may be found by the team, RAW decided to put hurdles in the way of the team. It manipulated sentiments of the people in Indian area by spreading rum our that if the team is allowed to work the area would go to Bangladesh creating problems for the people of the locality. Some political parties of India including BJP and Forward Block were instigated to launch movement against survey work at Berubari area and the possible handing over of some land to Bangladesh. That forced the survey team to abandon its work and leave the locality without accomplishing its task(Daily Bhorer Kagaz : November 11, 1994). The Daily Sangram reported, "Due to India's obstinacy and hegemonism two border points in the areas of Rajshahi District have remained unsettled for a very long period. These two areas are Chandansahar of Charghat Police Station and the other is the Nirmalchar of Godagari Police Station. Although these areas are rightly in Bangladesh, yet the Indian BSF has always been putting pressure to forcibly occupy them. In October 1992, the Indian BSF supported some India citizen to attack Bangladeshi farmers working in Nirmalchar area. At one stage BSF forcibly occupied the area and dug some bunkers as well. However, on being approached by BDR they left the area. But the

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Indians have not yet agreed to conduct a joint surveyw settle the issue for good. A source maintains that the Indians intend to forcibly occupy the area(Sangram : March 25, 1994). "The Indians claim that since Padma River is the border line, therefor, Chandansahar shore belongs to them. However, they forget that in this region the river course keeps on changing. It does not mean that border line will also change. Decision about the ownership of shore should be made based on old records of river course in 1947. India, however, is not ready to accpet it. Bangladesh Government sources stated that the Indians have been requested time and again to settle the matter but they did not respond at all. As a result the Bangladeshis living in the area are under constant threat of intimidation and fear from the Indians(Daily Sangram : March 20, 1994). "In the Thakargaon border area, the Indians have been trying to forcibly take away 90 acres of land from Bangladesh. In January, 1994, some Indians entered into the area and started preparing a tea garden there.Although BDR and BSF jointly settled the matter, the Indian farmers once again on 2 February, 1994 entered the area and started work for the same end. This time the Indians supported by BSF, managed to make a tea garden over an area of one acre of land(Daily BangIa Bazar Patrika : February 20, 1994). The Daily Ittefaq reported, "Of the 180 miles border with India in the District of Panchagarh, 18 miles are demarcated by river. The river course has been closing in towards Bangladesh every year due to floods and picking up of stones by labourers by breaking the river banks.This has resulted in creation of new shore. India has occupied newly formed shore though these do not fall into her territory. When contacted, the relevant department of Bangladesh Government informed that the Indians do not turn up on the appointed day and time for deciding such border demarcation issue. They keep on dragging these cases. Knowledgeable sources maintain that motivated by their evil intention to keep Bangladesh's land under illegal occupation, they do not send their survey team to settle these matters(Daily Ittefaq : Sepember 19, 1994). "On December 19, 1993, the Indian BSF personnel forcibly occupied 20 square kilometre of Bangladesh's land adjacent to the Sunderbans of the Kaikhali and Ramjan Nagar Unions located at the end of Satkhira District. They sank down more than 100 boats of Bangladesh, kidnapped some fishermen and threatened the others not to re-enter into the 10cality(Inqilab, December 27, 1993). "India has kept under forcible illegal occupation 1500 acres 'of land at the Taindong and Asalong villages of Matiranga Police Station in the Khagrachari Hill District. In 1986-87, people of these villages, after being attacked by Shanti Bahini guerillas, left the area due to lack of security. The BSF occuppied the said area comprising of 1500 acres. BSF has set up two camps in the said land. They have also constructed metalled road and erected electric lines. When in May 1995, the Indian farnlers, on being prompted by BSF, started cultivating the said land the Bangladeshi farmers objected. However, BSF still continues to occupy the said land(Daily Janakantha, May 25 1995).The Daily AI Mujadded reported, "India has forcibly occupied 2300 acres of land along he greater Kushtia border area. It is located between pillar No. 126-127, pillar No.

