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This

PROFESSOR MARION W. BOESEL


and to the memory of

Handbook is dedicated to

PROFESSORS
DONALD J. BORROR DW1BHT M. DELONG
C. CLAYTON HOFF
and

ROBERT A. HEFNER

United States Department of

Agriculture
Agricultural

Research
Service

Insect and Mite Pests in Food


An Illustrated Key
J. Richard Gorham
Editor

United States Department of

Health and Human Services


Public Health Service

Food and Drug Administration Washington DC


Agriculture

Handbook No. 655

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, B.C. 20402

Abstract

Foreword

Borham, J.R., ed. 1987. Insect and Mite Pests in Pood; An Illustrated Key. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook Number 655, 767 p., illus.

The publication, presented in two volumes, is and identification of the prehensive treatise food-contaminating arthropods (insects and their relatives). It provides the of identirapid and accurate than 600 species of pests encountered throughfying out the food industry. Diagnostic keys and useful illustrations of both adult and immature stages of these pests presented. Volume 1, arranged phylogenetically, consists of part and includes keys to the major anthropod pests of stored food. Volume 2, also arranged phylogenetically, consists of parts 2 and 3. It begins with general key to arthropod classes and insects orders. Except for chapter 7 in volume and chapter 25 in volume 2, all the keys in illustrated by drawings associated with parts and 2 illustrated by addikey couplets. The keys in part tional drawings in part 3 (ch. 27). The two volumes plement each other and should be used simultaneously to to time both the couplet at the permit the drawings (vol. 1) and the plate illustrations (vol. 2). Thus, the at the time both the specific features described in the key couplet and the general habitus of the arthropod being studied.

Responsibility for assuring safe and nutritious food supplies for the American people is shared by the Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. While prevention of problems is the ideal, much past effort has been expended upon corrective constraints against foods that should have been allowed to become defective in the first place.

In keeping with the increasing emphasis prevention, this timely publication fnsect and Mite Pests in Food: An Illustrated Key is fundamental technical document to assist scientists in achieving early detection and before-the-fact prevention, well after-the-fact correction, of certain defects in food.

KEYWORDS: arthropod, stored-food pests, food pests, food insects, moths, Lepidoptera, food industry, beetles, cockroaches, weevils, ants, silverfish, psocids, thrips, aphids, parasitic wasps, springtails, scale insects

be purchased from the Copies of this publication Superintendent of Documents. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.

be purchased from the National Microfiche copies Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161

Issued February 1991

CONTEISITS
Voliime 1
Prefaci

Voliume 2
Part
18.

J.R. 81arham
Introduiction

Classes and orders: Arthropods and insec!tS (Arthropoda, Insecta)

L.V. Krtutson
Part
1.

vii
19.

G.T. Okumura
Orders of larval Endopterygota (Insecta) W.R. Enns

319

333

Mites (Acari)

R.L. Smiley
2.

20.

Springtails (Collembola) H.G. Scott


Silverfish (Thysanura)

351
363

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera) A.B. Gurney and F.W. Fisk

21.
45 22.

P. Wygodzinsky
Psocids (Psocoptera) E.L. Mockford
Thrips (Thysanoptera) G.T. Okumura and C.S. Papp
Aphids (Aphididae, Homoptera)

3.

Adult beetles (Coleoptera) J.M. Kingsolver Larval beetles (Coleoptera) D.M. Anderson

75

371

23. 95
24.

403
415

5.

Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera) J.M. Kingsolver


Spider beetles (Ptinidae, Coleoptera) T.J. Spilman

M.B. Stoetzel
115 25.

6.

Scale insects (Coccoidea, Homoptera) D.R. Miller


Parasitic wasps

421

137
26. 149

7.

Checkered beetles (Cleridae, Coleoptera) J.M. Kingsolver

(Apocrita, Hymenoptera) G. Gordh

449

8.

Sap beetles (Nitidulidae, Coleoptera)


W.A. Connell
151

Part
27.
Illustrations of mites and insects A.D. Cushman, C. Feller, and others

9.

Cryptophagid beetles (Cryptophagidae, Coleoptera) J.M. Kingsolver


Minute brown scavenger beetles (Lathridiidae, Coleoptera) J.M. Kingsofver and F.G. Andrews

481

175

28.

10.

Arthropod pests of the food industry; A list and taxonomic bibliography J.R. Gorham
Appendix

651
743

179

11.

Darkling beetles

Index
185

747

(Tenebrionidae, Coleoplera) T-J. Spilman


12.

Seed beetles (Bruchidae, Coleoptera) J.M. Kingsolver


Weevils (Curculionidae, Coleoptera) D.R. Whitehead

215

13.

223

14.

Adult moths (Lepidoptera)

D.C. Ferguson
15.

231

Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

D.M. Weism.an
16.

245

Flies (Diptera)

R.J. Gagne
17.

269

Ants (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) D.R. Smith

297

Preface

of this handbook will be able to Although most effectively without any editorial explanations, few ments concerning the organization might be helpful to and at least of passing interest to others. All aspects of this project have been designed with the in mind. Our objective to make the handbook convenient to

storage situations. These keys, from the most general to the most specific, deal with insects and mites associated with food, not with insects and mites in general.
The geographic scope of this handbook is basically worldwide, since all the major cosmopolitan pests included. However, with regard to those pests that are not politan, the various specialists have selected those geographic parameters that consistent with their knowledge of the arthropods involved. The bionomic notes given for most species inform the reader about host materials and geographic distribution.

Because of the sheer volume of the material to be included in the handbook, is being published in two volumes, each of which is intended to complement the other. Volume consists of part (ch. 1-17) and includes keys to major arthropod pests of stored food. The arrangement q^___^._^EisJs-ess.anliaUi^biilooaoatir haoie^

ning with the mites and ending with the ants.

Volume 2 consists of part 2 (ch. 18-26) and part 3 (ch. 27, 28, appendix, and the index). Part 2 is also arranged phylogenetically, beginning with general key to arthropod classes and insect orders. Except for chapters 7 and 25, all the keys in parts and 2 have drawings associated with the key couplets. The keys in part further illustrated by additional drawings in part 3 (ch. 27). Since the couplet illustrations for part in volume and the plate illustrations in volume 2, the identifier will need to both volumes simultaneously. This permits the to at the time both the specific features described in the key couplet and the general habitus of the arthropod under consideration.
Plate is the only exception to this arrangement. Since it is the frontispiece of volume and since all the faxa illustrated therein keyed out in volume 1, the sionally will need to turn back to the frontispiece when keying out certain beetles in chapters 3, 5-7, 11, and 12. Chapter 14 refers to the frontispiece (plate 2) of volume 2.
With few exceptions, the plates arranged according to the order of appearance of each taxon in the keys of part 1. In both the couplet illustrations and in the habitus drawings of the plates, the figures that the oriented anterior aspect of the drawing points either up to the left. (In few instances, the couplet illustrations shown head-to-head tail-to-tail to facilitate comparison of structures.) In deference to the tradition of lepidopterists, the that oriented drawings of moth genitalia (ch. 14) anterior points down. The tradition of coccoidologists has also been respected in that the key to scale insects (ch. text figures rather than couplet illustrations. 25)

lustrations, the bionomic notes in the couplets, and the habitus drawings, the identifier may arrive at confident identification. If, however, after reaching this point, the still has doubt about the identity of particular specimen, he she has two options. One is to send the specimen to specialist to identify (see the appendix for

instructions).
The second option is to consult scientific literature. To help you do this provided list of taxonomic aids in chapter 28 for most of the taxa included in this handbook well for many (approximately 400) that not. This list also taxonomic index to the handbook, with the entries, including complete scientific and (if any), arranged by order and family. (Throughout the handbook, the approved by the Entomological Society of America shown in boldface type.) In addition, the scientific and listed alphabetically in the general index. Occasionally, the complete scientific (genus, species, mentioned for ilauthor) is used in the text. Such taxa lustrative purposes only, relation to stored they have food and therefore do not appear in chapter 28. The authors of these taxa given for the convenience of the reader.

keyed out in the handbook. Approximately 650 taxa The major cosmopolitan pests invariably included in their respective chapters. Accidental pests not inmost field crop pests, except for those well cluded, commonly, if inadvertently, carried into processing that

Many people involved in making this handbook possible. In addition to the authors and the illustrators, others gave support to the completion of the book. For example, the book could not have been written without the administrative support of both the Food and Drug Administration and the Agricultural Research Service. In addition, many scientists, each her field, gave expert in his advice and suggestions to help achieve high level of accuracy and utility in the preparation of the keys. In short, thanks to all of you who assisted in making Insect and Mite Pests in Food: An Illustrated Key informative and useful reference in its field.
J. Richard Gorham Food and Druo Administration

Introduction

the identification of foodcontaminating arthropods (insects and their relatives) and international in food prepared for their audience of entomologists, food inspectors, commercial
This comprehensive treatise

food processors, instructors in pest identification and pest management, pesticide applicators, and others involved in maintaining the purity of processed foods. We hope that this handbook will increase the efficiency of food inspection and will help guarantee the purity of foods imported into, exported from, and transported within the United States and other countries.

this available. We, current researchmakes tool such than the inheritors of and of research, 200 years of basic systematic work. While many difficult problems remain in the classification of pests and related species, especially at the subspeciflc level, much of the develfundamental classification that today that two-century timespan. Many classifications oped any other practical not developed with the present the products of basic research. objective in mind but

Precise identification of pests and suspected pests is


it is in the production essential in the food industry, just and postharvest segments of agriculture. For example,

consider the most recent, expensive visit of the khapra needed of beetle to the United States-identifications that the extent of the inthe difficult-to-identify larvae taken festation could be determined and control before the pest could spread throughout the country. In the food industry, particularly, rapid and accurate identifiother insect cation, often of only fragment of thropod, must be made by persons lacking specialized training in insect/arthropod systematics. This handbook will help provide the basis for this capability, both instructional aid. reference tool and

For the first time, the combined expertise of leading specialists in the United States has been marshaled to produce comprehensive and fully detailed manual for than 600 species quick and positive identification of of pests encountered throughout the many facets of the food industry. No manual of this kind has ever been published before in the United States, although few similar works have been published in England and Canada. In adand better known arthropod dition to the beetles, moths, ahd flies, the poorly known groups such inmites, fhrips, and scale insects groups such cluded. The emphases placed diagnostic keys and useful illustrations of both adult and immature stages special features. The two volumes, prepared largely by research entomologists of the Agricultural Research Services Systematic Entomology Laboratory of the Biosystematics ahd Beneficial Insects Institute, with designed for sections prepared by other specialists, to enable frontline A prime objective practical nonspecialists to identify authoritatively large number of not only their time but also the time species. This will of systematists who otherwise would be required to identify those specimens.
The practically oriented food inspector, quarantine officer, pest control operator, and others in this field should pause to consider the nature and quality of the research that

These points particularly important when siders that pest-identification requirements change as food habits change; shipping, packaging, storage, pronew crops and cessing, and other procedures change; international pathways of foods developed; as the pests themselves change change; and in their host preferences, distribution, population characteristics, and resistance to pesticides. The strengthened provided by scientifically based identificaregulatory the critical in the future tion may become also of certain pesticides is restricted. We anticipate dealing with increased numbers of diverse kinds of organisms, well their natural enemies, such parasitic forms. We can feel confident that these two for many important questions volumes will provide need to be time, At the for years to prepared for unpredictable future needs by maintaining systematics research and service capability.

A definitive work of this nature requires diverse mix of knowledge and capability-practical knowledge of which species need to be identified and which need to be cluded; solid understanding of the identity of hot only similar forms; those species but also of closely related the ability to present this broad range of specialized detail in useful manner; and skill in scientific illustration and in organizational and editorial capability. Speaking for the authors, would like to thank the editor, J, Richard Gorham, for his leadership of this project, and to thank the primary illustrators Candetta Feller and Arthur D. Cushman, both formerly with the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, for their outstanding contributions to this
project.

Lloyd Knutson*
Director

Blosystematics and Beneficial Insects Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture
Present address: Weeds Laboratory-Europe Biocontrol American Embassy-Agriculture York 09794-0007

Part 1

MITES (ACARI)

R.L. Smiley
Systematic Entomology Laboratory
Plant Sciences Institute

Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture


Beltsville MD 20705

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

The key presented here to selected orders, suborders, families, genera, and species of mites associated with foods is based largely A Manual of Acarology by G.W. Krantz (20) and The Mites of Stored Foods and Houses among by A.M. Hughes {18}. (References 3, 4, and 7 other important references consulted.) Several systems of subordinal nomenclature being used by acarologists. The system used in this key, along with other systems that have been proposed, is given in table 1.1,
The central objective of the key is to help the to identify those kinds of mites commonly associated with food. in Some mites, because of their potential for certain food-storage situations, phoretic parasitic insects, birds, and mammals and included here. Since bionomic information is sometimes helpful adjunct in the process of making identification, have included notations to the key couplets whatever reliable information foods, food habits, food associations, available specific behaviors, and geographic distribution.

The characters of the adult stage form the basis for most of the key couplets. The occasional references to characters of the hypopodes (formerly, hypopi) provided merely supplemental information. Zakhvatkin (28) should be consulted for keys to hypopodes. The hypopus second nymphal stage) (deutonymph only in the Astigmata and then only occasionally. differs widely in both morphology and behavior from earlier and later stages in the developmental cycle.

As arachnids, spiders, mites, and ticks have kind of abdominal segmentation that is inconspicuous apparently absent. In the subclass Araneae (spiders), the head and thorax combined in single unit, the cephalothorax, that is joined to the abdomen by slender pedicel. The subclass Acari includes the ticks (fig. 1.1) and mites (Tig. 1.2). The acarine body, in contrast to the rather distinct body regions of insects, is composed mainly of the idiosoma. The mouthparts borne the gnathosoma, anterior region that is less distinct from the idiosoma. Terminology for the subdivisions of the mite body is given here.

Region of mouth and mouthparts Region of legs and Region of legs ((( and IV
Posterior

Gnathosoma
Propodosoma

Podosoma

Metapodosoma
---Idiosoma

Hysterosoma

Opisthosoma

region

Table 1.1.
for of the higher taxa, Equivalent mainly suborders, of the subclass Acari

System

System

1|3

System 1114

System IV

System V

Order Parasititormes

Onychopalpida1 Holothyroidea2 Notostigmata2


Parasitiformes2

Tetrastigmata

Notostigmata
Metastigmata Mesostigmata

Holothyrida Opilioacarida
Ixodida Gamasida

Holothyrina Opitioacarida
Ixodida

Holothyrina7 Opiiioacarida7
Ixodida8

Ixodides1
Mesostigmata1

Mesostigmata

Mesostigmata

Order Acariformes
Trombidiformes13 Prostigmata Actineida

Prostigmata

Prostiamata

Tetrapodili2 Sarcoptiformes12 Acaridiae


Oribatei
(27)
(3);

Eriophyoidea Astigmata
Cryptostigmata
()).

Acaridida Oribatida

Astigmata
Oribatida
by
unlikely belonging they widely

Astigmata Cryptostigmata

(14);
Acarology

(20).
University (D.

key.

key;

distinguished

palpus

genital opening

scutum

festoon

Figure 1.1. Ixodid tick (Ixodida) (diagrammatic): Left, dorsal; right, ventral. (Drawing by R.L.

Smiley.)

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Figure 1.2. Mesostigmatid mite, Androlaelaps casalis (Laelapidae, Mesostigmata), ventral view of female (see pi. 3, 11, and 45 for other structural details). (Drawing by R.L. Smiley.)

Mites (Acari)

KEY
Drawings by Smiley

With

to 4 pairs of lateroventral hysterosomal stigmata (1A); sensillum (propodosomal trichobothrium) absent (1 B). Order Parasitiformes---------------Without hysterosomal stigmata (1 C) (except for certain Cryptostigmata that may have absent. Order Acariformesinconspicuous stigmata); sensillum present (1D)

2 17

Order Parasitiformes

than long), with sclerotized plates shields Large leathery Acari (usually (see scutum, fig. 1.1); palpus without fined apotele (2A); hypostome with retrorse teeth (2A); spiracular (stigmal) plate (surrounds stigma) oval, rounded, III and IV behind shaped, subtriangular (fig. 1.1) and located between IV; Hallers organ (on dorsum of tarsus) present (2B); external parasites
----------------------------------ticks, Suborder Ixodida
without sclerotized Small nonleathery Acari (usually less than long), with plates shields; palpus with lined apotele (2C); hypostome without retrorse teeth and 111 between III and IV, and sometimes (2C); stigma located between surrounded by elongate peritremal shield (fig. 1.2); Hallers organ absent (2D); free living. Suborder Mesostigmata (mesostigmatid mites) parasitic

28 ixodid
tick

2D

Blatti3oc/us

keegam

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Suborder Mesostigmata

3 Coxa

partially contiguous with and partially covering base of tritosternum (3A); hypostomal setae 1-111 arranged in (3A); peritreme elongate and often strongly convoluted (pi. 38); III and IV with foveae pedales (leg grooves) (pi. 3B). Uropodidae (uropodid tortoise mites)----------------The uropodids ships moldy grain ably mycophagous.
damp, prob-

warehouses; they

Coxa not contiguous with and not overlapping tritosternal base (3B); hypostomal setae 1-111 not arranged in (3C); peritreme elongate but not convoluted (3B); III and IV without foveae pedales (3B)

4 Idiosoma broadly rounded at posterior margin (pi. 3A); dorsal shield bordered, at least of platelets (festoons) (4A)-----Le/odf;^ychus krameri posteriorly, with single
cosmopolitan.

idiosoma tapered at posterior margin (p(. 3C); dorsal shield not bordered by of platelets (4B)~-----------------------Fuscuropoda marginata
Distribution: Europe,

v^-r\ ^ ^-W-H-V

^^

4A Leiodinychus
krameri

4B Fuscuropoda
marginata

Mites (Acari)

5 Corniculus forked distally (5A). Ameroseiidae (ameroseiid mites) Corniculus not forked (5B)---------"--------------

5A Kleemannia
plumosa

5B

Lasioseius

Dorsal setae

and pectinate, without thickened midrib (6A); pi. 4A -Kleemsnnia plumigera


Distribution: England. Germany, Ireland, Netherlands. habits: mycophagous.

Dorsal setae broad and serrate, each with

thickened midrib

(6B); pi. 4B&C


Kleemannia plumosa

Distribution: Australia, Canada, England. Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Netherlands, United States. mycophagous.

6A Kleemannia
plumigera

6B Kleemannia
pfumosa

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

7 Tarsus without claws (7A); apotele of palpal tarsus 3-tined (7B); pi. 5. Macrochelidae (macrochelid mites)---------- house fly mite, Macrocheles muscaedomesticae
Distribution; cosmopolitan. Foods:

eggs

(Mu&ca domestica)
phorelic

Tarsus with claws (7C); apotele of palpal tarsus 2-tined (7D)"-

8 Dorsal propodosoma with scleronoduli

(8A); dorsum covered with subequal propodosomal (podonotal) and hysterosomal (opisthonotal) shields (8A). Digamasellidae (digamasellid mites) Digamasellus
probably cosmopolitan.

habits: prob-

ably predaceous

arthropods.

Dorsal propodosoma without scleronoduli (8B); dorsal shield usually undivided (8B) and often reduced (see 11B); dorsal shield is divided, then anterior (podonotal) shield is much larger than posterior (opisthonotal) shield (see 11A)-.------

^-^ ^A tr^
/?/
\

^ ^
\^

.^^ -^ /, n\\ \ \\> w


~f-

8A Digamasellus

8B Blattisocius
dentriticus

10

Mites (Acari)

9 Chelicera slender (9A), whiplike

needlelike, originating from and retractable into

adapted

Chelicera stout, originating from and retractable into gnathosoma (9C)

9A Liponyssoides
sanguineus

9B Dermanyssus
gallinae

9C

Blattisocius dentriticus

10 Epigynial shield rounded posteriorly (10A); anal shield subrectangular (1 OB); Chelicera scissorlike (10C), chela movable dermanyssid mites, Dermanyssidae
chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (pi. 6), this family. representative cosmopolitan species, Chicken hostschickens, pigeons, starlings, sparrows. The leave invade buildings through openings.
adapted

Epigynial shield pointed posteriorly (10D); anal shield oval in shape (10E); Chelicera not scissorlike (10F), chela fixed. Macronyssidae (macronyssid mites)---Macronyssid parasitize mammals, including domestic
adapted

11

hinds

birds

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

11 Dorsum with 2 shields (11A); pi. 7----house


Egypt,
cosmopolitan.

mite, Liponyssoides sanguineus


(New Yori<); probably

Dorsum with

shield (11B,

11C). Genus Ornithonyssus---

12

11A Liponyssoides
sanguineus

11C Ornithonyssus
sylviarum

11B Ornithonyssus
bacoti

dorsal shield equal in length to setae 12 Dorsal shield pointed posteriorly; setae shielded dorsum (see 11B); pi. 8--------tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti
Distribution: cosmopolitan.

Dorsal shield rounded posteriorly; dorsal shield setae often much shorter than setae unshielded dorsum (see 11C)-----northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum
Distribution: Australia, Europe, Japan, Korea. Zealand, America, South Africa, Russia; temperate regions the world.

13 Epigynial shield rounded posteriorly and at least twice ventrianal shield long (13A); fig. 1.2. Laelapidae (laelapid mites)------------Anaro/ae/aps casa//s
cosmopilitan.
situations,

habits: arthropods.

Epigynial shield truncate posteriorly and about equal in length to ventrianal shield

(13B).

Ascidae (ascid mites)----------------------

14

13A
Androlaelaps

^ ^epigynial

shield

13B
Blattiscx.

12

Mites (Acari)

14 Corniculi relatively short,

less parallel, and well separated distally (14A)

Distribution: Europe,

ably mycophagous

Slatespredaceous.

prob-

Corniculi long, slender, convergent, and close together distally (14B). Genus

species mentioned

virtually

politan. They associated

other mites

14A

Lasioseius

14B Blaltisocius
dentriticus

15 Peritreme long, extending forward to (15A); cheliceral fixed digit with tooth (15B); fixed and movable digits subequal in length (15B); ventrianal plate with 11 ------Blattisocius dentriticus setae (15C); pi. 9Acouplet

III (15D); cheliceral fixed digit toothless (15E); fixed Peritreme short, extending to digit much shorter than movable digit (15E); ventrianal plate with 9 setae (15F)

16

^^
15A Blattisocius
dentriticus

15D Blattisocius
keegani

15B Blattisocius
dentriticus

15E Blattisocius
keegani

15C Blattisocius
dentriticus

15F Blattisocius
keegani

13

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

16 Cheliceral movable digit with 3 teeth

(16A); pi.

9B----------B/aft/socms tarsalis

Cheliceral movable digit with

tooth (16B); pi. ~\o----------Blattisocius keegani

^
16A Blattisocius
tarsalis

16B Blattisocius
keegani

Order Acariformes

17 Stigmata absent (as in all Astigmata) present (as in if present, opening between bases of chelicerae

Cryptostigmata), but shoulders of anterior


18

propodosoma-------------------------------stigmata stigmata (hence

always difficult

Crypto-

suborder)

the Prostigmata, help the given Astigmata, Cryptosiigmata, stigmata- Asligs ctyptostigs by following: Adults always legs; pairs present (17A), hairs; empodium usually present, often very (17A) (claw small, by 17B) suckerlike pulvillus (17B); empodium seldom (17A, 17B); styletiform, usually strong, chelate, (17C); palpus with complex (17D); strong podosoma (opisthogaster) claspers plate (17E); hypopodes (pi. 17A&C, 18B, 19B. 20A, 23, 25).

Stigmata present and opening either between bases of chelicerae (17F) shoulders of propodosoma (17G). Suborder Prostigmata (prostigmatid mites)pairs
claw, present, legs; rayed (17H); empodium, padlike (17H), usually

47

present, usually
by

rayed (17H), pulvillus (if any resembling present, puvillus podium absent); chelicera usually dentate; styletiform (171), rarely strong, chelate, teeth, palpus complex; (17F) strong plale claspers metapodosoma (17J); hypopodes

14

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

18

Integument usually strongly sclerotized; empodium, present, clawlike, not borne pretarsus (18A); sensory setae (sensilla prodorsal trichobothria) present propodosoma (18B); genital opening longitudinal (18C) (not shaped like inverted U, Y, V) and usually flanked by 3 pairs of genital discs; genital (18C) and anal (18D) openings similar in shape and covered by trapdoorlike valves; pi. 11A
beetle mites, oribatid mites, Suborder Cryptostigmata
usually homomorphic, Only
species food-storage notably

widely
only infrequently) processed foods,

found (and

foods moldy Among these Aphelacarus laevigatus, Phauloppia lucorum,

Integument weakly sclerotized, if at all; empodium clawlike (18E, 18F), often borne pretarsus; sensory setae absent from propodosoma (18G); genital opening transverse shaped like inverted U, V (18H), Y (181), and usually flanked by 2 pairs of genital discs; genital (18H, 181) and anal (18J, 18K) openings not similar
in shape. Suborder Astigmata (astigmatid mites)---------------homomorphic
heteromorphic.

19

16

18A

18E Dermatophagoides
pteronyssinus

18G Tyrophagus
putrescentiae

^
18C
18H

18D Scheloribales

18J Derfnatophagoides
fannae

18K Carpoglyphus
lactis

(A-D)

(H8.J)

(I&K)

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Suborder Astigmata

19 Integumental striae of dorsal hysterosoma broken by spinelike projections (19A); pi. 11B. Sarcoptidae (sarcoptid mites)------------itch mite, Sarcopfes scabiei
cosmopolitan. Food habits:
adapted

parasite

Integumental striae not broken by spinelike projections-surface may be warty (19B), smooth, granular (19C)

19B Aeroglyphus
robustus

19C Eumglyphus
maynei

20 Legs and clawlike (i.e., the whole leg functions claw) and terminating in long pretarsi (20A); tarsi and heavily sclerotized (20A); genital opening of female Inverted U (20B) and flanked by sclerotized genital apodemes; shaped like opisthosoma of male bilobed, each lobe bearing 2 long simple setae and 3 short simple setae (20C); pt. 12. Psoroptidae (scab mites) scab mite, Psomptes equi
cosmopolitan-

Legs and

neither clawlike terminating in long pretarsi; tarsi and lightly sclerotized (20D); genital opening of female not shaped like inverted U (20E); sclerotized genital apodemes present (20E) absent; if posterior end of male appears bilobed, the lobes do not each bear 2 long and 3 short simple setae (20F, 20G)

18

Mites (Acari)

21 Apodemes and
/p-iA\

fused with sternum and surrounding anterior end of genital plate


2?

Apodeme not fused with sternum and not adjoining anterior end of genital plate (21 B)
apodeme

23

apodeme

21 A Carpoglyphus
lactis

21B Aeroglyphus
robustus

2.2

Genua and tibiae to IV with sclerotized ridges (22A); epigynial shield subrectangular (22B); pi- 13A. Glycyphagidae (glycyphagid mites) (in part)
--,_--.---------,-------------brown flour
cosmopolitan. Food associations: of

mite, Gohieria fuses.

flour

many

Genua and tibiae to IV without sclerotized ridges (22C); epigynial shield subtriangular (22D); pi. 13B. Carpoglyphidae (driedfruit mites) ------,---,---.---,---,--------driedfruit mite, Carpoglyphus lactis
Argentina, Europe, America: probassociations: containing ably cosmopolitan.

sugar.

W
22A Gohieria
fusca

22C Carpoglyphus
iactis

22D Carpoglyphus
tactis

19

Insect and Mite Pests

in Food

than twice long 23 Tarsi to IV slender, and Glycyphagidae (glycyphagid mites) (in part)than twice long Tarsi to IV stout, and usually not

adjacent tibiae (23A). adjacent tibiae (23B)-

24 Dorsal idiosoma with conspicuous wartiike tubercles (24A); cuticle at least partially striate (24A); pi. i4-------------warty grain mite, Aeroglyphus robustus
America. fish products.
grains, grain adapted

products,

Dorsal idiosoma without wartiike tubercles (24B) (but small triangular spicules may be present); cuticle without striations (24B)-------------------

25

24B Glycyphagus
domesticus

25 Crista metopica (prodorsal sclerite) present (25A); supracoxal seta with slender branches (25B); leg without tarsal scale (25C)--------------Glycyphagus
mile, Glycyphagus domesticus (pi. 15),

representative of distributed

widely with with fungi.

Crista metopica absent (25D); supracoxal seta with stout branches (25E); leg with

tarsal scale (25F)---------------------------Lep/cfogtyp/7us


Lepidoglyphus destructor, mites associated this species

food, is representative distribution. cosmopolitan

foods
fungi.

20

Mites (Acari)

25B

Crista metopica

25A Glycyphagus
domesticus

25 D Lepidoglyphus
destructor

25C Glycyphagus
domesticus

25 F Lepidoglyphus
destructor

26 Tarsal tip bearing large and conspicuous clawlike empodium associated with pulvillus of variable size (26A); metapodosomal venter without prominent, stronglysclerotized, ringlike structures------------------------Tarsal tip bearing minute claw surrounded by conspicuous discoid belt-shaped pulvillus (26B), and metapodosomal venter without prominent, ringlike structures (as in 42D); tip of tarsus bearing a large, clawlike empodium (26C, 26D), and metapodosomal venter with prominent, strongly-sclerotized, ringlike structures (see

27

pulvillus

26B Dermatophagoides
farinae

21

(nsect and Mite

Pests in Food

27 Dorsal idiosoma patterned (27A). Acaridae (acarid mites) (in part)--Dorsal idiosoma unpatterned (27B)-------------------

28 29

27B Thyreophagus
entomophagus

28 Female with hi (apical dorsolateral seta of hysterosoma) shorter than he (humeral seta) (28A) and with anal region subcircular (28B); male without anal suckers (28C); pi. 16------------------------scaly grain mite, Susdasia nesbitti
Distribution: Africa, Europe, wheat bran,

Foods:

Female with hi long longer than he (28D) and with anal region circular (28E); male with anal suckers (28F)---------------------Suldasia pontUica
Distribution: Africa. Europe, Foods: peanuts, Oudemans.

Rico,

Synonym:

Suidasia

\
28B

28E

28A Suldasia
nesbitti

28D Suldasia
pontifica

28F Suidasia pontifica (E&F)

22

Mites

(Acari)

29 Tarsal claws to IV of female bifurcate (29A); tip of tarsus III of male with 2 large spines (29B). Lardoglyphidae (lardoglyphid mites). Genus Lardoglyphus----male angelinae

30

See Olsen
key

chapter 28) (H001 separate species


23,

Tarsal claws of female simple (29C); tip of tarsus III of male with simple claw (29D). Acaridae (acarid mites) (in part)--------------------

\^

y^
zacheri

^^
---.Lardoglyphus zacheri
America, States. associations: slaughterhouse byproducts wastes; moldy
Australia, Europe, Mexico,

29A Lardoglyphus

30

Seta c^

than 3 times as long 0/3 (30A); tarsi (30B) and male with bifurcate claws; hysterosiomal shield of hypopus with 10 spines (30C); pi. 17A&B

Seta c/4 subequal in length to c/s (30D); tarsi (30E) and of male with simple claws; hysterosomal shield of hypopus with 14 spines (30F); pi. 17C--- Lardoglyphus konoi
Europe, India, Japan, Kenya,

States.

fish,

23

fnsect and Mite Pests in Food

31 Inner proximal seta (scQ approximately

long

longer than outer proximal seta


32 37

(sce)(31A)-----------------------------------Inner proxima! seta absent (31B) much shorter than outer seta (31C)

32 Solenidion

than 3 times longer than genu (32A); femur of male ventral conical process (32B). Genus Acarus---------Solenidion genu less than 3 times longer than (32C); femur of male not enlarged and not bearing ventral conical process (32D)

larged, with

33
35

setal terminology
plied

Acaridae.

of tarsus recumbent, with distinct constriction proximal to terminal 33 Solenidion expansion (33A); seta d; of hypopus extending beyond base of da (33B); pi. 18 grain mite, Acarus siro
cosmopolitan. Foods: processed grains, fungi.

of tarsus not recumbent and without distinct constriction (33C); Solenidion seta d2 of hypopus not extending beyond base of 03 (33D)

34

24

Mites (Acari)

33A Acarus
sito

33C Acarus
farns

34

of tarsus with sides expanding gradually from base, then narrowing to indistinct neck before expanding into terminal head; width of widest part of head of hypopus about 2 times equal to width of stem (34A); setae sc/ and long Acarus farris hysterosomal setae (34B); pi. 19-----------Africa,

Europe,

States.

cheese; grains
w-\

field.

with sides almost parallel and with distinct egg-shaped head that is wider at of hypopus subany part of the stem (34C); setae sc/ and Acarus immobilis equal in length to hysterosomal setae (34D); pi. 20Aits widest part than
Distribution: Europe, United States. Foods: grains; cheese. Couplets 32-34 adapted

13,

34C Acarus
immobilis

^34D

/Icarus

immobilis

25

Insect and Mite Pests

in Food

35 Seta vi

than 4 times longer than seta

(35A); pi. 20B


-cheese mite, Tyrotichus case/

cosmopolitan. including

foods,

Seta vi less than 3 times

long

seta

(35B). Genus Tyrophagus

36

.upracoxal seta

35A Tyrolichus

35B Tyrophagus
longior

36 Supracoxai seta (see 35B) slender, with short, stout spicules (36A); seta c/2 not passing base of 0/3 (pi. 21A)-~-------------------Tyropftagus longior
cosmopolitan.

cheese, grains,

many

Supracoxai seta stout, bulbous, with long, slender spicules (36B); seta c/s extending well beyond base of 0/3 (pi. 21 B)----mold mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae
cosmopolitan. high protein

fungi;

fat

nuts,
species, rice,

(dried eggs, cheese, many other stored foods).


tropicus, which

key

tropicus Britain, (18), T. tropicus differs

long equal length

this point. Africa, Europe, New According Hughes putrescentiae having c/i d (/a

putrescentiae}.

36A Tyrophagus
longior

36B Tyrophagus
putrescentiae

26

Mites (Acari)

37

Seta

nearly level with vi (37A)-----brownlegged grain mite, Aleuroglyphus ovatus


Distribution: Europe, Japan, probably fungi bran, flour, chicken meal,

America, Russia. wheat, fish products.

