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Fertilizers Suphala(15:15:15)

RCF produces two grades of complex fertilizers at its Trombay unit. They are commonly known as Suphala, which has almost become a generic name for NP/NPK complexes in the farming households of the country.

Suphala 15:15:15 Suphala 15:15:15(also called S15) is a unique complex, granular, natural color fertilizer The major plant nutrients, Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Potash are present in equal proportion(15% each). Homogeneous granules keep the nutrients in exact proportion and assure even availability to the individual plants. The absorption of each nutrient is enhanced by the presence of other nutrients. The granules are spherical, uniform(2 to 4 mm size) and free flowing, which facilitate their uniform application to the soil. S15 can be easily applied by seed drill. Due to their density, the granules are not blown away by wind or mechanically washed out by irrigation water. On application of Suphala 15:15:15 the readily available forms of nutrients like nitrate nitrogen, water soluble phosphate and potash are immediately available to the crops. This helps in establishing strong roots and promotes desired growth of the crops in the early stages. The other forms of nutrients like ammonical nitrogen, citrate-soluble phosphate and temporarily held potash in Suphala keep the nutrients available to the soils for a longer period. These nutrients are released gradually which assures high nutrient status in the soil for a longer period and thereby ensures healthy and luxuriant growth of the crops. Suphala 15:15:15 also contains secondary plant nutrients like Calcium, Magnesium and Sulphur which are helpful for the improvement of the soil and also facilitate efficient uptake of other nutrients by the plants. This product has found wide acceptance in cultivation of cash crops like sugarcane, cotton, jute, as well as fruit crops. It is extremely effective in improving the yield of plantation crops like tea and coffee.

Suphala 15:15:15 is packed in 50 kg golden yellow colored bag which is available with the authorized dealers of the RCF throughout the country. Field trials on various crops in varied climatic conditions and different types of soil have proved the usefulness of this product in short and long duration crops. It is concentrated fertilizer containing the plant nutrients in chemical combinations which reduces the cost of application, transportation, handling and storage. Suphala leaves a residual effect in the soil which is beneficial to all crops. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS: Color : Natural Form: Granular. Bulk density: 1100 gms/Litre. Solubility: 730 gms/Litre. Total Nitrogen by weight: 15%. a)Ammonical Nitrogen: 8% b)Nitrate Nitrogen:7% Total Phosphorous (P2O5) by weight 15% a)Water soluble P2O5 : 4.5 %. b)Citrate soluble P2O5: 10.5% Total Potash(K20)by weight. 15%. Moisture : 1% Micro-nutrients: a)Sulfate as SO4:2.5%. b)MgO : 150ppm. c)Iron as Fe: 0.20% by weight. PRODUCTION PROCESS: The process technology is based on three reactor system designed by KEMIRA O.Y. Finland to produce Suphala 15:15:15 grade with four modified spherodizers (Granular cum drier). RCF has a capacity to produce 4 Lakh MT of S-15 per Annum. Suphala 15:15:15 is manufactured by chemically treating rock phosphate with Nitric acid and also with Ammonia and Potassium Chloride. Nitrogen Availabity

Phosphorous Availability View of S-15:15:15 Plant

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Fertilizers Ujwala Urea(46%)

RCFs Ujjwala urea is a chemical fertilizer produced in white round prill form containing 46% nitrogen. It is 100% water soluble and is suitable for any type of soil or crop. It can be applied through sowing, broadcasting or spraying. Ujjwala urea should be applied to different crops in two to three split doses.

Ujjwala urea is packed in 50 kg white coloured bag which is available with the authorized dealers of the RCF throughout the country. Percentage of bi-uret in Ujjwala urea is very less hence it can be sprayed on the crops. Specifications: Nitrogen Moisture Bi-uret : 46% min by wt : 1% max by wt : 1% max by wt

Size : 1 mm to 2.8mm. 90% min below 1 mm 5% max. above 2.8 mm 5% max. NITROGEN AVAILABILITY TO THE CROP

PICTURE OF RCFS THAL UREA PLANT. UREA PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF 17.07 LAC MT/ANNUM

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Fertilizers Biola(PSB)

This multifaceted bio-fertilizer solublizes the fixed phosphorus in the soil and makes it available to the crops. Bacteria multiply very fast in the soil and this helps to improve the texture and structure of the soil. This also helps to enhance the growth of the crops and also induces resistance against various pests and diseases.

Important 1. Biola

features/characteristics facilitates easy and early

of seed

Biola germination.

2. The bacteria from Biola releases organic acids in the soil which helps to decrease the pH of the soil and also helps to dissolve the fixed Phosphorous and make it available to the crops. 3. Biola initiates early and easy root development and also increases the efficiency of the roots. 4. Biola application improves the soil status and thus increases crop yield. 5. Biola application also helps to save money required for buying expensive Phosphatic fertilizers. RCF shall be introducing Azatobactor and Rhizobium culture Bio Fertilizers in near future. Precautions:

Biola should be used before expiry date. Seed treatments with pesticides may be done before applying Biola. Biola should be stored in a cool, dry and shady area so as to keep it away from radiation. Biola should not be mixed with pesticides & chemical fertilizers while application.

It should be used completely once packing is opened so as to retain the bacterial count in Biola.

Method of application of BIOLA for different crops

Sr.No 1

Crops All cereals, pulses & Oilseeds

Method of Application Treat the seeds with Biola and keep it for drying in shade before sowing. Dip the roots of the saplings with earth ball in Biola solution for five minutes before transplanting. Dip the sets of sugarcane in Biola solution for 20 minutes & keep it for drying in shade before planting. Use half dose of compost while land preparation.

Concentration Take 250gms of Biola, mix with water & treat 10kg. seeds.

Vegetable crops & flowering plants.

One kg Biola in 10 liters of water may be taken for dipping the roots.

Sets of Sugarcane

Take 5 kg Biola in 50 liters of water for making a standard solution.

Land Preparation

One kg Biola should be mixed in one cartload of compost or Farm yard manure. 10kg Biola may be mixed with 500kg compost or Farm yard manure. 100gms of Biola mixed with 5kg compost or Farm yard manure after first shower of monsoon.

Application of Biola in sugarcane while earthing up.

Earthing up is done after applying Biola at the rootzone.

Fruit grafts/saplings.

Apply Biola mixed with compost at the base of the fruit grafts/saplings by ring method.

NOTE: RCF SHALL BE INTRODUCING AZATOBACTER & RHIZOBIUM CULTURE BIO-FERTILIZERS IN NEAR FUTURE.

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Fertilizers Sujala 19:19:19

Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd, manufactures 100% water soluble fertilizers containing all the three major plant nutrients i.e. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potash for crops grown in green houses as well as other field crops. Sujala is available in two forms Foilar grade and drip grade.