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132-133 at the Kathuli border, in the Isakhali border from pillar No. 122-15 to 122-65, and of Kushtia District at pillar No. 153-25 to 154-45. Besides, 300 Bigha of Bangladeshi land is under forcible occupation of India, between main pillar No 80 and 82 at the Baradi border of Damorhuda Police Station and between pillar 89 and 91 in Jhakurpur border of District Chuadanga(Mujadded : June 14, 1995)." A Media Syndicate report published in The Daily New Nation stated, "India has occupied 2000 square miles of Bangladesh's territory by constructing dams, barrages and other structures on rivers entering Bangladesh. India has constructed 25 dams and 40 structures on 25 rivers. These structures have caused loss of water in rivers. By putting up pillars and fences in dry areas India is claiming sovereignty, over 2,000 square miles of land that belongs to Bangladesh(New Nation: October 1, 1995). South Talpatti Island A glaring example of India's forcible occupation of Bangladeshi land is the case of South Talpatti Island. The Island is located at a distance of 6000 metre from the mainland shore of Bangladesh as measured by aerial survey obtained from remotely sensed imageries. The Chandbaria range of Bangladesh's Forest Department in the District of Satkhira is the nearest landmass of Bangladesh. The border in this region is based on River Hariabhanga whose main course lies in the west of the Island. Thus the Island forms an integral part of Bangladesh. The Radcliffe Award had fixed mid river course as the border between India and the then East Pakistan. The same formula was inherited by Bangladesh. Based on the said principle, the ownership of South Talpatti Island should lie with Bangladesh. In a survey map made in 1967 by Survey of Pakistan, the Island was shown in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). The Survey of Bangladesh map issued in'1972 had also shown the Island as part of Bangladesh. But India is not prepared to accept the said reality. On May 9, 1981, India landed her armed forces on South Talpatti Island with the support of three warships of Indian Navy. Since then India is maintaining her illegal occupation of the Island. Bangladesh has sent many proposals to India to settle the ownership issue of the Island. Bangladesh also proposed a joint or international survey. But India does not agr~e to hold any survey work. They know that such work will establish that the Island belongs to Bangladesh. Disregarding all principles, India has resorted to the jungle rule of 'might is right'. Establishment of Bangladesh's right over the South Talpatti Island will add 25,000 square kilometers area to Bangladesh. Besides, the naval and strategic importance of this Island to Bangladesh is enormous. The shallow sea shore and beach around this Island can be developed for tourism purposes. Moreover geological surveys have indicated deposits of huge minerals like iron ore, Manganese, Aluminium etc. in the off shore of the Island. Motivated by her desire to grab rich resources of the Island and also in pursuance of her evil design to re-establish Akhand Bharat, India has kept her illegal hold on the Island. It is well known that Bangladeshi fishermen were the first to reach the Island. They had established fishing camp on the Island in the past. In 1974 S:neikh Mujibur Rehman gave permission t.o six foreign companies for oil exploration in the area. These companies

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carried out exploratory work in the off shore of Bay of Bengal. Indians raised their claim only after 1974. Question arises that if the Island was India's territory, why did not she claim it before 1974. It may also be noted that India established her possession of the Island only in 1981. India is gradually consolidating its hold over the Island. In this regard the Daily Meillat reported, "India has strengthened her armed position on the Island. India is already negotiating with foreign companies to grant them right for oil and gas exploration around the South Talpatti Island. The concerned Indian Ministry has already invited tenders for the work."The issue of unsettled border lines between Bangladesh and India is indeed a major reason for constant trouble and souring of relations between the two countries. In 1974, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Mrs Indira Gandhi had signed a treaty for solving the unsettled border issues. The treaty signed on the May 16, 1974, was published in the Bangladesh Gazette on the November 28, of the same year. The border treaty was later incorporated into the 3rd amendment of our constitution. In this treaty it is stated that all survey works would be finished by December 31, 1974 by both countries. It was also provided in the treaty that the map (new) would be prepared by May 21, 1975 and a jointly approved map will be published by December 31, 1975. Details of disputed border lines were also mentioned in the treaty signed by both parties. After signing the treaty, the survey work began in some areas. But after Sheikh Mujib was killed on August 15, 1975, the Indian Government started to show unwillingnes to make any further progress in the matter on flimsy grounds"(Mujadded : June 14, 1995). According to international law India is bound to obey the terms of the treaty, notwithstanding change of the' Government in Bangladesh. But India is refusing to honour the treaty. She has also been flouting the terms of the treaty and is constantly endeavouring to grab Bangladesh's land illegally and unlawfully through the use of sheer force. Late President Ziaur Rahman had adopted a bold stance on the issue of Talpatti Island. He also pursued diplomatic offensive in the matter. But the subsequent Governments of Bangladesh failed to do anything like that. Analysts believe that the RAW's hold on the subsequent Governments of Bangladesh has increased with the result that national interests and sovereignty no more take first preference. That is the reason that Talpatti Island and many other lands in border areas remain under illegal Indian occupation. Despite Bangladesh's gesture of giving two square miles of area of Berubari in exchange for Tin Bigha, Indians have failed so far to show any accommodation on the issue. Observers believe that RAW is a major player behind the scene which has been persuading Indian Government not to make any settlement of border lines and Talpatti Island issue etc. RAW is waging a war of attrition against Bangladesh and wants to use every possible mean to cause suffering and loss to Bangladesh. RAW's aim is to demoralize and pressurize Bangladesh through every conceivable way so that realization of their end game is facilitated.

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