Seta

absent (see 31 B) or, present, then not

level with vi (37B;

also 31 C)-

38

37A Aieurogiyphus

37B Caloglyphus

38 Setae scf, d,-ds present (38A, 38B)------Setae so, cl,, da, and ds absent.(38C, 38D, 38E)-

supracoxal seta

38E Schwiebia

38C Histlogastar

38D Thyreophagus

27

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

39 Tarsus with

large, spinelike seta adjacent to

and

(39A)-

Rhizoglyphus

associated decaying plant species, robini (pi. 22B, 23), ca//ae, widely distributed, have the literature potential taminants. References: 78,
echinopus,

They

Tarsus with

simple seta adjacent to


|=SanGasan;a]

w-\

and

(39B)-

Caloglyphus

(pi. 24), virtually cosmopolitan species, feeds fungi associated Reference: damp,

39A Rhizoglyphus 40 Tarsus without spinelike seta in front of


and

(40A)
Thyreophagus entomophagus

Opisthosomal
Distribution: Europe, insects.

simple (unlobed) (40B). flour,

Tarsus with spinelike seta (ba) in front of


Opisthosomal
male,

and

cua (40C)-present,

(40D).

28

Mites (Acari)

41

Tarsus short and stubby, about as long

wide (41A); opisthosomal shield absent from male--------------------------------"--Scftmeb/a


Distribution; cosmopotitan.

meat,
Reference:

ginger (rotting), taro, (COOS) chapter

than twice Tarsus elongate, long wide (41 B); opisthosomal shield present male (see 40D)------------------------ Histiogaster
Distribution: Europe, Hong Kong, North fish, tomatoes; also found in wine. chapter Woodring (C018)

41A Schwiebia

41B Histiogaster

42 Palpal tarsus with apical sensillae forming Y-shaped process (42A); metapodosomal venter with prominent, strongly-sclerotized, ringlike structures (42B); hypopodial stage present (pi. 25)-------------histiostomatid mites, Histiostomatidae
Some
production heinemanni (pi. 25-27)
adapted

family

associated

typical

family.

Palpal tarsus without V-shaped process (42C); metapodosomal venter without ringtike small and weakly structures (genital papillae may be present, as in 42D, but they sclerotized); hypopodiat stage absent. Pyroglyphidae (pyroglyphid mites)5, 10,

43

29

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

43 Seta

long sc/" (43A); vulva covered with membrane (43B); posterior margin of idiosoma of male with 3 to 6 setae (43C); anal sucker plate not surrounded by sclerotized (43C). Genus Euroglyphus Seta at least 5 times longer than sc/ (43D); vulva not covered with membrane (43E); posterior margin of idiosoma of male with 10 setae (43F); anal sucker plate surrounded by sclerotized (43F). Genus Dermatophagoides
species associated

Dermatophggoides "house

43B

43E

43F
Dermatophagoides
farinas

44 Genital sclerite with 2 pairs of setae

anal aperture (44A); with 2 pairs of setae (44B); anal plate of male pointed and located approximately equidistant between genital plate and posterior margin of opisthosoma (44C); ventral opisthosoma of male with 3 pairs of setae posterior margin (44C); pi. 28, 29 Eurogtyphus tongior
England, France, Sweden,

States

(Ohio).

granary

Genital sclerite with pair of setae (44D); with pair of setae anal aperture (44E); anal plate of male rounded and located closer to the posterior margin of

30

Mites

(Acari)

body than to the genital plate (44F); ventral opisthosoma of male with 2 pairs of setae posterior margin (44F); pf. 30, 3i-----------urog/yp/7us maynei
Distribution: Europe, Japan. Substrates: decomposing
oil;

44D

44E

45 Seminal receptacle of bursa copulatrix (see pi. 32) with daisylike sclerotized base (45A) -,----------European house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus
Dislribution: essentially cosmopolitan. See
couplet

Base of seminal receptacle not daisylike in shape (45B)-

45A Dermatophagoides
pteronyssinus

45B Dermatophagoides
microceras

31

Insect and Mite Pests

in Food

46 Sclerotized process at apex of tarsus large and sharp (46A); bursa copulatrix heavily sclerotized (46B); pi. 32----American house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae
Distribution: England, Japan, Netherlands, Russia, Leone, Stales.

Sclerotized process at apex of tarsus small and blunt (46C); bursa copulatrix lightly sclerotized (46D)----Dermatophagoides microceras
Distribution: England, Spain.

(Louisiana).

46A Dermatophagoides 46C Dermatophagoides 46B Dermatophagoides 46D Dermatophagoides


farinae microceras farinae
microceras

Suborder Prostigmata

47 With 2 pairs of legs (47A)

-eriophyoid mites, Eriophyoidea

fig mite, Eriophyes ficus (47A) (Eriophyidae), superfamily. Eriophyoids cosmopolitan. They variously mites, gall mites, miles, mites, the they depending kind they (20).
representative

phytophagous

With 3 (pi. 33A)

4 (pi. 33B) pairs of legs-

48

32

Mites (Acari)

48 Body wormlike

(48A)
dog follicle mite, representative of parasitize

-follicle mites, Demodicidae


(48A),
host-specific

stubby. Ne-matalycid (Nematalycidae) they have long legs. They widely distributed (20).
by

pairs of legs short

respectively.

Body not wormlike (48B)

49

49 Palpal tarsus with thumb-claw complex


adapted

(49A-C)-

Palpal tarsus without thumb-claw complex (490)-

49D Tydeus

33

Insect and Mife Pests

in

Food

50 Larva with urstigma (Claparede organ) (50A); adult with crista metopica (508; also 50C)---------------------------------Trombidioidea
Although possible superfamily might form special parasitic, six-legged
parasitic

this with food. chigger,


stage Leptofrombidium (pi. 33A) birds and including

may
adapted

pests

Larva without urstigma (500); adult without crista metopica (50E)of superfamily Erythraeoidea key key point; (50C) of differ couplet. Larval erylhraeoid having tetranychids and cheyletids chelae metopica. resembling adult erythraeoids the long straight
short, curved, erythraeoid,

51

chelae.
invades buildings

Europe

(20).

50A Trombicula
microti

500 Scutacarus
baculitarsus
agaricus

50C Balaustium
putnami

SOB

trombidiid
mite

50E Cheletomorpha
iepicfopterorum

34

Mites (Acari)

51 Palpus without comblike setae

(51A)-

spider mites, Tetranychidae

The mite, Bryobia praetiosa (pi. 33B), the idiosoma anterior margin by lobes, Note legs bearing single fringed found in disproportionately long. Clover grasses Slates. They Europe Inherbaceous plants. They buildings they lay eggs.

Palpus with comblike setae (51B). Cheyletidae (cheyletid mites)-Cheyletid

52

prey

arthropods, especially distribution essentially

cosmopolitan. They

51B Cheyletus
eruditus

without paired claws 52 Tarsus pi. 34-

(52A); palpal claw

with

basal tooth (52B); --Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum


53

Tarsus with paired claws (52C); palpal claw with 2 basal teeth (52D)

52A Cheletomorpha
lepidopterorum

52C Cheyletus
malaccensis

52B Cheletomorpha
lepidopterorum

52D Cheyletus
eruditus

35

Insect and Mite Pests

in

Food

53 Basal teeth of palpus similar in form

(53A); femur IV with 2 setae (53B)


Cheyletus eruditus
seta (53D).------Cheyletus malaccensis

Basal teeth dissimilar (51 C); femur IV with

53C Cheyletus
malaccensis

53D Cheyletus
malaccensis

54

Leg modified for clinging to hairs (54A) -----------myobi id mites, Myobiidae


Myobia
affinis,

(see couplet
comnrionly laboratory

48B),

parasites

Leg not modified for clinging to hairs (54B)

55

54A Myobia
muscularis

54B Spinibdella
bifurcata

55 Palpus somewhat elbow-shaped, with 2 long apical setae, the longer being at least 4 times the palpal tarsus (55A)------------snout mites, Bdellidae long
Spinibdella associated
(pi. 35A)
predator

miles

grains

(Texas).

Palpus not elbowed; apical setae variable, but

longer than palpal tarsus (55B)

56

36

Mites (Acari)

56 Tarsal claw both pectinate and scythe-shaped

(56A)-

halacarid mites, Halacaridae

(pi. 35B)

found

Rhombognattiides dulse,

Tarsal claw not pectinate or, if pectinate, then not scythe-shaped (56B)-

56A Rhombognathides
seahami

56B Tydeus

57 External peritreme present (57A); pi. 36A. Pterygosomatidae (pterygosomatid mites) cockroach mite, Pimeiiaphilus cunliffei
P. podapolipophagus These mites, formerly cockroaches. Tragardh, ectoparasites that coincides their

External peritreme absent (57B)---

58

palpus

peritreme.^

57A Pimeiiaphilus
cunliffei

57B Pyemotes
tntici

37

{nsect and Mite

Pests in Food

58 Sensillum (prodorsal trichobothrium) of female setaceous (58A); tarsal claw and podium either smooth pectinate; rayed hairs present (58B) ---.------,-----------,---.-.---..--..-.-...---_.tydeid mites, Tydeidae
Tydeid mites, especially (pi. 36B). occasionally there foods, they prey
Tydeus
in
uncertain; probably

Sensillum of female globular (58C); tarsal claw and pulvillus smooth, without rayed

59

58B Tydeus

59 Female with hoodlike podonotal shield covering propodosoma and gnathosoma (margin of podonotal shield striated) (59A); trochanter IV of male subtriangufar (59B)
..---...----..--..--..--..-..-..--.-.-.-.-.scutacarid mites, Scutacaridae
baculifarsus agaricus (22) (pi. 37, 38) representative family. subspecies Pennsylvania phorid Delaware. phoretic family widely

Female without hoodlike podonotal shield (59C); trochanter IV of male subrectangular


(by u)

60

38

Mites (Acari)

59A Scutacarus baculitarsus


agaricus

59C Pseudopygmephorus
smileyi

(latercil view)

59B Scutacarus
baculitarsus agaricus

59D Pyemotes
tritici

60 Leg IV of female with pretarsus, claw, and pulvillus, but without apical whiplike setae forming (60A); idiosoma elongate; palpus of male reduced in size absent, elongate beak (pi. 39); gravid female with saclike hysterosoma (pi. 40A)-Leg IV of female without pretarus, claw, and pulvillus, but with apical whiplike setae (608); idiosoma oval; male palpus always present but variable in shape, sometimes elongate beak; gravid female without saclike hysterosoma (pi. 44). forming Tarsonemidae (tarsonemid mites)----------------------fungi,
grainsspecies,
which

61

62

lukoschusi, production

Pennsylvania (76). Other tetranychoid

feed

eggs

(26).

39

insect and Mite Pests in Food

61 Gnathosoma of male about

wide long (61 A); trochanter IV of female triangular (61B)---------------------------pyemotid mites, Pyemotidae
mite, Pyemotes (6) parasite (Newport)] (pi, 39, 40), including Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Sitophilus S/torroga oryzae, Callosobruchus maculatus,

Gnathosoma of male longer than wide (61 C); trochanter IV of female quadrangular (61 D, 61 E)---------------------mushroom mites, Pygmephoridae
Pygmephorus sellnicki (pi. 41), European species United States, introduced mushrooms (25). Pseudopygmephorus smileyi (pi. 42, 43) pest Pennsylvania (77),

40

Mites (Acari)

62 Leg IV of female extending beyond margin of opisthosoma (62A); pharyngeal structure strongly sclerotized, without conspicuous glands at base (62B); femur IV of inner surface base (62C); pi. 44 male with angulation

-Tarsonemus
United States.

Leg IV of female not extending beyond margin of opisthosoma (62D); pharyngeal structure weakly sclerotized, with conspicuous glands at base (62E); femur IV of base (62F); pi. 45 male without angulation ..-...-..--..-.--..-..-...-..--.-.-.-----------.-.-.-.Tarsonemus granarius
Distribution: Canada, England, Japan.

41

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

References Cited

Baker, E.W., J.H. Camin, F. Cunliffe, T.A. Woolley, and C.E. Yunker. 1958. Guide the families of mites. Institute of Acarology, University of Maryland, College Park. Baker, E.W-, M.D. Delfinado, and M.J. Abbatiello. 1976. Terrestrial mites of New York, II. Mites in birds nests (Acarina). Jour. New York Ent- Soc.

84(1)48-66. Baker. E.W., T.M. Evans, D.J. Gould, W.B. Hull, and H.L.

Keegan.
1956.

A manual of parasitic mites of medical economic importance. National Pest Control

Association, New York. Baker, E.W., and G.W. Wharton. 1952. An introduction to acarology. Macmillan, New York. Bronswijk, J.E.M.H. van, and R.N. Sinha. 1971. Pyroglyphid mites (Acari) and house dust allergy.

Jour. Allergy 47(1)31-52. Cross, E.A-, and J.C. Moser. 1975. A dimorphic species of Pyemores and to previously-described forms (Acarina; Tarsonemoidea). Ann. Ent. Soc. America
68(4)723-732. Evans, Q.O., and E. Browning.
1955. 8 Evans,

key

Some British mites of economic importance. British Museum (Natural History), LondonG.O., J.G. Sheals, and D. Macfarlane.
The terrestrial Acari of the British Isles. British

1961.

Museum (Natural History), London. Evans, G.O., and W.M. Till.


1979.

Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland

(Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction their external morphology and classification. Trans. Zool. Soc. London
35:139-270. 10 Fain, A. 1965.

Les acariens nidicoles detriticoles de la famille Pyroglyphidae Cunliffe (Sarcoptiformes). Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 72(3-4)257-288.

11 Fain, A.

1967.

Le genre Dermatophagoides Bogdanov 1864


importance dans les allergies respiratoires et chez Ihomme (Psoroptidae: Sarcoptiformes). Acarologia 9(1)179-225.

12 Grandjean, F.

1939.

La chaetotaxie des pattes chex les Acarididae. Bull. Soc. Zool. France 64(1)50-60.

73 Griffiths, D.A. 1964. A revision of the genus Acarus L., 1758 (Acaridae, Acarina), with key to species. Bull. British Mus- (Nat. Hist.) (Zool.) 11(6)415-464, pi.

Hammen, L.
1972.

der.

A revised classification of the mites (Arachnoidea,


Acarida) with diagnoses, key, and phylogeny. Zool. Meded. 47(22)273-292.

15 Hill, A., and

K.L. Deahl.
species of Description and life cycle of Histiostoma (Acari: Histiostomidae) associated with commercial mushroom production. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 80(3)317-329.

1978.

42

16 Hill, A., and K.L. Deahl. 1978. Two species, of Tarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) associated with commercial mushroom production. Proc. Ent. Soc.

Washington 80(3)330-334. 17 Hill, A., and K.L. Deahl. 1978. A species ol Pseudopygmephorus (Acari: Pygmephoridae) associated with commercial mushroom production. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 80(3)335-343.
18 Hughes, A.M.

1976.

The mites of stored food and houses. 2d ed. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Technical Bulletin 9. Her Majestys Stationery Office, London.

19 Jack,

K.M.
1961.

A re-examination of the genera Pimeliaphilus Tragardh 1905 and Hirstiella Berlese 1920 (Acari; Prostigmata). Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 13(4)305-314. 20 Krantz, G-W. 1978. A manual of acarology. 2d ed. O.S.U. Book Stores, Corvalis OR. 21 Manson, D.C.M. 1972. A contribution Ihe study of the genus Rhizoglyphus Claparede, 1869 (Acarina: Acaridae). Acarologia 13(4)621-650. 22 Norton, R.A., and G.S. Ide. 1974. Scutacarus baculitarsus agaricus. subsp. (Acarina: Scutacaridae) from commercial mushroom houses, with notes phoretic
behavior. Jour. Kansas Ent. 23 Oudemans, A.C.

Soc. 47(4)527-534.

1929.

Acarologische Aanteekeningen. 100. Ent. Ber.

8(170)28-36.
24 Smiley, R.L. 1968. A

species of genus and three Erythraeoidea (Acarina: Erythraeidae and Smarididae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington

70(1)13-21.
25 Smiley, R.L.

1978.

Taxonomic studies Pygmephows species from the Western Hemisphere, with key to females and overview of the current problems for classification (Acari: Pyemotidae and Pygmephoridae). Internatl. Jour. Acarology

4(2)125-160.
26 Smiley, R.L., and V.R. Landwehr. 1976. A species of Tarsonemus (Acarina:

tetranychoid mite Tarsonemidae), predaceous eggs. Ann. Ent- Soc. America 69(6)1065-1072.
27 Vitzthum, H.G. 1943. Acarina. In Dr. H.G. Bronns Klassen Ordnungen des Tierreichs. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Becker und Erier, L.eipzig. See pages 751-925. 28 Zakhvatkin, A.A. 1941. Tyroglyphoidea [Acari]. In Fauna of U.S.S.R., 1. English translation by A. Ratcliffe and 6, A.M. Hughes published in 1959 by American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington DC.

(nsect and Mite

Pests in Food

Notes and Sketches

44

COCKROACHES (BLATTARIA, DICTYOPTERA)

Ashley B. Gurney*
Systematic Entomology Laboratory

Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560

Frank W. Fisk
Department of Entomology
The Ohio State University Columbus OH 43210

Deceased

/nsect and Mite Pests in Food

This key to the adults ahd egg (oothecae) of the species most likely to infest food products is intended States. It will be for the in United taxa occurring primarily helpful for many other countries also because most of the species discussed here cosmopolitan nearly

than P. americana. In prevalent, sometimes subtropical climates, foreign countries with tropical other commercial board ships carrying fruit well foodstuffs, several other species often attain considerable pests, notably P. australasiae and Leucophaea stature maderae.

The basic classification of cockroaches followed here is that of McKittrick (31). Her system, which has been dorsed widely, recognizes five families: Cryptocercidae, Polyphagidae, Blattidae, Blattellidae, and Blaberidae. Some earlier classifications recognized larger number of of which still used by few writers. In families, older, traditional sense, single family, "Blattidae," inthis usage still appears in cludes all cockroaches; textbooks and general entomological literature.
The species included in this key listed here according to their family affiliation and in the order in which they appear in the following key to adult cockroaches.

The recent-and hopefully ephemeral-appearances of Btatta tateralis (6, 52), Blattelta asahinai, Ectobius sylvestris (26), and Epilampra maya in the United States have to include in this chapter illustrations of prompted selected species that might become domiciliary in the United States, either by invasion from natural habitats sometimes by importation of cockroaches that domestic in their home territories. Those species listed represented in this chapter only by illustrations here according to their family affiliation.

Blattidae: Periplaneta fuliginosa (pi. 46D); P. australasiae (pi. 47A); P. amerlcana (pi. 47B); P. brunnea (pi. 47C); Neostylopyga rhombllolia (pi. 47D); Blatta orientalis (pi. 51A&B); Eurycotis lloridana (pi. 51C&D); Blatta lateralis (pi. 48).
Blattellidae: Blattella vaga (pi. 52B); 6. germanica (pi. 52C-

Blattidae: Dempeltis erythrocephala (pi. 50A); Lemproblatta spp. (pi. 49A&B); Methana marginalis (pi. 49C&D); Petmatosilpha spp. (pi. 508); Periplaneta japonica (pi. 46A&B).
Blattellidae: Aglaopteryx gemma (pi. S4A&B); Blattella llturicollis (pi. 52A); Ectobius lapponicus (pi. S5B&C); Lupparia sp. (pi. 53A); Nyctibora noctivaga (pi. 53D&E); Shawella couloniana (pi. 53B&C).

E); Supella longipalpa (pi. 54C-E); Eclobius pallidus (pi. 55A); E. sylvestris (pi. 55D); Parcoblatta spp. (pi. 56A-C).
Polyphagidae: Keyed to family level only (pi. 56D&E).

Polyphagidae: Arenivaga spp. (pi. 56D&E). Cryptocercidae: Cryptocercus punctulatus (pi. 57A).
Blaberidae: Blaberus cranilfer (pi. 60A&B); B. discoidalis (pi. 60C); B. giganteus (pi. 60D); Pycnoscelus indicus (pi. 58).

Cryptophagidae: Keyed to family level only (pi. 57A).


Blaberidae: Panchlora nivea (pi. 57B); Pycnoscelus surinaniensis (pi. 57C&D); Nauphoeta cinerea (pi. 59); Blaberus spp. (pi. 60); Leucophaea maderae (pi. 61).

Although any of these species may be important at times, four species the most serious pest cockroaches in the United States: Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, Blatta orientalis, and Supella longipalpa. In the southern third of the United States, Periplaneta brunnea is quite

For readers wishing information aspects other than those dealt with here, the following publications from sugamong those listed at the end of the chapter mentioned in the key): Cockroaches in gested (others general, 9, 20; life history information, especially the duration of the stages of the better known species, 14, 47, 53, 54; applied aspects, 10, 11, 30; ecology, 48, S1; identification, 21, 23-25, 29, 32, 34, 38, 42 (see also chapter 28);
approved

names, 8.

46

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

Adult cockroachThis key adapted Stojanovich (35). Adults

and species (or genera Blaberus}


only sign wings nymphs

key

wings (1A), though (1B). Younger nymphs show

(pi. 52C); wing pads (sheaths) (pi. 52D), Since nymphal morphological features,

identify

key

possible nymphal stages

should taken key species; plied nymphs. Some wingless cockroaches Lamproblatta spp. importance, couplet 3) Neotropics, Arenivaga (Blattidae,

(only couplet 16) winged; Polyphagidae, (USA), Polyphaga spp. southern (males winged; Polyphagidae) Cryptocercus punctulatus (CryptocerNorth Africa, cidae, America, couplet 17) of
Drawings

by

Oothecatypes (44} {47) (42, 45) illustrated the oothecae species- Several entomologists (V.E. Adier, D.E. Weidhaas) cooperated Roth, Scott, by generously loaning egg Dr. Roth loaned of identification of egg greatly photographs species, responsibility, however, (42}. brought key. Although likely polyphagid cryptocercid offer environments, these descriptive they the egg capsules easily confused Crypbelow. well-sclerotized keyed punctulatus (1C) elongate, about long by high. has well-developed keel has about well-defined egg dentition, chambers; respiratory (one denticle) present Polyphagid respiratory keel well-sclerotized.
reproduction, respiratory

vary among

species.
by

flange (1 D),
polyphagid

(42)- The flange

unique among species elongate

1A Panchlora
nivea

1C Cryptocercus
punctulatus

1D Polyphaga
aegyptiaca

47

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Adults

2 Femora

and 111 with both ventral margins (anterior and posterior) bearing numerous, similarly-arranged, strong spines (2A) ventral margin (2B)---------Femora and 111 lacking strong spines

2A Periplaneta
americana

2B Biaberus

3 Large species (pi. 47A), length 18 (including folded wings); anteroventral margin of femur always with only large, robust spines (3A); subgenital plate (terminal ventral segment) of female divided longitudinally, appearing valvular (3B); both styli male subgenital plate similar, symmetrical, elongate, and nearly straight (3C). Blattidae (blattids, blattid cockroaches)----------------Smaller species (pi. 54), usually less than 18 long, or, if longer, the anteroventral margin of femur bears large, robust spines the basal part, and small, delicate spines the distal half (3D); female subgenital plate simple, undivided male subgenital plate not symmetrical, sometimes unequal in size (3E); styli (3F, 3G). Blattellidae (blattellids, blattellid cockroaches)----------pi. Shawella couloniana, Lupparia sp,, Nyctibora noctivaga,

Zealand)

cockroaches Aglaopteryx gemma, key. (Australia, human dwellings, occasionally essentially species (7). (Iwo Pacific islands adjacent cockroach; masses) probably reported Iwo Jima (7). noctivaga (Neotropics) species

exported native territories. (Bahama Islands; found Texas) has arboreal, living Georgia [13); normally signs (27).

48

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

4 Front wings (tegmina), when folded (the position usually seen), extending beyond the tip of abdomen (4A)
See pi.
species
Periplaneta japonica, included key. japonica (China,

Japan, USSR) vaguely


species, adapted
Drawings

populations

Japan (7).

by

Front wings not reaching tip of abdomen (4B), sometimes very short (4C)----See pi.
blattids, Lamprobiatta marginalis, Deropeltis erythrocephala, key. LamproPelmatosilpha (Australia, Neoiropics)

may (Australia)

domiciliary

marginalis

of standing human dweilingsopportunistic invader erythrocephala (South Africa) Parhouse-invading habits (Neotropics. New spp. Pelmatosilpba shipped Zealand) many places countries tropical Latin normal

4A Blatta
lateraliscf

4B Blatta
orientaliso

4C Blatta
fateralis9

49

Insect and Mite Pests

in Food

5 Color entirely dark, blackish-brown, sometimes shining black (5A); male supraanal ventral surface plate (terminal abdominal tergite) with thickened structures apex (5B); pi. 46D-"--------smokybrown cockroach, Periplaneta fuliginosa
Except
Stales, California, species Asia (?); may originated quite important mainly outdoors; sometimes

primarily there. Although pest buildings, flies actively. Although smokybrown


usually ently

together, smokybrowns

by

americana,

pheromones produced by large-sized nymphs (33). chocolate overall, adults, shining markings. nymphs
Drawings
by

Color not entirely dark, but with

pronotum front wings, yellowish markings both (5C), front wings straw-colored (pi. 48o); male supraanal sometimes plate notched (5D), ridged distant from apex (5E), neither notched ridged (5F)

50

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

6 Front wing brownish-yellow

(straw-colored), with lateral pale stripe; pronotum reddish-brown centrally, with wide margins of transparent yellow (6A); male supraanal plate with apex broadly notched (6B); pi. 48cr. Genus Blatta (in part) male, Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis
Blatta (Shelfordella) [Shelfordella tartars} found both buildings Near East, and North regions of Central Asia, Libya. Infestations Texas discovered military origin (6, 52). Although imported populations uncertain,
shipments points

Old World. temperatures 300 days (7). adults long long, fully-functional, brownish-yellow nearly wings. wings represented by flaps (as they females closely-related orientalis). Males treated dissimilar they this key (see couplet 11). drawings (6A&B, rately pi. 48) specimens kindly provided by

range of

Nymphs 30-35

species days

Drawings

by

base; Front wing chestnut-brown, with (6C) without (6D) short yellow stripe yellowish markpronotum darker color than brownish-yellow, usually with male notched transverse with supraanal plate with apex deeply ings (6C&D); (6E), ventral ridges (6F), neither notched ridged (6G)

51

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Front wing with

base; pronotum with blackish central spot short yellow stripe and blackish margins in decided contrast to pale (7A); male supraanal plate ventral surface distant from posterior margin with thickened transverse ridges 47A--------------Australian pi. Periplaneta australasiae cockroach, (7B);
Africa; This species apparently native widely distributed, subtropical in tropical the United Slates triesusually restricted greenhouses slates; favorable nymphs yellowish spots margins

color; stripes
Drawings

spots the middle


by

extend the body.

general incomplete

Front wing entirely chestnut-brown; pronotum with brown markings often not in sharp contrast with pale (7C, 7D); male supraanal plate truncate (7E) deeply notched (7F) but not conspicuously ridged ventral surface

52

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

Cercus very long and slender (especially the apical segments of males) (8A); male deeply-notched tip, with ventral surface supraanal plate long and papery thin specialized structures (8B); pi. 47B simple, bearing
American cockroach, Periplaneta americana
Africa, cosmopolitan species, probably native frequently reported cockroaches Among Periplaneta, species

ranges

north
color, though posterior

mostly nymphs pronotum large nymphs large patches


duration

the complete

cycle ranges

years,
The nymphal stages Caged adults
long

year being usually occupy

See

2A.

Cercus stouter, the segments apex not slender (8C); male supraanal plate the ventral short, truncate feebly notched at tip, and only slightly specialized surface (8D); pi. 47C---------------brown cockroach, Periplaneta brunnea
often confused with species, cockroach, considered subtropical widespread tropical

Africa,

States. The nymphs lateral margins


size

spots abdominal segments. of americana, usually permit separation. Unequivocal separation of species requires plate rather long-lived This C, days species. Incubation requires nymphal development, daysdays days produces about (54).

53

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

9 Color dark brown, with conspicuous pattern of yellowish areas (9A); both sexes small triangular pads separated from each with vestigial front wings present other by wide mesonotal space (9A); pi. 47D harlequin cockroach, Neostylopyga rbombifolia
This species, readily recognized by distinctive established pattern, has apparently Stales; intercepted occasionally along Rehn (39) Mexican its probable Asia origin spead Mexico tropical usually Nymphs longer adult, markings frequently only poorly markings.
Drawings

Color either uniformly dark with few pale marks, but lacking conspicuous pattern of yellowish (9B); front wing either normal (but not reaching tip of abdomen) (9C) vestigial (9D).--------------------------

10

9A Neostylopyga
rhombifolia

54

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

10 Body length 30 to 40 mm; body color dark reddish-brown to nearly black (occalaterally); front wings sionally with few yellowish in both sexes, vestigial, and present short, transverse, subrectangular pads, usually almost touching along midline (10A); segment of tarsus III shorter than segments to V combined, with pulvilli (small pads tarsal segments) of segments and (II their respective tarsal segments (10B); pi. 51C&D long large, about Florida stinkroach, Eurycotis floridana
targe, flightless cockroach, States, only

usually outdoors, buildings (79, 30, 57). adults disturbed, they often tremely vile-smelling pale dorsal nymphs usually surface; they yellow spicuous pale markings (pi. C). See
Drawings

by

Body length 15 to 27 mm; body color blackish dark chocolate-brown, either solidly colored with pale pronotal markings and lateral wing stripes; front wings of small, widely separated, triangular pads (10C); front females vestigial, present long slightly longer wings of males longer (10D); segment of tarsus III than segments to V combined, with pulvilli of segments and III small, much shorter than their respective tarsal segments (10E). Genus Blatta (in part)---

11

10C Blatta
orientalis

^=ss^E^^^
10B Eurycol/s
floridana

^f^
10E Blatta
orientalis

^
55

10D Blatta
orientalis

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

solid dark brown to black; front wings of females separated 11 Body color of both by distance greater than width (11 A); front wings of males overlapping and 1/2 2/3 of abdomen (11B); pi. 51A&B---oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis to ing
mainly

States, Australia, port America), though appears cities throughout (39) thought Africa likely original homeland, Russia, (36) suggested Black vicinity Caspian Seas, cockroaches, origin. spread widely through usually dwellings readily temperatures They partial leaky drains, pipes, ability withstand temporary submersion pass through traps. This responsible
relatively temperate

England

(northern Europe,

being

"waterbugs"
adults,

nymphs

black, though nymphs paler. pad (arolium) claws small, females, especially arolium Females climb Oriental proficient notably

month longer

(46). Eggs usually slightly cold). Nymphal growth months, nymphal females requiring maturity. Adults See also 9B,

(much
time

Body of female dark brown to black, with pale lateral wing stripes and scattered pronotal markings; front wings separated by distance less than width of wing (11 C); pi. 48-------------------female, Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis
See couplet 6. See also 9D.
Drawings

by

11B

B/aHa

onentaffs

56

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

12 Pronotum with 2 conspicuous longitudinal black bars

pale background (12A). Genus B/ae//a--------------------------------Although only Blattella germanica


represented
key,

13

genus should
germanica

passing.

(37)

species

Blattella

species

Japan,

worldAsia, recognized worldwide, Pacific islands, Indo-Malaysian

Africa, including placed

Symploce (L.

communication).

species Roth, personal species

However, lituricollis (pi. 52A), cockroach, Burma, China, Philippines, Hawaii, occasionally north Japan mostly pest, though (3, 55). outdoor species, nipponica (2), closely resembles germanica, except readily (B. germanica not). Laboratory nipponica produced offspring. Japan grassy under margins, and cultivated decayed vegetation
Drawings

by

Pronotum without 2 conspicuous longitudinal bars (12B, 12C)-

12C Parcoblatta
pennsylvanica

57

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

13 Face with

male subgenitai piaie conspicuous, longitudinal black bar (-i 3A); styii elongate, nearly equal in size (13B); male supraanal plate short, broadly emarginate at apex (13C); usually found outdoors, only occasionally in buildings; pi. 52B --.---.--.-.----.---..---....---...--...-field cockroach, Blattella vaga
Although (22), (5, 12, 40, 51}, primarily outdoor-living cockroach, originated (Afghanistan, India, United States, Lanka). Arizona, California, Mexico, Texas, During especially dry weather, sometimes by nearby
decomposing vegetation,

Face pale

with indefinite brownish (13D); styli male sugenital plate short and rounded, of unequal size (13E); male supraanal plate elongate, rounded at apex (13F); usually found indoors; pi. 52C-E "German cockroach, Blattella germanica
This species, probably important pest cockroach, is spread (9, 39) medium-sized thoroughly cosmopolitan. nearly longitudinal pronotal nymphs bars fused adults; they these, immediately numphs (pi. 52C). very large posterior spot notum, large pale occupies
portions period

Nymphs
favorable (longer days usually (less

ditions

unfavorable). conditions).

Caution: asahinai, discovered in Florida, germanica. descriptions

cockroach, recently similar comparative 12A. species.

13A

13C

13D

13F

58

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

and pale lateral margins; front wings (in 14 Pronotum with uniformly dark central bands (pi. 54D&E) (inusual folded position) with 2 transverse brownish bars than 4.5 specimens); width of pronotum usually not conspicuous unless male artificially displayed (14B); pi. 54C-E mm; styli inconspicuous (14A), brown banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa
This cockroach, formerly called S. supellectilium (18), native of Africa, widely-distributed
pest temperate Spread through subtropical

activities,

greatly
first reported 1902; probably

frequently

German cockroach;
only

infestation

German

pattern nymphs, especially pale margins pronotum separate, irregularly-transverse pale pronotum, posterior (pi- 54C). eight nymphal stages usually days, days (range days). complete

{,11).

cycle

days.

If pronotum has paler lateral margins, then its width is without 2 transverse bands (pi. 55, 56A-C); (14C)

than 4.5 mm; front wings 2 (14D) conspicuous styli

v
14A Supe//a
longipalpa

14B Supella

longipalpa

14C Ectobius
pallidus

14D Parcobiatta

59

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

15 A small pale cockroach rarely than 9 long; hind wing with triangular apical at apex, bearing single stylus devoid of veins (15A); subgenital plate (15B); pi. 55A----------spotted Mediterranean cockroach, Ectobius paltidus
species,

tawny

England,

chiefly Recently,

Europe
mainly

Massachusetts

buildings Several Ectobius, species lapponicus (pi. 55B&C) widely (37). chiefly Europe, occasionally domestic sylvestris (pi. 55D), cockroach, found house York See separate key pallidus. sylvestris

Michigan (75, 17). species, but occasionally

(49)

Specimens almost always than 9 long; hind wing with apex veined (15C); male subgenital plate with broad apex, the 2 styli elongate and well separated (15D); pi. 56A-C------------------------ wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta
species

Parcoblatta,

outdoor-living, species differ


pronolum

size, body proportions, tegmina,

(21). pattern

tural

They

often

mold, beneath ground bark, decomposing logs, plant (26). fly lights, especially spring early they likely buildings adjacent

Nearly (short wings); they Established breeding

females

flightless

houses; occasionally, specimens brought kyotensis, widespread Japan, primarily species (although buildings), recently (4). See 3D&E. 12C,
Drawing

15D Parcoblatta

15C

Parcobiatta

^r,

60

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

16 With anal

of hind wings (if present) folded in single flat fold when wings closed (16A, 16B); postclypeus notably thick and bulging, and often very large (16C, 16D); pi. 56D&E-----------polyphagids, polyphagid cockroaches, Polyphagidae
polyphagid species

Stales, continental nearly worldwide. polyphagids chiefly United States species Florida. importance, (Arenivaga spp.)

parts

Asia,

species (e.g., Polyphaga aegyptiaca pests (7).