1) Foliar, suitable for spraying and 2) Drip grade which is suitable for application through drip irrigation system. Use of Sujala either through drip or foliar prevents deterioration of soil texture as soil complexion and mechanical damage to the crop is eliminated. The major features of Sujala foliar and drip grades are as follows. SUJALA 19:19:19 DRIP * Sujala reaches directly at the root zone along with required water through drip. * As Sujala is salt free, the drip system does not get clogged thus enhancing life of the micro irrigation system. * Sujala has a long shelf life and can be stored and used as and when required. * Proportion of air, moisture and nutrients through Sujala are effectively maintained at the root zone resulting into quality and bumper yield. Features: * Total Nitrogen 100% soluble in water * Amide Nitrogen 10.5% * Amonical Nitrogen 4.5% *Nitrate Nitrogen 4.0% * Total Phosphorus 100% soluble in water. * Total Potassium 100% soluble in water. * Free from harmful Sodium and Chlorine. *Nutrients are totally absorbed due to salt free features. Doses and Application: Sr.No Sensitivity Concentration Application for different Crops of Crops

Highly sensitive crops

2 gms/litre of Grapes,capsicum,tomatoes, flowers & water vegetables grown in green houses. Leafy vegetables, chilly,brinjal,okra, ornamental plants, kitchen garden crops, flowering plants, annuals etc. 3 gms/litre of Cucurbits, melons, cotton, beans etc. water 5 gms/litre of Coffee, tea, fruit trees, sugarcane, ornamental water palms, Bamboo, avenue trees, ground nut, soybean, green gram, sunflowers ,safflower, cereals etc.

Medium sensitive crops Low sensitive crops

Number of Sujala applications/doses are to be given as and when required in different stages of the crops, depending upon variety, duration and irrigation requirement of the crops. STAGE: Tillering, flowering, Fruit setting/bearing, Fruit maturity, Pruning, Picking etc. Doses recommended should be implemented with reference to the environment, temperature, crop species and drip system used. Intervals between doses vary with reference to above factors, doses and time of application of Sujala 19:19:19 for different crops through drip irrigation is dependent upon what type of technology is used drip irrigation system is installed. The actual number of Sujala applications/doses will depend on the different stages of the crops and also upon variety, duration and irrigation requirement of the crops. Stages of Application: Tillering, flowering, Fruit setting/bearing, Fruit maturity, Pruning, Picking etc. Doses recommended should be implemented with reference to the environment, temperature, crop species and drip system used. Intervals between doses vary with reference to above factors, doses and time of application of Sujala 19:19:19 for different crops through drip irrigation is dependent upon what type of technology is used and the drip irrigation system installed. SUJALA 19:19:19 FOLIAR(100% water soluble foilar fertilizer) Sujala is the best Foliar fertilizer for crops like paddy, wheat, pulses and vegetables for green house cultivation, nurseries, kitchen gardens and for all types of field crops. Use of Sujala results in cost saving and at the same time significantly increases the yield.

Features: Sujala contains 100% water soluble N, P and K in 19:19:19 ratio and it is free from salts like sodium and chlorides and neutral in nature. Hence, it is 100% soluble even in hard water and gets fully and immediately absorbed by plants. Sujala contains major plant nutrients like Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potash along with secondary Nutrients like Sulphur and Magnesium. All crops need Sulfur, which is normally deficient in the soil. Hence, Sujala supplements the Sulfur requirement of the plants. Use of Sujala results in saving of fertilizer cost by 30 to 40% and also increases yield by 20% to 40% depending upon the type of crop. Sujala can be mixed with any pesticides. And thus labor cost of additional spray can be avoided. Sujala has a long shelf life and thus can be stored and used as and when required. Methods of Applications of SUJALA (19:19:19) FOLIAR

Sr.No. Crops

Stages for Foilar Concentration Application of Sujala GMS/Litres of water a) At Tilering stage. b) One week before flowering. c) After emergence of panicle. 5

No of sprays per acre 3

All cereals

All Oil seed crops

a) 30 days after sowing. b) One week before flowering. c) One week after flowering.

All fruit crops

a) one week before flowering. b) One week after

flowering. c) At the time of fruit bearing. 4 Vegetable crops Brinjal, Tomatoes, Capsicum, chili, okra, cabbage, cauliflower, gourds, beans etc. a) 20 days after after sowing or transplanting. b) One week before flowering. c) One week after flowering/fruit setting. 5 Leafy vegetables At the interval of 20- 5 25 days after sowing till harvesting. Once in a week till last harvesting. 2.5 2.5 2.5 ---5 3

6 7 8

Floriculture

----------

Flowering and vegetable Once in a week till crops in green houses. last harvest. Nursery plants, ornamental plants and kitchen garden crops. Coffee Once in a week till last harvest. a) 15-20 days after transplanting. b) Pre blossom. c) Post blossom.

10 11

Tea Lawns

After each harvesting Once in a month

5 5

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NOTE: PRESENTLY RCF HAS A CAPACITY OF PRODUCING 3000 MT PER ANNUM OFSUJALA 19:19:19 IN DRIP AND FOLIAR GRADES. RCF IS INTRODUCING FOLLOWING NEW DRIP GRADES VERY SOON. SUJALA 0:0:52 SUJALA 12:61:0 SUJALA 0:52:34 SUJALA 13:0:45

Sujala 1 Kg Pouch

Sujala 1kg Pouch

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Fertilizers Microla(Micronutrients)

Over a period of years, we have been cultivating different crops in the field which has resulted in the depletion of essential micro-nutrients in the soil. This has in turn affected the productivity of the soil. This fact has also been validated in the soil analysis reports drawn over a period of time indicating that the micronutrients in the soils are on the decline, resulting in lowering the quality and yields of the crops.
CFs R&D ( Agri-Division) has come out with a unique liquid micronutrient fertilizer suitable for variety of crops. This product helps to retain and achieve the quality of the produce and also ensures bumper yields. The composition of Microla varies in different states due to the requirement of various micronutrients in the particular soil of the state.

Contents of Microla and its functions Sr.No. Micronutrients Major Functions 1 2 3 Zn Fe Cu Produces hormones in the crops & enhances flowering. Increases chlorophyll contents & plant food production. Increases chlorophyll contents & improves the health of the

crops. 4 5 6 Bo Mo Mn Stops flower & fruit drop & increases yield. Nitrogen stabilization and increases proteins. Increases chlorophyll & stimulates bio-chemical activities in the plant.

