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Haider Crane Co.

1 12/25/07
A brief introduction to Crane Design is presented with the
intent that it will be useful to the users specially those who
are new in this field and have no knowledge of how a crane
is built.
This work is motivated due to the lack of presence of
literature for crane design on the web. The author was
compelled to put up some effort to have at least some stuff
on the web which can at least give a introductory level
information to engineers and students.
Feel free to send me a mail with questions or comments
Crane Design Basics
crane_calc.xls Beam Calculator
Haider Crane Co.
2 12/25/07
Span
P
Dead Load Bending
Max Moment =
l Pl
2
8 4
+
P = Center drive + Controls
w = Footwalk + Beam + Lineshaft
Dynamic Mx = Max Moment x factor
Dynamic My = Max Moment x factor
Span
P1 P2
x
y
Live Load Bending
L =Span
If P1=P2, use the Case 41, otherwise use Case
42. Also calculate the Max moment using the
formula PL/4. In other words, to be
conservative, use the largest value obtained.
Compute Moments
Haider Crane Co.
3 12/25/07
Compute Stress
a
b
DL Dead load, LL =Live Load, Fy =Yield normally @ 36 ksi for A36 material, Fb =Allowable Stress
Dynamic Mx = LL Mx + DL Mx
My = LL My + DL My
f
M
S
F
b
x
bott
y
x
T
= 06 .
f
M
S
f
M
S
f
F
f
F
b
x
Top
b
y
Top
b
b
b
y
x
C
y
C
x
C
x
y
C
=
=
+
06
10
.
.
Girder Beam
Fabricated/Box Beam
Available to 60 ft max. length
L/h should not exceed 25
L/b should not exceed 65
h
b
Haider Crane Co.
4 12/25/07
Compute Deflection

=
=
5
384
48
4
3
wl
EI
Pl
EI
For Uniform Load
For Conc. Load
For Trolley:
| |
P
LL TW
Pa
EI
l a
=
+
=
2
24
3 4
2 2

Haider Crane Co.


5 12/25/07
=
12000
L
d
A
f
= 06 .
y
Allowable Compressive Stress Fb per CMAA 74
1/600
1/888
Use when the flanges
are not welded on the
top and bottom
Haider Crane Co.
6 12/25/07
Allowable Compressive Stress
L
r F
And
L
r F
F
F
L
r
F
Otherwise F
L
r
F
L
d
A
perCMAA
F
t y t y
b
y
t
y
b
t
b
f
b y
=
|
\

|
.
|

(
(
(
(
=
|
\

|
.
|
=
|
\

|
.
|
=
102000 510000
2
3 1530000
170000
12000
06
2
2
2
3
1
,
,
( )
.
Select Allowable Stress which is the Greatest of all. Then check for the following:

Tensile y
comp
x
b
comp
y
y
f
<
+ <
06
06
1
.
.
Haider Crane Co.
7 12/25/07
Lower Flange loading per CMAA 74
For a crane where the trolley is running on the bottom flange, it is necessary to check the local bending of
flange due to the wheel load. The flange must be OK before a beam selection is made.
This is a empirical formula
Haider Crane Co.
8 12/25/07
Lower Flange loading per CMAA 74
Haider Crane Co.
9 12/25/07
Lower Flange loading per CMAA 74
Haider Crane Co.
10 12/25/07
Lower Flange loading - Alternate procedure I
The lower flange of the crane beam must be checked for:
1) Tension in the web. 2) Bending of the bottom flange.
Refer to the figure, the length of resistance is seen to be 3.5k. The 30 degree angle is a
consensus figure used for many years. Assuming 4 wheels (2 pair) at each end of the
crane, each wheel will support P/4 delivered to the supporting crane beam. Two wheels
cause the web tension, so the load is P/2. Tensile stress in the web is:
( )
f
P
A
P
t
P
t
t
w w
= = =
2 2 35 7 .
30 deg
P/2
3.5k
tf
k
Bottom Flange
e
e
Point of Load
tw
e
k1
P/4
tf
Flange bending depends upon the location of
the wheels with respect to the beam web. This
dimension is e as shown in the figure. The
wheel load is P/4. Longitudinal length of the
flange participating in the bending resistance
is 2e per yield line analysis. Bending stress is:
f
M
S
Pe
bd
Pe
et
P
t
b
f f
= = = =
4
6
4
6
2
075
2 2 2
.
Refer to Engineering J ournal, 4
th
quarter, 1982, Tips for avoiding Crane Runway Problems by David T. Ricker
Haider Crane Co.
11 12/25/07
Lower Flange loading - Alternate procedure II
Now, the angle is changed from 30 degree to 45 degrees.
tw
e
k1
P/4
tf
45deg
b=2e
Load
Capacity = 6000 lb
Hoist wt = 1000 lb
Load = 6000 +1000 = 7000
Wheel load = 7000/4 = 1750
With 15% impact = 1750(1.15) = 2013 lb
b =11.5, e = b/2 = 5.75
Tf = 0.875
M = 2013(5.75) = 11574.75
Stress = M/S = 11574.75 . (6)/(11.5)(0.875)^2 = 7890.15
Moment = 7000(1.15)(30)(12)/4 + 110((12)(30))^2/(8(12)) = 873000 lb-in
30 ft Bridge
Span
110 lb/ft
Stress= 873000/280 = 3117.8
( )
= + + = + +
x y x y
2 2 2 2
31178 789015 31178789015 . . . .
Stress = 9827 << 0.6 Sigma y (21600) OK
Haider Crane Co.
12 12/25/07
EXAMPLE Simple Approach
Capacity: 2 Ton (4000 Lb), Span: 20 Ft (480 in)
Hoist Wt: 200 Lb, Hoist W.B: 12 in
Vertical Impact factor =15%, Hor. Impact =10%
Solution:
Mx
wL P
L
L
a
Mx
M
S
M
S
wL
EI
Pa
L a
EI
E
x
x
x
x
y
y
= +
|
\