Drawings

saussurei)

by

With anal

wings

of hind wings (if wings fully developed) folded like fan when thick (as in 16F) closed (as in 16E); postclypeus not notably large

17

16E Parcoblatta
pennsylvanica

(Blattellidae)

61

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

17 Wingless; integument black, strongly sclerotized; cerci concealed by surrounding terminal tergum and sternum (17A); pi. 57A --cry ptocercids, cryptocercid cockroaches, Cryptocercidae
cryptobrownish adults, the terminal nymphs protrude beyond margins Cryptocercus abdominal sclerites. species species habit Manchuria. The cockroach, punctulatus family, family logs (pi. SPA), York) (Georgia (California Washington) United Slates.
cryptocercid species

importance.
Drawings
by

Usually with wings, at least in males; cerci visible externally (as in 17B), but may be very small (17C). Blaberidae (btaberids, blaberid cockroaches)------

18

18 Body relatively slender (18A) and colored

nearly uniform pale green; pi. 57B ---Cuban cockroach, Panchlora nivea
origin, type locality

tropical

synonymous species (16),


species breeding

pale
ships- Although the established specimens

Gulf states, primarily Texas (23),

adventive, having recently adults, nymphs (50). Pycnoscelus surinamensis,

segments

nymphs

shiny.

Body relatively broad (18B) and not green in color-

ISA Panchlora
nivea

18B Pycnoscelus
surinamensis

62

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

19 Body medium-sized, 30

or less in length; pronotum solid black with pale anterior each side pronotum with complex central pattern bordered margin (19A) by longitudinal black band (198)----------------------more; pronotum pale except for dark design in central (19C) Body large, 40

20

Pronotum blackish except for

yellow band of variable width along lateral and anterior margins; posterior margin of pronotum forming definite obtuse angle (20A); pi. 57C&D-----------Surinam cockroach, Pycnoscelus surinamensis
widespread, parthenogenetic species of countries probably originated Malayan established (USA). been greenhouses Europe (9). States and segments the nymph dull, the roughened body glossy species Pycnoscelus, (pi. 57C). (Burma, Hawaii, Indonesia, Malaysia) cluding See males females (41; pi, 58),

18B.

Pronotum pale, with irregular brown blotches in central area, and submarginal black band each side; posterior margin of pronotum not angulate, only somewhat broadly protruding (206); pi. 59. ------cinereous cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea
This species, evidently originally spread widely through
localities, especially

tropical Africa,
established

(75).
grain-milling
pronotal pattern

States. Food
plants

frequently infested.
lobster.

vaguely resembles

20A Pycnoscelus
surinamensis

63

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

21 Pronotum with sharply-defined, blackish, shieldlike central design, sometimes solidly short robust spines black, sometimes patterned (pi. 60); femur with ventral margin (21A)------------------giant cockroaches, Blaberus
with tropical large represented species (B. craniifer, pi. 60A&B, discoidalis, pi. 60C) Floridaspecies (such 8. gigameus, pi. 60D) often maintained scientific and laboratory United Slates rarely tropical importance, though they pests (9). See 2B,19C.

(43),

States by

Pronotum with brownish central design, darkened in outline only, often not sharply
defined (pi. 61); femur without spines hairs (21 B)

ventral margin, only

line of stiff fine

Madeira cockroach, Leucophaea maderae


large, distinctive cockroaches, apparently (39), circumtropical especially

West

States
Caribbean Sea.
likely
1950, they

Sometimes,

especially City buildings

(75).

21A Blaberus

218 Leucophaea
maderae

"^

Egg Cases (Oothecae)

than 17 22 Ootheca poorly-sclerotized, whitish light brown packet, often long, without distinct keel (22A)--------------------blaberids, Blaberidae
Embryonic development insects) (and generally eventually i.e., offspring develop mother, produced by that nutrients, deposited (oviposition) charged body
protrudes briefly and incubated

body.

special

eggs hatch;
the
typical

nymphs appear

further
type
development

type

ovoviviparous. development

Diplopterinae, subfamily African species, punctata (Eschscholtz).

specialin Oriental Diploptera

cockroach,

64

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

species Pacific

widely distributed, especially of punctata protrudes other blaberids. the mothers body.

kind development, termed viviparous, the embryos ized by the continued nutrients from mother, phenomenon superficially mammalian fetal support system (44). egg have differentiate attempted egg btaberids. distinctions by ordinary observer, they species, regards families

Ootheca

than 17 long, with well-sclerotized, brown to black packet, not distinct keel along the dorsal margin (22B)--------------couplet descriptions Cryptocercidae. Polyphagidae
the

23

Egg chambers marked by lines, usually plainly evident, extending completely


ootheca; keel sometimes low, with respiratory tubules usually not evident upon Blattellidae (blattellids) than 4 casual inspection (23A); height seldom the keel, not by definite lines Egg chambers plainly marked only by indentations the keel ootheca; usually high, with oblique respiratory extending completely Blattidae (blattids)tubules plainly evident (23B); height usually at least 5
24

28

65

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

than 10 egg than 4.5 24 Ootheca short, not long, usually with keel usually prominent though small (24B), side (24A); denticles partments rounded (24C) sometimes than 10 egg compartOotheca usually than 4.5 long, usually with keel usually not prominent (24E), sometimes ments a side (24D); denticles distinct (24F)"-"--------~-----------------------------

25

26

24B Supe//a
/ongfpa/pa

24C Ectobius

24A Supe//a
longipalpa

pallicfus

24E

B/aHe//a

germanica

24F Parcoblatta
Pennsylvania,

24D Parcoblatta
25- Ootheca (25A) 2 to 3 long; ventral surface usually with distinct longitudinal concavity invagination (most conspicuous in ventral view) where the sides meet (25B); keel serrate with blunt denticles separated by unevenly-rounded depressions (25C)----------spotted Mediterranean cockroach, Ectobius pallidus
of sylvestris is similar shape, pallidus depression. However, the longitudinal grooves
distinguish
Drawings

syiveetris (25D) pallidus.


by

also couplet

Ootheca (25E) at least 4 long; ventral surface without distinct concavity (25F); keel prominent, with the depressions between them evenly rounded denticles (25G)----------------- brownbanded cockroach, Supe//a longipalpa
glue of cabinets
cubation
days
surfaces,

This this species. spread (longer colder).


oothecae,

usually produces five

twenty.

66

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

26 Ootheca of uniform color; curvature usually distinct (26A); denticles of keel distinct, usually sharply serrate (26B, 26C)---------- wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta
The egg of species differences of height (42). unusual this

proportion

length

(Saussure)

deep longitudinal

keel just

(27).

Ootheca not of uniform color, end (the that held by the ovipositor) paler keel low, wellthan the other; ootheca straight slightly curved (26D); denticles rounded (26E). Genus s/affe//a---------------------

27

26A Parcoblatta

26B Parcoblatta
pennsylvanica

26C Parcoblatta
lata

26D Blattella
germanica

26E Blattella
vaga

67

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

each side; length more than 7 mm; denticles 27 Usually about 20 egg compartments of keel very low and gradually curved (27A); found indoors in most countries .-..-...-.---------------German cockroach, Blattella germanica
Of domestic cockroaches that sclerotized oothecae, is the only which (during period days, depending the ootheca until, temperature) within few hours of, hatching (53). female is likely life, produce four eight egg during usually being

Usually about 16 egg compartments


denticles slightly higher and curved

each side; length seldom

than 6 mm; abruptly (27B); usually found outdoors field cockroach, Blattells vaga
(or
just shortly

vaga
before) hatching (53).

27A Blattella
germanica

27B Blattella vaga

28 Number of denticles in keel seldom than 17 (28A); ootheca almost always less than 13 long--------------------------------Number of denticles than 17 (28B); oothecal size variable, sometimes

Drawings

28A Blatta
orientalis

28B Periplaneta
brunnea

68

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

29 Ootheca usually 10 to 12.5 long, usually with 14 denticles; depressions between denticles shallow (29A)------------- oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis

Ootheca 8 to 12 long, with 14 to 22 denticles; depressions between denticles shallow deep (29B)

30

-^c ;^SS5S

29A Blatta
orientalis

29B Periplaneta
americana

30 Ootheca 9 to 12 long, with 14 to 22 denticles; ootheca rounded at one end, truncated dorsally at the other (30A); depressions between denticles shallow (SOB) -----------,---------------Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis
Ootheca 8 to 9 long, usually with 16 denticles; ootheca rounded at both ends (30C); depressions between denticles deep (30D) American cockroach, Periplaneta americana
Drawings

by

SOB Blatta
lateralis

300 Periplaneta
americana

69

(nsect and Mite

Pests

in Food

shallow to not be 31 Spaces between denticles almost straight, with depressions clearly evident (31A)---------harlequin cockroach, Neostylopyga rhombilolia

Spaces between

denticles with conspicuous depressions (31 B)

32

^^^W^ ;iNN^^N^;^
31A Neostylopyga
rhombifolia

31 B Periptaneta
brunnea

32 Ootheca large, measuring 13.5 to 16 long and 6.4 to 7.5 high; keel with 18 to 24 denticles (32A)------------- Florida stinkroach, Eurycotis floridana
oviparous species produced by (see couplet 22). occurring largest Larger ovoviviparous

States,

Ootheca from 9.5 to 13

long; keel (32B-D) with 20 to 26 denticles Australian cockroach, Periplaneta australasiae brown cockroach, Periplaneta brunnea smokybrown cockroach, Periplaneta futiginosa
average differences among these
Periplaneta

There
species
contained, and

oothecal size, of, denticles, these distances practical species key. developed denticles (usually 20) separated by deep depressions. The oothecae species than generally long, See oothecae of Periplaneta

70

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

References Cited

Asahina, S. 1961.

A revised list of the Japanese cockroaches of sanitary importance (Insecta, Blattaria). Japanese Jour. Med. Sci. Biol. 14(3)147-156.
Taxonomic notes Japanese Blattaria, A Blattella closely allied to Blattella germanica. Japanese Jour. Sanit. Zool. 14(2)69-75.

2 Asahina, S.

1963.

3 Asahina, S. 1964.

Japanese Biattaria, il. On Taxonomic notes of Blattella Hturicollis in Japanthe Japanese Jour. Sanit. Zool. 15(2)61-67.

Asahina,

S.

Taxonomic notes Japanese Blattaria, VII. A Parcoblatta species found in Kyoto. Japanese Jour. Sanit. Zool. 27(2)115-120Buxton, G.M., and T.J. Freeman. 1968. Positive separation of Blattella vaga and Blattella

1976.

germanica (Orfhoptera: Blattidae). Pan-Pacific Ent. 44:168-169.


6 Caruba, A.

1979. Blatta fateralis found at Sharpe Army Depot. Pest Control 47(12)16, 18, 44. Cochran, D.G. 1982. Cockroaches. Biology and control.
WHO/VBC/82.856.

Common Names of Insects. Common of insects and related organisms. Entomological Society of America, College Park. 9 Cornwell, P.B. A laboratory insect and 1968. The cockroach, industrial pest. Hutchinson, London. 10 Cornwell, P.B. 1976. The cockroach, v.2. Insecticides and cockroach
8 Committee

1982.

control. Associated

Programmes, London.

11 Ebeling, W.

1975.

Urban entomology. University of California, Richmond.

12 Flock, R.A. 1941. The field roach Blattella


13

vaga. Jour. Econ. Ent. 34(1)121. Gornam, J.R., K-P. Conradi, and K.P. Conradi.
1971.

Household infestation by the cockroach Aglaopteryx gemma in Georgia. Jour. Georgia

Ent. SOG. 6(2)133-135.


14 Gould, G.E., and H.O. Deay. 1940. The biology of six species of cockroaches which inhabit buildings. Purdue Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 451:1-31.

15 Gurney, A.B. 1953. Distribution, general bionomics, and recognition characters of two cockroaches recently established in the United States. Proc. U.S. Nat.

Mus. 103(3315)39-56.
16 Gurney, A.B.

1955.

Notes

the Cuban cockroach, Panchlora nivea

(L). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 57(6)285-286.

71

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

17

Gurney, A.B.
1968.
The spotted Mediterranean cockroach, Ectobius paliidus (Oiivier) (Dictyoptera, Blattaria, Blattellidae), in the United States. Coop. Econ.

Insect Rpt. 18(29)684-686.


18 Gurney, A.B.
of the brown-banded On the scientific cockroach, Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (Dictyoptera, Blattaria, Blattellidae). Coop. Econ. Insect Rpt. 20(44)752-754. 19 Gurney, A.B., and T.J. Walker. 1976. Notes several cockroaches of southeastern United States and the "palmettobug." Coop. Plant Pest Rpt. 1(43)823-826. 20 Guthrie, D.M-, and A.R. Tindall. 1968. The biology of the cockroach. St. Martins, New

1970.

York.
21 Hebard, M.

1917.

The Blattidae of North America, north of the Mexican boundary. Mem. American Ent. Soc. 2:1-284, 10 pi.

22 Hebard, M.

1935. Studies in the Orthoptera of Arizona. Part

New

genera, species and geographic American Ent. Soc. 61:111-153, pi.


23

Trans.

Hebard. M.
1943.

The Dermaptera and orthopterous families Blattidae, Mantidae and Phasmidae of Texas. Trans. American Ent. Soc. 68:239-311.

Heifer, J.R.

1963.

How

know the grasshoppers, cockroaches, and

their allies.

Brown, Dubuque.

25 Hincks, W.D.

Dermaptera and Orthoptera. Handb. Ident. British Insects 1(5)1-24. 26 Hoebeke, D.R., and D.A. Nickle. 1981. The forest cockroach, Ectobius sylvestris (Poda), European species newly discovered in North
1956.
America (Dictyoptera, Blattodea, Ectobiidae).

Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 83(4)592-595. Lawson, F.A. 1954. Structural features of cockroach egg capsules. IV. The ootheca of Parcoblatta uhleriana. Jour. Kansas Ent. Soc. 27(1)14-20. 28 Lawson, F.A.
27

1967.

Ecological and collecting eight species of Parcoblatta (Orthoptera: Blattidae) and certain other cockroaches. Jour. Kansas Ent. Soc.

40(3)267-269.
29 Mackerras, M.J. 1970. Blattodea (cockroaches), /n The insects of Australia. Melbourne University, Carlton. 30 Mallis, A. 1982. Handbook of pest control. Franzak & Foster,

Cleveland.
37 McKittrick, F.A. 1964. Evolutionary studies of cockroaches. Cornell Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta. Mem. 389:1-197.

72

Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera)

32 Narasimham, A.U., and T. Sankaran.

1980. On
six

diagnostic characters of the oothecae of cockroaches (Blattidae). System. Ent.

5(1)105-107.
33 Piper, G.L.

domiciliary Aggregation tendency in cockroaches. Southwestern Ent. 2(2)88-93. 34 Powell, P.K., and W.H Robinson. the first-instar nymphs of 1980. Descriptions and keys five Periplaneta species (Dictyoptera: Btattidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 82(2)212-228. 35 Pratt, H.D., and C.J. Stojanovich. species 1967. Cockroaches; Key to found in the United States. In Pictorial keys arthropods, reptiles, birds and mammals of public health significance. National Communicable
1977.

Disease Center, Atlanta.

30 Princis, K. 1954.

Wo ist die Urheimat of] Blatta orientalis L. 19(2-3)202-204.

(What is the native home


suchen? Opusc. Ent.

37 Princis, K.

1969.

Fam.: Blattellidae. Orthopterorum Catalogus 13:713-1038. [Complete catalogue: parts 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, -14, pp. 1-1224, 1962-1971.]

38

Ragge, D.R.

1965. Grasshoppers, crickets and cockroaches of the British Isles. Warne, London. 39 Rehn, J.A.G. 1945. Mans uninvited fellow traveler-the cockroach.

Sci. Monthly 61:265-276.


40 Riherd, P.T.

1953.
41 Roth, LM.

of Blattella vaga Hebard in Texas. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 55(1)39-40. The

1967.

Sexual isolation in parthenogenetic Pycnoscelus surinamensis and application of the its bisexual relatives Pycnoscelus indicus (Dictyoptera: Blattaria: Blaberidae: Pycnoscelinae). Ann. Ent. Soc. America

60(4)774-779.
Roth, L.M. 1968. Ootnecae of the Blattaria. Ann. Ent. Soc. America

61(1)83-111.
43 Roth, L.M.

1969.
44 Roth, L.M.

The male genitalia of Blattaria. Blaberus spp. (Blaberidae: Blaberinae). Psyche 76(3)217-250.
Evolution and taxonomic significance of reproduction in Blattaria. Ann. Rev. Ent. 15:75-96.

1970.
45 Roth, LM. 1971.

Additions to the ootnecae, uricose glands, ovarioles, and tergal glands of Blattaria. Ann. Ent. Soc. America 64(1)127-141. 46 Roth, L.M., and E.R. Willis. 1952. Tarsal structure and climbing ability of cockroaches. Jour. Expt. Zool. 119(3)483-517. 47 Roth, L.M., and E.R. Willis. 1954. The reproduction of cockroaches. Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 122(12)1-49, 12 pi.

73

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

48 Roth, L.M., and E.R. Willis.

1957. The medical and veterinary importance of cockroaches. Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 134(10)1-147, pi. 4Q Roth, L.M., and E.R. Willis. the biology of Ectobius pallidus 1957. Observations (Olivier) (Blattaria, Blattidae). Trans. American Ent. Soc- 83:31-37, pi. 50 Roth, L.M., and E.R. Willis. 1958. The biology of Panchlora nivea, with observations the eggs of other Blattaria. Trans. American Ent. Soc. 83:195-207, pi. 51 Roth, L.M., and E.R. Willis. 1960. The biotic associations of cockroaches. Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 141:1-470. 52 Spencer, C.B., Jr., R.D. White, and L.C. Stover.
1979.
53 Willis,

Discovery and control of the Turkestan

cockroach. Pest Control 47(12)14, 45. E.R., G.R. Riser, and L.M, Roth.

1958. Observations reproduction and development in cockroaches. Ann. Ent. Soc. America 51(1)53-69. 54 Wright, C.G. 1973. Life history of the brown cockroach. Jour. Georgia
55 Zimmerman,

Ent. SOG. 8(4)274-277. E.G.


Insects of Hawaii, 2. Apterygota Thysanoptera. University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

1948.

74

ADULT BEETLES (COLEOPTERA)

John M. Kingsolver
Systematic Entomology Laboratory

Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture


Beltsville MD 20705

fnsect and Mite Pests in Food

Most of the important species of stored-food beetles (other


than those treated elsewhere in this handbook) included in this key. Adult and larval bruchids, dermestids,

and tenebrionids, and adult clerids, cryptophagids, treated in subsequent culionids, lathridiids, and ptinids chapters. The general key to the larval beetles is given in

Chapter 4.

76

Adult beetles (Coleoptera)

Head with slender (1A, 1B) broad beak (1C, ID); if broad, with transverse carina basal margin of pronotum extending to side margins (1D)-~------Head without beak (1 E-1 H)------------"----"-------"-----interpreted

beaked

of

eye medially emarginate (1 E) and that carina, pronotum


Anthribidae
Curculionidae.
by

Drawings

1D Araecerus
fasciculatus

IE

Acanthoscefides obtectus

1F Acanthoscelides
obtectus

1G Oerinestes

1H Oermestes

77

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Antenna elbowed (2A); pi.

110B-

---snout beetles

weevils, Curculionidae

SEE KEY, CHAPTER 13


Antenna not elbowed (2B); pi. 62B. Anthribidae (fungus weevils) .-..-..-.---.-...-------....--.-coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus
Distribution: cosmopolitan; wide variety dry seeds, fruits, stalks, twigs; especially damaging

See also 1C.


Drawing
by

Kingsolver.

d^ ^
2A Sitophilus 2B Araecerus
fascfcu/atus

3 Anterior angle of pronotum with thickened callosity, and lateral margin of pronotum with single tooth (3A); pi. 938. Cryptophagidae (cryptophagid beetles)

--------------------------------------C/yptop/7agus SEE KEY, CHAPTER 9


Body length segmentec)
Drawing
by

with

Anterior angle of pronotum without thickened callosity, and lateral margin of pronotum either without teeth with several teeth (3B, 3C)
body length variable.

3A Cryptophagus

3B Oryzaephilus

3C

Murmicliu:,

ovalis

78

Adult beetles (Coleoptera)

4 Face of

HI flat

Face of

III

at most with shallow groove (4A)-(receives femur III) (4B)Drawing

Feller

4A Carpophilus

4B dermestid
beetle

5 Lateral margin of pronotum with 6 large teeth; dorsal surface of pronotum with 3 longitudinal ridges (5A). Cucujidae (cucujid beetles) (in part)--------with Lateral pronotal margin without prominent teeth (but may be finely serrate) pronotum (5B)----------------2 teeth; ridges only

6
7

5A Oryzaephilus

5B Murmidius
ovalis

6 Length of temple (region directly behind eye) equal to diameter of eye (6A); pi. 63C--sawtoothed grain
cosmopolitan; dried fruit. See

than one-half vertical

beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis

variety of grain

products

Length of temple much less than half of vertical diameter of eye (6B); pi. 63D ..--.----.---------------merchant grain beetle, Oryzaephilus mercator
cosmopolitan;
products,
fruits,

wide variety of grain

See

6A Oryzaephilus
surinamensis

6B Oryzaephilus
mercator

79

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

7 Anterolateral antennal sulcus pronotum (near eye) (7A); body shape hemispherical, tortoiselike, without spots stripes (7B); pi. 64B. Cerylonidae (=Murmidiidae) (cerylonid beetles)-----"----"-------oval grain beetle, Murmidius ovafis
brown; Body cosmopolitan;
Drawing

capitate.
dry

fruits.

Pronotal sulcus absent (7C); spots and/or stripes may be present body is not tortoiselike (7D); spots and/or stripes present if body is hemispherical (see pi. 65B)

7A Murmidius
ovalis

7B Murmidlus
ovalis

7C Anthicus
floralis

7D

Dinoderus minutus

8 Body slender, antlike, with pronotum roughly ovate in dorsal view (8A); pi. 64D. Anthicidae (antlike flower beetles) necked grain beetle, Anthicus ftoralis
Body
emarginate); cosmopolitan;

brown;
grain

broad; eyes Distribution: dried fruit.

(not

Body not antlike; pronotum not ovate (8B)


~$\,

8A Anthicus
floratis

8B Rhyzopertha
dornjnica

80

Adult beetles (Coleoptera)

9 Body very

small brown spots

elytra and (9A); body pale yellow, with 10 dark brown stripes pronotum (pi. 65B). Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles) (in part)
Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
gradually

(98).
foliage of

and, by introduction, Europe.

eggptant, potato,
Drawings

than 2 elytral stripes Body shape not strongly (9C); without with and pronotal spots (pi. 66B)---------------------------

10

Drawing

by

10A Crioceris
aspaagi

10B Byturus
unicolor

81

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

each eye (11A). 11 Front of head with medial groove and with lateral groove Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles) (in part)------------------clubbed;

emarginalion

(11 A).

Front of head without medial and lateral grooves (11B)variable;

13

eye
Tenebrionidae,

emargination

except Bruchidae, Anobiidae, scrophulanae).

(Anthrenus

11 A Crioceris

11 B Trogoderrna

12 Body color orange, with 12 black spots elytra; legs orange, with black knees and tarsi (pi. M)---------spotted asparagus beetle, Crioceris duodecimpunctata
Body length:

Europe,

asparagus.

Body colors reddish orange, dull red, and dark metallic blue; elytra with broad sutural stripe and 3 transverse bars (sometimes separated from sutural stripe into lateral spots) (pi. N)-----------------asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi
Body length:

Europe, United

13 Tarsal formula 5-5-4------5-5-5 Tarsal formula 3-3-3, 4-4-4,

82

Adult beetles (Coleoptera)

14 Pronotum with

raised line parallel to margin

(14A); pi. 66B. Cucujidae (cucujid

beetles) fin part) -------------------------males, Cryptolestes


Seven species, minute, depressed bodies, stored foods, grain, grain products, difficult identify: Cape grain beetle, Cryptolestes capensis, Europe; rusty grain beetle, C. ferruginous, cosmopolitan; Asia klapperichi widely distributed pusilloides Africa, America, America; Australia, grain beetle, C. pusillus (pi. 66D), cosmopolitan; Turkish turdcus, grain beetle, Europe; ugandae 1,

Pronotum without raised line parallel to margin (14B); pi. 98


darkling beetles, Tenebrionidae SEE KEY, CHAPTER 11
Body
Drawing

size
by

14A Cryptolestes

14B Tribolium
brevicorne

15 Median ocellus

present (15A)-

-dermestid beetles, Dermestidae (in part) SEE KEY, CHAPTER 5

Median ocellus absent

(15B)--

15A Trogoderma
variabile

15B Dermestes

83

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

16 Body length 8 to 10

Dermestidae (dermestid beetles) (in part)-----De/mestes SEE KEY, CHAPTER 5.

Body length 3 to 4

Anobiidae (deathwatch and drugstore beetles)


Although Stegobium paniceum ricorne (couplet 17) greatest here, genus species, Tricorynus (=Catorama) roughly comparable
paniceum

17

be

Texas

the Mexico);

(eastward United States); herbarius, (Brazil, Fiji, Florida, Hawaii, (Belize, Cuba, Dalmatia, Florida. France, Germany, Mexico, Texas). species have
passing:

Kansas

potential

products spread through

ricorne

having (the 3-segmented, asymmetrical club). Neither elylral punctures confusus


punctures

elytral
elytra.

only

the posterolateral is (1.8-2.6 mm)

(2.7-3.5 mm)
(3.4-4.6 mm) (3).

17 Elytron distinctly striate

(17A); pi. 67B------drugstore beetle, Stegobium paniceum


dried plant material,

cosmopolitan; leather, cork, flour,

Elytron without striae (17B); pi. 67D----- --cigarette beetle, Lasioderma


Distribution: cosmopolitan;
seeds,

leaves, spices,

products.

17A Stegobium
paniceum

17B Lasioderma
serricorne

18 Tarsal formula 3-3-3

(18A); pi.

94B---minute brown scavenger

beetles, Lathridiidae SEE KEY, CHAPTER 10

Body length
Drawing

2.5

body elongate;

by

Tarsal formula 4-4-4

5-5-5 (18B)-

18A lathridiid
beetle

18B Giischrochllus
fasciatus

84

Adult beetles (Coleoptera)

19

Pronotum with

lateral raised line each side parallel to margin (19A)-----Pronotum without lateral raised lines (i9B)---------------------

20 21

19A Mycetaea
subterranea

19B Ahasverus
advena

20 Tarsal formula 4-4-4; pi. 68B. Endomychidae (=Mycetaeidae)

(handsome fungus beetles) ----------------hairy cellar beetle, Mycetaea subterranea


Synonym:
Islands,
America;
Asia, Europe, Hawaiian moldy grain.

Tarsal formula 5-5-5. Cucujidae (cucujid beetles) (in part)-----females, Cryptolestes


couplet

21 Pronotum with

small, laterally-directed lobe at each anterior jidae (cucujid beetles) (in part)
Small, depressed beetles,

(21 A, 21 B). Cucu22

long.

Pronotum without lobes

with lobes hooklike and directed forward

(21C)----

25

Drawings

by

85

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

22 Pronotum wider than long (22A); pi. 68C-cosmopolitan;

-foreign grain beetle, Ahasverus advena


peanuts

moldy

(cocoa, grains, (LeConte) similar


the apical (subtriangular

others). Ahasverus

advena, rudimentary, pronotal angles segment is circular shape

advena).

Pronotum longer than wide (22B)--

22A Ahasverus
advena

22B Cathartus
quadricoliis

23 Pronotum nearly rectangular, with side margin lacking teeth except for blunt tubercle at anterior (23A); pi. 68D squarenecked grain beetle, Cathartus quadricoliis
cosmopolitan;

Pronotum strongly narrowed posteriorly, with side margin serrate, and sharp, Silvanus planatus triangular tooth at anterior (23B); pi. 68E
densely punctate.
Nearclic;

23A Cathartus
quadricoliis

23B Silvanus planatus

86

Adult beetles (Coleoptera)

24 Body color in part metallic blue green (pi. 1G-I); body with erect setae; pronotum but not thin and flattened along lateral margins (24A)

SEE KEY, CHAPTER 7.


in middle Body color not metallic; body setae flat against surface; pronotum but flattened along lateral margins (24B); pi. 69B. Byturidae (fruitworm beetles) raspberry fruitworm, Byturus unicolor
Antennal club
widespread

North

segments. See

9C,

section through thorax

24A Necrobia
rufipes

24B Byturus
unicolor

25 Body flattened; elytra often short, exposing pygidium (as in 27A); antennal club posed of 3 symmetrical, closely connected segments (25A); tarsal formula 5-5-5, with segments bristly (25B); pi. 88---------------sap beetles, Nitidulidae

SEE KEY, CHAPTER 8

Lacking the above combination of characters--------------------

26

25A Carpophilus

25B Glischrochilus
fasciatus

26 Femur III greatly enlarged and bearing large tooth next to to 12 smaller teeth the ventral margin; tibia III curved, matching ventral margin of femur (26A); pi. 108B. Bruchidae (seed beetles) (in part)----groundnut bruehid, Caryedon serratus
species

also

key

Chapter

Femur III only slightly enlarged

not at all; tibia III only slightly curved

not at all (26B)

27

26B Acanthoscelides
obtectus

87

insect and Mite Pests

in

Food

27 Pygidium exposed beyond truncate elytra; eye emarginate at antennal insertion (27A); pi. 108C-----------------------seed beetles, Bruchidae (in part) SEE KEY, CHAPTER 12
Tarsal 5-5-5, with segment vertical (27A).

(27B);

Pygidium largely
insertion

completely concealed by elytra; eye not emarginate at antennal


28

(27C)--------------------------------variable,
segment

(27D), except
horizontal (see by Drawing

Scolytidae;

(27C)

28B).

27A Acanthosceltdes
obtectus

27B Acanthoscelides
obtectus

27C Dinoderus
minutus

27D Rhyzopertha
dominica

28 Pronotum hoodlike; head vertical, apparently suspended beneath pronotum, and often not visible in dorsal view (28A)---------------------""--

29 34

Pronotum not hoodlike; head horizontal (28B)------------------

88

Adult beetles (Coleoptera)

29 Antenna without club (29A); pi. 82----------

spider beetles, Ptinidae SEE KEY, CHAPTER 6

Antenna with distinct club of 2 to 4 segments (29B)--

go

GCCta-^
29B Dinoderus
minutus

30 Antennal club lopsided

(30A); pi. 70B.

Bostrichidae (false powderpost beetles)-

31

segments; body cylindrical.

Antennal club symmetrical (SOB)


segments; body elongate,
depressed,
Drawing

33

cylindricalby

30A Dinoderus
minutus

SOB Lyctus
brunneus

31 Pronotum with

of teeth (31A); pronotum in dorsal view pointed anteriorly; strong carina (31 B); pi. 70B ..-..------.---.--.----.-larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus

basal

apex of elytron with

Arizona, California, District

Columbia,

Jersey, York, Missouri, (generally Southern States, USA), tropical throughout America; tropical Africa;
Drawings
by

89

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

32 Pronotum with pair of shallow depressions; scuteltum transversely rectangular; elytral setae straight (32A); pi. 70D--bamboo powderpost beetle, Dinoderus minutuB
Distribution: cosmopolitan;
foods, seeds,

roots,
Drawing

28A.

Pronotum without depressions; scutellum square (32B); elytral setae curved (32C); pi. 71A-------------------lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica
Distribution: cosmopolitan; foods, chiefly cereals, seeds, and

variety

stored

32A Dinoderus
minutus

32B Flhyzopertha
dominica

32C Rhyzopertha
dominica

33 Antennal club of 2 segments (33A); antennal segment shorter than club; body elongate and depressed; pi. 71 D. Lyctidae (powderpost beetles)

brown powderpost beetle, Lyctus brunneus


cosmopolitan;
spices.

vegetable drugs, seeds,

Antennal club of 3 closely-united segments

(33B); antennal segment longer than club; body cylindrical; pi. 72B. Scolytidae (bark beetles) coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei
Distribution: circumti-opical

coffee-growing

CD^
33A Lyctus
brunneus

33B Hypothenemus
hampei

90

Adult beetles (Coleoptera)

34 Distinct constriction at base of pronotum

(34A); pi. 72D. Trogositidae (= Ostomatidae) (trogositid beetles) (in part) -------------cadel Ie, Tenebroides mauritanicus
Distribution: cosmopolitan;
Drawings

flour, meal.

grains.

by

Without distinct constriction between pronotum and elytra

(34B)-----------

35

34A Tenebroides
mauritanicus

34B Pharaxonotha
kirschi

35 Median ocellus present; antenna not clubbed; legs long and slender (35A); Dermestidae (dermestid beetles) (in part)------odd beetle, Thylodrias contractus
winglessspecies Dermestidae, Chapter
by

included

key
Drawings

Median ocellus absent; antenna clubbed; legs not unusually long and slender (35B)

36

35A Thylodrias contractus

35B Pharaxonotha
kirschi

91

insect and Mite Pests in Food

36 Elytron with silky hair (36A); tarsal formula 4-4-4. Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus
b efit es^

37

Elytron with, at most, short, fine, scarcely visible setae (36B); tarsal formula 5-5-5

38

36A Typ/iaea
stercorea

36B

PhQrawnotha

kirschi

37 Elytral pattern of light and dark transverse bands; elytral setae not in (37A); pi. 73A-------------------------------^((argi/s balteatus
Distribution: Australia, Central America;

Europe, Hawaii,
grain.

Elytral color uniform yellowish brown, without pattern; elytral setae in definite (37B); pi. 73C----------------hairy fungus beetle, Typhaea stercorea
cosmopolitan;

hyphae in

grain, seeds, peanuls,

37A Litargus
balteatus

37B Typhaea

92

Adult beetles (Coleoptera)

38 Elytron with longitudinal ridges (38A); anterior margin of pronotum broadly emarginate (38A); pi. 74B. Trogositidae (= Ostomatidae) (trogositid beetles) (in part) Siamese grain beetle, Lophocateres pusillus
tropicopolitan; fruit.
grain, flour, seeds,

spices, beans,

Elytron without longitudinal ridges (38B); anterior margin of pronotum somewhat rounded (38B); pi. 74D. Languriidae (languriid beetles) .--.,--.-----..--.--.-----IVIexican grain beetle, Pharaxonotha kirschi
Europe, Guatemala, Mexico,
States;
Drawings

section through

etytr,

38A Lopbocateres
pusillus

38B Pharaxonotha
kirschi

93

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

References Cited

Banks, H.j. 1979.