The composition of all the six micronutrients mentioned above differs from state to state depending upon the soil type, cropping pattern, agro-climatic zones. COMPOSITION OF MICRO-NUTRIENTS FOR MAHARASHTRA STATE Sr.No Micronutrients Percentage 1 2 3 4 5 6 Zn Fe Cu Bo Mo Mn 3.0% 2.5% 1.0% 0.5% 0.1% 1.0%

COMPOSITION OF MICRO-NUTRIENTS FOR GUJARAT STATE Sr.No Micronutrients Percentage 1 2 3 4 5 6 Zn Fe Cu Bo Mo Mn 4.0% 2.0% 0.3% 0.5% -0.5%

COMPOSITION OF MICRO-NUTRIENTS FOR KARNATAKA STATE Sr.No Micronutrients Percentage

1 2 3 4 5 6

Zn Fe Cu Bo Mo Mn

3.0% 2.0% --0.5% --1.0%

Important Functions of Microla Healthy & disease free balanced growth, quality yield.

Enhances the efficiency of major plant nutrients like Nitrogen, Phosphorous & Potash. Increases the disease resistance in the crops.

Improves the quality, size, color and taste of the Seed grain, flowers, leaves and fruits. Increases the yield of cereals, oilseeds, pulses, fruit trees, vegetables flowers, cash crops like Tea, Coffee, Sugarcane and cotton etc.

Methods of Application of Microla Sr.No. Crops Stages for Foilar Application of Microla Concentration ml/litres of water No of Sprays per acre 2

Cereal crops

a) first spray after 30 days 2.5 of sowing. b) Second spray after 60 day.

All Oil seed crops a) first spray after 45 days. 2.5 b) Second spray after 75 days.

All fruit trees

a) on emergence of blossom. b) During fruit set.

2.5

All fruit vegetable a) on emergence of crops blossom. b) During fruit set.

2.5

5 6

Leafy vegetables

spray after 30 days of sowing.

2.5 2.5

2 ---

Outdoor flowering a) on emergence of buds. crops b) After each picking. Flowering crops in a) on emergence of buds. green houses b) After each picking. Vegetable crops in a) on emergence of buds. green house b) After each picking. Ornamental foliage plants Coffee Once in month a) On emergence of blossom. b) During fruit set.

2.5

---

2.5

---

9 10

2.5 5

12 2

11 12

Tea Sugarcane

Recommended if soils are 5 deficient in micronutrients. a) first spray after 60 day of planting. b) Second spray after 120 days. 5

---

Note: Spraying should be done preferably early in the morning or in the evening. Microla is available with our authorized dealers in 500ml, 1 Litre and 5 litre packs.

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Industrial Products

R.C.F pioneered the manufacture of basic chemicals such as Methanol, Sodium Nitrate, Sodium Nitrite, Ammonium bicarbonate, Methylamines, Dimethyl Formamide, Dimethylacetamide. Today R.C.F is the only manufacture of DMF in India. PACKAGING AND MODES OF TRANSPORT:

Product characteristics, consumer needs , economy to the consumers and safety are the primary considerations in determining the type of packaging and modes of transportation for each of the products. Chemicals having vapour pressure like Anhydrous Ammonia and Methylamines are transported in bulk ,in specially designed mobile pressure vessels. in accordance with the norms set for liquefiable gases under pressure. Requirements of smaller consumers are met in cylinders. Tankers are also employed for transport of Methanol, Dimethyl Formamide, Dimethylacetamide, acids and solutions of Methylamines and Ammonium Nitrate. Transporters and consumers are given guidelines for safety and methods of storing, loading and unloading. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS DIVISION:

RCF took the advantage of manufacturing industrial products since its fertilizer manufacturing process already incorporated Ammonia, Nitric Acid and Sulphuric Acid plants. ISO RCF 1.ISO 2.ISO3.OHSAS 18001 1) Ammonium Bicarbonate 2) Ammonium Nitrate (Melt) 3) Anhydrous Ammonia 3a) Refrigerant Ammonia 4) Argon 5) Amines (Anhydrous and Solution) Monomethylamine Dimethylamine Trimethylamine 6a) Chalk (Sludge & impure) has obtained following CERTIFICATION: certification

9001-2000 14001-1996

6) Calcium Carbonate(Dry & Purified) 7) Dimethyl Formamide(DMF)

8) Dimethylacetamide(DMAC) 9) Formic Acid 10) Phospho Gypsum 11) Dilute Nitric Acid(58%) 12) Concentrated Nitric Acid (98%,72% & 68%) 13) Methanol 14) Sodium Nitrite 15) Sodium Nitrate 16) Sulphuric Acid For captive consumption 17) Chickton (Liquid Acidifier)

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Ammonium Bicarbonate
% by wt. min. (dry basis) % by wt. max. % by wt. max. % by wt. max. % by wt. max. ppm. max. ppm. max. ppm. max. 99 0.01 0.01 0.002 0.01 2.50 10 1.0 Passes Test

Specifications: Ammonium Bicarbonate Chlorides (as Cl) Sulphate (as SO4) Iron (as Fe) Non Volatile Matter Heavy Metals (as Pb) Copper (as Cu) Arsenic (as As2O3) Tarry Matter

Packing: 25 kg double laminated woven sacks made of high density polyethyline (HDPE) with LDPE inner liner. Uses: 1. Substitute for yeast in baking. 2. Production of Ammonium salts. 3. Ingredient of Fire extinguishing compounds. 4. Pharmaceuticals. 5. Dyes and Pigments.

6. Degreasing textiles. 7. Inflater for rubber. 8. Food Additive. 9. In cooling baths. 10. In compost heaps to accelerate decomposition. 11. Manufacture of ceramics. 12. Chrome Leather tanning. 13. In the Manufacture of catalysts. Industries Served: Fabrication, Lamp industries, Aircraft and missile industries.

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Ammonium Nitrate(Melt)

Specifications: Ammonium Nitrate Solution can be processed to manufacture Ammonium Nitrate in Crystalline, Granular, Flaked or Prilled Forms. pH 4.5 to 5.5 Temprature oC AN Conc CaO % min 90 80

ppm. max 3000

Packing: Ammonium Nitrate Solution is transported in stainless steel insulated tankers. Uses: 1. Explosives. 2. Pyrotechnics. 3. Herbicides and insecticides. 4. Manufacture of nitrous oxide. 5. Absorbent for nitrogen oxides. 6. Ingredient of freezing mixtures. 7. Oxidizer in solid rocket propellants. 8. Nutrient for antibiotics and yeast. 9. Catalyst. 10. In compost heaps to accelerate decomposition. 11. Manufacture of ceramics. 12. Chrome Leather tanning. 13. In the Manufacture of catalysts. Industries Served: Explosives.

