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LRFD Steel Girder SuperStructure Design Example

Pile Foundation Design Example Design Step P

Table of Contents
Design Step P.1 - Define Subsurface Conditions and Any Geometric Constraints Design Step P.2 - Determine Applicable Loads and Load Combinations Design Step P.3 - Factor Loads for Each Combination Design Step P.4 - Verify Need for a Pile Foundation Design Step P.5 - Select Suitable Pile Type and Size Design Step P.6 - Determine Nominal Axial Structural Resistance for Selected Pile Type / Size Design Step P.7 - Determine Nominal Axial Geotechnical esistance for Selected Pile Type / Size Design Step P.8 - Determine Factored Axial Structural Resistance for Single Pile Design Step P.9 - Determine Factored Axial Geotechnical Resistance for Single Pile Design Step P.10 - Check Drivability of Pile Design Step P.11 - Do Preliminary Pile Layout Based on Factored Loads and Overturning Moments Design Step P.12 - Evaluate Pile Head Fixity Design Step P.13 - Perform Pile Soil Interaction Analysis Design Step P.14 - Check Geotechnical Axial Capacity Design Step P.15 - Check Structural Axial Capacity in lower portion of pile) Design Step P.16 - Check Structural Axial Capacity in Combined Bending and Axial Load (upper portion of pile) Design Step P.17 - Check Structural Shear Capacity Design Step P.18 - Check Maximum Horizontal and Vertical Deflection of Pile Group at Beam Seats Using Service Load Case Design Step P.19 - Additional Miscellaneous Design Issues References

Design Step P.1 - Define Subsurface Conditions and Any Geometric Constraints
This task involves determining the location and extent of soil and rock materials beneath the proposed abutment and determining engineering design properties for each of those materials. It also includes identification of any specific subsurface conditions that may impact the performance of the structure. The design of the foundation system needs to address any identified issues. A subsurface investigation was conducted at the site. Two test borings were drilled at each substructure unit. Soils were sampled at 3 foot intervals using a split spoon sampler in

accordance with ASTM D-1586. Rock was continuously sampled with an N series core barrel in accordance with ASTM D-2113. For Abutment 1, one boring was drilled at each side of the abutment. These borings are illustrated graphically in Section A1 below. Refer to Design Step 1 for introductory information about this design example. Additional information is presented about the design assumptions, methodology, and criteria for the entire bridge, including the Pile Foundation Design. The following units are defined for use in this design example:

Figure P-1 Section A1 - Subsurface Conditions at Abutment 1 Evaluation of Section A1 indicates that subsurface conditions are relatively uniform beneath the proposed abutment consisting of essentially 2 materials. Loose silty sand was encountered in the top 35 feet of each boring. This material is non-plastic and contains about 15% fine material. Below a depth of about 5' the soil is saturated. Rock was encountered at about elevation 70 in both borings. The rock consists of a hard gray sandstone. Fractures are tight with no infilling and occur at a spacing of 1-3'; primarily along bedding planes which are horizontal. Slight weathering was observed in the upper 1' foot of the rock but the remainder of the rock is unweathered. Special Geotechnical Considerations: The loose fine sandy soils could be subject to liquefaction under seismic loading. Liquefaction is a function of the anticipated maximum earthquake magnitude and the soil properties. If liquefaction is a problem, the soils can not be relied upon to provide lateral support to deep foundation systems. For this example it is assumed that the potential for liquefaction has been evaluated and has been found to be negligible. (Note: Seed and Idriss (NCEER-97-0022) provides more up to date material for evaluation of liquefaction) C10.5.4, SAppendix A10 The weight of the approach embankment will cause compression of the loose soil horizon. The granular material should compress essentially elastically with little or no long term consolidation. However, since the full height abutment will likely be placed prior to completion of the approach embankment in the vicinity of the abutment, soil compression beneath the abutment must be accounted for in foundation design. For shallow foundations, this compression will result in settlement and rotation of the footing. For deep foundations this compression could result in negative skin friction (downdrag) loads on the foundation elements; particularly in the back row of piles.