Identification of stored product Cryptolestes spp. (Coleoptera: Cucujidae): A rapid technique for preparation of suitable mounts. Jour. Australian

Ent. Soc. 18(3)217-222.


Green, M. 1979. Cryptolestes klapperichi Lefkovitch in stored products and its identification (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Jour. Stored Prod. Res. 15(2)71-72. White, R.E. 1971. Tricorynus confusus (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in natural hosts. tobacco warehouses, with Ann. Ent. Soc. America 64(3)752.

94

LARVAL BEETLES (COLEOPTERA)

Donald M. Anderson
Systematic Entomology Laboratory
Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560

insect and Mite Pests in Food

KEY
Drawings

With distinct, jointed legs (1A)-Without legs (1B) with greatly reduced legs

(1C, 1D)-

2 Body depressed, fringed at sides (2A); head entirely concealed in dorsal view. Cerylonidae (=Murmidiidae) (cerylonid beetles); pi. 64A --.------.-----.--..-..-...-....-...-...-...-.....-..oval grain beetle, Murmidius ovalis
rice, wheal, cosmopolitan; dry plant materials, hay

leaves. Reference:

Body not flattened and fringed (2B); head not entirely concealed from above

2A Murmidius
ovalis

2B Lasioderma
serricorne

3 Body grublike, distinctly curved (C-shaped)


Urogomphi

(3A)-

Body long and slender, nearly straight (3B) (if apparently curved, then not grublike) f3C^Urogomphi present

13

<^S)
96

3C Attagenus
unicolor

Larval beetles (Coleoptera)

4 Body and head (of dry specimen) with numerous long, soft, hairlike setae (4A)-setae (4B)-----Body and head with distinct short and sometimes
Hook-shaped, dorsal asperities sometimes present (4B).

4A Lasioderma
serricorne

much of dorsal surface of head (5A); thoracic spiracle 5 Color pattern apparent distinctly distant from anterior margin of prothorax (5B). Anobiidae (drugstore beetles) (in part); pi. 67C------------cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne
cosmopolitan; dried plant animal products, destructiveness variety

2,

Dorsum of head without color pattern except for broad pigmented anterior band anterior margin of prothorax (5D); pi. 85A (5C); thoracic spiracle --,--..-...-.----...--------------------spider beetles, Ptinidae
key
ptinids attacking

ucts,

(4).
ptinids.

prodnotes,

key

5A Lasioderma
serricorne

5B Lasioderma
serricorne

97

fnsect and Mite Pests in Food

6 Head not retracted into prothorax; spiracles with spoutlike process (6A); hook-shaped asperities present (6B). Anobiidas (drugstore beetles (in part); pi. 67A --------_-----.-----._-------drugstore beetle, Stegobium paniceum
Distribution: cosmopolitan; infests plant products. References: 2,
variety

dry

Head retracted (6C); spiracles oval

round

(6C);

hooklike asperities absent

7 VIII abdominal spiracle (the most posterior one) about three times bigger than other most of body surface (7A) abdominal spiracles; setae very sparse -----------------------------powderpost beetles, Lyctidae

VIII abdominal spiracle subequal in size to other abdominal spiracles; dorsal setae (7B)---------------------------------

7B Rhyzopertha
dominica

98

Larval beetles (Coleoptera)

8 Body setae flat, spatulate; segments of thorax and abdomen with dorsal surface divided (8A). Endomychidae (= Mycetaeidae) (handsome fungus beetles); pi. 68A -----..-.--------..----....---hairy cellar beetle, Mycetaea subterranea
Distribution: Europe, America, USSR; feeds granaries,
Islands, Java, warehouses, Reference:

Body setae hairlike, bristly; dorsal surface of


divided into 2

and metathorax and abdomen folds (8B). Bostrichidae (false powderpost beetles)--

8A Mycetaea
subterranea

Abdominal segments to V each with 3 dorsal folds; body covered with numerous hairlike setae (9A); pi. 71A-----------lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica
cosmopolitan: foods, chiefly cereals, seeds,
wide variety dried

stored

Abdominal segments to V each with 2 dorsal folds; hairlike setae concentrated dorsal and lateral areas of body, sparse absent other body regions (9B)-

10

^^
9A Fthyzopertha
dominica

9B DInoderus
minutus

99

/nsect and Mite

Pests in Food

10 Mandible with

stubby molar process (10A); posterior end of body strongly curved (10B); pi. 70C-------------bamboo powderpost beetle, Dinoderus minutus
Distribution: cosmopolitan; although plant materials, the polyphagic variety strongly stenophagic, thriving only

Mandible with elongate molar process (10C); posterior end of body slightly curved (10D); pi. 70A----------------larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus
Distribution: cosmopolitan; usually

grain.

10A Dinoderus
minutus

10C Prostephanus

fr\
10B
Dinoderus minutus

10D Prostephanus
truncatus

^
12

11 Body covered with hairlike setae; dorsal folds of abdomen with transverse of longitudinal ridges (11A). Anthribidae (fungus weevils); pi. 62A -....._-.......--...coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus
Legs very
(vestigial), barely high magnification (11B). cosmopolitan; References: 1, variety of dry plant

Body sparsely covered with few short setae; dorsal folds of abdomen without transverse of longitudinal plicae (11 C)-

11C Caulophilus
oryzae

100

Larval beetles (Coleoptera)

12 Legs present (12A, 12B)-weevil,

seed beetles, Bruchidae (in part)


pisorum (pi.

(pi. groundnut bruchid, Caryedon 109A), bruchids pairs 108A), legless. legs (12A, 12B);
8,

Legs absent (12C)-

29

12C Caulophilus
oryzae

flattened (13B, 13C) setae 13 Body covered with long, barbed (13A) ..--..--..---.---.--.--------------dermestid beetles, Dermestidae

SEE KEY, CHAPTER 5


Urogomphi

(130).

5,

Body setae simple, hairlike (13E)------Urogomphi


present

(13E).

13C Attagenus
13B Attagenus

13E Byturus

101

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

14 Abdominal tip pointed (14A)

bearing urogomphi (14B)--

Abdominal tip neither pointed

bearing urogomphi (14C)-

14A Alphitoblus
iaevigatus

14B Tribollum
audax

14C Oryzaephitus
swinamensis

15 Yellowish

brownish body integument largely sclerotized, rigid (but may yield to light pressure), and hard (but may be thin and translucent); pi. 99A, 101 A -------.--------------------darkling beetles, Tenebrionidae

SEE KEY, CHAPTER 11


Some
urogomphi; others
pointed

Body integument largely unsclerotized, soft, and flabby; color may be mostly whitish may be mottled with brown, pink, lavender yellowish, light background---------------------------------------Urogomphi present; abdomen pointed.

16

16 Urogomphi arising from pigmented plate that appears distinct from the rest of the last abdominal segment (16A)-------------------------Last abdominal segment without distinct plate associated with urogomphi (16B)--

17

20

-^^
16B Anthicus
17 Pregomphus present (17A); mandible with serrate prostheca (178); pi. 90A

--------------...------......--...--....--sap beetles, Nitidulidae SEE KEY, CHAPTER 8


Pregomphus absent (17C); mandible without serrate prostheca (17D)18

102

Larval beetles

(Coleoptera)

17A Carpophilus
hemipterus

17B

Glischrochilus

fasciatus

17C Tenebroides
mauritanicus

17D Pharaxonotha
kirschi

18 Ventral mouthparts only slightly retracted into underside of head; maxilla with cardo lavender larger than stipes (18A); body color mottled pink large brown light background (pi. 87A). Cleridae (checkered beetles) -ham beetles, Necrobia
cosmopolitan; products,

ham, fish, cheese,

yolk. References: 10,


species).

(includes key

Ventral mouthparts deeply retracted into underside of head; cardo much smaller than stipes (18B); membranous portions of integument uniformly whitish yellowish. Trogositidae (=0stomatidae) (trogositid beetles)---------------

19

103

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

the pronotum and 2 each 19 Thorax with dorsal dark-colored areas, large the and metanota (19A); urogomphi not strongly incurved; space between urogomphi not marked by tubercle (19B); pi. 72C --cade lie, Tenebroides mauritanicus
cosmopolitan;
flour, meal,

grains.

Thoracic dorsum without dark-colored (19C); tubercle located between stronglyincurved urogomphi (19D); pi. 74A----Siamese grain beetle, Lophocateres pusitlus
tropicopolitan; spices, beans, grain, flour, seeds,

19A Tenebroides
mauritanicus

19B

19C Lophocateres 19D


pustllus

20 Abdominal terga with 2 transverse carinae (composed of fused tubercles) (20A); head with 5 ocelli (in compact group) each side (20B); mandible with soft bulbous process covered with short setae (20C). Byturidae (fruitworm beetles); pi. 69A ....---.......--.....-......--.....-........,.........-.-......,-.....[-aspberry fruitworms, Byturus
Europe,
America;

berries.

especially raspberries loganberries States- Reference:

Dorsal carinae absent (20D); head with less than 5 ocelli each side (20E) (if there 5 ocelli, they widely scattered, not compactly grouped); mandible either without soft, bulbous, seta-covered process with elongate process (20F)--

21

104

Larval beetles (Coleoptera)

21

of mandible with soft, elongate each side of head (21A); molar ocellus process bearing hairs (21 B); lateral setae of urogomphi arise from tubercles (21 C). Anthicidae (antlike flower beetles); pi. 64C-----------------Anthlcus
Distribution: Anthicus fforalts, narrownecked grain diverse plant materials beetle, cosmopolitan; wheat, and -haystack refuse, piles, adults larvae feed decaying plants and fungi. Reference:

ocelli each side (21 D); molar of mandible without soft, elongate process (21 E); lateral urogomphal setae not arising from tubercles (21 F)---

22

22 Urogomphi joined at their bases and hinged to the last abdominal segment by joint each side (22A). Cucujidae (cucujid beetles) (in part); pi. 66A----Cryptolestes
Cucujid species products notes,

genera
urogomphi. key

(Chapter 3).

Urogomphi distinctly separated at their bases and solidly fused to the VIII abdominal

22A Cryptolestes

105

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

23 Urogomphus stout, conical

(curved only at the tip if at all), with granular surface often prostheca (23B). longitudinally ridged (23A); mandible without retinaculum Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles)--------------------

24

Urogomphus slender, smooth-surfaced, without granulation ridges (23C); dible with distinct retinaculum prostheca (23D)-------------

25

23C Pharaxonotha
kirschi

23D Pharaxonotha
kirschi

24 Urogomphus tapering to straight point (not curved), with several longitudinal ridges basal half (24A); pi. 73B---------hairy fungus beetle, Typhaea stercorea
cosmopolitan; feeds grain, seeds, peanuts,

hyphae

Urogomphus distinctly curved at tip; longitudinal ridges absent {24B)-Litargus balteatus


Distribution: Australia,
America;

Europe. Hawaii,
grain.

106

Larval beetles (Coleoptera)

25 Pregomphus present (25A); mandible with teeth cutting edge and with broad, membranous prostheca (25B). Languriidae (languriid beetles); pi. 74C -..--_-.-.-....-...-......-......-...-Mexican grain beetle, Pharaxonotha kirschi
Distribution: Europe, plant products, flour. Reference:

America; wheat, beans,

Pregomphus absent (25C); mandible with serrate cutting edge, and elongate, pointed retinaculum (25D). Cryptophagidae (cryptophagid beetles); pi. 93A

information,

key

tophagids (Chapter 9).

25A Pharaxonotha
kirschi

25C Cryptophagus
26 Body stout,

25D Cryptophagus

most abdominal terga (26A); head dorsally, with 2 folds visible hypognathous, vertex rounded (26B). Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles)Head, legs, and dark-colored.
body parts often

27

Body slender and straight with only dorsal fold plate ment (26C); head prognathous, vertex at most slightly
Head, legs, light-coloredbody parts

each abdominal seg-

(26D)------

28

107

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

of darkly27 Body very stout, strongly dorsally; abdomen with 3 parallel pigmented plates (pi. 65A)-----Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Distribution: North Europe; adults

and, by introduction, foliage eggplant,

potato,

dorsally: abdomen without pigmented Body moderately stout, moderately lateral plates (pi. 65C)------------------asparagus beetles, Crioceris
larDistribution: Europe, United States; feeding by C. asparagi scarring growing asparagus: duodecimpunclata develop mainly

28 Antennal segment elongate, club-shaped (28A); mandible not partly fleshy bearing long setae (28B). Cucujidae (cucujid beetles) (in part); pi. 63A&B---Silvan in
Body Reference:
straight, sharply-pointed (28C); species). genera (includes key

Antennal segment short (28D); fleshy portion of mandible bearing 2 long setae (28E); pi. 94A----------------minute brown scavenger beetles, Lathridiidae
Body
apicaliy (28F) pointed (28G). Distribution: cosmopolitan (at economically-important species); the adults fungi growth feed-

28A Oryzaephilus
surinamensis

28B Oryzaephilus
surinamensis

28C Oryzaephilus
surinainensis

28G Microgramme
filum

28D Corticaria
fulva

28E Corticaria
fulva

28F Corticaria
fulva

108

Larval beetles (Coteoptera)

29 Labial sclerite forked (29A), heart-shaped, oval; labial palp setalike (29A); most abdominal terga with 2 folds (298); pi. 107A-----seed beetles, Bruchidae (in part)

Labial sclerite trident; labial palp with

2 segments (29C); most abdominal terga

30
Curculionids larval stage, the easily confused legless larvae.
separated

species

scolylids families bruchids

30 Body very stout and very dorsally (pi. 113B); abdomen with 3 folds (30A). Curculionidae (weevils) (in part). Genus Sitophilusnotes, key References: 6, (includes keys

of pleural

weevils. species).

Body only moderately stout and

of pleural (pi- 110A); abdomen with folds /30B1-------------------------------------------

33

30B Chalcodermus

109

fnsect and Mite Pests in Food

anterior and wider basal 31 Epipharyngeal rod not uniformly wide but with regions (31 A); labial palp with less than 5 (usually 3) apical sensory papillae (31 B) ---------------------------.--maize weevil, Sitophitus zeamais

less uniform width throughout its length (31C, Epipharyngeal rod slender, of 31 D); labial palp with at least 5 apical sensory papillae (31 E)----------

32

32 Labial palp usually with 7 or 8 apical sensory papillae (32A); premental (labial) sclerite with elongate posterior process (32A)--------rice weevil, Sitophitus

oryzae

Labial palp with less than 7 (usually 5) apical sensory papillae (32B); premental sclerite lacking elongate posterior process (32B); p(. 113B--granary weevil, Sitophifus grananus

110

Larval beetles (Coleoptera)

33 Ocelli present; head distinctly pigmented dorsal and lateral surfaces (33A); outer 4 postdorsal setae alternately long and short abdominal segments to VII (33B). Curculionidae (weevils) (in part)------------------------For bionomic
key
species

34

Ocelli absent; head pale except for dark anterior margins and mandibles (33C); postdorsal setae subequal in length (33D)-------------------

35

33A Chalcodermus

33C Caulophilus
oryzQe

33B Chalcodermus

33D Hypothenemus
hampei

34 Head with

pair of white stripes projecting posteriorly from frontal suture; head setae mostly long (about equal to greatest width of labrum) (34A); body distinctly tapered from thorax to abdominal apex (34B); pi. 110A--cowpea curculio. Chalcodermus

Head without white stripes (but may have angle of frontal unpigmented lobe suture); head setae mostly short (about equal to greatest width of labrum) (34C); not i-iiA----------nut posteriorly body tapered weevils, Curculio (34D); pi.
Drawings

by

Ryan

34B Chalcodermus

^ \^

111

Insect and Mite Pests

in Food

35 Abdominal segments to Vll with 5 postdorsal setae; prodorsal folds segments to VI projecting (in profile) about much other dorsal folds (35A). Curculionidae (weevils) (in part); pi. 112A------broadnosed grain weevil, Caulophilus

oryzae

Abdominal segments to VI with 4 postdorsal setae; prodorsal folds segments to VI distinctly prominent (in profile) than other dorsal folds (35B). Scolytidae (bark beetles); pi. 72A-----------coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei
Africa, Brazil, Colombia. East Indies. Ecuador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua. Peru, Micronesia, Lanka;

prodorsal fold

35A Caulophilus
oryzae

35B Hypothenemus
hampei

112

Larval beetles (Coleoptera)

References Cited

Anderson, W.H. 1947. Larvae of

genera of Anthribidae

(Coleoptera). Ann. Ent. Soc. America 40(3)489-517.


Boving, A.G.
1954.

Mature larvae of the beetle-family Anobiidae. Danske Biol. Meddel. 22(2)1-298.

Cutler, J.R. 1971. A key for distinguishing the larvae of Ahasverus advena (Waltl), Cathartus quadricollis (Guer.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) and Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauv.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). Jour. Stored Prod. Res. 7(2)125-127.

Hall, D.W., and R.W. Howe. the larvae of Ptinidae associated 1953. A revised key with stored products. Bul. Ent. Res. 44(1)85-96. Hinton, H.E. 1945. A monograph of the beetles associated with stored products. British Museum (Natural History),
London. Hossain, M., and P.H. Verner. of three species of Sitophilus (Coleoptera: Larvae 1979. Curculionidae). Bangladesh Jour. 2ool. 7(1)45-51. Kingsolver, J.M. 1963. Pictorial key for separating larvae of dermestid genera commonly found stored products. Coop.

Econ. Insect Rpt. 13(15)385-386.


8 Kingsolver, J.M. 1970. Groundnut bruchid [Caryedon serratus

(Olivier)). Coop. Econ. Insect Rpt. 20(18)303-304.

Mathur, R.N. 1954. Immature stages of Indian Coleoptera (25), Curculionidae. Indian Forest Rec. (New Ser.) 8(9)227-231, 2 pi. 10 Peterson, A. 1951. Larvae of insects. Part II. Coleoptera, Diptera, Neuroptera, Siphonaptera, Mecoptera, Trichoptera. Edwards, Ann Arbor. 11 Van Emden, F.I. 1943. Larvae of British beetles, IV. Various small families. Ent. Monthly Mag. 79(952)209-223;

(954)259-264; (955)265-270.

113

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Notes and Sketches

114

DERMESTID BEETLES (DERMESTIDAE, COLEOPTERA)

John M. Kingsolver
Systematic Entomology Laboratory
Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture Beltsville MD 20705

Insect and Mite Pests

in Food

KEY
Adults
Drawings by

Adults-

Larvae

2 Face of

(II not concave; III elongate (2A); antenna long, slender, not clubbed (2B); body slender (pi. 75B&C)---------"-odd beetle, Thylodnas contractus
wingless. winged; Africa, Morth America, USSR; bedding) (in food only specimens); probably

England, (in

clothing

Face of 111 111 short (2C); antenna short, thick, (receives femur III); and clubbed (2D); body broad (pi. 76A)--------------------Drawings

2A Thyiodrias

2C dermestid
beetle

2D Trogoderma
versiwior

116

Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera)

3 Median ocellus absent (3A). Genus DermestesMedian ocellus present (3B)---------"-

3A Dermestes

3B Trogodei Trogoderma
lusum inclusum

4 Elytral

apex serrate, with

small terminal spine (4A); pi. 76A dide beetle, Dermestes maculQtus
pattern usually

Ventral abdominal
skins,
Drawing

Distribution; cosmopolitan;

hides

occasionally
by

Elytral apex entire, lacking serrations and spines (4C)------

4A Dermestes
maculstus

4C Dermestes
lardarius

117

Insect and Mite Pests

Food

5 Elytron with yellowish basal

-.,-..-.-.-..-..-..-...-..-..-..,..,..,-.,,..-_..........-..-..,..-........larder
Abdominal

bearing 3 dark spots (5A); pi. 768 beetle, Dermestes lardarius


uniformty colored, lacking paltern bacon, ham, cosmopolitan;
tish,

(58). sausages,

Elytron without

basal band lighter in color than rest of elytron (5C)-(50)


Drawing

without

(5B) pattern.

.^
5B Dermestes
lardarius

5A Dermestes
/ardarius

5C Dermestes

5D Dermestes

6 Abdominal venter without pattern; lateral sulcus of abdominal sternum closely parallel to lateral margin (6A) Abdominal venter patterned; lateral sulcus not closely parallel to lateral margin (6B, 6C)

6A Dermestes
peruvianus

6B Dermestes

6C Dermestes
friSGhii

118

Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera)

7 Elytral pubescence black, with scattered golden setae; head with rounded media! concavity (7A); pi. 76C--------------------Oermestes hsiemorrholdalis
Europe; England, middle spillage; probably important only kitchens, feeding Reference: accidental

Elytral pubescence brown yellowish, with (not depressed) (7B); pi. 76D

without scattered golden setae; front

Peruvian larder beetle, Dermestes peruvianus


Distribution: nearly cosmopolitan;
by

meat, hams,

7A Dermestes
haemorrhoidalis

7B Dermestes
peruvianus

yellowish background; Abdominal venter with medial and lateral brown spots III (8A); anterior end of sinuous lateral sulcus located opposite outer limit of pi. 77B -----------------------black larder beetle, Dermestes ater
cosmopolitan; mushrooms;
dried fish, cheese, already grains

Abdominal color pattern of lateral dark spots ash-gray background; anterior end of lateral sulcus strongly curved toward midline (8B) ------Dermestes frischii
Distribution: cosmopolitan;

fish; probably occasional

8A Dermestes

8B Dermestes
frischii

119

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

9 Antennal cavity of anteroventral surface of prothorax fully visible in anterior view (9A);

vestiture of flat scales (9B, 9C). Genus Anthrenus----------Antennal cavity not (or only sliQhtly) visible in anterior view (9D); vestiture of hairs (9E)

10 11

9A Anthrenus

9B Anfhrenus
scrophulariae

9C Anthrenus
verbasci

9E Trogoderma 9D Trogoderma
granarium

10 Eye notched (10A); elytral scales ovate (10B); pi. 1B

-carpet beetle, Anthrenus scrophuiariae


cosmopolitan; wheat; probably important only contaminant.
plants, flour,

Eye entire (10C); elytral scales elongate, 2 to 3 times

wide (10D); pi. 1A long varied carpet beetle, Anthrenus verbasci

peanuts, wheat,
by

cosmopolitan; drugs, spices, flour, cereals,

10A Anthrenus
scrophulariae

10C Anthrenus
verbasci

10B Anthrenus
scrophulariae

10D Anthrenus
verbasci

120

Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera)

11 Antenna) cavity not carinate posteriorly (11A); posterior margin of coxai plate 111 with blunt, toothlike angutation (11B); segment of tarsus lit shorter than segment

(11C). Genus Attagenus---------------Posterior margin of antennal cavity marked by fine, transverse carina (11 D); posterior margin of coxai plate tit curved sinuate (1 IE); segment of tarsus III longer than

12

segment

(11F). Genus Trogoderma----------------------separate species of Trogoderma pattern variability species. Also, especially important correctly identify the fchapra beetle, granarium, confusing important species. Specimens of questionable identity, especially originating southwestern United States, should the onomic Services Unit, PSI, Agricultural Center-West, Key based Trogoderma (7, 2).

13

11 A Attagenus

11B Attagenus

11C Attagenus

11D Trogoderma

HE Trogoderma

11F Trogoderma

12 Dorsal coloration uniformly brown brownish-black, except for 2 elytra! white spots (pi. 79A)-----------------"-----------fur beetle, Attagenus pellio
Distribution: Africa, Asia, Europe, North America; smoked meat, fish, casein, products.

Dorsal coloration uniformly brown

black (pi. 79C) ------------.-----------------black carpet beetle, Attagenus unicolor

Attagenus brunneus
(= megatoma), cosmopolitan seeds; grain, flour, spices, (=A Region, elongatiilus). Afghanistan, Pakistan, peanuts), (in dried

121

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

13 Antenna! cavity with coarse, confluent punctures, 2 to 3 times larger than eye facet, except for small smooth prosternum (13A); pi. 80A----rrooocferma simplex
Mexico,

United States;

grain.
Drawings

Antenna! cavity finely punctate in mesal two-thirds (each puncture about the size of eye facet) (13B), antenna! cavity shining and minutely striate(13C), orantennal cavity coarsely punctate rugose in lateral one-half and striate finely punctate mesally (13D)---------------------------------

14

13A Trogoderma
simplex 0-9

13B Trogoderma
versicolor

13C Trogoderma
variabile o"9

13D Trogoderma
versicolor 9

122

Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera)

14 Elytron unicolorous vaguely mottled, but without clearly defined pattern (14A); anteromedial metasternal margin lacking nipptelike projection (14B); pi. SOB khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium
Number club

segments

11;
segments

(14C): antennal club female (14D&E). Distribution: tropicopolitan


grain, cereal products,

segments dry

Elytron with definite color pattern (it may be fine and intricate) visible either in maculaboth (14F-H); anteromedial margin of metasternal lobe in pubescence tion
with

nipplelike projection (14I)----------------"-------"Number female


Drawings
by

15

segments always 11; antennal five segments (141);


segments.

14A Trogoderma
granarium

14F Trogoderma
omatum

14C

14D

14E

14J Trogoderma
variabile

Trogoderma

granarium

anteromediat metasternal

process

14B Trogoderma
granarium 9

141 Trogoderma (not granarium)

123

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

15

Integument unicolorous (black)

black with vague brownish maculations humeri and apical margins only; with distinct basal, submedian and subapical bands (if banding is present at all, is indicated onfy very vaguely by light-colored

pubescence) (15A); pi. 80C--------glabrous cabinet beetle, Trogoderma glabrum


Elytral pattern highly variable; elytral pubescence easily Holarctic; grain, cornmeal,

products,
Drawings

by

Integument bicolorous, at least with pattern of basal, submedian, and subapical bands of lighter macuiation elytra (15B, 15C)

16

15B Trogoderma
ornatum

15C Trogoderma
versicolor

16 Inner margin of

eye distinctly notched (16A); pi. 1D


larger cabinet beetle, Trogoderma inclusum
Distribution: England, milk,

States;

grain,

Inner margin of eye straight

very slightly sinuate (16B)---

16A Trogoderma Trogoderm


;/usum incfusum

16B Trogoderma
variabiie

124

Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera)

17 Basal band loop of elytral maculation never connected to submedian band by bands (17A); pi. 1C---warehouse beetle, Trogoderma varlabile longitudinal band
segments (17B); antennal cavity compactly joined, loop, (17C); basal finely of elytral maculation always band, subapical America, USSR; present. Distribution: milk, seeds, cereals (corn, rice, wneal), nuts, 13C, 14J, 16B.

Basal band

loop of elytral maculation always connected to submedian band by longitudinal bands (17D)-------------------with (17E) (17F) tions; cavity finely (see 18B), partly vaguely punctate-slriate (see punctate (see 18C),

18

18E&F).

17D Trogoderma
ornatum

17C Trogoderma

17B Trogoderma
variabile

17E Trogoderma
ornatum

17F Trogoderma
versicolor

125

insect and Mite

Pests in Food

18

Antenna of male serrate (18A); antenna! cavity of male polished and finely striate (18B); antennal cavity of female polished and finely striate mesally but punctate in lateral two-thirds (18C); pi. 1E---ornate cabinet beetle, Trogoderma ornatum
America; 14F,

cereals, seeds,

Antenna of male clavate (18D); antennal cavity dull and minutely punctate, but vaguely punctate-striate in lateral one-fifth in male (18E) and in lateral one-half to two-thirds in female (18F); pi. 800-----European larger cabinet beetle, Trogoderma versicolor
Europe; seeds, grain, See 13B,
Drawings
by

rice, wheat,

18A Trogoderma

18D Trogoderma
versicolor

18B Trogoderma

18C Trogoderma
ornatum 9

18E Trogoderma
versicoior

18F Trogoderma
versicolor 9

Larvae
Drawings by

19 Urogomphi absent (19A)----------Urogomphi present (19B). Genus Dermestes-

19A Attagenus
unicolor

19B Dermestes
macuiatus

126

Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera)

20 Each tergum with of coarse, spiny, club-shaped setae (20A) along posterior each side; pi. 75A margin and cluster of spiny, sharp-pointed setae (20B) --.----..--.------------.------odd beetle, Thylodrias contractus
Body short, stout, C-shaped (20C).

Sharp

club-shaped spiny setae absent (20D, 20E;


Body

also

21A)------

21

(20F)

127

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

22 Hastisetal tufts inserted "islands" in membrane behind strongly curved posterior margins of abdominal segments V, VI, and VII (22A). Genus Anthrenus----Hastisetal tufts inserted tergal plates (22B). Genus Trogoderma
References: 3,

29 30

22B Trogoderma 22A Anthrenus


verbasci

ornatum

23 Frontal tubercles present (23A) Frontal tubercles absent (23B)-

23A Dermestes
maculatus

24 Dorsal midline marked by broad, yellow stripe (24A); apex of urogomphus curved anteriorly (24B) ---------------hide beetle, Dermestes macuiatus Dermestes frischii
19B,

Dorsal midline of thorax and abdomen marked only by thin, unsclerotized line (24C); apex of urogomphus curved posteriorly (24D)------------

25

128

Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera)

25 Urogomphi separated by distance less than width at base of urogomphus; retrorse tubercles (each bilobed and bearing medial seta) large and conspicuous last X abdominal terga III to (25A); ventral sclerotized well-developed 5 abdominal segments (25B)---------------Dermestes haemorrhoidalis
easily urogomphi

See

urogomphus; Urogomphi separated by a distance equal to width at base of retrorse tubercles (usually neither bilobed setiferous) either absent small and inconspicuous, especially terga IX and X (usually absent X) (25C); last 4 abdominal segments (25D) tral sclerotized well-developed only --------.-----.----Peruvian larder beetle, Dermestes peruvianus
inconspicuous; 5.

urogomphi

25A Dermestes
haemorrhoidalis

25B Dermestes
haemorrhoidalis

25C Dermestes
peruvianus

25D Dermestes
peruvianus

129

insect and Mite Pests in Food

26 Urogomphus curved posteriorly at apex (26A); retrorse tubercles present at least abdominal tergum VI (26B); ---------larder beetle, Dermestes lardarius

Urogomphus straight (26C); retrorse tubercles absent from all abdominal terga (26D); pi. 77A----------------------black larder beetle, Dermestes ater

27 Acrotergites with broad setae (each seta with 5 longitudinal ribs) (27A); abdominal ovate (27B) tergite Vill with most setae subrectangular fur beetle, Attagenus peltio

Acrotergites with slender setae only (each seta with (27C); abdominal tergite VIII with either lanceolate

than 3 longitudinal ribs)


linear setae

(27D)---

28

27A Attagenus
pellio

27C Attagenus
unicolor

27D Attagenus
brunneus

130

Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera)

28

Integument of head and dorsum of body light brown; setae of VIII sternite with 8 to 12 ribs (28A) -Attagenus
Tergal
between margins (28B).

brunneus

"^"^"L0^6^ (28C)-2
3 ribs

and drs"m f body reddish brown; setae of vm sternite with .....----.....-..|,|ack carpet beetle, Attagenus unicolor
Tergal
megatoma (now

between unicolor}

margins

(28D).

(now
piceus.

Ijrunneua}

etongatulus previously

c^28A Attagenus
brunneus

28C Attagenus
unicolor

28B Attagenus brunneus

28D Attagenus
unicolor

29

long hastisetal heads (29A); abdominal sterna with yellowish sclerotized Winery p ...------carpet beetle, Anthrenus scrophularlae heads (29B); abcio^T"nal sterna "^branous (whitish Tan^p^T^ transparent); pi. 78--------.---......^iecl carpet beetle,
Anthrenus verbasci
See

-^
29A Anthrenus
scrophulariae

29B Anthrenus
verbasci

131

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

30

Setae of basal antennal segment less than half long antennal segment (30A); tergites with short, flat, mesally-di reeled spicisetae (30B)-----Trogocferma simplex Setae of basal antennal segment at least three-fourths long antennal segment (30C); mesally-directed tergal setae absent (30D)---------------31

30D Trogoderma
variabile

31 Setae of basal antennal segment almost completely encircling segment (not bunched mesal side); setae of antennal segment reaching surpassing apex of segment when antenna is fully extended (31A)-----------------Single (31A) Trogoderma granarium
segment absent.

32

Setae of basal segment bunched

mesal side, leaving one-third of lateral surface bare; setae of segment not reaching apex of segment of fully-extended antenna (31B)-

35

31A Trogoderma
granarium

31 B Trogoderma
variabile

132

Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera)

32 Antecostal suture of abdominal segment VIII usually absent (32A), but in those instances when is present, is weak and interrupted at several points

Rhapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium


Labium with

cup (32B).

epipharyngegl papillae See also couplet

Antecostal suture of abdominal segment VIII present


Distal (32B) epipnaryngeal papillae. Antecostal

(32C)
only

33

(32D)

(as

32A8.C).

32A Trogoderma
granarium

32B Trogoderma
granarium

goderma lusum

133

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

33 Terga medium to dark brown

bluish

gray; epipharyngeal papillae 4 (see 32B)


beetle, Trogoderma glabrum
34

-..-..-.--.,--g|abrous cabinet

Terga creamy yellow; epipharyngeal papillae 6 (see 32D)-------------

34 Western Hemisphere-------------larger cabinet beetle, Trogoderma inctusum

Eastern Hemisphere--

--European larger cabinet beetle, Trogoderma versicolor

35 Disc of thoracic and anterior abdominal terga usually with very few hastisetae; terga of large spicisetae (35A); pi. 81 usually with only single warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile
also

A. 30C.

Thoracic and anterior abdominal terga usually moderately dense with hastisetae; terga of large, erect spicisetae (35B) usually with 2 ornate cabinet beetle, Trogoderma ornatum

35A Trogoderma
variabile

35B Trogoderma
ornatum

134

Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Co(eoptera)

References Cited

Beal, R.S-, Jr. 1954. Biology and taxonomy of the Nearctic species of Trogoderma (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Univ. California Pub. Ent. 10(2)35-102. Beal, R.S-, Jr. 1956. Synopsis of the economic species of Trogoderma occurring in the United States with description of species (Coleoptera; Dermestidae). Ann.

Ent. Soc. America 49(6)559-566.

Beal. R.S., Jr.


1960.
the Descriptions, biology, and identification of Trogoderma larvae (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Tech. Bul. 1228- U.S.

Beal,

Department of Agriculture, Washington DC. R.S., Jr.


1970.

A taxonomic and biological study of species of Attagenini (Coleoptera- Dermestidae) in the United States and Canada. Ent. Americana

45(3)141-235.
5 Peacock,

E.R.