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Anhydrous Ammonia and Refrigerant Grade Ammonia

Specifications: Ammonium Nitrate Solution can be processed to manufacture Ammonium Nitrate in Crystalline, Granular, Flaked or Prilled Forms. Purity Oil content Moisture Residue on evaporation Pyridine Napthalene Phosphine S. Compds. Phenolic Compds. % by wt. max. 99.5 % by wt. max. 0.002 % by wt. max. 0.5 % by wt. max. 0.05 Nil Nil Passes the test Passes the test Passes the test

Anhydrous Ammonia Conforms to IS: 662-1980 (1st Revision) In Refrigerant Grade Ammonia - Moisture % by wt. 0.03 Packing: Rail wagons and road tankers. Uses: 1. Production of Nitric acid, Urea, Hydrazine Hydrate/ Acrylonitrile and methylamines. 2. Nitriding of Steel. 3. As a refrigerant solvent and reaction medium. 4. Yeast Nutrient. 5. Rocket fuel. 6. Reducing Agent for ores. Industries Served: Fertilizer, Refrigeration, Chemicals, Drugs and Pharmaceuticals.

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Argon

Specifications(Trombay): Minimum % Nitrogen 99.9997 % 2

Total Hydrocarbons ppm 1

Specifications(Thal): Minimum % Ultra high purity 99.999 % Liquid Nitrogen - Purity 99.9% Packing: Argon is available in R.C.F.'S or its distributors returnable cylinders of 6.23 Nm 3 capacity with a pressure of 138 kg. per sq.cm. (2000 lbs./ sq.in.). These cylinders are painted peacock blue as required under the regulations. Uses: 1. Insert gas shield in arc welding. 2. Aircarft and Missile industries. 3. Electric lamps. 4. Tiranium and Zirconium refining. 5. Flushing molten metals to eliminate porosity in the castings. 6. Geiger counting tubes. 7. Lamp Industries. 8. Refining of copper. 9. Laboratory and Research Medical Application. 10. Nucleur Applications. 11. Cryogenics and Refrigeration. 12. Gas Chromatography and Gas analysis. Industries Served: Fabrication, Lamp industries, Aircraft and missile industries.

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Monomethylamine

Specifications: Anhydrous Trimethylamine Water Ammonia Other Amines % by wt. min. % by wt. max. % by wt. max. % by wt. max. 99.5 0.3 0.15 0.35

Aqueous Ammonia Traces MMA % by wt. min. 40

DMA TMA

% by wt. max. 0.2 % by wt. max. 0.1

Packing: Anhydrous Monomethylamine and Aqueous solution are offered in bulk in suitable road tankers. Aqueous solution is also supplied in MS Drums of 200 litre capacity containing 170 kg of solution. Smaller requirements of Anhydrous Monomethylamine are supplied in cylinders. Uses: 1. Dimethoate. 2. Carbaryl (I-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate) - used as a systemic instecticide. 3. Sodium N-Methyl dithiocarbamate - used as a soil disenfactant. 4. Anthraquinone dericatives - used as dyestuff. 5. Theophyline Caffeine, Ephedrine and Neosynerphine used in drugs and pharmaceuticals. 6. Monomethylamine nitrate - used in explosives. 7. Methyl Diethanol amines. 6. Monomethylamine Hydrochloride. MMA also has direct applications as stabilising agent for natural rubber latex, as a corrosion inhibitor to protect aluminium from hydrochloric acid. Industries Served: Explosives, Pesticides, Dyestuff, Drugs, Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals.

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Dimethylamine

Specifications: Anhydrous Dimethylamine Water Ammonia Other Amines Aqueous Ammonia Traces % by wt. min. % by wt. max. % by wt. max. % by wt. max. 99.5 0.3 0.02 0.20

MMA DMA TMA

% by wt. min. 0.1 % by wt. max. 40 % by wt. max. 0.1

Packing: Anhydrous Dimethylamine and Aqueous solution are offered in bulk in suitable road tankers. Aqueous solution is also supplied in MS Drums of 200 litre capacity containing 170 kg of solution. Smaller requirements of Anhydrous Dimethylamine are supplied in cylinders. Uses: 1. Weedicides like isoproturon, dioron etc. 2. TMTDS (tetra methylathiuramdisulphide), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate:rubber vulcanisation accelerators. 3. 2, 5-D and 2, 4 5-T Amine salts: weed killers. 4. DMF (Dimethyl Formamide), DMAC (Dimethyl Acetamide) and Hexamethyl Phosphoramide: solvents for acrylic fibres, polyvinylidine chloride. 5. Antihistamines like Benedryl, tranqulizers like Sparine: local anasthetics like Tetracine and other such drugs and pharmaceuticals. 6. Lauryl Dimethylamine oxide and quarternary ammonium compounds:Surfactants/Ion-exchange, resins, germicidals. 7. Dimethyl Hydrochloride Direct applications of DMA are as a modifier in the manufacture of Rayon tyre cord and high wet modulus fibre. It is used as a deharing agent in the production of superior quality leather. Industries Served: Pesticides, Rayon, Rubber, Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals.

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Amine(Anhydrous & Solution)-Trimethylamine

Specifications: Anhydrous Trimethylamine Water Ammonia Other Amines % by wt. min. % by wt. max. % by wt. max. % by wt. max. 99.5 0.4 0.02 0.30

Aqueous Ammonia Traces MMA % by wt. min. 0.1

DMA TMA

% by wt. max. 0.1 % by wt. max. 30

Packing: Anhydrous Trimethylamine and Aqueous solution are offered in bulk in suitable road tankers. Aqueous solution is also supplied in MS Drums of 200 litre capacity containing 170 kg of solution. Smaller requirements of Anhydrous Trimethylamine are supplied in cylinders. Uses: 1. Choline Chloride. 2. Ion-exchange Resins. 3. Fatty Chloride Derivatives, Cationic retarders and other quarternary ammonium compounds used as textile auxilaries. 4. Cetrimide, a disinfectant & germicidal. 5. Antihistamines like Benedryl, tranqulizers like Sparine:local anasthetics like Tetracine and other such drugs and pharmaceuticals. 6. TMA Hydrochloride. TMA also serves as a catalyst in various processes. As an acid inhibitor in the manufacture of Sulpha Drugs or in reactions where HCl is released and is required to be removed. Industries Served: Ion-exchange resins, Choline Chloride for Poultry, Pharmaceuticals.

