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Measure area of irregular shape: Graph paper Measure volume of liquid: Measuring cylinder Burette Pipette CHAPTER 2 Structure of cell and its function
Nucleus Cell control centre Chloroplast Produces chlorophyll


FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 Mass Mass is the quantity of matter in an object. SI unit : Kilogram (kg) Lever balance Weight Weight is the pull of gravity on an object SI unit : Newton (N) Spring balance Basic physical quantities & S.I. Physical quantities Length Mass Time Temperature Electric current SI Unit Metre (m) Kilogram (kg) Second (s) Kelvin (K) Ampere (A)

Cell membrane Controls the entry and exit of materials from the cell

Vacuole Contains water and solute

Cytoplasm Stores dissolved materials

Cell wall Maintains the shape of the cell

Unicellular organism Plant : Chlamydomonas Yeast Euglena Animal : Amoeba Paramecium Plasmodium

Measuring tools Length : Measuring tape Metre rule Calipers

Multicellular organisms: Plant : Spirogyra Sea weed Grass Animal : Eagle Squirrel Ant


Cell organisation Cell Tissue Organ System Organism System and function Skeleton system: Protects internal organs and gives support to the body Blood circulation system: Transport dissolved food, gases, and waste materials Nervous system: Conveys nerve impulses and reacts to stimuli Reproductive system: Produces reproductive cells Respiratory system: Enables the exchange of gases with the surroundings Excretory system: Removes wastes materials from the body Digestive system: Breaks up food into simples form to be absorbed and used by the body Muscular system: Moves the parts of the body CHAPTER 3 What is matter? Matter is everything that has mass and occupies space Matter is made up of tiny particles Matter exist in either: Solid: Liquid : Gas :

Unit : Density formula:

Density = ____mass of substance (g)___ Volume of substance (cm3)


CHAPTER 4 Basic resources of earth : Water Air Soil Living things Minerals Fossil fuels Classification of matter: Matter is classified into:

1. 2. 3.


Non - Metal

Particles vibrate in their position

Particles move gliding among each other

Particles move fast and randomly

Density: Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance.

Substance which is made up of one type of particle only Compound Substance that is made up of two or more types of elements. Chemically combined Separation method : electrolysis Mixture Substance that consist of two or more substance Joined physically Separation method : o Distillation o Filtration CHAPTER 5 Contents of air: Nitrogen : 78% Oxygen : 21% Carbon dioxide : 0.03% Inert gases : 0.9% Microorganisms Water vapour Dust

Properties of oxygen: Colourless, odourless and tasteless gas slightly on water no effect on litmus paper supports combustion and respiration Confirmation test for Oxygen: Glowing wooden splinter: Presence of oxygen causes the glowing wooden splinter to ignites. Properties of carbon dioxide: Colourless, odourless and tasteless gas Slightly soluble in water Very soluble in sodium hydroxide Changes moist blue litmus paper from blue to red Confirmation test for carbon dioxide: Limewater test: Carbon dioxide turns the limewater cloudy Respiration
Oxygen Carbon dioxide Energy Glucose water

CHAPTER 6 FORMS of energy: Potential energy Kinetic energy Heat energy Light energy Chemical energy Sound energy Electrical energy Nuclear energy Potential energy: Energy stored in an object due to its position or condition Kinetic energy: Energy stored in any moving object Heat energy: Is a type of energy that rises the temperature of an object. Light energy: Energy that enables us to see Chemical energy: Energy stored in chemical substances Eq: Food, battery, fuel Sound energy: Energy that is produced in vibrating object Electrical energy: Is produced by an electric charge or current Nuclear energy: Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom

Glucose + oxygen

water + carbon dioxide + energy

Comparison between inhaled and exhaled air: Inhaled Exhaled Nitrogen 78% Nitrogen 78% Inert gases 0.9% Inert gases 0.9% Oxygen 21% Oxygen 16% Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide 0.03% 0.03% Combustion:
Carbon + oxygen Hydrocarbon + oxygen Light E. + Heat E. + carbon dioxide Light E. + Heat E. + carbon dioxide + water

SOURCES of Energy: Fossil fuels Biomass fuels Wind Water Sun Radioactive substances Geothermal energy

Renewable & Non-renewable energy sources Renewable energy sources: Solar Water Wind Biomass Geothermal Wave/tidal Non-renewable: fossil fuels radioactive substances Sea breeze:

Physical process that involved in the change of states of matter.


CHAPTER 7 heat is a form of energy heat can be produced by the following ways: o rubbing two objects together o burning objects o electricity that runs through a coiled wire heat causes solids, liquids and gases to expand and contract differences between heat and temperature Heat Temperature A form of energy The degree of hotness or coldness of a substance Unit = Joule (J) Unit = Kelvins (K)



Absorption of heat: Durk and dull objects absorbs heat better than shiny objects Gives out heat: A dull, dark surface, gives out heat better than white shiny surface.

Heat flows in three different ways: 1. Conduction is the flow of heat through solid 2. Convection is the flow of heat through fluids such as in gases and in liquids 3. Radiation is the transfer of heat through vacuum (Heat flows from hotter area to colder area) Land breeze:

At night Sea is warmer than land Cool air from land flows to the sea as land breeze