Dermestes peruvianus Cast., D. haemorrhoidaiis [1976]. Kust. and other Dermestes spp. (Col., Dermestidae). Ent. Monthly Mag. 111(1328-1330)1-14, pi. B.E. Rees, North American 1947. Taxonomy of the larvae of species of the Genus Dermestes (Coleoptera: Soc. Proc. Ent. Washington Dermestidae).
1975

49(1)1-14.
Spangler, P.J.
1961.

Notes and pictorial key for separating khapra


beetle (Trogoderma granarium) larvae from all other Nearctic species of the genus. Coop. Econ. Insect Rpt. 11(6)61-62.

135

/nsect and Mite Pests in Food

Notes and Sketches

136

SPIDER BEETLES (PTINIDAE, COLEOPTERA)

Theodore J. Spilman
Systematic Entomology Laboratory
Plant Sciences Institute

Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560

/nsect and Mite

Pests in Food

Because of their relatively small, globular, usually hairy bodies and slender legs, the ptinids resemble spiders, hence the The family contains moderate number of species, approximately 20 of which have been included here; those abrecorded pests. Not all 20 in sent pests that do not very minor North America, the geographic focus of the key presented widely distributed, here. Many of the pest species spread by cosmopolitan, and
Ptinids often infest foods, but the actual loss of weight due to feeding is small unless the ptinid population is enorIn addition to damaging food, ptinids indirectly spoilage by contaminating food with trass, with fragments of their dead bodies, and with the silk they to spin cocoons. Ptinids mainly scavengers, and many animal materials. Besides readily feed equally plant being found in human foods, they have been found in the nests of bees, wasps, birds, and mammals, bat caves, warehouses, food-handling businesses, and houses. They especially attracted to moisture and to bird and mal excrement. Ptinid infestations, therefore, often follow other kinds of infestations. Excellent accounts of the biology and habits of the species of economic importance published by R.W. Howe and collaborators from 1949 to 1959 in series of 17 articles entitled Studies Beetles of the Family Ptinidee. All parts of the series cited in the final summary article by Howe (9).

Identification to genus is rather simple, but sexual dimorphism in species of Ptinus, the largest genus, combe plicates specific identification. The different-slender males (pi. 86A) and stout females (pi. to be separate species. When sexual 86B)-as to stout. dimorphism is absent, both males and females absence of sexual dimorphism In the past, the presence has been used sometimes key character; it of the necessary, therefore, to have both species at hand to make the key work. In the following key of sexual dimorphism character is not used; each the sexually dimorphic species is determined separately. The shape and distribution of patches of white scales the elytra of many species of Pftnus have often been used in keys, but since these scales easily abraded, minimal is made of them in this key.
The last complete treatment of the taxonomy and identification of the Ptinidae of North America published by Fall in 1905 (4). The taxonomy of the Ptinidae of economic importance in the world, with keys and illustrations, presented by Hinton (7). Keys and illustrations published by Papp and Okumura (10) for California, by Hatch (6) for the Pacific Northwest, by Freude (5) for tral Europe, and by Hisamatsu (8) for Japan. Several published by Brown good, short taxonomic articles of them (1) includes key to the ptinids that (1-3}; in houses and warehouses in Canada.

138

Spider beetles (Ptinidae, Coleoptera)

KEY TO ADULTS
Drawings by

Elytra

than 2 times wide abdominal sterna (1A); elytra polished, impunctate, without setae with only collar of dense setae at base and few scattered of setae (pi. 82A&B)setae posteriorly, and without striae longitudinal

wide abdominal sterna (1B, 1C, "ID); elytra dull Elytra less than 2 times of setae moderately shiny, with appressed scales and/or striae longitudinal

139

/nsect and Mite

Pests in Food

2 Abdomen with 4 visible sterna (2A); trochanter almost pronotum and elytra without setae (pi. 82A)-Papers by
(8)

long

femur ill

(2A);
--Gibbium

(see

reference Chapter 28) Gibbium psylloides specimens previously identified actually aequinoctiale. This interpretadistributions past species associations impossible. mainly appears psylloides Europe, Asia, includes aequinoctiale Australian, Ethiopian, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oriental, Palearclic regions. species

many
species may

separated

forming strongly third sloping -hump beetle, Gibbium psylloides fossas forming right Median weakly angle; posterior lateral third produced laterally --.-._-._-^-..----e/bbiufn aequinoctiale

angle; posterior

produced laterally

each side of 3 Elytra with basal tomentose collar deeply interrupted at middle and midtine (3A); pi. 82B--~-------American spider beetle, Mezium americanum
cosmopolitan; associated grains, feeds, cayenne pepper; reported from seeds, seeds, opium, carpet,
products,

Elytra with basal tomentose collar entire, not interrupted (3B) --..-..--.,----.-..-._-..-..-.--..-.-.-.^-.-..-.--northern spider beetle, Mezium affine
Distribution: Europe,
seeds,

Africa, America; insects, decaying plant

animal

3A

Mezium
americanum

140

Spider beetles (Ptinidae, Coleoptera)

Area between antenna! insertions broad


Area between antennal insertions

and flat (4A, 4B, 4C)and usually carinate (4D,

4E)

5 Scales of pronotum (5A) obviously broader than those of elytron (5B); elytra covered with appressed broad scales, without erect setae (pi. 83A) ---Sphaericus gibboides
Europe,
America; associated Africa, seeds, red pepper, also 1B,

herbs, dried plants, dried valerian

Scales and setae of pronotum (5C) and elytron (5D) subequal in size; elytra covered scales with appressed broad setae and with erect setae (pi. 83B&C)

5A

Sphaericus gibboides

5B

5C Niptus
hololeucus

5D Trigonogenius
globufum

141

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Femur Hi slender, but with apical one-third expanded (6A); pronotum evenly (pi. 83B), with uniform, oppressed setae (6B); antenna long, extending to middle of visible abdominal sternum 11; elytra and pronotum covered with golden appressed setae (pi. 1-0, 83B)----"-"---------golden spider beetle, Niptus hololeucus
cosmopolitan, except tropics; associated wheat, flour, bran, oafs, barley, milo, spices, tea, bread, casein, grains, seeds, belladona roots, rhubarb roots; reported from wool, cotton, linen, silk, artificial silk, paper, books, cork, sponges, brushes, feathers, leather,
4B,

Femur 111 stout, with apical one-half expanded (6C); pronotal surface irregular (pi. 83C), with mat of confused, appressed setae (6D); antenna shorter, extending to 111; elytra and pronotum covered with gray and brown appressed setae (pi. 83C)
.-.....-..-.-....-.--...-..-,--globular spider beetle, Trigonogenius globulum
Distribution: Africa, Europe, North America, South
America; wheat, flour, oats, beans, barley, raisins, fruit, caraway meal, tartar, seeds, spices, cottonseed meal, reported meal, argol, sugar, drugs; from hulls, seed, dust, seed, cotton, burlap sacks, old clothing, piles.

6C Trigonogenius
gfobuium

6B Niptus
hololeucus

6D Trigonogenius
globulum

142

Spider beetles (Ptinidae, Coleoptera)

7 Trochanter III long, apex reaching elytral margin (7A); pi. 84----Pseudeurostus hilleri
Distribution: Canada, Europe, Japan; associated feeds, wheat flour, oatmeal,

yeast,

8 Elytral surface completely obscured by vestiture of dark golden oppressed setae; of setae seen only vaguely because of background of appressed longitudinal setae (pi. 85B)---------------Australian spider beetle, Ptinus ocellus
Synonym:
cosmopolitan;

oats, iye, wheat, flour, bran, barley, beans, soy grits, hops, nutmegs, pepper, paprika chocolate powder, products, almonds, poultry feed, turkey starter, sultanas, apricots ginger, raisins, figs, food, fishmeal, feed, hay, reported meat, casein, starch: herring meal, seeds, sausage flax, seeds, rats, feces, insects, rusks, furs, carpets, See 4D,

of setae easily Elytral surface mostly visible and longitudinal appressed setae may be present (pi. 86A)

though
9

9 Surface of pronotum partially obscured by 2 dense clumps of erect golden setae

Drawing

by

Surface of pronotum visible through vestiture of horizontal, inclined, some of which may form clumps (9C, 9D)

erect setae,

143

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

10 Pronotaf surface between and (aterad of dense setal clumps shiny and without punctures granules (10A)-------------Canadian spider beetle, Pt/nus raptor
sexually dimorphic species in pi. figures body

USSR,

Europe,
flour, grains, pollen

America;

Pronotal surface dull, with punctures and/or granules between and laterad of dense setal clumps (10B); pi. 86B--------female, whitemarked spicier beetle, Ptinus fur
Distribution; cosmopolitan;

flour, whole

flour, ground barley, pepper, grains, cereal, ginger,

pepper, paprika
dates,

fruit, bread, cantharides; reported seeds, seeds, seeds, tobacco, beehives, straw, pollen specimens, animal skins, leather, furs, animals, See feathers, nests, bird nests, paper, 4E,

roots,

yeast,

11 Seta of strial puncture of elytron very short, contained within puncture only slightly beyond posterior border of puncture (11 A)
body sexually dimorphic species similar California; figures pi. feeds, raisins,

ptinus

extending gandolphei

Seta of strial puncture longer, extending well beyond posterior border of puncture
and reaching at least next puncture

(HB)-------------------

12

11 A Ptinus gandolphei

144

Spider beetles (Ptinidae, Coleoptera)

12

Longest erect setae

anterior two-thirds of elytral intervals long longer than last segment of tarsus III (12A)-"----"--hairy spider beetle, Ptinus villiger
sexually dimorphic species body form figures shown pi. Distribution: Asia, Europe, North America; associated wheat, flour, farina, cornmeal, rye, feeds, chamomile

Longest setae on anterior two-thirds of elytral intervals shorter than last segment of tarsus III (12B, 12C)

13

13 Body stout, elytra oval (pi. 86B) Body slender, elytra parallel-sided (pi.

14

86A)-------------------

15

14 Erect setae of alternate intervals of elytron one-third to one-half as long (and usually more erect than) setae of intervals (14A) --------.-..-..---..---....-.................^.....feniale, brown spider beetle, Ptinus clavipes
sexually dimorphic species similar body form specimens figured pi. 86. Synonym: hinetlus. Distribution: cosmopolitan; associated wheat (lour, milo, barley, cornmeal, beans, rice, soybean meal, meal, feeds, dried fruit, dried mushrooms, root, powdered
leaves of reported from
vetch, alfalfa, dead animals,

and Jaborandi, cantharides: cotton, sunflower, spinach, dallisgrass, feathers, skins, books, also

Erect setae of alternate and intervals subequal in length and usually equally slanted (14B); pi. 86B-------female, whitemarked spider beetle, Ptinus fur
See couplet

145

fnsect and Mite Pests in Food

15 Pronotum with

slender, dense

often joined forming

"U"
See couplet

of posteriorly-inclined yellowish setae, the 2 "V" (15A); pi. 86A n\a\e, whitemarked spider beetle, Ptinus fur

Pronotum with erect anteriorly-directed, golden setae either side of midline (these setae not densely spaced and at most form only the vaguest suggestion of rows) (15B)-----------------male, brown spider beetle, Ptinus clavipes

146

Spider beetles (Ptinidae, Coleoptera)

References Cited

Brown, W.J.
1940.

A key the species of Ptinidae occurring in dwellings and warehouses in Canada (Coiaoptera). Canadian Ent. 72(6)115-122.
and poorly known species of Some Coleoptera, II. Canadian Enl. 76(1)4-10.

Brown, W.J.
1944.

3 Brown, W.J.

1959.

Niptus Boield. and allied genera in North America


(Coleoptera: Ptinidae). Canadian Ent. 91(10)627-633.

Fall, H.C. 1905.


5 Freude, H.

Revision of the Ptinidae of boreal America. American Ent. Soc. 31(2-3)97-296, pi.

Trans.

1969.

Famine: Plinidae. Diebskafer (pp. 60-74). In Teredilia, Heteromera, Lamellicornia, Band 8, Die Kafer Mitteleuropas, ed. by H. Freude, K.W. Harde, and G.A. Lohse. Goecke & Evers, Krefeid.

6 Hatch, M.H.

1961.

The beetles of the Pacific Northwest. Part III; Pselaphidae and Diversicornia, University of Washington Press, Seattle.
The Ptinidae of economic importance. Bull. Ent.

Hinton, H.E.
1941.

Res. 31(4)331-381.
Hisamatsu, S. 1970. The Ptinidae of Japan (Coleoptera). Ageha

11:14-20 (in Japanese; English summary).


9

Howe, H.W.
1959.

beetles of the family Ptinidae. XVII. Conclusions and additional remarks. Bul. EntStudies

Res. 50(2)287-326.
10 Papp, C.S., and G.T. Okumura. 1959. A preliminary study of the Ptinidae of California. California Dept. Agric. Bull. 48(4)228-248.

147

fnsect and Mite Pests in Food

Notes and Sketches

148

CHECKERED BEETLES (CLERIDAE, COLEOPTERA)

John M. Kingsolver
Systematic Entomology Laboratory

Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture Beltsville MD 20705

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

These three species, ail cosmopolitan in distribution, associated with spoiled meat, fish, cheese, and sionally with cured ham and bacon. Both adults and larvae molds. Necrobia feed larvae of other insects and in stored foods. violacea is rarely

KEY TO ADULTS

Color of thorax, legs, and elytral shoulders reddish yellow; color of head and apical three-fourths of elytra metallic blue green; pi. 1H ---redshouldered ham beetle, Necrobia ruficollis

Color of head, thorax, and abdomen metallic blue


2

green; color of legs reddish

Legs reddish; pi. 11, 87B-------"-----redlegged ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes Legs dark; pi. 1G--------------- blacklegged ham beetle, Necrobia violacea

150

SAP BEETLES (NITIDULIDAE, COLEOPTERA)

Walter A. Conned
Department of Entomology and Applied Ecology
University of Delaware Newark DE 19717

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

The adults of those nitidulids that infest stored foods (2-4) have five tarsal segments each leg. Segment IV is modified but comparatively small (see couplet illustration the underside 6E); segments to III have hairy pads usually dilated. The front always (6E) and transverse; the associated trochantins exposed (10B).

ment

In

the ventral surface of the abdominal apex (11B). genera the supplementary segment is also visible the dorsal side of the abdomen (6A); it does not

in females (6B).
Hinton (4) discussed four species that do not occur in North America and not included in this key: Carpophitus fiavipes, C. immaculatus, C. sexpustulatus, and Haptoncus llavidus. Hinton also mentioned four other in North America but not in association species that with stored foods: C. pailipennis (Say), symbiont of result of cactus flowers reported from stored foods misidentification; Omosita colon (L), carrion feeder not known to invade buildings; Nitjdula rufipes (L.) and N. (L.). All members of the genus Nitiduta feed North American fauna rion. There are six species in but only the two recorded from stored foods (dried meats) included in this key.

Some genera have truncate elytra that expose one more segments of the abdomen (2B-D). This is handy taxonomic feature, but it must be used with caution. Specimens with distended abdomens (from engorgement with food from having been killed in fluids) generally than the normal number of exposed present segments behind the elytra (9D). On the dorsum of each normally exposed segment is large sclerite tergite. The tergite of the apical segment is termed the pygidium (28, 2C). The articulating surfaces and the membrane concealed adjoining segment necting tergite to under normal conditions. These structures become posed when the abdomen is distended.
dorsal sclerite consists of only relatively band at the posterior margin- Haptoncus tuteoius (6A) is exceptional in that the last two terga largely sclerotized whether not. Normally, only the pygidium of H. luteolus is cealed exposed, but distended specimens frequently countered. The presence of dorsal membranous behind the elytra indicates abdominal distention (9D). With this information in mind, the taxonomist must judge how many segments, if any, would be exposed normally.

A normally concealed segment may have


but

The immature stages of six species have not been described: Carpophilus fumatus, C. maculatus, C. pilosellus, Gtischrochitus fasciatus/ Nitidula bipunctata, and N. ziczac.

Male nitidulids have

small, discoidal supplementary seg-

All the other nitidulids associated with stored foods have orthosomatic (or nearly so), prognathous larvae bearing continuous urogomphi (pi. 90A). The urogomphi (22E) with sclerite, the anal plate (23B), covering much of the dorsal surface of abdominal segment IX. A pair of pregomphi (23A) protrudes from the anal plate just in front of the urogomphi. Sap beetle larvae, especially those belonging to the genus Carpophtlus, may often be difficult to identify to species.

152

Sap beetles (Nitidulidae, Co(eoptera)

Adult specimen-Larval specimen-

2 Abdomen normally entirely concealed by elytra (2A),

pygidium alone exposed (2B)--------------------------------------Abdomen normally with apical 2 3 segments exposed dorsally behind elytra (2C,
2D1--------------------------------------See
which illustrates segment.

3 8

of

pygidium

2C Carpophilus
freemani

2D Carpophilus
humeratis

3 Labrum fused to ctypeus, the articulation marked by fine, curved groove (3A)anterior margin (3B)-------Labrum free, usually with median notch

3A Gliscbrochilus
quadrisignatus

3B Haptoncus
luteolus

153

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

4 Elytron either with 2 conspicuous orange-yellow spots (4A) with conspicuous spot (posterior) and group of few small spots (humeral region) (4B); pi. 88A -.-Glischrochilus quadrisignatus
light Body elongate, black; integument weakly shiny; temperate inconspicuous.

nearly

with 3 blunt points (never appearElytron with 2 conspicuous spots, the humeral group of small spots) (4C); pi. 88Bing -Glischrochilus fasciatus
G. quadrisignatus size, appearance, Similar (except geographic California fasciatus).

4A

Glischrochilus

4C Glischrochilus
fasciatus

quacSrisignatus

5 Labrum strongly notched and definitely bilobed (5A); marginal fringe sides of pronotum and inconspicuous absent (5B)----------------Labrum shallowly emarginate (5C); sides of pronotum and elytra fringed with hairs eye facet (5D)------------long longer than the diameter of

154

Sap beetles (Nitidulidae, Coleoptera)

Body oblong in shape (6A); color dull yellow to brown; length 1.7 to 2.8 mm; pi. 88C ..-...--------------------yellowbrown sap beetle, Haptoncus luteolus
Elytra
abdomen both

penultimate tergum pygidium above; only pygidium

(6A) (absent plementary segment abruptly female, 6B); apical Haptoncus with several species dilated (6C); and tropical Distribution: temples Carolina America, subtropical; County). California (El

Body oval in shape (6D); color dark brown; dorsum with dull yellow margins and many ill-defined light yellow areas; length 4.5 to 8 mm; pi. 88D------Lobiopa insularis
elytral margins explanate (6D); elytron short, stout, backward-curving setae; (6E). tibia Hemisphere; subtropics tropics (El Carolina and America, north County).
Pronolal
apical

155

Insect and Mite Pests

in Food

7 Elytral fringe (7A); body color dull brown to nearly black; each elytron with obscure orange-red spot; pi. 89A-----------------/W/c/u/a bipunctata
Northern Hemisphere; widely occurring California North America, Virginia, Texas,
Quebec

Elytral fringe wide (equal to width of reflexed elytra! flange) (7B); body color dull light to dark brown; elytra with obscure, transverse, yellow zigzag bands; pi. 89B

Western Hemisphere (Central 2B, Canada).

8 Body form narrow, elongate; pygidium longer than wide

(8A); pi. 89C

nearly margin, front sinuate posterior angles; elongate segments exposed behind elytra; body color uniform Distribution: tropics nearly Hemisphere; subtropics Oklahoma. North Carolina America,

Body form broader, less elongate (8B); pygidium transverse (8C). Genus Carpophilus-

8A Conotelus
stenoides

8B Carpophilus
hemipterus

8C Carpophilus
freeman/

156

Sap beetles (Nitidulidae, Coleoptera)

9 Normally 3 abdominal terga exposed

(9A); dorsum feebly shining, smooth between obscure orange patch each punctures; body color black, tinged with red, with shoulder; pi. 89D-------------pineapple sap beetle, Carpophilus humeralis
specimens

color;
telescope tropics

dividuals, segment penultimate segment (9B). North America, subtropics;

North Carolina California (Tenama County); reported Western Hemisphere (California) by

Normally 2 abdominal terga exposed (9C); dorsum dull and finely reticulate between punctures, or, rarely, smooth and shining (if so, then dorsal body color is uniformly

the may be abnormally distended, usual terga (9D), exposing normal contracted, exposing beetles, posterior terga, (9B). hindmost, starting antepenultipygidium, the penultimate tergum, tergum. penultiCarpophilus pygidium normally tergum completely sclerotized humeralis exposed behind the elytra (9C). pest species that tional completely sclerotized antepenultimate tergum normally exposed. Moreover, pygidium may sometimes telescope penultimate tergum antepenultimate pest carpophilids (9B). exposed tergum largely membranous, by abnormal distention (90). texture, penultimate, comparison

9A

Carpophilus
bumerQlis

157

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

10 Mesosternal disc bisected by

impunctate medial longitudinal ridge

band

f10A)----------------------------------------

Mesosternal disc undivided down the middle (-IOB)---------------slightly protuberant, finely

12

coarsely punctate.

158

Sap beetles (Nitidulidae, Coleoptera)

11 Elytra with distinct pattern (11A) of light and dark areas; pi. 90B -dnedfruit beetle, Carpophilus hemipterus
background moderately (not shining) conspicuous dark light hairs; plementary segment typical cosmopolitan, except temperate regions; America, See chusetts
black; with

Elytra without distinct pattern, but humeral regions in color than rest of dorsum (11C); pi. 90C-

entire elytra may be lighter -----Carpophilus obsoletus

Dorsal body black, rusty sometimes brown, rusty elytra; inconspicuous pale shining; Distribution: tropics yellow su&tropics; (Fresno County) America, east). (not established

11C Carpophilus
obsoletus

12 Axillary space

present (12A)--The axillary space, angles


pseudosclerite melasternum, posterior lip

posterolateral expansion cavity.

Axillary space absent (12B)-

159

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

13 Propleuron punctate (punctures may be shallow, with indistinct margins) (13A)-Propleuron impunctate and either smooth granulose (13B)-----------

14 15

13A Carpophilus
pilosellus

13B Carpophilus
freemani

14 Propleural punctures shallow, with obscure margins (14A); tibia 111 of male abruptly enlarged distally (14B); pi. 91------------Carpophilus pilosellus
II; segment only slightly longer brown, elytra pronotum rarely lighter lighter median elytron; conspicuous pale yellow hairs. moderately Distribution: tropics subtropics; America, (Yolo County).
body

Propleural punctures deep, with distinct margins (14C); tibia III of male gradually enlarged distally (14D); pi. 91sap beetle, Carpophilus dimidiatus
segment 11; (or more) longer dark body nearly black; elytron usually orange-yellow large dull, moderately spot margins; conspicuous pale yellow America, tropics and subtropics; Carolina California (Placer County).

14C Carpophilus
dimidiatus

14B Carpophilus piiosellus

14D Carpophilus
dimidiatus

160

Sap beetles (Nitidulidae, Coleoptera)

15 Axillary space large (15A); pi. 92A-The posterior margin


axillary
posterolalerally point middle of point beyond

-----Carpophilus marginellus

metepistermahogany; inconspicuous

dorsal body
shiny

light

light

York

scantily subtropical Hemisphere; Washington.

temperate parts America,

Axillary space small (1 SB)--"-------------------------axillary space appears relatively large,


posterior margin

16

midpoint

posterior lip posterior end, metepisternal

cavity,

farther

midpoint

15A Carpophilus
marginellus

15B Carpophilus
mutilatus

and immediately in front of the prosfernal process (ISA); 16 Prosternum punctate only each elytron with 2 light (an elongate patch along the suture and basal

patch) usually joined together (16B); pi. 91-----------Carpophilus maculatus


body light dull, moderately
world; originally

dark brown; inconspicuous gold tropical parts Hawaii;

from

Prosternum entirely
occurring

almost entirely punctate (16C); elytral light the suture (16D)-----------elongate patch

17

y-

16A Carpophilus
maculatus

16C Carpophilus
mutilatus

16B Carpophilus
maculatus

16D Carpophilus
freeman/"

161

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

17 Pronotal punctures separated from each other by distance equal to greater than twice their diameters (17A); lateral extremities of prosternum weakly punctate granulose (17B); pi. 91--------------------..---Carphophilus freemani
brown; elytra body dull yellow except for cuticle scutellum, along lateral margin, dull, moderately clothed with inconspicuous yellow Distribution: cosmopolitan except arctic America, temperate regions; California. See New York, Dakota, 9C,9D.

Pronotal punctures separated by distance equal to less than their diameters (17C); lateral extremities of prosternum strongly and densely punctate (17D)-----

18

17A CarpophHus
freemani

17B CarpophHus
freemani

17C CarpophHus
mutilatus

17D Carpophilus
mutilatus

162

Sap beetles (Nitidulidae, Coleoptera)

18 Prosternum entirely punctate (18A); femur,

without swelling

(18B); pi.

91

Carpophilus mutilatus
impunctate pronolum, posterior margin; head, elytra, body brown, pronotum, yellow orange-yellow; elytral promargin large median

head: elytral cloudy discoloration; cuticle dull, moderately inconspicuous yellow Distribution: tropical, subtropical, temperate America, Virginia regions; also (Tehama County).

the midline just behind the anterior Prosternum punctate except for small the inner margin the margin (18C); femur III with small, abrupt swelling trochanter (swelling usually larger in males; may be inconspicuous absent) (18D); pi. 91------------------------------Ca/popft//us fumatus
Color, vestiture,

pronotal punctation tropics subtropics;

only

18B Carpophilus
mutilatus

18A Carpophilus
mutilatus

18D Carpophilus
fumatus

18C Carpophilus
fumatus

163

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

19 Pronotum distinctly

moderately

anteriorly, with posterior angles obtuse (19A); pronotum in lateral view (19B); pi. 92B -dusky sap beetle, Carpophilus lugubris
Body
rusty-brown

elytron usually

margins clothed

(tinged red); shoulder disc; pronotal part pale; cuticle dull, moderately inconspicuous light

pale

temperate regions Georgia America, Hampshire Washington. See

Hemisphere;

Pronotum about

wide anteriorly posteriorly, with small sinuation before the subacute posterior angles (19C); pronotum slightly depressed (19D); pi. 92C

Carpophilus ligneus
rusty-brown (tinged red); portion eiytral large, obscurely other cuticle slightly shining, paler scantily clothed inconspicuous light Distribution: Europe, Central America. USA, America; Mississippi River
Body

^3
19A Carpophitus
lugubris

19B Carpophilus lugubris

d__b

19C Carpophilus
ligneus

19D Carpophilus
ligneus

164

Sap beetles (Nitidulidae, Coleoptera)

20 Abdominal dorsum with sclerites bearing papillae (20A), granules (20B),


Abdominal dorsum without ornamentation other than setae
Although marginellus difficuft asperities, they for sidered

asperities
24

(20D)---------

dorsal they key.

papilla

^^^"^^"i?1^ / ty-.a^fo-^.a.^7
20A Haptoncus
luteoius

sran"es

20B Conolelus
stenoides

7^
20C Cerpophllus
humeraiis

20D Carpophilus
bemipterus

21 Abdomen with lateral tubercles; dorsal papillae prominent, each with

apical

ocelli present

side

head.

Abdomen without lateral tubercles


inconspicuous

dorsal papillae (21B)-present

of

21 A Lobiopa
insularis

21B Conotelus
stenoides

165

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

22 Head with 3 large, equal-sized ocelli each side (22A); each abdominal tergum with pair of contiguous sclerites (each nearly square in outline) meeting the midline, with each sclerite bearing 3 papillae, all sharing base (22B)

Body length

tergum also papilla-bearing side (22B). Caution: characters this couplet may generic may distinguish species from Lobiopa. However, only pest species genus.

Head with 2 small ocelli each side (22C); each abdominal tergum with 8 short, longitudinal rows of papillae (22D)------yellowbrown sap beetle, Haptoncus luteotus
Body length
pregomphus
couplet

be the form papillae arising base (22E). Caution: The distinguish H.

of
Gillogly (found

genus including California).

4^

J41^M-i^
22B Lobiopa
insularis

/W%^W

22D Haptoncus
tuteotus

166

Sap beetles (Nitidulidae, Coleoptera)

23 Each abdominal tergum with granules arranged in circular and rectangular patterns; the apex urogomphus 2-branched, each branch with bristle arising at (23A)-------------------------------Conote/ys stenoides
Body length

Each abdominal tergum with paired sclerites bearing 2 to 12 asperities (23B); urogomphus simple (23C)--------pineapple sap beetle, Carpophilus humeraiis
Body length

pregomphus

anal plate"

23A Conotelus
stenoides

23B Carpophilus
humeraiis

23C Carpophilus
humeraiis

167

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

24 Urogomprius branched (24A, 24B)~


Body length beyond

-Gfischrochilus quadrisignatus

urogomphus into nearly equal, apicaily pointed branches, upward, truncated posterior, inward; pregomphus spiracular prominent (longest (24A, 24B);

segment Vlll).

Urogomphus unbranched (24C)"


urogomphus may (note seta-bearing lateral lateral 25C, lateral lobe, 21A,

25

tubercle.

A).

24A Glischrochilus quadrisignatus

24B Glischrochilus
quadrisignatus

24C Carpophilus
ligneus

25 Urogomphi short, widely separated, and lacking lateral processes (25A, 25B)

Body length posteriorly but


based ings

Pregomphus directed strongly (25B). Savage; agree entirely


provided by

Urogomphi longer, each with

lateral process (25C)-

26

168

Sap beetles (Nitidulidae, Coleoptera)

26 Space between urogomphi wide (26A) Space between urogomphi (26B)"

26A Carpopbilus
obsoletus

26B Carpophilus
dimidiatus

27 Urogomphus dilated

inner surface; lateral process large (27^-Carpophifus obsofetus


Body length Pregomphus
visible).

curved; paired weakly developed (may

Urogomphus not dilated; lateral process small (27B)------

28

27A Carpophilus
obsoletus

27B Carpophilus
lugubris

169

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

28 Urogomphi abruptly narrowed about midway beyond lateral process, with inner margins subparallel (28A)-------------------Carpopft//us marginellus
Body length
gradually

transversely

may

Pregomphus deflexed. incurved, point; moderately developed (usually tergum larvae); minute asperities patches couplet 20). visible (28B:

Urogomphi gradually narrowed from lateral process to apex

(28C)-------

29

170

Sap beetles (Nitidulidae, Coleoptera)

29 Urogomphus incurved (29A); mesonotal and metanotal sclerites strongly developed

(29A)---------------------dusky sap beetle, Carpophilus lugubris


with Body length fresh specimens; midline (visible along preserved specimens) (29B).

Urogomphus not incurved, the apex spinelike (29C); mesonotal and metanotal sclerites absent (29C); pi. 90A--------------driedfru it beetle, Carpophilus hemipterus
Body length
pregomphus

See

20D

parallel 28C.

surface of

plate (29D).

29D Carpophitus
hemipterus

171

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

30 Inner margins of urogomphi divergent from base to apex; urogomphal apex peglike (30A, SOB)---------------------------Carpopft//us mutilatus Carpophilus fumatus
Body length
parallel

Pregomphus abruptly deflexed, anal plate


species

(306).
USA,

very

characters for separation


only

In the

Inner margins of urogomphi generally parallel for most of their length, inner margins apex; each urogomphus broadly rounded and bearing stout slightly dilated

30A Carpophilus
mutilatus

306 Carpophilus
mutilatus

30C Carpophitus
dimidiatus

SOD Carpophilus
dimidiatus

172

Sap beetles (Nitidutidae, Coleoptera)

31 Urogomphi separated midway along their length by 1.5 times the width of

urogom-

phus; urogomphi

bulging apicatty (31A)----------Carpophilus freemani

Urogomphi separated by less than width of urogomphus; often inner margin of urogomphus appears to have slight bulge before apex (31 B) sap beetle, Carpophilus dimidiatus Carpophilus pilosellus
C. dimidiatus pilosellus separate. very

similar helpful,

larvae mm) larger (length mm). See also pilosellus (length

31A Carpophilus
freemani

31 B CarpophHus
dimidiatus

173

fnsect and Mite Pests in Food

Acknowledgments

References Cited
Boving, A.G., and J.Q. Rozen. 1962- Anatomical and systematic study of mature larvae of Nitidulidae (Coleoptera). Ent. Meddel.

Dr. John M. Kingsolver (Agricultural Research Services Systematic Entomology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington DC) and Mrs. Iris Savage (California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento) critically reviewed the manuscript. Dr. Richard S. Zack, Jr. (Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman) and Mrs. Savage provided distribution records for the West Coast. The author gratefully acknowledges the
help given to him by all three of these individuals,

"""1957: Nitidulidae
^p, 3,3
connell, W.A.
1977.

of Delaware. Uni. Delaware


Q^

Agr.

pgch.) 318(1956)1-67.

A key

Carpophllus sap beetles associated with stored foods in the United States. Coop. Plant

Pest Rpt. 2(23)398-404.


Hinton, H.E. 1945. A monograph of beetles associated with stored products. British Museum (Natural History), London.

Saalas, U.
1951.

Zur Kenntnis der fruheren Entwicklungsstadien Carpophilus tigneus Murray (Col. Nitidulidae).

Ann. Ent. Fenn. 17(2)65-72.

174

CRYPTOPHAGID BEETLES (CRYPTOPHAG1DAE, COLEOPTERA)

John M. Kingsolver
Systematic Entomology Laboratory
Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture Beltsville MD 20705

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Cryptophagus is the only genus of the family Cryptophagidae associated with stored foods. The species difficult to identify. Precise identification usually requires removal and observation of the male genitalia. This key to four species is based the work of Woodroffe and Coombs {1), key to 40 North American species. Members of the genus Cryptophagus associated with molds; their presence in food represents accidental
contamination.

176

Cryptophagid beetles (Cryptophagidae, Coteoptera)

KEY TO ADULTS

Elytra! pubescence of hairs of approximately equal length, entirely decumbent (except, sometimes, laterally) (1A) Elytral pubescence either of longer, suberect obliquely-raised hairs of all hairs length (1 B)------------------obliquely-raised and of
Drawings by Kingsolver.

2 Width of pronotum greater at level of anterior angles than at level of lateral teeth (2A) -----------acute-angled fungus beetle, Cryptophagus acutangulus
Holarctic; cluding moldy grain. habitats,

Width of pronotum

lateral teeth (2B) anterior angles than greater -,-.-..--,-------.--,----.-..-,--.--.--.--..-.sigmoid fungus beetle, Cryptophagus
Distribution: Canada, products and
Drawings adapted
by

United Stales;

2A Cryptophagus
acutangulus

2B Cryptophagus

177

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

3 Margin of pronotum angled at lateral tooth; callosity at anterior angle of pronotum minute right angle (3A); pi. 93B prominent, its posterior forming
..-.-.-,-..-----------.---.--,--..--.cellar beetle,
cosmopolitan;

Cryptophagus ceffaris

products.