Calcium Carbonate
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Dry Purified & Unpurified Chalk


COMPOSITION % Moisture wt % of purity as Caco3 PURIFIED CHALK UNPURIFIED CHALK 0.5% 95-99 0.5% 80-85 2 to 5 1 to 4 2 to 6 0.5-1.5 200-600 ppm 300-500 ppm Off-white

Ammonical Nitrogen NH 200 ppm max Nitrate Nitrogen No3-N 200 ppm max Total P2O5 %wt Silica % wt Flourine as F % wt. Iron as Fe Colour 0.04 to 0.1 0.12-0.2 0.1 max. 3 ppm max. White

Typical analysis of purified precipitated Dry Chalk. Purity as CaCO3 99.0% pH Moisture Total P2O5 Ammonical-N Nitrate-N Silica as SiO2 Iron as Fe2O3 Al as Al2O3 Mg as MgO Chloride Whiteness Brightness Bulk Density Particle size 7.6 0.4% 0.21% Not traceable 0.21% 0.09% 0.019 0.08% Not traceable 0.02% 72.92% 81.09% 1.098% 50% -15.52 micron 95%- 41.38 micron 100%passing through-90 micron Industries Served: Rubber Industry, PVC industry, Paper and Paints industry. Dry unpurified chalk is used in road construction activities for binding. Chalk (Sludge & Impure) Specifications: CaCO3 P2O5 Iron Colour % % % Off-white 70-75 20-25 2-5 0.1 0.01

Flourine as CaF2 0.02%

Loss on ignition 44.60%

Moisture % Fluorine %

Packing: Loose in Trucks.

Uses: 1. Effluent Treatment. 2. Neutralisation in chemical reactions. 3. For soil amendment in acid soils. 4. As a filler in organic manure. 5. As filler in tiles, linoleum, pencils, rubber and plastic goods and extenders in paints & inks. 6. As a filler in road development and construction. Industries Served: Effluent Treatment, Agriculture, Paints, Tiles.

Calcium Carbonate
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Dry Purified & Unpurified Chalk


COMPOSITION % Moisture wt % of purity as Caco3 PURIFIED CHALK UNPURIFIED CHALK 0.5% 95-99 0.5% 80-85 2 to 5 1 to 4 2 to 6 0.5-1.5 200-600 ppm 300-500 ppm Off-white

Ammonical Nitrogen NH 200 ppm max Nitrate Nitrogen No3-N 200 ppm max Total P2O5 %wt Silica % wt Flourine as F % wt. Iron as Fe Colour 0.04 to 0.1 0.12-0.2 0.1 max. 3 ppm max. White

Typical analysis of purified precipitated Dry Chalk. Purity as CaCO3 99.0% pH Moisture Total P2O5 Ammonical-N 7.6 0.4% 0.21% Not traceable

Flourine as CaF2 0.02%

Nitrate-N Silica as SiO2 Iron as Fe2O3 Al as Al2O3 Mg as MgO Chloride Whiteness Brightness Bulk Density Particle size

0.21% 0.09% 0.019 0.08% Not traceable 0.02% 72.92% 81.09% 1.098% 50% -15.52 micron 95%- 41.38 micron 100%passing through-90 micron

Loss on ignition 44.60%

Industries Served: Rubber Industry, PVC industry, Paper and Paints industry. Dry unpurified chalk is used in road construction activities for binding. Chalk (Sludge & Impure) Specifications: CaCO3 P2O5 Iron Colour % % % Off-white 70-75 20-25 2-5 0.1 0.01

Moisture % Fluorine %

Packing: Loose in Trucks. Uses:

1. Effluent Treatment. 2. Neutralisation in chemical reactions. 3. For soil amendment in acid soils. 4. As a filler in organic manure. 5. As filler in tiles, linoleum, pencils, rubber and plastic goods and extenders in paints & inks. 6. As a filler in road development and construction. Industries Served: Effluent Treatment, Agriculture, Paints, Tiles.

Dimethyl Formamide(DMF)
| Print | Specifications: Appearance pH range 20% aqueous Colour Methanol Water Conductivity 20% aqueous Basicity as DMA Acidity as Formic acid DMAC impurity in DMF Purity Density Refractive index Clear, free of suspended matters APHA ppm % wt. % wt. ppm ppm ppm % wt. gm/cc max max max max max max max min at 20oC at 20oC 6.5 to 9.0 5 30 0.08 15 10 5 100 99.85 0.946 to 0.949 1.4270 to 1.4285

Packing: Stainless steel road tankers, 200 kg HM HDPE drums. Uses: 1. DMF is widely used in the production and processing of polymers,Spinning solvent for polyacrylonitrile fibre and polyurethane fibre (spandex) and processing solvent for production of polyurethane artificial and synthetic leather. 2. DMF is used for the separation and refining of acetylene from crude olefin gas. 3. DMF is used in extracting butadiene from the C4 distillate obtained by naptha cracking, etc. and in separating isoprene from C5 distillate. 4. Used as a solvent for recovery of H2S or SO2 or elimination of HCl, Cl, HBr etc. in hydrocarbons. 5. DMF is also used in extracting solvent of aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum refining. 6. Gases like acetylene that are difficult to liquefy and handle safely can be stored and transported easily by dissolving them in DMF with a porous carrier solid (Ex. Calcium Silicate). 7. DMF is widely used as a solvent for reaction. Generally acetylation, chlorination, sulfonation and various condensation and polymerization reactions are among those where DMF is used as a solvent. 8. It is an excellent solvent for sulfonamide, vitamins, nitrofuran, quinoline,adrenaline, amine chlorides, etc. It is widely used in the production of pharmaceuticals as a reaction solvent, extracting solvent and crystallizing bath. 9. DMF easily dissolves basic dye pigments nitroso pigments, phthalocyanine pigments, azo pigments and acid dye metal salts. It is also used as a solvent of colouring agent or an infiltrating ink for various films, wood,leather, resins etc.

10. DMF alone or as mixed with methylene chloride, is used as a remover of varnish or lacquers. Industries Served: Pharmaceuticals, Dyestuff and Pigment, Polymers

Dimethyl Acetamide(DMAC)
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Specifications:
PH Range 20% aqueous Colour Water Acetic Acid Purity Density Refractive index DMAC impurity in DMF 4.0 to 5.0 max 10 % by wt. max. 0.05 % by wt. max. 0.1 % by wt. min. 99.75 gm/cc at 25oC max 0.935 - 0.942 1.4358 to 1.4360 100 40

Conductivity 20% aqueous micro mhos

Packing: Stainless steel road tankers, 200 kg HM HDPE drums. Uses: 1. 2. 3. 4. As a solvent in Acrylic Fibre. Solvent in the manufacture of polyester films. As a solvent in Paint stripping because of its very rapid removal action. Both as a solvent as reactant in drug industry.

Industries Served: Acrylic Fibre, Polyster Films and Drugs.

Formic Acid
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Specifications:
Purity as (HCOOH)% min. Chlorides (as Cl) % max Appearance 85 90 85

Sulphates (as SO4) % max 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 Clear Clear Clear Non volatile matter % max. 0.008 0.008 0.008

Packing: RCF's quality Formic Acid is available in the market in Sealed 35 kg attractive HDFE carboys and in tanker load. Uses: 1. Coagulant for obtaining rubber from latex.