|
.
|
= +


|
\

|
.
| =
= = =
= =

=
= +

=

+

2
2
2
2
4 2 2
4
8 2 2
318
12
240
8
2100 115
2 240
240
12
2
2945711
2945711
364
80926
2945711 11 01
927 115
30395
5
384
3 4
24
5318 240
384 12 218
2100 115 114
3
. .
.
.
.
.
. . .
. .
.
( )
( . )
.
(

240 4 114
24 218
0237
600
04
2 2

= < =
)
. .
E
L

240
P1 P2
114
12 P=2100lb
OK
Say, for example, we select a A36, S beam
S12x31.8#, Ix=218, Iy=37.1, Sx=36.4,
Sy=9.27, d/Af=4.41
P=2100 lb, w =31.8/12 lb/in



comb
all y
all
f
all all all
comb all
L
d
A
Min of
= + =
= = =
=

=
= =
<
80926 30395 111321
06 06 36 216000
12000 12000
240 441
113378
113378
1
2
1 2
. . .
. .
.
.
_ , .
.
OK
Beam must be checked for
Lower flange load, if the
trolley is under running
Haider Crane Co.
13 12/25/07
EXAMPLE Conservative Approach
11 105
2000
12 . .
.
. +
Br speed
015 0005 05 . . ( ) . HoistSpeed
0078 0025 . ( _ .) . Bridge acc
( ) ( )
C T WB X X
T WB
HLF
T Wt
DLF
2 2
1 2
_
_
_

(
+

(
P P M
P P
L
X X
L WB P
P P
OR M
PL
1 2
1 2 2 2
1 2
05
4
> =
+
=

+

(
= ,
( )
, . , ,
wL PL
2
8 4
+
=
Mx
Sx
b
DLF =
HLF =
IFD =
Wheel Ld (P1/P2) =
=1.10
=1.15
=0.39
=2410
240
P1 P2
114
12 P=2100lb
Moment A =HLF x M (whichever is greater) =
=166290
Moment B =IFD x M (whichever is greater) =56394
Static Moment = =19080
Moment C =DLF x Static Moment
Moment D =IFD x Static Moment
=20988
=7441.2
Moment Mx = A+C = 187278
Moment My = B+D = 63835.2
Tensile Stress = =5.15 <0.6(36) OK
Comp. Stress X =
=
Mx
Sx
t
=5.15
=17.07 Comp. Stress Y =
=
My
Sy
C
f
C
F
x
b
y
y
+ <
06
1
.
= + = >
515
216
1707
216
103 1
.
.
.
.
. ERR
d
wL
EI
1
5
384
00181
4
= = .
d
PL
EI
2
3
0
3
= =
( ) | |
d
P P
a
L a
EI
3
2
3 4
24
02188
1 2
2 2
=
+
= .
d
PL
EI
4
48
01098
1
3
= = .
Total Deflection =d1+d2+(Greater of d3 and d4)
Deflection =0.0181+0+0.2188 =0.2369 in
Deflection 0.2369 < L/600 (0.4) OK
Above calculation is for S12x31.8 Beam
Beammust be
checked for
Lower flange
load, if the trolley
is under running