Margin of pronotum evenly rounded slightly sinuate, not angled at lateral tooth; callosity present but not prominent and not right-angled posteriorly (SB)

Distribution: cosmopolitan;
Drawings

stored products.

3A Cryptophagus
cellaris

3B Cryptop vatens

Reference Cited

Woodroffe, G.E., and C.W. Coombs. 1961. A revision of the North American Cryptophagus Herbst (Coleopfera: Cryplophagidae). Misc. Pub. Ent. Soc. America 2(2)179-211.

178

MINUTE BROWN SCAVENGER BEETLES (LATHR1DIIDAE, COLEOPTERA)

John M. Kingsolver
Systematic Entomology Laboratory

Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture Beltsville MD 20705

Fred G. Andrews
Laboratory Services/Entomology
Division of Plant Industry Department of Food and Agriculture

1220 N Street Sacramento CA 95814

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Lathridiids mycophagous; their presence in stored foods indicates moldy conditions. Since these beetles do not teed directly stored foods, their occurrence in such commodities may be considered accidental contamination.

180

Minute brown scavenger beetles (Lathridiidae, Coleoptera)

KEY TO ADULTS
Drawings by

Coxae and contiguous; abdominal segment fused to metasternum between legs III (1A); pi. 94B----------------------------4c//sten?/a watsonf
Distribution: Africa, Canary Islands, Europe, Madeira, North America, America.

Coxae and separated, sometimes narrowly; abdominal segment separated from


metasternum by suture (1B)----------------------2

1A Adistemia
watsoni

2 Seventh interval at elytral shoulder without prominent carina; scutellum not apparent (2A); eye facets coarse, granular (2B)------------------Seventh interval at elytral shoulder with sharp, prominent carina; scutellum obvious

Drawings

by

2B Dienerella
filum

20 Cartodere constncta

181

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

3 Antennal club with 2 segments (3A); anterior half of pronotal disk with broad, moderately deep, oval depression; head with median channel widened posteriorly (3B); pi.

Europe,
Hemispriere-

Africa,

Anfennal club with 3 segments (3C); anterior half of pronofal disk without depression; head without median channel (3D)--------------------Drawings by

^1

^L
3A Dienerella
fslum

3C Dienerella
rufioollis

3B Dienerella
filum

3D Dienerella
ruficollis

4 Margin of pronotum constricted

(4A); p(. 956--Centra)

-Oienerefia ruficoHis
Europe,

America,
by

Zealand,
Drawing
by

Cushman;

Kinssolver.

Margin of pronotum not constricted (4B)

4A Oieneretia
rufiCQllis

4B Dienerella
fififormis

182

Minute brown scavenger beetles (Lathridiidae, Coleoptera)

Eyes normal with 15 to 20 facets (5A); posterodorsal surface of head with triangular depressed (5B); pi. 95C----------------------Dienerella arga
Europe,
Africa,

America.

6 Etytral intervals 3,5, and 7 costate (6A); elytral striae 5 and 6 complete, extending from base to apex (6B); pi. 96A-Dienerella costulata
Distribution: Europe, Japan,

Elytral intervals not costate (6C); elytral striae 5 and 6 merge forming single stria posteriorly (6D); pi. 96B-----------------------D/e/?e/e//a filiformis
Europe, Japan, North America, USSR.

6A Dienerelta
costulata

6B Dienereila
costulata

6C Dienerella
filiformis

6D Dienerei/a
fififormis

183

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

7 Antennal club 2-segnnented (7A); pronotum distinctly constricted

(7B); pi. 97A

..-...-.-....--.---.--,..-..-,--.-.--.---..----plaster beetle, Cartodere constricta


Distribution: cosmopolitan.

Antennal club 3-segmented (7C); pronotum not distinctly constricted (7D)-----

7A Cartodere
constricta

7C Lathridius
protensicollis

8 Pronotal margin sinuate; median depression of pronotal disk shallow and elongate; elytra slightly produced at apex (8A); pi. 97B Lathridius protensicollis
Distribution:

USA.

Pronotal margin straight; median depression of pronotal disk round and deep; elytra separately rounded at apex (8B); pi. 97C squarenosed fungus beetle, Lathridius minutus
posteriorly.
cosmopolitan.
by

8A Lathridius
protensiGoltis

184

<

"1

DARKLING BEETLES (TENEBRIONIDAE, COLEOPTERA)

Theodore J. Spilman
Systematic Entomology Laboratory
Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560

/nsecr and Mite

Pests in Food

The Tenebrionidae, commonly called darkling beetles tenebrionids, is large family of mostly dark species having 5-5-4 tarsal formula, the forecoxal cavities closed behind, and simple tarsal claws. These beetles usually live in soil in dry under the bark of dead trees. A few species have adapted to and have become pests in stored dry food products. Many such pests have been transported to all parts of the world.

Tenebrionid pests usually infest grains and cereals. Because most of them cannot gnaw through the hard outer covering of whole grains, they usually attack broken damaged grains. The exact food preferences of most of these beetles in stored foods have not been determined. It has often been said that grain must be moldy partially spoiled for species to develop. Perhaps the adults and larvae subsist mainly mold. This is not unreasonable hypothesis because species live in moldy situations in nature. Their presence in bird and mammal nests, in foods stored by small mammals, in caves, and in insect nests probably predisposes of them to become pests in foods stored by people. Some tenebrionid pests also scavengers.
The biologies of only few species known; literature the subject is scattered. Tensbrio molitor, Tribolium castaneum, and T, confusum are rather well known because of their in physiological, ecological, and genetic experiments. Literature vast that Tribolium is serial journal, Tribofium information Bulletin, is needed to coordinate data; this bulletin is for excellent the genus. General discussions biological information the biology of pest tenebrionids have seldom been colTwo useful references lected under single Lepesme (22) and Cotton (8). References to the biologies of individual genera cited at the appropriate species place in the determination key that follows.
Identification of adult darkling beetles associated with the food industry is rather simple because the species

scattered in several tribes and various genera. Because their general appearance is often quite distinct, they usually be easily recognized by the habitus illustrations in Part 3 of this Handbook. Although adults quite small, the specific differences often be with only hand lens. Keys to adult tenebrionids in stored foods have been provided by Lepesme (22) and Freeman (10). Many generalized keys to species of tenebrionids have been published. Some of the those by important Blatehley (1) for Indiana, Boddy (2) for the Pacific Northwest of North America, Kaszab (IS) for Central Europe, and Brendell (3) for the British Isles.

Larval tenebrjonids (pi. 99A, 101A) are called false wireworms because of their resemblance to wireworms, the larvae of the Elateridae click beetles. Identification of the larvae is not simple. Some larvae quite small even when mature, and useful characters, such setae, occasionally missing. Some structures of the smaller such species, as legs, must be mounted microscope slides. The most obvious and easily used character is the apex of the abdomen, segment IX. This often be well enough with strong hand lens. Unfortunately, larval tenebrionids have been only poorly studied. Not all tenebrionids known in the larval stage and only few keys to larvae have been published, two of the more important being Van Emden (37) for the British Isles and Hayashi (17} for Japan.
The key that follows is the first to deal with the larval tenebrionid pests that infest stored foods. Several species unknown in the larval stage and therefore do not appear in the key to larvae; these Alphitobius viator, Apsena ruiipes, Coelopalorus carinatus, C. foveicoitis, Lepidocnemeptatia sericea, Pafonnus humeratis, Palorus cerylonoides, P. ficicola, P. genalis, and P. laesicollis. Information distribution, food associations, and bibliographic references for each larval pest species may be found under the species in the key to adults.

186

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

Adult specimens-Larval specimens


2 Tibia extremely broad (width at apex almost great length); apical spurs of tibia very long (one spur almost long tarsus (2A); body completely covered to obscure the epidermis) (pi. 98A) with scales scalelike setae (so dense

Lepidocnemeplatia sericea
Distribution:
raisins, also reported

United States; figs. barley, milo, rice, various grains: gin trash.

Tibia

moderately to broadly expanded apically (width at apex than half tarsus (2B); than VA length); spurs of tibia short, not long body not covered with scales (at most covered with setae but epidermis (pi. IF)------------------------------obscured)

2A Lepidocnemeplatia
sericea

26 Alphitobius
diaperinus

3 Elytra bicolored, yellowish-reddish, with 2 more broad, transverse bands that often incomplete (pi. lF)----twobanded fungus beetle, Alphitophagus bifasciatus
Distribution: cosmopolitan; barley, feeds, milo, rice, wheat, beans, chick cornmeal (moist), (spoiled), grain products; fungi, reported grain, decaying vegetable 7,

Elytra unicolored (sometimes with setae of different color than epidermis but epidermis of only color) (pi. 98B)------------------------each lateral interval (4A) 4 Elytron with fine (though distinct) longitudinal ridge Elytral intervals flat convex, without ridges (4B), only interval 7 with coarse,

5 11

longitudinal ridge (pi. 104A)


Drawings by

187

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

5 Maxillary palpus with apical segment broadly triangular (5A); metasternum short and coxa III less than diameter of 11) (5B); elytra (distance between arcuate (pi. 98B) with lateral borders rounded -..-..-..--.,-..-.--..-..-..--.-----------fig engraver beetle, Apsena rufipes
California;
field and storage).

raisins, figs (in

Maxillary palpus with apical segment parallel-sided narrowed distally (5C); metasferand 111 at least twice diameter of long (distance between II) (5D); elytra with lateral borders parallel subparallel (pi. 98C). Genus Tribotium
11, 18,
Drawings

^7
5A Apsena
rufipes

5C Tribolium
audax

6 Pronotum with lateral bead continuous with anterior bead

5B Apsena
rufipes

5D Tribolium
audax

(6A); pi. 98C giant flour beetle, Tribotium brevicorne


feed,

Distribution:

States; associated
feeds, honey comb; cutting
Drawings by

Canada oats,
reported

26,

Pronotum with lateral bead reaching only to corner, then seeming to disappear under anterior border (6B)-------------------------------

6A Tribolium
brevicorne

188

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

7 Antenna clavate (7A); head with carina (eye at narrowest point without facets

eye; eye divided


with

deeply constricted 2 facets) (7B)--------

Antenna capitate (7C); head without carina eye; eye with shallow constriction (eye at narrowest with at least 4 facets) (7D)
Drawing
by

Distribution: cosmopolitan (but perate and regions); associated wheat, bran, wheat, flour, graham flour, cornmeal, starch, oats, oatmeal, flour, beans, rice, beans, barley, rye, safflower meal,

breakfast cereals, grains, grain products, peanuts, root, baking cashews, almonds, walnuts, powder, chocolate, powdered milk, ginger, raisins, dried fruit, dried vegetables, cottonseed, pulp, biscuit; reported hulls, vetch seed, snuff, meal, dried 5, 8, 11, 22, 7A&6.

Epistoma rounded at eye (8C); with large punctures centrally pronotum (8D) and in elytral striae; pronotum widest at half-length (pi- 98D) --.--.-.------.-..-.-.-.-----..falge black flour beetle, Tribolium destructor
Distribution: Africa, Europe, America; flour, bran, groals, oats, semolina, alfalfa meal, sunflower seeds, grains, poultry feed, mixed feeds; reported from cotton, wool, prod11,
Drawings
by

by

189

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

9 Apical antenna! segment strongly arcuate (9A); eye large, extending medioventratly nearly to maxillary fossa (9B); pi. 99C -----red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum
Body (in North America associated

Distribution: cosmopolitan southern areas);

bran, flour, wheat, milo, millet, barley, rice, grains (broken), grain

products, mixed feeds, cereals, beans, lentils, beans, peanuts, safflower seed, seed, ginger, mustard, chillies, cinnamon, nutmeg, raisins, sultanas, dried figs, meal, fruit, Brazil walnuts, almonds, root, lapioca, dog food; chips, flax, flax seed. grain spillage, reported seed, snuff, oilcake, pineapple plants (decayed), gin trash, 8, 11. 22,
Drawings by

Apical antennal segment subtruncate (9C); eye small, extending medioventrally farther than to region behind lateral angle of maxillary fossa (9D)------Body

10

9A Tribolium castaneum

9B Tribolium
castaneum
I)

A->/

10 Many confluent punctures between eyes (10A); eye not extending medioventraily to region behind lateral angle of maxillary fossa (10B); body slender (pi. 100A) American black flour beetle, Tribotium audax
America; flour, barley, grain, grain products;
wheat,

reported

logs. 4A, 5C&D, 9C.

11, 15,

See

No confluent punctures between eyes (10C); eye extending medioventrally to region behind lateral angle of maxillary fossa (10D); body robust (pt. 100B)
black flour beetle, Tribolium madens
Europe, Africa; recently reported from Canada, USA; ilour, cornmeal, References: 11, grains,

190

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

10A Tribolium
audax

10C Tribolium
madens

108 Tribolium
audax

10D Tnbolium
madens

11 Length 10 to 25 Length 3 to 7
12 Pronotum with very large punctures laterally and small

punctures overall (12A); pi.

100C-grain. America; associated reported from products; trees, squirrel

-Neatus tenebrioides
barley, cereals,

Drawings by

Pronotum with large and small punctures overall (12B)-----

12A Neatus
tenebrioides

191

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

13 Pronofal punctures not contiguous (13A); tibia moderately expanded apicatly (13B), with sharp edge dorsally apical half (13C); integument weakly shining; pi. 101C yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor
pupa pi, Distribution: cosmopolitan; ineal, feeds, bran, grain, products, bread, crackers, potatoes, fruits, meat; cobs, reported sweepings, tobacco, References; 8, 9, feathers, See gin

Many pronotal punctures contiguous (13D); tibia weakly expanded apically (13E), with blunt rounded edge dorsatfy apical half (13F); integument dull ("matte finish"), pi. 101D-----------------dark mealworm, Tenebrio obscurus
cosmopolitan; barley, grain, reported cottonseed, gin trash, soda ash, phosphate References: 8, 9,
Drawings
by

flour,
feeds,

pulp;

meal.

13A Tenebrio
molitor

13D Tenebrio
obscurus

14 Elytron with pseudopleuron gradually narrowed, sometimes reaching apex (14A)Elytron with pseudopleuron abruptly abbreviated before apex (14B)--------

14A Platydema
ruficorne

14B Sitophagus
hololeptoides.

192

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

15 Body broad and oval (lateral borders strongly curved); dorsal surface satiny black and hairless (pi. IOOD)-----------redhorned grain beetle, Platydema ruficome
America; associated shorts, grain (damp, moldy).

also4B,

Body elongate (lateral borders almost parallel-sided); dorsal surface shiny, weakly shiny, hairy (pi. 103A)----------------------------16 Length 5 to 7 mm; eye emarginate (16A, 16B) divided (16C)------Length 3 to 3.5 mm; eye entire (16D)--------------------"

16

17 22

16A Alphitobius diaperinus

16B Alphitobius
laevigafus

16C Blapstinus
discolor

16D Palorus
subdepressus

17

Dorsum

with dense recumbent setae

(17A); pi. 102A


fig darkling beetle, Bfapstinus discolor

Distribution:

(British Columbia)

USA (California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, figs, grapes, raisins, Washington); associated fruits, peaches, persimmons, strawberries, tomatoes, sugar beets,

Dorsum without setae (17B)


17B Alphitobius diaperinus

18 Head widest at eyes; eyes large, separated by distance subequal to width of eye (18A) Head widest anterior to eyes; eyes small, separated by distance greater than 3 times

19

18A Palembus
dermestoides

193

fnsect and Mite Pests

in

Food

19

Antenna with broad segments symmetrical (19A); pronotum with anteromedial bead (19B); pi. 102B --------------.-------------pa/embus ocufans
Distribution: panlropical,
wheat,

pods

Tarrorindus

(Florida); reported meal. yeast; Cass/a spp.,

Antenna with broad segments moderately asymmetrical (19C); pronotum without anteromedial bead (19D); pi. 102C-------------Pa/embus dermestoides
pantropical;

meal, flour, oats, yeast, yeast apples; also reported from

bran, peanuts, dried pollen, royal jelly, bread, jujube fruits;

76,

20 Body shiny; pronotum with small punctures separated by distance much greater than diameter of puncture (20A); tibia broadly expanded apically (SOB);

pi. 103A~--------------lesser mealworm, Atphitobius diaperinus


Distribution: cosmopolitan; associated with wheat, wheat, flour, barley, oatmeal, rice, grain (damp moldy), cereals, feeds, products, peanuts, beans, black gram (urd), copra, chocolate, potatoes, biscuits, roots; chips, reported seed, linseed, cottonseed, oilseed products, gum dammar, drugs, tobacco, silkworm skins, bones, poultry litter, 21.

16A,17B,

Body dull; pronotum with large punctures usually separated by distance greater than diameter of puncture (20C); tibia (moderately (200) weakly expanded

194

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

21 Pronotum with lateral borders distinctly narrowed toward posterior angles; pronotal punctures less dense (21A); antenna with segments VI to X asymmetrically panded apically (21 B); tibia moderately expanded apically (21 C); pi. 103B black fungus beetle, Afphitobius laevigatus
bran, Distribution: cosmopolitan; products, moldy grain, cereals, grain, damp fruits, legumes, spices, peanuts, mixed nuts, feeds, sugar beets, illupe nuts; cottonseed, poultry litter, reported products. Reference: animal products, oilseeds

Pronotum with lateral borders subparallel toward posterior angles; pronotal puncdense (21 D); antenna with segments V to X asymmetrically expanded tures toward apex (21 E); tibia weakly expanded apically (21 F); pi. 103C

roots,

peppers,

tropical Africa; associated reported

ginger

22 Elytron with interval 7 carinate (22A; pi. 104A&B) flat (22B; pi. 105A-C)-Elytron with interval 7 rounded

22A Coelopalorus
foveicollis

22B Paiorus
subdepressus

195

/nsecf and Mite

Pests

in Food

23 Pronotum with deep lateral depressions (23A); pi. 104A--

-Coelopalorus foveicollis

East Africa, Distribution: Oriental Region; imported (Alabama, Hawaii); associated with shorts, copra, grain products, cowpeas, illupe flour, peanut cake, nuts, chips; feed, spillage reported stores, See burrows logs. References: 73,
Trinidad,

Pronotum without lateral depressions (23B); pi. 104BDistribution: Oriental Region; Reference: nuts. illupe nuts,

--Coelopalorus carinatus

23A CoeiopaSorus
foveicollis

23B Coefopaforus
carinatus

24

Pronotum with deep lateral depressions (24A); pi. 105B-------- Palorus iaesicotlis
kernels), oats;
Africa; associated with reported

(broken
cobs,

bark- References: 13,

Pronotum without lateral depressions (24B)------------------------

25

24A Palorus
laesicollis

24B Pa/orus
subctepressus

25 Head without fine carina (though sometimes with wrinkles) adjacent to top of eye; clypeogenal suture ending posterior to lateral borders; punctures between eyes

dense, deep, usually oval (25A)------------------Pa/or/nus humeratis


Distribution: Oriental Region; associated

nutmeg,

sago

Head with fine carina adjacent to top of eye; clypeogenaf suture ending within anterior border at junction of anterior and lateral borders; punctures between eyes, when dense, round and not deep (25B)

26

196

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

25A Palorinus
humeralis

25 B Palorus
ratzeburgii

26 Pronotal punctures with setae (26A)-Setae


Distribution:
America,

-Palorus genalis
pronotal punctures. Africa, CenRegion; imported rice, nutmeg, Indies; flour, tapioca, peanut cake,

abraded

illupe ginger,

(cattle feed).

Pronotal punctures without setae (26B)-

26A Palorus
genalis

26B Palorus subdepressus

27 Clypeus with borders strongly raised laterally and dorsally to antennal insertions, ing a distinct depression posterior to border (27A, 27B); pi. 105A depressed flour beetle, Palorus subdepressus
cosmopolitan;

wheat, rice,
feeds,

sorghum, peanuts,

ginger,
seed, 16D, 22B,

flour, grain, pollards, nuts, illupe (cattle feed), reported copra,

of logs. References: 73,

Clypeus with border at most slightly thickened (not strongly raised) laterally and dorsally to anfennal insertions, with depression posterior to border vague shallow

197

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

28 Eye small (28A); pi. 105C--

---smalleyed flour beetle, Palorus ratzeburgii

flour, cosmopolitan; barley, rice, cereals, cereal products, grain, grain prodmeal, caraway seeds, ucts, bread, peanuts, lentils, oats, split macaroni, semolina,
tapioca, powdered ginger;
milk, almonds,

apricots,

reported

linseed

References: 4, 13, 14,

See also

Eye large (28B)


28B Patorus
cery/onoicfes

29

29 Pronotum with lateral borders moderately to strongly convergent to base (29A)

Africa; associated sorghum; also reported

wheat, peanuts, spillage.

Pronotum with lateral borders subparallel to weakly convergent to base (296)


-.-.-----..-.-.-..-.-.-.---------------------Pa/orus ceryionoides
Africa, Oriental Region; mills; reported lupe nuts. rice,

of

286.

29A

Pa/orus

29B

Pa/orus

ficicola

ce/y/onofc/es

30 Length at least 6.5 mm; ridge of pseudopleuron easily visible in dorsal view (30A) Length less than 4 mm; ridge of pseudopleuron hidden in dorsal view (30B)----

31 32

r y30A Cynaeus
angustus

< ~^
308
Latheticus

oryzae

198

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

31

Pronotum covered with fine punctures (31 A); apex of antenna surpassing base of pronotum by length (or more) of last segment (pi. 10GA,)---Sitophagus bololeptoides
Surface shiny; only epistoma (pi. 106A) (epistoma simple sally America, Madeira, females). Distribution: America, USA (Arizona, California, ico, Panama, Indies; associated Florida, Texas), copra, avocados, limes, cereals, nutmeg, tomatoes, peanuts, reported gumboSee ponderosa. Reference:

Pronotum with

punctures laterally and fine punctures medially (31 B); apex of antenna falling short of pronotal base by the length (or more) of last 2 segments (pi. 103D)"----------"-----"larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus
Both
Distribution;

simple, unarmed epistoma (pi. 103D). wheat, America; associated

flour,
products,

reported from

barley, sorghum, grain, figs; soybeans, Reference:

31 A Sitophagus
hololeptoicfes

31 B Cynaeus
angustus

32 Length of head before eyes much greater than Vz distance between antenna short (length less than distance between eyes) (pi. 104C)

eyes (32A);

-.--.--.--.-.-----.-..--longheaded flour beetle, Latheticus oryzae


cosmopolitan; barley, rolled feeds,

wheat, flour,

barley, milo, rice, grain products, cereals, beans, raisins, chips, oatmeal, bran,
6, 22,

See

Length of head before eyes not greater than Vs distance between eyes (32B); antenna than 1.5 times distance between eyes) (pi. 106B). Genus long (length Gnatocerus------------------------------------Mandibles Reference:
only

33

(see 34A&B).

32A Latheticus
oryzae

32B Gnatocerus

199

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

4 tubercles between eyes; epistoma 33 Males; mandibles with horns; head with 2 incised anteriorly (accommodating dorsaliy projected mandibular horns) (33A; pL

Females; mandibles without horns; head without tubercles between eyes; epistoma not incised (33B)-------------"--"--------------33A Gnatocerus
cornutus

35

^^a

^^

33B Gnatocews
cornutus <?

34 Mandibular horns broad and finely serrate (34A); pi. 106B ....------.--.-------broadhorned flour beetle, Gnatocerus cornutus
flour, bran, cosmopolitan; commeal, farina, semolina, pancake ffour, oatmeal, rolled barley, miio, rice, rice, cereal, products, feeds, ginger, spices, biscuit, bread, dog biscuit, yeast cakes; reported cake, seed, meal, pyrelhrum flowers, powder, 22, 23, gin products, 25,

Mandibular horns slender and simple (34B); pf. 106C -sienderhorned flour beetle, Gnatocerus maxiltosus
wheat, cosmopolitan; cornmeal, rice, feeds, peanuts, nutmeg; reported from pods. pumpkin

Reference:

34A Gnatocerus
cornutus

34B Gnatocews
maxillosus

35 Eye deeply incised (composed of only

2 facets at narrowest) (35A) "broadhorned flour beetle, Gnatocerus cornutus

Eye moderately incised (composed of

than 2 facets at narrowest) (35B) .---..-..-..--..--.--.------sienderhorned flour beetle, Gnatocerus maxitlosus


Drawings

35A Gnatocerus
9

35B Gnatocerus
maxiHous Q

200

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

36 Last abdominal tergum with 2 acute processes (urogomphi) (36A, 36B)----Last abdominal tergum narrowed to single acute blunt process (36C, 36D)-

36A Palorus
ratzeburgii

36B Lalheticus
oryzae

^
36C Alphltophagus
bifasciatus

.
38

37 Urogomphus short (length approximately 1/5


urooomDhi) /37A

less length of last tergum including

37B)------"----------"--------------------

Urogomphus long (length 1/3 to 2/3 length of last tergum including urogomphi) (37C,

37A Palorus
ratzebwgii

37C

Latheticus

oryzae

37B Palorus
ratzeburgii

37D Latheticus oryzae

201

Insect and Mite Pests

in

Food

38 Tibiotarsus with 4

5 ventral setae (38A); thoracic terga and 111 and abdominal tergum each with distinct anterior transverse carina raised line (38B); last each side abdominal tergum with 2 short stout setae base of urogomphi (38C 38D1-------------------------------------Drawing

39

by

Tibiotarsus with ventral seta (38E); thoracic terga and III and abdominal tergum without anterior transverse carina raised line (38F); last abdominal tergum

without short stout setae

each side (38G, 38H)-------------

40

38A Tenebrio
obscurus

38B Tenebrio
obscurus

38E Palorus
ratzeburgii

38F Palorus
ratzeburgii

38C Tenebrio
motito/"

38G Palorus
subdepressus

38H

PQlorus

subdepressus

202

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

39 Trochanter

with

short stout ventral seta (39A)--dark mealworm, Tenebrio obscurus


See

Trochanter with 2 short stout ventral setae (39B); pi. 101A ----------------------yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor
See
38C&D.

39A Tenebrio
obscurus

39B Tenebrio
molitor

40 Last abdominal tergum with ventral to urogomphus inclined approximately 45 from horizontal (40A), with lateral borders moderately converging posteriorly (40B), and without colorless longitudinal medial line (40B) ..---------.--.----.depressed flour beetle, Palorus subdepressus

Last abdominal tergum with ventral to urogomphus inclined approximately 70 from horizontal (40C), with lateral borders strongly converging posteriorly (40D), and with colorless longitudinal medial line (40D) lleyed flour beetle, Palorus ratzeburgii
37A,

203

/nsecr and Mite

Pests in Food

41

Antennal segments and


lacking

white

subequal in length (41A); thoracic and abdominal terga urogomphus light distinct anterior transverse carina raised line (41 B); beetle, Latheticus oryzae basally, dark apically (41 C, 41 D)---longheaded flour

(41E); thoracic tergum through Antennal segment approximately 1/2 long raised line abdominal tergum VII each with distinct anterior transverse 41 (41 F); urogomphus uniformly colored (41 B, H)-

A^
41A Latheticus oryzae

<^C
41E Tribolium
audax

41 C Latheticus oryzae

41 D Latheticus oryzae

41 B Latheticus oryzae

41 F Tribolium audax
41 H Tribolium audax

204

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

42 Abdominal segments to IV each with 2 setae above and 2 below imaginary line drawn posteriorly from spiracle (42A)---------------------Abdominal segments to IV each with 3 setae above and 3 below line drawn posteriorly

43

42A Tribolium
castaneurrt

42 B Tribolium
audax

43 Femur with 4 ventral setae (43A); abdominal terga to IV with 2 long setae each of setae (43B)--------black flour beetle, Tribolium madens side in anterior

Femur with 3 ventral setae (43C); abdominal terga to IV with 3 long setae each of setae (43D)-------red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum side in anterior

44A Tribolium
brevicorne

44B Tribolium
destructor

\_

205

insect and Mite Pests in Food

45 Tibiotarsus

with

ventral seta (45A)--------giant flour beetle, Tribolium brevicorne


See also

Tibiotarsus

with 2 ventral setae


See

(45B)"-American black flour beetle, Triboliuin audax

41E-H,

45A Tribolium
brevicorne

45B Tribolium
audax

46 Tibiotarsus

with 2 posterodorsal setae (46A); mesothoracic spiracle oval (46B); each side in posterior of setae abdominal terga to IV with 6 7 long setae (46C)-------------------false black flour beetle, Tribolium destructor

Tibiotarsus

with posterodorsal seta (46D); mesothoracic spiracle round (46E); each side in posterior of setae abdominal terga to IV with 4 5 long setae (46F); pi. 99A----------------contused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum

46D rribolium
confusum

46C

Tribolium destructor

46F Tribolium
confusum

206

Darkling baetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

47 Thoracic terga

and III with distinct anterior transverse carina and III without anterior transverse carina

raised line (47A, raised line (47C)-51

Thoracic terga

47A Neatus
tenebrioides

47B Blapstinus
discolor

47C Cynaeus
angustus

raised line (48A); tergum 48 Abdominal tergum without anterior transverse carina of last abdominal segment with blunt apex (48B) --------------------------fjg darkling beetle, Blapstinus discolor

207

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

setae Head with 2 eye spots each side (49A); tibiotarsus with 5 ventrally and only long slender setae posteriorly (49B); last abdominal tergum with short setae (approximately 15) each side (49C, 49D) Neatus tenebrioides
See also 48B&C.
Drawings

by

Head with

each side (49E); tibiotarsus with 4 fewer setae eye spot ventrally and at least short thick seta in addition to long slender setae posteriorly (49F); last abdominal tergum with longer and fewer setae (approximately 6) each

50 Abdominal sterna to Vll with 3 setae laterally (50A); last abdominal tergum with seta adjacent to apex not extending to apex (50B; also 49G) ..-..-._-..,-...,........_.-_-........-.^...._._.........^..lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus

Drawings

by

Abdominal sterna to VII with 2 setae laterally (50C); last abdominal tergum with seta adjacent to apex also 49H) beyond (50D; -.,-..-..-..-^.,-...,..-...-.......-...,........-.........black fungus beetle, Alphitobius laevigatus

208

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

51 Last abdominal tergum with

each side apex (51A, 51 B) pair of short setae ..-....-.---.--....-...-..-..-...-.--.-.-larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus

Last abdominal tergum without

each side apex pair of short setae 51 Dl---------------------------~-------------

(51C,
52

52 Last abdominal tergum with posterolateral seta far surpassing apex (52A, 52B)Last abdominal tergum with posterolateral seta not surpassing apex (52C, 52D,
52 F

53 54

52A Sitophagus
hololeptoides

52C Gnatocerus
maxillosus

52D Alphitophagus
bifasciatus

52B Sitophagus
hololeptoides

52E Gnatocerus
maxillosus

209

Insect and Mite Pests

in

Food

53 Abdominal sterna to IV with long seta in anterior (53A); abdominal terga to IV without setae (53A) and Vll and VIII without short setae (53B) ------.-----.------.--redhorned grain beetle, Platydema ruficorne
See
51C&D.

Abdominal sterna to IV with 2 long setae in anterior corner, 2 in posterior corner, and between the (53C); abdominal terga to IV with 2 setae in anterior and 3 setae in posterior short setae (53C), and Vll and Vlll with

(53D)-----------------------------S(tophaous hololeptoides
See

53A Platydema
ruficorne

53C Sitophagus
hololeptoides

53B Platydema
ruficorne

53D Sitophagus
hololeptoides

54 Abdominal terga VII and Vlll with

short setae (54A)

...-..-.-..---..,-.-..-...-.---..slenderhorned flour beetle,

Gnatocerus maxiffosus

Abdominal terga Vll and Vlll without short setae (54B)---

55

54A Gnatocems
max;7/osus

^\

^
210

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

55 Last abdominal tergum with apex suddenly narrowed (55A, 55B) twobanded fungus beetle, Alphitophagus bifasciatus
36C,

Last abdominal tergum with apex gradually narrowed (55C, 55D)---

55A Alphitophagus
bifasciatus

55B Alphitophagus
bifasciafus

55C

Paiembus

55D Paiembus
dermestoides

dermestoides

56 Mesothoracic spiracle oval (56A); spiracle of abdominal segment subequal in size to spiracle of segment (56B); abdominal terga VI) and Vltl obviously darker than terga to VI-----------------------------Pa/emibus ocularis

Mesothoracic spiracle round (56C); spiracle of abdominal segment obviously larger than spiracle of segment (56D); abdominal terga to VIII light colored---

57

56A

Paiembus

ocularis

56B Paiembus
ocularis

56C Paiembus
dermestoides

56D

Paiembus dermestoides

211

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

57 Abdominal terga to IV with 3 setae above and 3 setae below imaginary line drawn posteriorly from spiracle (57A)-----------------Pa/embus dermestoides
55C&D, 56C.

Abdominal terga to IV with seta above and setae below imaginary line drawn posteriorly from spiracle (57B)-----broadhorned flour beetle, Gnatocerus comutus

57A

Pa/embus

57B Gnatocerus
cornutus

dermestoides

References Cited

Blatchley, W.S. 1910- An illustrated descriptive catalogue of the beetles (exclusive of the Coleoptera
Rhynchophora) known to
in Indiana.

Nature, Indianapolis.
2 Boddy, D.W.
1965.

Family Tenebrionidae. /n The beetles of the Pacific Northwest. Part 4. Macrodactyles, Palpicornes, and Heteromera, by M.H. Hatch. University of Washington, Seattle.

3 Brendell, M.J.D.

1975.
Butler, P.M. 1949.

Coleoptera. Tenebrionidae. Handb. Ident. British Insects 5(10)1-22.


Observations the biology of Palorus ratzeburgi Wissman, with comparative notes Tenebrionidae in general (Coleoptera). Trans. Ent.

Soc. London 100(10)249-273. Chapman, R.N. 1918. The confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum Duval). 17th Rpt. State Ent. Minnesota, pp. 73-94.
Chittenden, F.H.
1911. The long-headed flour beetle (Latheticus oryzae Waterh.). USDA Bur. Ent. Bull. 96(2)25-28. Chittenden, F.H. 1917. The iwo-banded fungus beetle. Jour. Econ. Ent.

10(2)282-287.

212

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

8 Cotton, R.T.
1963. Pests of stored grain and grain products. Burgess, Minneapolis. Cotton, R.T., and R.A. St. George. 1929.
10

The meal

USDA Tech. Bull. 95:1-37.

Freeman, P. (ed.). 1980. Common insect pests of stored food products. A


guide to their identification. 6th ed. Economic Series No. 15. British Museum (Natural History), London.

11 Good, N.E.

1936.