2. For regulation of pH in leather dyeing and in various leather processing operations. Souring, Retaining, Acidification, Neutralization, Post dyeing operations, Deliming, Pickling of pelt, Fixing of dyes, Dye levelling. 3. Raw material for production of P-Amino Salicylic Acid, Theophyline,Metronidazole, Vitamin B-1, Antibiotics-Acriflavin. 4. Pentaerythritol as raw material.

5. Dyeing, Alkali Binding Agent in Azoic Dyes, Printing, Dye fixing agent for Sulphur black dyes. 6. Formulation of Electroplating, Baths and nickel plating, pickling of steel,carpet industry, Active ingredient in paint stripper, Intermediates for plant protection agents, PVC plasticizers, Antioxidants for rubber. Industries Served: Textiles, Rubber, Pharmaceuticals, Leather, Dyes and Chemicals.

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Phospho Gypsum

Specifications: (CaSO4)2H2O Silica P2O5 % on dry basis 95 % less than % less than 0.5 0.5 0.15

Water soluble P2O5 % less than

Fluorine Ash Free Moisture

% less than % About

0.0002 20

% by wt. max. 0.5

Packing: Loose in trucks or in railway wagons. Uses: 1. Used as filler in paper, paints, nutrient in growing yeast, insecticides. 2. Treatment of soil particularly those used for leguminous crops and in the culture of groundnuts. 3. When mixed with manure, it acts to stabilize the volatile and dissolved nitrogenous compound, thus preventing their loss by volatilization and leaching. The major use in arid climate is neutralization of black alkali soils by the reaction with alkali carbonates that cause this condition. 4. For manufacture of Plaster of Paris. 5. For Manufacture of fire proof wall boards for building construction. 6. For manufacturing cement.

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Dilute Nitric Acid(58%)

Specifications: Nitric Acid (HN03) Sulphate (as SO4) Nitrous Acid (HN02) Chlorides (HCl) Iron (as Fe) Arsenic Heavy Metals (as lead) Negligible Packing: Stainless Steel tankers. Uses: 1. Organic synthesis (Dyes/Drugs/Explosives, Cellulose nitrate, nitrate salts). 2. Photo engraving. % by wt. min. 58-60 % by wt. max. 0.002 % by wt. max. 0.009 % by wt. max. 0.002 % by wt. max. 0.0003 < 0.1 Passes Test

3. Refining of Silver. 4. Medicine. 5. Preparation of nitro compounds. 6. Oxidizer in liquid rocket propellants. Industries Served: Explosives, Dyes, Drugs, Pharmaceuticals, Jewellery.

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Concentrated Nitric Acid (98%, 72% & 68%)


Specifications:

Nitric Acid (HN03) Nitrous Acid (HN02) Chloride as Cl

% by wt. min. 98.5 % by wt. max. 0.02 % by wt. max. 0.01

Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) % by wt. max. 0.2

Packing: Aluminium or Stainless Steel tankers. Also available for sale in concentration of 68-72 % for domestic markets and exports. Uses: 1. Organic synthesis (Dyes/Drugs/Explosives, Cellulose nitrate, nitrate salts). 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Photo engraving. Metallurgy. Etching steel Ore floatation. Medicine. Preparation of nitro compounds. Oxidizer in liquid rocket propellants.

Industries Served: Explosives, Dyes, Drugs, Pharmaceuticals, Acrylic Fibre.

Methanol
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Specifications:
Methanol Content % by wt. min. 99.85

Density at 20oC Water Distillation by range at 760 mm of Hg Colour Residue on evaporation Acidity as Formic Acid Acetone (Aldehyde/Ketone) Carbonisable matter Permagnate Test Sulphur total

gm / cc min. gm / cc max. % by wt. max. max. (64.5oC to 65.5oC) Hazen max. ppm max. ppm max. Miscible in all proportions without development of turbidity Apha max Passes Test ppm max.

0.792 0.795 1oC 15 10 30

50 10

Corrosive sulphur passes test as per ASTMD 130 - 94 conforms to IS:517:1967 and BS:506:1966 Alkalinity to phenlphthalein passes BSS Passes copper corrosive test and meets aviation grade. Packing: Road tankers. MS Drums. Uses: 1. Production of Formaldehyde. 2. Automotive Antifreeze. 3. Chemical Synthesis (Methylamines/Methyl - Chloride/Methyl Methacrylate). 4. General Solvents (including surface coatings, paint removers, inks and adhesives. 5. Aviation Fuel (for water injection). 6. Denaturant for Ethyl Alcohol.

7. Rocket Fuel. 8. Dehydrator for Natural gas. Industries Served: Formaldehyde, DMT, Dyes, Drugs, Paints, Pesticides and Civil Aviation.

Sodium Nitrite
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Specifications:
NaNO2 NaNO3 Insoluble matter in water Alkalinity as Na2O Heavy Metals Including Fe (as Pb) Iron as Fe2O3 % by wt. max. 0.005 % by wt. max. 0.002 % by wt. min. 97 % by wt. max. 1.0 % by wt. max. 0.1 % by wt. max. 0.2

Moisture and volatile matter % by wt. max. 1.0 Packing: 50 kg polyethylene lined bags. Uses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Dyestuff manufacture and diazotizing. Organic synthesis. Rubber accelerators and rubber additive. Preparation of Nitric Oxide. Reagent in analytical chemistry. Pharmaceuticals. Photographic reagent. Pickling. Colour fixative. Dyeing and printing of textile fabrics. Bleaching flax, silk and linen. Rust-proofing and anti-corrosive. Blackening of steel. Metal detinning and cleaning. Cutting oils. Heat transfer salts. Medicine.

Industries Served:

Rubber, Textiles, Pharmaceuticals.

Sodium Nitrate
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Specifications:
NaNO2 Water Purity Packing: 50 kg polyethylene lined bags. Uses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Oxidizing agent. Oxidizer in solid rocket propellants. Fertilizer. Flux. Glass Manufacture. Pharmaceuticals. Pyrotechnics. Medicine. Refrigerant. Matches. Dynamite. Military Explosives and gases. Manufacturing sodium salts and nitrates. Cutting oils. % by wt. max. 1.0 % by wt. max. 1.0 % by wt. min. 99

Fe(NO3)2 % by wt. max. 0.003

Industries Served: Glass, Explosives.

Sulphuric Acid-For captive consumption


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Specifications:
Sulphuric Acid (as H2SO4) % by wt. Sp. gr. at 25 C Iron (as Fe)
o

98 min. 1.83 to 1.84

% by wt. max. 0.05

Packing: Mild Steel road tankers. Uses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Petroleum Refining. Paints and pigments. Iron and steel. Rayon and Cellulose films. Non-ferrous metallurgy. Textile finishing. Industrial Explosives. Sulfating and sulfonating agents. Dehydrating agent in Nitration. Dyes.

Industries Served: Petroleum, Paint, Rayon, Textiles, Dyes, Fertilizers.

Chickton(Liquid Acidifier)
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Ingredients:
Formic Acid with Buffer and Stabiliser. Recommended Dosage: 1ml in Four litres of drinking water. Packing: 1.0 litre and 30.0 litre HDPE container. Precaution: For poultry use not for Human Consumption. Uses: A Total Solution For Gut Acidification in Poultry, is a cost effective acidifier of Formic acid with buffer and stabilisers. It lowers the pH of the Gastro-Intestinal tract, Inhibiting the growth of the Pathogenic Bacteria like E. coli, Salmonella, Clostridium and Campylobacter in the Digestive tract. Promoting the growth of the friendly bacteria. The acid interfere with the Cell

membrane causing increase in the Feed conversion, reduced mortality, gain in weight and in profit margin. Industries Served: Poultry.

RCF Strengths- Skilled manpower, Brand Equity, Wide portfolio of Products and flexibility, R &D centre, Farmers training institute Weakness- Import Price fluctuations of Raw materials Rock Phosphate, Sulphur, DAP, MOP, MAP etc natural gas, Old infrastructure

Opputunities- Alternative Coal gas feed stock, diversification by mining and manf of r/m and fertilizers, international collaborations, demand supply gap,Clean development mechanisam CDM earning carbon credits CER

THE HABER PROCESS


This page describes the Haber Process for the manufacture of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen, and then goes on to explain the reasons for the conditions used in the process. It looks at the effect of temperature, pressure and catalyst on the composition of the equilibrium mixture, the rate of the reaction and the economics of the process.
Important: If you aren't sure about using Le Chatelier's Principle or about the effect of changing conditions on rates of reaction you should explore these links before you go on. When you are reading this page, if you find that you aren't understanding the effect of changing one of the conditions on the position of equilibrium or on the rate of the reaction, come back and follow up these links.

A brief summary of the Haber Process The Haber Process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural gas (methane) into ammonia. The reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia is exothermic.

A flow scheme for the Haber Process looks like this:

Some notes on the conditions The catalyst The catalyst is actually slightly more complicated than pure iron. It has potassium hydroxide added to it as a promoter - a substance that increases its efficiency. The pressure The pressure varies from one manufacturing plant to another, but is always high. You can't go far wrong in an

exam quoting 200 atmospheres. Recycling At each pass of the gases through the reactor, only about 15% of the nitrogen and hydrogen converts to ammonia. (This figure also varies from plant to plant.) By continual recycling of the unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen, the overall conversion is about 98%.

Explaining the conditions The proportions of nitrogen and hydrogen The mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen going into the reactor is in the ratio of 1 volume of nitrogen to 3 volumes of hydrogen. Avogadro's Law says that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules. That means that the gases are going into the reactor in the ratio of 1 molecule of nitrogen to 3 of hydrogen. That is the proportion demanded by the equation. In some reactions you might choose to use an excess of one of the reactants. You would do this if it is particularly important to use up as much as possible of the other reactant - if, for example, it was much more expensive. That doesn't apply in this case. There is always a down-side to using anything other than the equation proportions. If you have an excess of one reactant there will be molecules passing through the reactor which can't possibly react because there isn't anything for them to react with. This wastes reactor space - particularly space on the surface of the catalyst.

The temperature Equilibrium considerations You need to shift the position of the equilibrium as far as possible to the right in order to produce the maximum possible amount of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture. The forward reaction (the production of ammonia) is exothermic.

According to Le Chatelier's Principle, this will be favoured if you lower the temperature. The system will respond by moving the position of equilibrium to counteract this - in other words by producing more heat. In order to get as much ammonia as possible in the equilibrium mixture, you need as low a temperature as possible. However, 400 - 450C isn't a low temperature! Rate considerations The lower the temperature you use, the slower the reaction becomes. A manufacturer is trying to produce as much ammonia as possible per day. It makes no sense to try to achieve an equilibrium mixture which contains a very high proportion of ammonia if it takes several years for the reaction to reach that equilibrium. You need the gases to reach equilibrium within the very short time that they will be in contact with the catalyst in the reactor. The compromise 400 - 450C is a compromise temperature producing a reasonably high proportion of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture (even if it is only 15%), but in a very short time.

The pressure Equilibrium considerations

Notice that there are 4 molecules on the left-hand side of the equation, but only 2 on the right. According to Le Chatelier's Principle, if you increase the pressure the system will respond by favouring the reaction which produces fewer molecules. That will cause the pressure to fall again. In order to get as much ammonia as possible in the equilibrium mixture, you need as high a pressure as possible. 200 atmospheres is a high pressure, but not amazingly high. Rate considerations Increasing the pressure brings the molecules closer together. In this particular instance, it will increase their chances of hitting and sticking to the surface of the catalyst where they can react. The higher the pressure the better in terms of the rate of a gas reaction. Economic considerations Very high pressures are very expensive to produce on two counts. You have to build extremely strong pipes and containment vessels to withstand the very high pressure. That increases your capital costs when the plant is built. High pressures cost a lot to produce and maintain. That means that the running costs of your plant are very high.

The compromise 200 atmospheres is a compromise pressure chosen on economic grounds. If the pressure used is too high, the cost of generating it exceeds the price you can get for the extra ammonia produced.

The catalyst Equilibrium considerations The catalyst has no effect whatsoever on the position of the equilibrium. Adding a catalyst doesn't produce any greater percentage of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture. Its only function is to speed up the reaction. Rate considerations In the absence of a catalyst the reaction is so slow that virtually no reaction happens in any sensible time. The catalyst ensures that the reaction is fast enough for a dynamic equilibrium to be set up within the very short time that the gases are actually in the reactor.

Separating the ammonia When the gases leave the reactor they are hot and at a very high pressure. Ammonia is easily liquefied under pressure as long as it isn't too hot, and so the temperature of the mixture is lowered enough for the ammonia to turn to a liquid. The nitrogen and hydrogen remain as gases even under these high pressures, and can be recycled.

LE CHATELIER'S PRINCIPLE This page looks at Le Chatelier's Principle and explains how to apply it to reactions in a state of dynamic

equilibrium. It covers changes to the position of equilibrium if you change concentration, pressure or temperature. It also explains very briefly why catalysts have no effect on the position of equilibrium. Important: If you aren't sure about the words dynamic equilibrium or position of equilibrium you should read theintroductory page before you go on

It is important in understanding everything on this page to realise that Le Chatelier's Principle is no more than a useful guide to help you work out what happens when you change the conditions in a reaction in dynamic equilibrium. It doesn't explain anything. I'll keep coming back to that point!

Using Le Chatelier's Principle


A statement of Le Chatelier's Principle

If a dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by changing the conditions, the position of equilibrium moves to counteract the change.