The flour beetles of the genus Tribolium. USDA Tech. Bull. 498:1-57.

12 Green, M. 1980.

Alphitobius viator Mulsant & Godart in stored products and its identification (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Jour. Stored Prod. Res.

16(2)67-70.
13 Halstead, D.G.H. 1967. A revision of the genus Palorus (sens. tat.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Bul. British Mus.

(Nat. Hist.) Ent. 19(2)59-148.


14 Halstead. D.G.H.

1967.

species of Palorus and Biological studies Triboltum Coelopalorus with comparative notes and Latheticus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Jour. Stored Prod. Res. 2(4)273-313. species of Tribotium from North America previously confused with Tribolium madens (Charp.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Jour. Stored Prod. Res. 4(4)295-303.

15 Halstead, D.G.H. 1969. A

16 Halstead, D.G.H. 1974. Palembus Casey senior synonym of [1975]. Martianus Fairmaire (Col., Tenebrionidae).

Enf. Monthly Mag.

110(1325-1327)241-243.
17 Hayashi, N. 1966. A contribution to the knowledge of the larvae of Tenebrionidae occurring in Japan (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea). Insecia Matsumurana (suppl. 1)1-41, 32 pi. 18 Hinton, H.E. 1948synopsis of the genus Tribolium Macleay, with the evolution of its speciesremarks groups (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Bul. Ent.

Res. 39(1)13-55.
19 Kaszab, 2.

229-264). In Teredilia, Heteromera, Lamellicornia, Band 8, Die Kafer Mitteleuropas, ed. by H. Freude, K.W. Harde, and G.A. Lohse. Goecke & Evers, Krefeld. 20 Krall, J.L, and G.C. Decker. 1946. The biology of Cynaeus angustus Lee., stored grain pest. Iowa State Coll. Jour. Sci.
1969.
Familie; Tenebrionidae (pp.

20(4)385-402.
21 Lancaster, J.L., Jr., and J.S. Simco. 1967. Biology of the lesser mealworm, suspected reservoir of avian leucosis. Univ. Arkansas Agr. Expt. Sta. Rpt. Ser. 159:1-12.

213

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

22 Lepesme, P.

1944

Les coleopteres des denrees alimentaires et des


Paris.

[19451. produits industriels entreposes. Lechevalier,


23 Morison, G.D. 1925. Notes

the broad-horned flour beetle (Gnathocerus (Echocerus) cornutus, Fabr.). Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh 21(1)14-18. 24 Nowosielski-Slepowron, B.J.A., and E.A. Aryeetey.

1980.

Developmental biology of field and laboratory populations of Latheticus oryzae Waterhouse (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) under various conditions of temperature and humidity. Jour. Stored Prod. Res. 16(2)55-56.

25 Pimentel, D. 1949. Biology of Gnathocerus

Jour. Econ. Ent.

42(2)229-231.
26 Polk, D.

1977.

Overwintering management for control of the giant flour beetle (Tribolium brevicornis) in alfalfa leafcutting bee nests. Washington State Ent. Soc. Proc. 39:52S-527.

27 Rowley, J.Q. 1983. A simple method for the separation of Gnatocerus spp. and Tribolium spp. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Jour. Stored Prod. Res.

19(3)139-140.
28 Shepherd, D. 1924. Life history and biology of Echocerus cornutus

(Fab.). Jour. Econ. Ent. 17(10)572-577.


29 Sokoloff, A.
1972-78.

The biology of Tribolium. vol. (vol. 1, 1972, vol. 2, 1975; vol. 3, 1978). Oxford University.

R. Chandrapal. The influence of restricted food supplies the development of larvae and the fecundity of Palefnbus dermestoides Fairn. (Tenebrionidae). Jour. Stored Prod. Res. 14(2-3)81-86. 31 Van Emden, F.I. 1947. Larvae of British beetles. VI. Tenebrionidae. Ent. Monthly Mag. 83(997)154-160, (998)161-171.
30 Took Hing Chua, and

1978.

214

SEED BEETLES (BRUCHIDAE, COLEOPTERA)

John M. Kingsolver
Systematic Entomology Laboratory
Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture Beltsville MD 20705

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Seeds of many food plants, especially those in the bean often infested by bruchids. Since the family (Fabaceae), larvae feed internally, infestation may not become apparent until the adults emerge. Adults easily recognized to species, but the larvae difficult to determine to genus with reference specimens available for comspecies, not separable in the larval stage. parison. Some species The larvae plump, white yellowish grubs with legs reduced (pi. 108A, 109A) absent (pi. 107A). The most important taxonomic feature of larvae is the shieldlike labial reduced to which the labial palpi plate (sclerome) pair of setae (see couplet illustration 29A, adapted from 2, in chapter 4). The mandibles of the larvae rounded apically and lack teeth (2).

216

Seed beetles (Bruchidae, Coleoptera)

KEY TO ADULTS
Drawings by

Apex of tibia III with 2 movable spurs;

III much wider than femur III (1A); pi. 107B&C


Mexican bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus

Africa, India, tropical America;

Apex

of tibia III without movable spurs (fixed spines may be present); III ranges to scarcely wider than femur III (1 B)----------in width from

1A Zabrotes
subfasciatus

1B Acanthoscelides
obtectus

217

insect and Mite Pests in Food

2 Femur III greatly enlarged, with large tooth and 11 12 smaller teeth ventral margin; tibia 111 curved, matching curvature of femur 111 (2A); pi. 108B ,-.-..---------.----,--.----.-,-groundnut bruchid, Caryedon serratus
tropics;

seeds tropics; [Tamarindus indica) Caribbean islands, acacia (Acac/a India, Mexico, peanuts (Arachis hypogaea} Africa, spp.), Cass/a legumes (Fabaceae) ()).
Drawings

by

Femur III not greatly enlarged; than 4 teeth ventral margin of femur 111; tibia 111 nearly straight (2B)------------------------------

3 With leg 111 in closed position, ventral margin of femur III with 3 4 teeth inside tibia 111 and teeth outside tibia 111 (3A); pi. 1080--bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus
cosmopolitan;

(Pftaseo/us

spp.).
Drawing

by

With leg 111 in closed position, ventral margin of femur 111 with external tooth (3B, 3C)

internal teeth and

218

Seed beetles (Bruchidae, Coleoptera)

4 Femur III with external tooth only (4A); pronotal margin with

tooth (4B); pi. 109B --.---.---------.--.------------,--pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum


cosmopolitan;

garden

[Pisum sativum).

Femur III with external tooth and internal tooth (4C); pronotal margin with

teeth (4D)

4A Bruchus pisorum

4C Callosobruchus

4B Bruchus
pisorum

4D Callosobruchus

219

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

5 Dorsal margin of abdominal segments to V with dense, continuous patch of white hair (5A); antenna pectinate (5B, male) serrate (5C, female); pi. 1K Chinese pea weevil, Catlosobruchus chinensis

Distribution: cosmopolitan; legumes, including pigeon (Ca/anus ca/an), hyacinth (Dolichos /ab/ab), garden (Phaseolus vulgaris), bean {Vigna angularis), (We/a /aba), adzuki (V. radiQta}, (V. unguiculata).
weevil, weevil,

weevil.

Dorsal margin of abdominal segments to V with diffuse yellowish whitish hair not in dense patch (5D); antenna serrate (5E, 5F); pi. 1J cowpea weevil, Catlosobruchus msculatus
cosmopolitan; bean, garden bean,
Drawings

hyacinth bean, legumes. by

5A Callosobruohus
chinensis

5B

5C

5E

5F

5D Callosobrucbus
maculatus

Callosobruchus chinensis

Callosobruchus maculatus

220

Seed beetles (Bruchidae, Coteoptera)

References Cited

Kingsotver, J.M. in the continental 1970. Insects not known to United States. Groundnut bruchid (Caryedon

serratus (Olivier)). Coop. Econ. Insect Rpt. 20(18)303-304. Pfaffenberger, G.S1977. Comparative descriptions of the final larval instar of Bmchus brachislis, B. rufimanus, and 6. pisorum (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Coleop. Bull. 31(2)133-142.

221

/nsecf and Mite

Pests in Food

Notes and Sketches

222

I0

WEEVILS (CURCULIONIDAE, COLEOPTERA)

Donald R. Whitehead*
Systematic Entomology Laboratory
Plant Sciences Institute

Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560

"Deceased

/nsect and Mite Pests in Food

stored The few kinds of weevils customarily considered among those keyed and illustrated in product pests the weevils most likely to this chapter. These losses in storage to be pantry pests. Their foods subject to postharvest attack and injury.

Most other weevils that food pests develop along with their hosts and likely to have left the crop by harvest to be nearly ready to do time Some species leave before pupation; in this adults unlikely to be countered. In other species, pupation in the host, and adults may be found in the market place. A few inspecies, notably the sweet potato weevil, may in numbers during storage.
The cowpea curculio and the pecan weevil keyed and illustrated examples of preharvest food pests. The following survey of additional, primarily preharvest, pests North lists only highlights. The emphasis is American pests and possible future immigrants, especially those from tropical America and Eurasia.

Sweet potatoes. The sweet potato weevil, Cyfas (Summers), is major pest throughout parts of the world except in Africa where eaten by several other species of sweet potatoes Cytas. Several other kinds of weevils infest sweet potato tubers, including two West Indian species, Euscepes postlasclatus (Fairmaire), which has spread to Pacific islands, and Pafaeopus costicollis Marshall, which also infests yams. Yams. Two potential immigrants Palaeopus costicoilis from the West Indies and Elytroteinus subtruncatus (Fairmaire) from the Pacific region.
lormicarius elegantulus
Fruit

Crops

Cucurbits. The melon weevil, Acythopeus curvimstris potential immigrant from Eurasia. Legumes. Peas and beans eaten in the field by various species, native and exotic, of Apion and

(Boheman), is

Chalcodermus,

Root and Stem Crops

is

Beets, sugar beets. Bothynoderes punctiventris (Germar) major pest in central Europe. Other potential

Chromoderus fasciatus immigrants from Eurasia (Muller) and Conorrhynchus mendicus (Gyllenhal). Carrots, The carrot weevil, Listronotus oregonensis (LeConte), is indigenous. Liparus coronatus (Goeze) and Mecaspis alternans (Herbst) potential immigrants from Eurasia. Horseradish. Bans fepioW Germar is destructive, recent immigrant from Eurasia. Onions. At least four species of Brachycerus potential immigrants from Mediterranean Europe. Potatoes. The Andean genus Premnotrypes includes 12 known pests but of unknown species, most of which immigration potential. Sugarcane. In the American tropics, at least two species of Metamasius pests, particularly of Injured overripe sugarcane.

Nuts. North American nuts attacked by various indigenous species of Conotracfiefos and Curculio. Other Curculio of from Eurasia species potential immigrants. Orchard fruits. Fruits of apple, cherry, peach, pear, and eaten by various species of Coccotorus, Conoplum tracnetus, and Tachypterellus in North America and Furcipus in Eurasia. Peppers. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, is immigrant from Mexico. Small fruits. Most berry weevils attack buds rather than fruits, but at least indigenous species of Anthonomus feeds cranberry fruits. The grape curculio, Craponius inaequsilis, is indigenous. atTropical fruits. Avocado fruits in tropical America tacked by various species of Conotrachelus and Heilipus. Other species of Conotrachelus eat guava fruits in tropical America. Pests of cola nuts from Africa include Balanogastris kolae and several species of Sophmrhinus. Two species of the Oriental genus Sternochstus develop in other develops in fruits; mango seeds, and at least the seed weevil, S. mangiferae (Fabricius), has spread to Hawaii and the West Indies.

224

Weevils

(Curculionidae, Coleoptera)

Prosternum with deep groove which receives snout (1A); tarsal claws fused basally;
pi. iioB-------------------cowpea curculio, Chalcodermus
Body black, deeply punctured dorsally. Dislribution: USA; cowpeas Caribbean region, legumes. Adults oviposit developing pods, fruits; emerge maturity, the the ground, pupate drop
Drawing

Prosternal groove absent (1B); tarsal claws free basally-Body brown, variously sculptured.

1A Chalcodermus

2 Snout long (about longer than body) and very slender (2A); tarsal claws long toothed; pi. 111 B--------------------"pecan weevil, Curculio caryae
densely Body yellowish brown, finely punctate USA; dorsally. Distribution: species pecans. hickory America Mexico (7).
species develop

develop

commercial growing fruit, drop pupate. ground,

develop
fruit, emerge,

Snout relatively short (much shorter than body) and stout (2B); tarsal claws not toothed
Body
by

sculpture various,

225

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

3 Snout short and stout, with dorsal margin curved; antenna inserted middle of snout, far in front of eye (3A); antennal funicle with 7 segments; antennal club with basal segment not shiny (3B); pygidium not exposed; pi. 112B broadnosed grain weevil, Caulophilus oryzae
Distribution: region, perhaps casionally intercepted
elsewhere,

USA;

ing

freshly
stored
develops

pest principally of ripenspecimens may species damaged grain.


fruits, notably products (ginger, yams). For

seeds,

C.
older literature,
Drawings

called

Snout cylindrical, with dorsal margin straight; antenna inserted base of snout, just in front of eye (3C); funicle with 6 segments; club with basal segment shiny (3D); pygidium largely exposed. Genus Sitophilus-

3B Caulopbilus
oryzae

3C Sitophitus

3D Sitophilus

226

Weevils

(Curcutionidae, Coleoptera)

antennal insertion, its dorsal margin plane 4 Snout (in profile) not arched frons; antennal insertion nearly contiguous with front of eye (posterior margin of scrobe adjacent to eye) (4A); pi. 113A------tamarind weevil, Sitophilus linearis
punctures small, nearly circular, elytra! longitudinally; 3, 5, 7, minute, tures; elytrsi equally raised;

1.

strongly basally pantropical. species develops often intercepted States ports entry, otherwise food pest.

Snout arched

antennal insertion, its dorsal margin not plane frons; antennal insertion separated from eye by distance subequal to width of scape (posterior margin of scrobe distinct from front margin of eye) (4B)
various,

227

Insect and Mite Pests

Food

long 5 Pronotal punctures widely separated, large, elongate (about twice wide), with spaces between punctures generally flat, wide, not forming longitudinal rugae and 7 3, 5, striae; intervals than wide wider about intervals elytral (5A); strongly raised basally (5B); strial punctures small, not quadrangular, not strongly transverse another by encroaching upon intervals, not separated from ridges (5B); pi. 1130---------"-"----granary weevil, Sitoph/lus granarius
Distribution: cosmopolitan; food pest.

whole grain;

major

Pronotal punctures closely spaced, small, nearly circular (much less than twice (5C); elytra) interlong wide), with spaces between punctures generally vals much than striae; intervals 3, 5, and 7 not strongly raised basally upon intervals, encroaching strial strongly large, quadrangular, punctures (50); transverse ridges (5D)--------another by separated from

5B Sitophilus
granarius

5C Sitophilus
zeamais

5D Sitophilus
zeamais

228

Weevils

(Curculionidae, Coteoptera)

6 Upper surface of median lobe of aedeagus evenly convex (6A); free sclerite at base of median lobe of aedeagus small, with apex rounded (6B, 6C); Y-shaped sternite VIII (spiculum ventrale) of female with lateral lobes parallel-sided and rounded apically (6D); midline of pronotum usually puncture-free (6E); pi. 114A rice weevil, SitophHus
pronotal mostly longitudinally elliprelatively dull, tical; pronotal elytral moderately strong microsculpture. cosmopolitan; grains; major key, only all pest. given for male genitalia completely

oryzae

infestations, distinguished by by the given smaller paler oryzae species, infesting infest field; they infest grain grains, seeds. kinds

distinguishing these species

However,

Upper surface of median lobe of aedeagus flattened, with distinct longitudinal imeach side of midline (6F); free sclerite of aedeagus large, with apex pression acute (6G, 6H); lobes of sternite VIII of female gradually and evenly tapered and vaguely acute apically (61); punctures usually present along midline of pronotum (6J); pi. 114B---------------------maize weevil, Sitopbilus zeamais
pronotal disc mostly circular; pronotal relatively shiny, with elytral whole microsculpture. Distribution: cosmopolitan; pest. grain; major Drawing by

^ ^

Q----

6A

6B

SItophllua oryzae

6C

6F

6G

Sttopbiius
zeamais

6H

229

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

References Cited

Gibson, L.P.

1969. Monograph of the genus Curoulio in the New United World (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Part States and Canada. Misc. Pub. Ent. Soc. America 6(5)239-285. Whitehead, D.R. 1982. Foods of Caulophilus spp., particularly the broadnosed grain weevil, C. oryzae (Gyllenhal), based interception records (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cosoninae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 84(1)81-84.

230

ADULT MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA)

Douglas C. Ferguson
Systematic Entomology Laboratory
Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

KEY
Drawings by

Hind wing with short fringe (fringe hairs less than half the wing); Sc and Rs either closely parallel fused to

the breadth of long point beyond discal cell

(1A). Pyralidae (pyralid moths).------------------------Caution: fringe hair length Corcyra cephaionica Ephestiodes gilvescentella may approach wing breadth/2.

Hind wing with long fringe (fringe hairs at least long wing breadth/2); Sc and Rs clearly separate divergent before and beyond end of discal cell (1B)---

19

1B Endrosis
sarcitrella

232

Adult moths (Lepidoptera)

2 Both front and hind wings crossed by 2 narrow, wavy white lines
.--.---------^-----,-------.-----meal
white lines,

(2A); pi. 2-0


moth, Pyralis farinalis

the
posterior (= postmedial) pale apical purplish-brown); forewing length

(=antemedial)
lines,
separate

the forewing

darker (chocolateusually

Wavy white lines absent,

present

forewing only (2B)

without, gray white, wing color diffuse pattern marginal shading; forewing length

Tongue absent (3A)

rudimentary (if present, then shorter than twice the diameter


11

Tongue present and well developed (longer than twice the diameter of the eye) (SB)

233

Insect and Mite Pests

in Food

4 Labial palp long

longest leg spur) and protruding (4A)--"-long (about Labial palp either distinctly shorter than longest leg spur if nearly long, then folded transversely against face (not protruding forward) (4B)-----------

5
8

4A Corcyra
cephalonica 9

4B Paralipsa
gularis

5 Outer margin (termen) of forewing

(5A); pi. 2M
fem ale, greater

moth, Galleria mellonella


6

Outer margin of forewing

(SB)-----------------------

Tongue present but reduced (about equal in length to labial palp) (6A); forewing with conspicuous black discal spot (6B); pi. 2L -.--.-------.-.-.--.--..--..-...female, stored nut moth, Paralipsa gularis

Tongue absent (6C); discal spot

absent

(see 7B)

234

Adult moths (Lepidoptera)

7 Breadth of forewing greater than 4 mm; forewing with pale antemedial and postmedial lines variegated, darker brown background (7A) murky meal moth, Aglossa caprealis

Breadth of forewing less than 4 mm; forewing light gray-brown, almost without pattern (7B); pi. 2H---------------female, rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica

8 Porewing breadth 5 to 7 mm; termen of forewing concave; Cu of hind wing apparmoth, Galleria melloneita ently 4-branched (8A); pi. 2M------ male, greater

Forewing breadth less than 5 mm; termen of forewing convex; Cu of hind wing apparently 3-branched (8B)----------------------------

8B Achmia
griseiia

235

insect and Mite Pests in Food

Tongue present but very short (9A); forewing with yellowish patch
palps
brown,

middle (9B); pi. 2L---------------------- --male, stored nut moth, Paralipsa gularis
inconspicuous; forewing grayish-

(9B)

spot.

Tongue absent (9C); forewing almost without markings (see 7B)--------Porewing grayish-brown.

10

10 Labial palp conspicuous though short (length not exceeding diameter of eye) (1 OA); labial palps of mate transversely incurved, pincerlike; hind wing of male with termen (10B); pi. 2C-------------lesser moth, Achroia grisella

Labial palp inconspicuous, very short, upcurved and closely appressed to front of termen head (tip often concealed in frontal scale tuft) (see 9C); hind wing with (10C); pi. 2H-----------------"--male, rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica

236

Adult moths (Lepidoptera)

11 Cu of hind wing apparently 4-branched (11A)---navel orangeworm, Amyelois transite/la


3B.

Cu of hind wing apparently 3-branched (TIB)--------------

12

12

M^s and Cu-i of

to termen than to discal cell; longest hind wing branching fringe hair of hind wing almost equal to wing breadth/2 (12A) --..-.-.--------------dusky raisin moth, Ephestiodes gilvescentefia

Ma+s and Cui branching closer to discal cell than to termen; longest fringe hair much
shorter than wing breadth/2 (12B)-------------------------

13

13 Forewing distinctly bicolored (basal one-third light colored, distal two-thirds dark colored) (13A); pi. 2F, 2G------------ Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella
species pertains diagnostic stored-food moths, only wing Scales: Among deep pink coppery-red interpunctella scales the forewing.

Forewing without contrasting basal and distal colors (13B)-

13A Plodia
interpunctella

13B Vitula
edmandsii serratilineella

237

/nsect and Mite

Pests in Food

extensile 14 Forewing of male without costal fold (14A); ovipositor much elongated (14B); costa of valve with only short terminal process (14C); p(. 2-1 ..-...-.--..-...-.-..-..-.---.-.-.--Mediterranean flour moth, Anagasta kuehnieHa
Forewing usually pattern lines spot (14D). See
Drawing

by

Ferguson.

Forewing of male with costal fold (usually folded under and oppressed against tower wing surface) (14E); ovipositor short (14F); valve either without terminal costal also 15A, 15C, 17C) or, if terminal process is present, there process (14G; the midpoint of the costal margin (see 17A) is also prominent process located
Forewing

15

(14H)

pattern.

238

Adult moths (Lepidoptera)

15 Valve lacking costal process (15A); ovipositor bluntly attenuated (15B)---obtuse (15D). Valve with costal process (15C); ovipositor broadly rounded

16

15C Cadra
cautella

16 Forewing nearly always

than 9 long, with dentate transverse lines (16A); gnathos not bifurcate apically (16B) ----------------------driedfruit moth, Vltuta edmandsii serratitineella

Forewing less than 9 long, with simple (not dentate) lines (16C); gnathos apically bifurcate (16D); pi. 2J--------------tobacco moth, Ephestia elutella
1A, 14E,
Drawings

by

Ferguson.

239

Insect and Mite Pests

in Food

17 Length of costal process of valve subequal to width of valve (17A); ductus bursae with spiral rings of sclerotin (17B)------------raisin moth, Cadra figulilella

240

Adult moths (Lepidoptera)

middle of costal margin (18A); sclerite of duc18 Costal process of valve located to bursa copulatrix; bursa with 2 to 4 (rarely tus bursae not continuing 5) signa (lamina dentata) (18B)---------------almond moth, Gacfra cautella

Costal process of valve located beyond middle of costal margin (18C); sclerotized bands extending from sclerite of ductus bursae onto bursa copulatrix; bursa usually less than 5 signa (18D)--------------carob moth, Cacfra calldella with

241

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

19 Labial palp long, sickle-shaped, sharp-pointed, projecting upward; head smooth-scaled


f-IQA^

PO

Labial palp short, nearly straight, blunt-pointed, and projecting anteriorly (horizontal declivent); head rough-haired (19B). Tineidae (tineid moths)----------

22

19A Endrosis
sQrcitrella

19B Monop/s c/ocfcap/(e//a

20 Hind wing abruptly attenuated, with sharply-pointed apex; termen (20A); forewing pale ochreous brown, often unmarked, but sometimes with diffuse black distal end of discal cell and (or) another the apex (pi. 2E). Gelechiidae spot (gelechiid moths)------------ Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella

Hind wing regularly tapered, with apex rounded wing buff to dark buff-brown, usually with 2

bluntly pointed (SOB, 20C); foredark spots. Oecophoridae


21

(oecophorid moths)----------------------------

20A Sitotroga
cereate;/a

SOB Endrosis
sarcitreila

20C HofmQnnophila pseuctospretella

242

Adult moths (Lepidoptera)

21 Head and pronotum conspicuously white (pi. 2N); labial palp mostly white, with black 3 tip; forewing shining buff, speckled with dark brown, and usually with 2 blackish spots (21 A); hind wing with 7 veins whiteshouldered house moth, Endrosis sarcitrella
See
1B,

Head, thorax, and labial palp brown; forewing buff-brown to dark buff-brown (pi. 2B); forewing with 3 diffuse or distinct dark brown spots (21 B); hind wing with 8 veins brown house moth, Hofmannophila pseudospretella

21 A Endrosis
sarcitrella

21B Hofmannophila
pseudospretella

22 Forewing dark brown, with

broad cream-colored inner margin and central spot

(22A);.pI. 2D----------------------------Mo/70p/s crocicapitella


See

Forewing neither mostly dark brown

with

definite spot (22B)

23

22A Monopis
crocicapitella

22B Tineola
bisselliella

243

;nsect and Mite Pests in Food

23 Forewing pale ochreous buff, entirely unmarked (23A); pi. 2A -----------------------webbing clothes moth, Tineola bisaeltlella

Forewing buff with dark dusting and Irregular brown markings and with about 6 dark chocolate-brown spots (23B); pi. 2K reddish-brown ----------------------European grain moth, Nemapogon graneita

23A Tineoia
bissettieiia

23B Nemapogon
granetta

244

LARVAL MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA)

Donald M. Weisman
Systematic Entomology Laboratory
Plant Sciences Institute

Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

KEY
Drawings

short secondary setae; abdominal segments divided Body and head with (at least dorsally) into several annulets (1A); pi. 115A. Pieridae (whites, sulfur butterflies)--------------------imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae
yellowish middorsal stripe yellowish stripe through the spiracles. Distribution: Europe, North America (imported); Brassicaceae. This only butterfly species key. 5, 26,

Body and head with primary setae only; abdominal segments not divided into several annulets (1 B). Other t-epidoptera
5, )0, 11, 14, 15. 17. 18. 20. 21, 24, 26,
29,

1B diagrammatic

2 Two setae in prespiracular group of prothorax (2A)-------Three setae in prespiracular group of prothorax (2B)-------

^-^

2A diagrammatic

2B diagrammatic

246

Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

3 Abdominal segments to VIII with seta LI behind and L2 below spiracle (3A); crochets in mesoseries (36). Noctuidae (owlet moths and underwings)------3,

Abdominal segments to VIII with setae L1 and L2 close together below spiracle (3C); penellipse (3E). Pyralidae (pyralid moths) crochets in complete circle (3D)
References: 4,

^
^

L2

3A noctuid

3B noctuid

3C pyralid

3D Pyralls
farinalis

3E Ostrinia
nubHailS

247

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

4 Normal prolegs present abdominal segments V and VI (absent vestigial segments III and IV) (pi. H5B)-------------------------Normal prolegs present abdominal segments ill and VI (pi. 115C)----"-5 Vestigial prolegs present abdominal segments III and IV; setae SV1, SV2 and V1 grouped closely about proleg segments HI and (V; pinacula of setae SV1 and SV2 well separated segment (5A)

----.-.-.-..-..-..-.,......--.-...-..-......-..-.....-..-...-..-.cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni


Distribution:
Americas, Indies; 8,

cabbage

Vestigial prolegs absent on abdominal segments 111 and IV; pinacula of SV1 and SV2 fused all segments segments to IV; seta V1 separated from SV1 and SV2 (5B); pi. H5B-------------------silver Y moth, Autographa gamma
Asia,

Europe, North Africa; general feeder.

^
\

? \

r
5A Trichoplusia

(ventral view)

5B Autographa gamma (ventral view)

248

Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

6 Mandible with broad plate

oral surface

(6A); integument smooth; pi. 1150 cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae


leafy

Distribution: Asia, Europe;

vegetables.

Mandible without broad plate

oral surface (6B); integument with short sharp spines;

pi. 116A

earworm, tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa


beans, Americas, West Indies; tomatoes, plants.

Reference:

6B Heticoverpa

7 With sclerotized ring around seta SD1 of mesothorax (7A) Phycitinae (phycitine

Seta
by

segment
ring (78).
23,

Without sclerotized ring around seta SD1 of mesothorax (7C)"Sclerotized ring segment

18

present

SD1

\\

\
Y)
<s

^)

^/ ^^ ^

v^

/
(b

^Q^

^0^
0-

(/

^(R) /

^
7B diagrammatic

7A diagrammatic

7C diagrammatic

V ^

<2i /

249

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

8 Head rugulose. yellow yellowish-brown, with darker pattern of coalesced spots (8A) Head smooth, uniformly yellow to brown, without darker pattern (SB)------

9 10

8A Acrobasfs
nuworella

QQ Plodia interpunctellQ

mesothorax pale 9 Head pale yellow with pale brownish pattern; sclerotized ring yellow (9A)-----------------cranberry ^ruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii
Canada,

USA;

ries,

Reference:

Head yellowish-brown with brown to dark brown pattern; sclerotized ring mesothorax dark with pate posterior margin (98) ,_-..-.-..-pecan nut casebearer, Acrobas/s nuworella
USA;
Reference:

9A Acrobasis
vaccinii

9B Acrobasis
nuworella

250

Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

10 Coronal suture absent (10A); sclerotized rings around seta SD1

mesothorax (10B)

and

abdominal segment VIII incomplete

navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella


Distribution: walnuts,
Americas,

West Indies;
pods.

oranges,

mesothorax (10D) Coronal suture present (10C); sclerotized rings around seta SD1 and abdominal segment VIII complete-----------------

^
\5

Q
10C
Cac/ra

cautella

10D diagrammatic

251

fnsect and Mite Pests in Food

11 Seta SD2 level with seta SD1

Seta SD2 below seta SD1

most of abdominal segments to VII (11A)--most of abdominal segments to VII (11B)-----

11A Vitula edmandsii


serratilineella

11B diagrammatic

^^

12 Sclerotized ring around seta SD1 mesothorax elongated dorsoposteriorly (12A); abdominal segments to VIII large and brown (12B) pinacula -.---.------.,----------.,-dusky raisin moth, Ephestiodes gilvescentella
Hawaii,

America; in

Sclerotized ring around seta SD1 mesothorax irregularly rounded (12C); pinacula may not be pigmented) (12D) segments to Vlll small (may -.---.-_--,------,------driedfruit moth, Vitula edmandsii serratilineella
Distribution:
fruit, honey,

Canada,
pollen.

USA; Reference:

12A Ephestiodes
gilvescentella

12B Ephestiodes
gilvescentella

12D Vitula edmandsii


serratilineella

252

Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

13 Abdominal segments to VIII apparently without pinacula (concolorous with body and not evident) (13A); pi. 116B---------Indiannieal moth, Plodia interpunctella
cosmopolitan; fruit products- See

grain

vegetable

Reference:

Abdominal segments to VIII with small pigmented pinacula (13B). Genera Cadra nagaste

^
SD2\

-^
-^

,^

/"

r^ ^^ ~\
(j)
<a
ef

13A Plodia interpunctelia

13B diagrammatic

14 Abdominal segment VIII with seta SD2 separated from spiracle by 2 to 3 times the horizontal diameter of the spiracle (14A)-------------------Abdominal segment VIII with seta SD2 separated from spiracle by distance equal to the horizontal diameter of the spiracle (14B)------------------

15

16

14A diagrammatic

14B diagrammatic

253

Insect and Mite Pests In Food

15 Spiracle of abdominal segment VIII

enclosed by the sclerotized large the ring around seta SD1 (15A)----Mediterranean flour moth, Anagasta kuehnietia
nearly cosmopolitan;
grain vegetable products.

broad the enclosed by the Spiracle of abdominal segment VIII 2/3 less sclerotized ring around seta SD1 (15B)--------tobacco moth, Ephestia elutella
nearly cosmopolitan; vegetable products.

.spiracle

16 Seta D2 of abdominal segments to VIII 2 to 2.5 times the length of seta D1 (16A); pi. 116C-------------------------almond moth, Cadra cautella
cosmopolitan;

vegetable products.

Seta D2 of abdominal segments to VIII 3 to 5 times the length of seta D1 (16B)

17

^)
or
16A Cadra cautetta

254

Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

17 Distance between setae V1

mesothorax twice

less than the distance between

seta V1 and

III (17A)-----------------raisin moth, Cadra figulilella


nearly cosmopolitan;
seeds,

dried fruits, nuts,

mesothorax 3 to 5 times the distance between seta Distance between setae V1 III (17B)----------------------carob moth, Cac/ra calidella V1 and
Distribution: fruits,

region:

carobs,

c^ o
17A Cadra
tigulllalla

o^o
17B Cadra
calidella

18 Abdominal segment

with sclerotized ring around seta SD1 (18A). Galleriinae (galleriine moths)----------------------------segment
sclerotized ring (188).

19

Abdominal segment

without sclerotized ring around seta SD1


Seta
abdominal segment sclerotized ring.

(18C)-

22

^ \/
18A Paralipsa
gularis

0 /

18C diagrammatic

255

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

19 Subventral

and metathorax (19A); mandible with 3 apical group bisetose teeth and ventral subapical tooth (19B)--~------------------Subventral group unisetose and metathorax (19C); mandible with 2 apical teeth and ventral subapical tooth (19D)-------------------

20

21

20 Head with 4 stemmata each side (20A); spiracle with yellowish peritreme of uniform thickness (20B); pi. 117A-------- -greater moth, Galteria mellonella
Stemmata
fused; tribution: cosmopolitan; in honeycombs.
missing.

Stemmata absent (20C); spiracle with black peritreme, thicker

(20D)------nearly cosmopolitan;

lesser
honeycombs

caudal margin moth, Achroia grisella

20B Gaileria
mellonella

20A Gaileria
mellonella

20C Achroia
grisella

20D Achroia
grisella

256

Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

abdominal segments and VIII not complete; 21 Sclerotized ring around seta SD1 caudal margin; pinacula of setae D1 and D2 spiracular peritremes thicker abdominal segments not pigmented (21 A); pi. 117B rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica
Distribution: cosmopolitan; See also

vegetable products.

Sclerotized ring around seta SD1 abdominal segments and VIII complete; abdominal spiracular peritreme of uniform thickness; pinacula of setae D1 and D2

segments pigmented (21B)-----------------stored nut moth, Paralipsa gularis


nearly cosmopoliti products. See
vegetable

0^,

^>

^
21 A Corcyra
cephalonica

0^

21B Paralipsa
gularis

-^a

22 Ventral prolegs with crochets in penellipse (22A); abdominal segment IX with seta in lateral group (22B). Pyraustinae (pyraustine moths) Ventral prolegs with crochets in complete circle (22C); abdominal segment IX with 3 setae in lateral group (22D). Pyralinae (pyraline moths)-

23

257

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

base of antenna (23A); stemma 23 Head capsule with shieldlike extension equidistant from stemmata and III (23B); pi. 117C borer, Ostiinia nubilatis ..-------------~-----European
many
Distribution: Europe, USA; plants. See
beans,

base of antenna (23C); stemma closer Head capsule without shieldlike extension to stemma than to stemma III (23D)------------------------

24

24 Head with pigmented triangular spot at genal angle; mandible without projection lateral margin (24A); pi. 118A-----------pickleworm, Diaphania nitidalls
Pinacula dark early instars, pale in Distribution: Americas, West Indies; cantaloupes, 23C, cucumbers, gourds, squash-

Head without pigmented triangular spot at genal angle; mandible with projection the lateral margin (24B)-------------melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata
Central America,
USA, pale Distribution: South America, West Indies; cantaloupe, cucumbers, gourds, pumpkins, squash.