Using Le Chatelier's Principle with a change of concentration Suppose you have an equilibrium established between four substances A, B, C and D.

Note: In case you wonder, the reason for choosing this equation rather than having just A + B on the left-hand side is because further down this page I need an equation which has different numbers of molecules on each side. I am going to use that same equation throughout this page.

What would happen if you changed the conditions by increasing the concentration of A?

According to Le Chatelier, the position of equilibrium will move in such a way as to counteract the change. That means that the position of equilibrium will move so that the concentration of A decreases again - by reacting it with B and turning it into C + D. The position of equilibrium moves to the right.

This is a useful way of converting the maximum possible amount of B into C and D. You might use it if, for example, B was a relatively expensive material whereas A was cheap and plentiful. What would happen if you changed the conditions by decreasing the concentration of A? According to Le Chatelier, the position of equilibrium will move so that the concentration of A increases again. That means that more C and D will react to replace the A that has been removed. The position of equilibrium moves to the left.

This is esssentially what happens if you remove one of the products of the reaction as soon as it is formed. If, for example, you removed C as soon as it was formed, the position of equilibrium would move to the right to replace it. If you kept on removing it, the equilibrium position would keep on moving rightwards - turning this into a one-way reaction.

Important This isn't in any way an explanation of why the position of equilibrium moves in the ways described. All Le Chatelier's Principle gives you is a quick way of working out what happens.
Note: If you know about equilibrium constants, you will find amore detailed explanation of the effect of a change of

concentration by following this link. If you don't know anything about equilibrium constants, you should ignore this link. If you choose to follow it, return to this page via the BACK button on your browser or via the equilibrium menu.

Using Le Chatelier's Principle with a change of pressure This only applies to reactions involving gases:

What would happen if you changed the conditions by increasing the pressure? According to Le Chatelier, the position of equilibrium will move in such a way as to counteract the change. That means that the position of equilibrium will move so that the pressure is reduced again. Pressure is caused by gas molecules hitting the sides of their container. The more molecules you have in the container, the higher the pressure will be. The system can reduce the pressure by reacting in such a way as to produce fewer molecules. In this case, there are 3 molecules on the left-hand side of the equation, but only 2 on the right. By forming more C and D, the system causes the pressure to reduce. Increasing the pressure on a gas reaction shifts the position of equilibrium towards the side with fewer molecules.

What would happen if you changed the conditions by decreasing the pressure? The equilibrium will move in such a way that the pressure increases again. It can do that by producing more molecules. In this case, the position of equilibrium will move towards the left-

hand side of the reaction.

What happens if there are the same number of molecules on both sides of the equilibrium reaction? In this case, increasing the pressure has no effect whatsoever on the position of the equilibrium. Because you have the same numbers of molecules on both sides, the equilibrium can't move in any way that will reduce the pressure again.

Important Again, this isn't an explanation of why the position of equilibrium moves in the ways described. You will find a rather mathematical treatment of the explanation by following the link below.
Note: You will find a detailed explanation by following this link. If you don't know anything about equilibrium constants (particularly Kp), you should ignore this link. The same thing applies if you don't like things to be too mathematical! If you are a UK A' level student, you won't need this explanation. If you choose to follow the link, return to this page via the BACK button on your browser or via the equilibrium menu.

Using Le Chatelier's Principle with a change of temperature For this, you need to know whether heat is given out or absorbed during the reaction. Assume that our forward reaction is exothermic (heat is evolved):

This shows that 250 kJ is evolved (hence the negative sign) when 1 mole of A reacts completely with 2 moles of B. For

reversible reactions, the value is always given as if the reaction was one-way in the forward direction. The back reaction (the conversion of C and D into A and B) would be endothermic by exactly the same amount.

What would happen if you changed the conditions by increasing the temperature? According to Le Chatelier, the position of equilibrium will move in such a way as to counteract the change. That means that the position of equilibrium will move so that the temperature is reduced again. Suppose the system is in equilibrium at 300C, and you increase the temperature to 500C. How can the reaction counteract the change you have made? How can it cool itself down again? To cool down, it needs to absorb the extra heat that you have just put in. In the case we are looking at, the back reaction absorbs heat. The position of equilibrium therefore moves to the left. The new equilibrium mixture contains more A and B, and less C and D.

If you were aiming to make as much C and D as possible, increasing the temperature on a reversible reaction where the forward reaction is exothermic isn't a good idea! What would happen if you changed the conditions by

decreasing the temperature? The equilibrium will move in such a way that the temperature increases again. Suppose the system is in equilibrium at 500C and you reduce the temperature to 400C. The reaction will tend to heat itself up again to return to the original temperature. It can do that by favouring the exothermic reaction. The position of equilibrium will move to the right. More A and B are converted into C and D at the lower temperature.

Summary

Increasing the temperature of a system in dynamic equilibrium favours the endothermic reaction. The system counteracts the change you have made by absorbing the extra heat. Decreasing the temperature of a system in dynamic equilibrium favours the exothermic reaction. The system counteracts the change you have made by producing more heat.

Important Again, this isn't in any way an explanation of why the position of equilibrium moves in the ways described. It is only a way of helping you to work out what happens.
Note: I am not going to attempt an explanation of this anywhere on the site. To do it properly is far too difficult for this level. It is possible to come up with an explanation of sorts by looking at how the rate constants for the forward and back reactions change relative to each other by using the Arrhenius equation, but this isn't a standard way of doing it, and is liable to confuse those of you going on to do a Chemistry degree. If you aren't going to do a Chemistry degree, you won't need to know about this anyway!

Le Chatelier's Principle and catalysts Catalysts have sneaked onto this page under false pretences, because adding a catalyst makes absolutely no difference to the position of equilibrium, and Le Chatelier's Principle doesn't apply to them. This is because a catalyst speeds up the forward and back reaction to the same extent. Because adding a catalyst doesn't affect the relative rates of the two reactions, it can't affect the position of equilibrium. So why use a catalyst? For a dynamic equilibrium to be set up, the rates of the forward reaction and the back reaction have to become equal. This doesn't happen instantly. For a very slow reaction, it could take years! A catalyst speeds up the rate at which a reaction reaches dynamic equilibrium.
Note: You might try imagining how long it would take to establish a dynamic equilibrium if you took the visual model on the introductory page and reduced the chances of the colours changing by a factor of 1000 - from 3 in 6 to 3 in 6000 and from 1 in 6 to 1 in 6000. Starting with blue squares, by the end of the time taken for the examples on that page, you would most probably still have entirely blue squares. Eventually, though, you would end up with the same sort of patterns as before - containing 25% blue and 75% orange squares.

Questions to test your understanding If this is the first set of questions you have done, please read theintroductory page before you start. You will need to use the BACK BUTTON on your browser to come back here afterwards. questions on Le Chatelier's Principle answers

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