258

Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

25 Head with 4 pairs of stemmata (25A); abdominal segment IX with subventral seta (25B); pi. 118B-----------------------meal moth, Pyralis farinal/s
Stemmata See also
fused; Distribution: cosmopolitan;

VI usually missing. dried vegetable products-

Head with 6 pairs of stemmata (25C); abdominal segment IX with 2 subventrat setae (25D); pi. 118C------------------------- --murky meal moth, Aglossa caprealis
Distribution: nearly cosmopolitan; rotting vegetable

damp grain

26 Setae L1 and L 2 abdominal segments to VIII distant from each other below spiracle (26A). Tineidae (clothes moths)-------------------spiracle.

27

References: 16,

Setae L1 and L 2

segments to VIII close together below spiracle (26B)---

29

/ \ s

<^
\

[^
[ 6
w

/ /

26A diagrammat

S/1 iy /
6B diagrammati

8-"

ef

259

fnsect and Mite Pests in Food

and metathorax each with 27 Head with 6 pairs of stemmata (27A); subventral seta (27B)------------European grain moth, Nemapogon granella
Distribution: nearly cosmopolitan; dried fruits. grain,
mushrooms,

stemmata absent; Head with pair of stemmata (27C) and metathorax each with 2 subventral setae (27D)----------------------

28

28 Subventral setae in nearly horizontal line and metathorax (28A); abdominal segment IX with 2 lateral setae (28B); stemmata absent; pi. 119A ----------------------webbing clothes moth, TIneola btsselliella
Distribution: cosmopolitan; wool, hair, feathers, animal products occasionally

Subventral setae in nearly vertical line and metathorax (28C); abdominal segment IX with 3 lateral setae (28D); head with pair of stemmata -----------------------------------Monopis crocicapitetia
Distribution: Asia, Europe, textiles dried vegetable

Africa,

USA;

260

Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

29 Paired setae 02 of abdominal segment

IX single pinaculum (29A). Tortricidae (leafroller moths)---------------19,

30

Paired setae D2 of abdominal segment IX not

single pinaculum (29B)----

36

29A diagrammatic (dorsal view)

29B diagrammatic (dorsal view)

30 Anal fork present (30A)-Anal fork absent (30B)-

30B diagrammatic

31 Spinneret 7 to 8.5 times

ventral prolegs wide (31A); 30 to 40 crochets long (31B)----------------------oriental fruit moth, Graphofita molesta
Body length temperate regions;
tarines, peaches,

Distribution: widespread apples, apricots, cherries, plums, quinces.

Spinneret 5 to 6 times

long

wide (31 C); 25 to 30 crochets

ventral prolegs (31 D)

32

Body length

^n
31A Grapholifa
molesta

31B Grapholita
motesta

31 D Grapholita
packardi

261

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

suffused with red32 Anal shield brown; pinacula of posterior segments brownish, dish pigment (32A)---------------cherry truitworm, Graphotita packardi
USA;
ples

cherries

fruits of

See

C&D.

brownish, Anal shield yellowish pale brown; pinacula of posterior segments usually suffused with reddish pigment (32B)-lesser appleworm, Grapholita prunivora
Canada, Europe (introduced), USA;
ples, cherries, plums.

32A Grapholita
packardi

32B Grapholita
prunivora

33 Coxae 111 separated by distance equal to about 1.5 times their greatest diameter; seta V1 well separated from (33A)--------tilbertworm, Cydia iatiferreana
Distribution: Canada, Mexico, USA; chestnuts.

Coxae 111 about their

diameter apart; seta V1 very close to

(33B)

34

. 0^
33A Cydia 262

-8

^0 ^

latiferreana

33B Cydia (ventral view)

(ventral view)

Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

wide (34A); head yellowish-brown overlaid with 34 Spinneret 6 to 6.5 times long darker pattern; pi. 119B----------------codling moth, Cydia pomoneHa
Distribution: nearly cosmopolitan; quinces,
apples, chestnuts,

Spinneret 5 times

long

wide (34B); head yellow-brown without darker pattern

35

34A Cydia pomonella

34B Cydia
caryana

abdominal segments to VII usually elongated anterior 35 Pinaculum of seta SD1 to spiracle (35A)------------------------pea moth, Cydia riigricana
Distribution:

Minor, Canada, Europe, USA;

pods.

Pinaculum of seta SD1

abdominal segments to VII not elongated anterior to spiracle (35B)--------------hickory shuckworm, Cydia caryana
Canada,

USA:

hickory

See

35A Cydia
nigricana

35B Cydia caryana

263

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

36 Seta SD1 of abdominal segment Vlll directly in front of spiracle (36A); seta SD1 of abdominal segment IX same pinaculum with D1 (36B); pi. 119C. Cosmopterigidae (cosmopterigid moths) ---------------------pink scavenger caterpillar, Pyroderces rileyi
Mexico, USA, Indies; dried fruits.
cotton,

Seta SD1 of abdominal segment Vlll above and in front of spiracle (36C); seta SD1 of abdominal segment IX not pinaculum with D1 (36D)--------

37

^ ^ ^
e^
36A Pyroderces
riteyi

36C diagrammatic

36B Pyroderces riteyi

36D diagrammatic

37 Setae D1, D2, and SD1 of abdominal segment

IX single pinaculum (37A); pi. 120A. Argyresthiidae (argyresthiid moths)--apple fruit moth, Argyresthia conjugella
Europe, Canada (British Columbia),
(California, Oregon);
apples

Sorbus berries.

Setae 01, D2, and SD1 of abdominal segment IX not

single pinaculum (37B)

38

?^ ^

^ ^ ^

^w

37A Argyresthia
conjugella

37B SUolmga
cereaie!!a

264

Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

38 Seta D1 equidistant from setae 02 and SD1 abdominal segment IX (38A); ventral prolegs short, narrow, often indistinct, with only 2 to 4 crochets (38B); pi. 120B. Gelechiidae (gelechiid moths}------An goumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereatella
nearly cosmpolitan;
kernels of
grain.

Seta D1 closely associated with and anterior to D2 abdominal segment IX (38C); prolegs distinct, well developed, with many crochets (38D). Oecophoridae (oecophorid moths)--------------"---------------

39

39 Head with 2 pairs of stemmata (39A); submentum with targe oval pit (39B) --...-..._---..-.-.--...-.-..-.-.......-whiteshouldered moth, Endrosis sardtreila
nearly cosmopolitan:
ing fruit.
decay-

Head with 4 pairs of stemmata (39C); submentum without large oval pit (39D); pi. 120C ---brown house moth, HofmannophHa pseudospretella
Stemmata and fused fused, giving appearance
nearly cosmopolitan; vegetable products, many See also 38C.
bulbs, stored

265

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

References Cited

Aitken, A.D.

species of Phycitinae 1963. A key to the larvae of (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) associated with stored related species. But. Ent. products, and Res. 54(2)175-188. Baker, C.R.B. 1963. Notes the larvae and pupae of two fruit moths, Grapholita funebrana Treitschke and G. molesta Busck (Lepidoptera: Otethreutidae). Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London A38(10-12)212-222.
3 Beck, H.

1960. Die Larvalsystematik der Eulen (Noctuidae). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin. Bollmann, H.~G. 1955. Die Raupen mitteleuropaischer Pyraustinae Ent. (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae). Beitrage

5(5-6)521-639.
Capps, H.W.
1963.

lepidopterous Keys for the identification of quarantine. larvae frequently intercepted ARS-33-20-1. U.S. Department of Agriculture,

Washington DC.
6 Crumb, S.E.

1926.

Nearctic budworms of the lepidopterous genus Heliothis. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 2617(16)1-88.

Crumb, S.E.
1956.
8 Eichlin, T.D.

The larvae of the Phalaenidae. U.S. Dept. Agr.


Tech. Bull. 1135:1-356.

1975.

Eichlin,

T.D.,

1978.

the adult and larval Plusiinae of California (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae). California Dept. Food Agr. Occ. Papers Ent. 21:1-73. and H.B. Cunningham. The Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of America north of Mexico emphasizing genitalic and larval morphology. U.S. Dept. Agr. Tech.

Guide

Bull. 1567:1-12.
70 Fracker, S.B.

1930.

The classification of lepidopterous larvae. 2d. ed. Contrib. Ent. Lab. Univ. 111. 43:1-161.

11 Freeman, P. (ed.).

1980.

Common insect pests of stored food products. A guide their identification. Economic Series No. 15. British Museum (Natural History), London.

12 Hasenfuss, 1960. Die Larvalsystematik der Zunsler (Pyralidae). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin. 13 Heinrich, C. the European borer (Pyrausta 1919. Note American allies, nubilalis Hiibner) and its with description of larvae, pupae, and species. Jour. Agr. Res. 18(3)171-178, pi. 14 Hinton, H.E. 1943. The larvae of the Lepidoptera associated with stored products. Bull. Ent. Res. 34(3)163-212. 15 Hinton, H.E. On the homology and nomenclature of the notes the 1946. of lepidopterous larvae, with phylogeny of the Lepidoptera. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 97(1)1-37. 16 Hinton, H.E. The larvae of the species of Tineidae of economic 1956. importance. Bull. Ent. Res. 47(2)251-346.

266

Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

17 Issiki, S., et al.

1973.
18 Issiki,

Early stages of Japanese moths in colour, vol. 1. Hoikusha, Osaka.

S., et al.

1975. Early stages of Japanese moths in colour, vol. 2. Hoikusha, Osaka. 19 MacKay, M.R. 1959. Larvae of the North American Olethreutidae (Lepidoptera). Canadian Ent. 91(suppl. 10)1-338. 20 MacKay, M.R. 1972. Larval sketches of Microlepidoptera, chiefly North American. Mem. Ent. Soc. Canada 88:1-83. 21 Mosher, E. 1916. A classification of the Lepidoptera based characters of the pupa. Illinois State Lab. Nat.
Hist. Bull. 12(2)17-159. 22 Neunzig, H.H. 1972. Taxonomy of Acrobasis larvae and pupae in eastern North America (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). USDA Tech. Bul. 1457:1-158. 23 Neunzig, H.H. 1979. Systematics of immature phycitines (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) associated with leguminous plants in the southern United States. USDA Tech. Bull. 1589:1-119. 24 Okumura, G.T. 1951. Key to the lepidopterous larvae found in stored foods in California. Sacramento State Col. Nat. Hist. Ser. 5:1-13. 25 Okumura, G.T. 1966. The dried-fruit moth (Vitula edmandsae serratilineelta Ragonot), pest of dried fruits and honeycombs. California Dept. Agr. Bull.

55(4)180-186.
26 Peterson, A. 1948. Larvae of insects- An introduction to Nearctic species. Part Lepidoptera and plant infesting Hymenoptera. Edwards, Ann Arbor. 27 Richards, O.W., and W.S. Thompson. 1932. A contribution the study of the genera Ephestia, Gn. (including Sfrymax Dyar), and Plodia, Gn. (Lepidoptera, Phycitidae), with parasites of the larvae. Trans. Ent. Soc. London 80(2)169-250, pi. 28 Swatschek, B, 1958. Die Larvalsystematik der Wickler (Tortricidae und Carposinidae). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin. 29 Weisman, D.M. 1986. Key for the identification of frequently intercepted lepidopteran larvae. APHIS/PPQ 81-47. U. S. Department of Agriculture,

Washington DC.
30 Werner, K. 1958. Die Larvalsystematik einiger

Kleinschmetterlingsfamilien (Hyponomeutidae,
Orthoteliidae, Acrolepiidae, Tineidae, Incurvariidae und Adelidae). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin.
31 Zimmerman, E.G.

1978.

Insects of Hawaii, vol. 9, parts and 2. Microlepidoptera. University, Honolulu.

267

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Notes and Sketches

268

FLIES (D1PTERA)

Raymond J. Gagne
Systematic Entomology Laboratory

Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560

frisecf and Mite Pests in Food

attracted to perishable foods Many kinds of flies larvae which they feed and deposit their eggs (maggots). Feeding by the larvae often hastens further decay by fostering growth of secondary decomposers such bacteria and fungi. Larvae may develop rapidly in media. For example, blow fly larvae (Calliphoridae) may reach full growth in three days under optimal conditions, Some larvae feed inside plant tissues and therefore often go unnoticed when the plants bought for food prepared for storage.

flies often associated with food designed to separate to generic taxa at least to family level and in specific level. Most of the structures referred to in the visible to the unaided eye keys require of dissecting than hand lens; others require the microscope. The key characters and the descriptive notes used to separate larvae pertain to full-grown larvae. This key is compiled from several (1, 2, 4, 5). More complete, technical keys to family and generic levels tor adult flies (and, in many cases, larvae) may be found in McAlplne et at. (3).

The keys given here to

flies

groups of

270

Flies (Diptera)

Adult specimen-Larval specimen


2 Antenna with 7 to 16 segments, each segment discrete, freely articulated (2A) Antenna with 3, often dissimilar, segments (2B, 2C)
segment

less similar, and


3 5

annulate (2D)

(2B, 2C).

2A Sciaridae
2C Muscidae

2B Scenopinus
fenestralis

body (pi. 121 C); 3 Mothlike; body and wings densely haired, with wings held rooflike wing veins evenly distributed, not stronger anteriorly than elsewhere (3A) ---------------------------------moth flies, Psychodidae
Drawing

Not mothlike; much of the body smooth and shining; wings held flat erect body (see 4A, 4B); wing veins stronger and concentrated in anterior part of wing

3C Sciaridae

271

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Antenna ctublike, with 7to 12 segments; antennal length much shorter than thorax (4A) ---..-.--..-..-..-..-..-..-..-..-..-.--.-minute black scavenger flies, Scatopsidae
Species cecidomyiid genera Heteropeza, Henna, Mycophila infesting genera key point (the Sciaridae, segments). R; just beyond Cecidomyiidae, beyond tip. wing pests anywhere there cecids would edible only portions

Antenna elongate and flexible, with 16 segments; antennal length longer than thorax (4B)------------------------da rkwinged fungus gnats, Sciaridae
See also 2A,

4B Sciaridae

272

Flies (Diptera)

5 Wing with spurious vein (5A); body beelike; pi. 122A. Syrphidae (flower flies) drone fly, Enstslis tenax
species [ikely

Wing without spurious vein (5B); body not beelike----

6 Wing with strong veins anteriorly and weak, oblique veins posteriorly (6A); pi. 123C&D -.,-..-.-.---,-,------------------,-humpbacked flies, Phoridae 7 Wing veins not appreciably stronger anteriorly than elsewhere (6B)-------

6A MegaseHa

7 Antenna without long, dorsal arista (7A, 7B) Antenna with long, dorsal arista (7C)

7A

Henrietta

7B Scenopinus
fenestralis

7C

Muscidae

iiiucens

273

(nsect and Mite Pests in Food

S Discal (central) cell rounded with several veins issuing from it (8A); pi. 124B&C. Stratiomyidae (soldier flies) ------------black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens
similar species likely

See also

Discal cell long, with only 2 veins issuing from it (8B); pi. 125A. Scenopinidae (window flies) -------------------------------Scenopinus spp.

fruit products include Tephritids likely Ceratitis Anastrepha Rhagoletis spp., capitata.

Thorax and abdomen usually brown to black; wing not patterned (9B) (may be spot

,Sc

9B

Ps//a

274

Flies (Diptera)

10 Antennal segment without longitudinal suture (10A); calypteres of wing absent inconspicuous (10B)------------------------------Antennal segment with longitudinal suture (10C); wing with large calypteres (10D)

11 15

10A Drosophila

10C Musca domestica

10D

Phaen/cia

11 First segment of tarsus III wider and shorter than segment

(11A); pi. 125B. Sphaeroceridae (small dung flies) -------------------Leptocera spp. First segment of tarsus III longer but not wider than segment (11B)-----12

11A Leptocera

11B PlopMa

275

fnsecr and Mite Pests in Food

12 Arista plumose (12A)----------Arista simple with inconspicuous hairs (12B)

12A Drosophiia

12B Piophila
casei

13 Abdomen conspicuously narrowed at base (pi. 126A&B); subcostal vein complete (13A) black scavenger flies, Sepsidae Abdomen not conspicuously narrowed at base (pi. 126C); subcostal vein incomplete (13B). Drosophilidae (small fruit flies)-------------------Droaophila
See
10A,

14

Strong oral

bristle present (14A); subcostal vein ending in costa (14B); pi. 127A. Piophilidae (skipper flies)---------------cheese skipper, Piophila casei

Strong oral bristle absent (14C); subcostal vein ending in radius (14D); pi. 127B. Psilidae (rust files)--------------------carrot rust fly, Psifa
species likely

276

14D Psila

15 Hypopleuron bare

(15A). Muscidae (muscid flies)


Median vein

(Mua)

straight

gently

(15B), except

spp. (15C).

Hypopleuron with

of strong setae (15D)"


Median

(Mi,z) strongly

forward

apex (as

15C).

15B

Muscina

15D diagrammatic

15C Musca
domestics

insect and Mite Pests in Food

16 Vein 3A
sion of

strongly curved forward that it would intersect with

hypothetical exten-

Cu2+2A well before wing margin (16A); pi. 128B


fly, Fannia canicularis
This is

..-..-..-..,-..-^.-......,...-..-..-.....-..,-..-..-..-..-..,-.-..-.-..little house
of

species likely

found.

Vein 3A straight

only weakly curved (16B)------------------

17

17 Vein

M-i+2 strongly bent forward apically (17A); pi. 129B--house fly, Musca domestica
10C-

Vein

M-i+z straight

weakly curved apically (17B)

18

17A Musca
c/omest/ca

17B Muscina

78

Flies (Diptera)

18 Median vein straight (18A); body shining, black. Genus Ophyra---------Median vein curved apically (18B); body dull, grayish-black, with tip of scutellum reddish. Genus Afusc/na----------------------------

19

20

18B Muscina 19 Palpus yellow; pi. 130APalpus black-----20 Legs predominantly red; pi. 130B-

-bronze dump fly, Ophyra ----dump fly, Ophyra leucostoma -false stable fly, Muscina stabulans
--Muscina assimilis

21 Notopleuron with 3 4 setae (21A); body dull colored, the abdomen with checkered pattern; pi. 131B. Sarcophagidae (flesh flies)Sarcophaga spp.

Notopleuron with 2 setae (21 B); body shining green, bronze,


blo

blue. Calliphoridae

flies)----------------------------------

22

21 B diagrammatic

279

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

22 Base of stem vein (R) ciliate (22A) Base of stem vein (R) bare (22B)

22B Phoenicia
S3 Coxa

III pilose posteriorly (23A)Coxa III bare posteriorly (23B)--

23B diagrammatic

280

Flies (Diptera)

24 Palpus short, filiform (24A); pi. 132BSee

;econdary screwworm, Cocbliomyia macelfaria

Palpus long, clavate (24B); pi. 133E&F---Old World screwworm flies, Chrysomys spp.
the Body length: Old World, Cbrysomya, widely species monly lay eggs (2). the New World. established hairy maggot fly, C. rufifacies, appeared Costa Rica shortly before 1978 has since spread through Mexico Oklahoma. Texas megacepbala, a/biceps, South C. chloropyga (Brazil, Peru)

24A Cochtiomyia
maceltaria

24B Chrysomya
rufifacies

25 Mesothoracic spiracle

(25A) with orange hair; presutural acrostical bristles well developed (25B)---------------------black blow fly, Phormia regina

Mesothoracic spiracle (25A) with black hair; presuturat acrosticat bristles vestigial, not differentiated from surrounding hairs (25C) Holarctic blow fly, Protophormia terraenovae

25A diagrammatic

25B

Phormia regina

25C Protophormia

281

Insect and Mite Pests In Food

26 Eye comparatively small in relation to head (26A); thorax with crinkly yellow hair among the bristles ---------------------------cluster fly, Pollenia rudis

Eye comparatively large in relation to head (26B); thorax without crinkly hair---

27

27 Lower (proximal) calypter bare (27A). Genus PhaeniclaLower calypter with long, dark pile (27B)-------

27A Phaenicia

27B Calliphora

282

Flies (Diptera)

28 Metasternum setose (28A)--Body length:

-----green bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata


See also

Metasternum bare (28B)--------------bronze bottle fly, Phoenicia


Body length:

cuprina

28B Phaenicia
cuprina

29 Scutellum with 3 strong lateral bristles

each side (29A) blue bottle fly, Cynomyopsis cadaverina

Body length: 9-14

Scutellum with 4 strong lateral bristles

each side (29B). Genus Calliphora---

30

29A Cynomyopsis
cadaverina

29B Calliphora

283

/nsect and Mite Pests in Food

30 Integument of bucca (30A) reddish

anterior half; basicosta (SOB) yellow to orange cosmopolitan blue bottle fly, Calliphora vtcina

Body length:

Buccal integument (30A) black; basicosta (SOB) black-

31

30B Calliphora

31 Buccal hairs (31 A) mostly black; tibia

with 2 posterior bristles (31 B) Nearctic blow fly, Calliphora terraenovae

Body length:

Buccal hairs (31 A) mostly reddish orange; tibia with 3 posterior bristles (31 C) Holarctic blue bottle fly, Calliphora vomitoria
Body length:

31 A

284

Flies (Diptera)

32 Larva with

definite, sclerotized head capsule

(32A)--

(Cecidomyiidae) would key


point. long capsule. tiny, lightly-sclerotized distinctive spatula, shaped "breast bone" located ventrally Most mushroom-infesting species minute, inconspicuous against hosts, present, their bright genus Mycophila

Larva without definite, sclerotized head capsule (mouth hooks may


visible! /32B)

may not be

32A Hermetia
illucens

32 B Musca
domestica

33 Large larva (15 to 20 mm) with long, conspicuous setae all body segments (33A). Stratiomyidae (soldier flies); pi. 124A ------black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens
species likely

See

Small larva (less than 8 mm), either mostly glabrous


Drawing

pubescent (31B)----

34

33A Hermetia
illucens

^orirzm:
33B Soenoplnus

285

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

34 Body fuzzy; posterior spiracles at tips of long, membranous processes (34A) at tip of sclerotized tube (34B)~-----------------------Body smooth; posterior spiracles flush with body wall (34C)----------criironomid midges (Chironomidae [Tenpoint. Midge complete capsule, usually prominent anterior functional posterior prolegs, spiracles. Midge larvae occasionally appear

dipedidae]) would key

storage

ponds.

34A Scatopsidae

34C Sciaridae

34B Psychodidae 35 Posterior spiracles at ends of long, dorsolateral tubes (35A) ,-,-.^rninute black scavenger flies, Scatopsidae
Body length:

Posterior spiracles at end of long median tube

(see 34B); pi. 121A&B


flies, Psychodidae

.-..-..,-..-...,...-,...-..,-...-...-_.-._-.......-...^..,..............-.-...-...-.......t^oth

35A Scatopsidae

286

Flies (Diptera)

36 Larva eellike, with diminutive, conelike, brown head capsule (36A); short but last segment. Scenopinidae first 3 segments and spicuous setae present

(window flies)-------------------------------Scenop/nus spp.


Body length:

Larva

robust, with

large black head capsule (36B); conspicuous setae absent darkwinged fungus gnats, Sciaridae

Body length:

36B Sciaridae
37 Body

less depressed, with long, often feathery lobes

most segments (37A,


39

Body cylindrical, without conspicuous lobes


Drawing

each segment (37D)

by

37A Fannia
canicularis

37B Fannia
scalaris

37C Megaselia

37D Anastrepha

287

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

38 Body about 5

long; anterior spiracle simple (38A); pi. 123A&B --------------------------humpbacked flies, Phoridae (in part)
See
37C,

Body about 10 long; anterior spiracle branched (38B); pi. 128A. Muscidae (muscid flies) (in part) ---------------------------------Fannia spp.
See

38A Megasella

38B Fannia

39 Posterior spiracles small, located either peglike tubercles the end of long tail (39B) Posterior spiracles large, less flush with body surface
Drawing

(39A)

at
40 46

(39C, 39D)---

288

Flies (Diptera)

40 Anterior spiracles located

dorsal surface of body

(40A) -leafminer flies, Agromyzidae

Body length:

Anterior spiracles located


40A Agromyzidae

sides of body (40B)----------------40B Piophila


case/

41

41 Posterior end of body extended

long, telescoping tail (41 A); pi. 122B. Syrphidae (flower flies)--------------------------drone fly, Enstalis tenax
species likely

found.

Posterior end of body

than slightly extended (41 B)

42

42A Drosophila

42B P3ila

289

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

43 Anterior spiracle

tube with many retractable branches protruding from tip (43A) small fruit flies, Drosophilidae
Body length:

See

Anterior spiracle branched from base


Body length;

(43B)---also

-black scavenger flies, Sepsidae

B.

43A Drosophila

43B Sepsidae

sclerotized, pigmented cones; last abdominal segment 44 Posterior spiracles located without lobes (44A). Psilidae (rust flies)----------carrot rust fly, Psila
Body length:
species likely

similar

be

42B.

Posterior spiracles located

membranous cones; last abdominal segment with lobes

44A Psila

448 Ptophila
case/

45

Larva with lobes

most segments (45A); pi. 123A&B ------------------------humpbacked flies, Phoridae (in part)
See
37C, 38A.

Larva with lobes only

last segment (45B). Piophilidae (skipper flies) cheese skipper, Piophila casei
Body length:
40B, 44B

45B Piophila easel

45A Megaselia

^^rn~~rTTT~v~> ^^^iJ^A^

290

Flies (Diptera)

46 Posterior spiracular plate completely pigmented (except for openings and button, when present) (46A). Muscidae (muscid flies) (in part)-------------Muscina spp.
Body length:

Posterior spiracular plate unpigmented (except for peritreme, if present)

(46B)--

47

46A Muscina
stabuians

46B Musca
domestics

47 Posterior spiracles with sinuous slits (47A); pi. 129A. Muscidae (muscid flies) (in part) house fly, Musca domestica
328,

Posterior spiracles with straight silts

(47B)
47B Calllphora

48

47A Musca
domestica

48 Peritreme absent from posterior spiracular plate (48A)----- -fruit flies, Tephritidae
Body length:

Peritreme present around posterior spiracular plate

(48B)-----

49

48A Anastrepha

48B Calllphora

291

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

49 Posterior spiracles with 3 short slits positioned almost perpendicular to

another

(49A); pi. 134E. Anthomyiidae (anthomyiid flies)-Spiracular button, present, margin spiracular plate.

-Hylemya spp.
the

Posterior spiracles with slits approximately parallel (49B)--Spiracular

50

the
spiracular plate.

edge

49A Hylemya

49B Calliphora

50 Peritreme of posterior spiracle with 2 unsclerotized

(50A). Muscidae (muscid


..^-..ophyra spp.

flies) (in part)


Body length:

Peritreme of posterior spiracle complete (SOB)

with only weakly sclerotized f50C^--------------------------------------Drawing

51

50A Ophyra

SOB Calliphoridae

51 Posterior spiracular plates set in cavity; spiracular slits essentially vertical in orientation (51A); pi. 131A------------------flesh flies, Sarcophagidae

Drawing

Posterior spiracles not set in cavity; spiracular slits directed towards midventral line (51 B). Calliphoridae (blow flies)---"----------------

52

292

Plies (Diptera)

52 Posterior spiracles with complete peritreme (52A)--" Posterior spiracles with incomplete peritreme (52B)

52A Calllphora

52B Cochllomyia
maceitana

53 Accessory sclerite of cephalopharyngeal skeleton present (53A); peritreme of posterior spiracles strongly sclerotized (53B, 53C)-----------------Calllphora spp. blue bottle fly, Cynomyopsis cadavarina
Body length

Cailiphora spp.: Seealso 47B, 48B, 516.

Accessory sclerite

absent (53D); peritreme less strongly sclerotized (53E, 53F); pi. 134A-D---------------------------------Phaenicia spp.

53D Phaenicia

53C Cynomyopsis
cadaverina

53F Phaenicia
sericata

293

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

54 Peritreme of posterior spiracle very thick (54A); pi. 133A-D oid World
Body length: Body segments sometimes

flies, Chrysomya spp,

Peritreme of posterior spiracle only moderately thick (54B)--Body segments

55

54A Chrysomya

indistinct 55 Button absent posterior spiracles; walls of posterior spiracular slits with lateral swellings (55A); pi. 132A-secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia maceltaria

Button distinct

posterior spiracles; spiracular slits without lateral swellings (55B) black blow fly, Phormia regina

55A Cochliomyia
macellaria

55B Phormia
regina

294

Flies (Diptera)

References Cited

Borror, D.J., D.M. DeLong, and C,A. Triplehorn. 1981. An introduction to the study of insects. Saunders College, Philadelphia. 2 James, M.T.
1947
The flies that

myiasis in

[1948]. Miscellaneous Publication 631. U.S. Department of Agriculture,


Washington DC.
3 McAlpine,

J.F-, et at.
Manual of Nearctic Diptera, vol. 1. Monograph 27. Agriculture Canada, Ottawa.

1981.

Peterson, A.

Larvae of insects. Part II. Coleoptera, Diptera, Neuroptera, Siphonaptera, Mecoptera, Trichoptera. Edwards, Ann Arbor. Stojanovich, C.J., H.D. Pratt, and E.E. Bennington. species of public health 1962. Fly larvae: Key to importance. Communicable Disease Center, Atlanta.
1951.

295

fnsect and Mite Pests in Food

Notes and Sketches

296

ANTS (FORMICIDAE, HYMENOPTERA)

David R. Smith
Systematic Entomology Laboratory
Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560

/nsect and Mite

Pests in Food

recognized by the constriction at the base of the two nodes in the abdomen and by the presence of that constricted distinctly differentiated from the elbowed, with rest of the abdomen. Also, the antennae the first segment (scape) unusually long. Three castes are usually present: workers, females (queens), and males; these described below.

Ants

soil,

under objects.

storage many

They often forage for food in food Some ants prefer sweet substances, but

general feeders taking whatever they find during foraging trips.


The key given here is limited to the subfamilies and to of the genera and species of household pests occurring in North America. Illustrations of the less well taxa (all of these from 3) given in chapter 27. Additional taxonomic and biological information may be found in the references at the end of this key (see also oh. 28).

Workers (fig. 17.1, pi. 135-150). Wings and wing scars absent; ocelli lacking very small. Those species with termed monomorphic; size workers all about the in polymorphic species there is considerable size range in the worker caste. The largest forms are called soldiers, minor workers. When soldiers the smaller forms, minors commonly structurally different from present they most commonly encountered, and the minors. Workers the most abundant of the three castes. They they of the colony, struct the nest, defend the colony, take and forage for food. It is the worker caste that may be observed foraging for food in food storage areas. Females (fig. 17.2). Morphologically similar to workers but usually larger, with the thorax enlarged by the wing and with three wing musculature; with wings distinct ocelli.

Males (fig. 17.3). Wings present; head usually reduced in


size and bearing disproportionately large eyes and large ocelli; mouthparts reduced; antennae elbowed but scape

sometimes rather short; genital appendages usually protruding. The sexual castes (males and females) may be very abundant at the time of swarming (they normally seen outside the nest only at swarming time). They often attracted to lights in buildings, but they do not forage for food do the workers.

About 580 species and/or subspecies of Formicidae in North America north of Mexico (1, 2). About 50 of these food-industry have reputation for being household buildings, in wood pests (3). Ants may nest in

Larvae (fig. 17.4). Thoracic legs lacking; without horny projection at apex of abdomen; commonly gourd-shaped, with slender neck and small head capsule; hairs of various sizes and shapes usually abundant body. Larvae of species spin cocoons in which the pupal stage is not easily differenpassed; others do not. Ant larvae tiated from those of other Hymenoptera.

298

Ants (Formicidae, Hymenoptera)

mandible

Figure 17.1. Worker, Allegheny mound ant, ^ormica exsectoides Forel, dorsal view. [Redrawn from 3 by C. Feller.)

299

/nsect and Mite Pests in Food

Figure 17.2. Female, pavement ant,


Teframorium caespitum, lateral view. (Drawing

by C. Feller.)

300

Ants (Pormicidae, Hymenoptera)

Figure 17.3. Male, pavement ant, Tetramorium saespitum, lateral view. (Drawing by C. Feller.)

301

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Figure 17.4 Larva, larger yellow ant, Acanthomyops interjwtus. (Drawing by C. Feller.)

302

Ants (Formicidae, Hymenoptera)

KEY TO WORKERS
Drawings by

Pedicel with 2 segments (1A)Pedice! with segment (1B)--

1A myrrnicine

B Indomyrmex
humilis

2 Frontal carinae close together, not covering antenna! insertions; antennae inserted very close to mouth; eyes absent very small and ocellus-like (2A); pi. 135A-C army ants, Dorylinae
Propodeum usually unarmed (28).

antennal inFrontal carinae widely separated, each with lobe that partially sertions; antennae inserted away from mouth; eyes usually large and multifaceted

(2C); pi. 136-142, 143A&B. Myrmicinae (myrrnicine ants)---------"--Propodeal spines present (2D)

2A army

2C myrrnicine

2B diagrammatic

2D myrmicine
ant

303

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Myrmicinae

3 Antenna with 10 segments, the last 2 segments forming


Propodeum
Drawings

distinct club

(3A)---

(3B).

with 3 Antenna with than 10 segments, either without distinct club (3C) 4 segments forming club (3D)----------------------Propodeal spines present (3E)

absent.

3A Sotenopsis

3B diagrammatic

3C Aphaenogaster
fulva

3D Crematogaster
ashmeadi

3E myrmicine

Eye small, usually with

4 to 6 facets (pi.

136A); workers monomorphic---So/enops;s

(pi. 136A), Stales. long) and yellowish They omnivorous, feeding They apparently prefer foods high protein buildings, invading cabinets, They

ant, Sotenopsis

throughout

(1.3

shelves,

Eye large, multifaceted (pi. 136B&C);


Body

workers polymorphic; pi. 136B&C, 137A

--..-.,-.--..--.----------------------fire
usually long blackish. species usually may soil buildings; includes foraging United States, species introduced from South

ants, Solenopsis

304

Ants (Formicidae, Hymenoptera)

5 Propodeum without spines

teeth (5A)"----

Clypeus usually bicarinate (5B).

Propodeum with spines (5C)--------Clypeus

(5D).

^cC\^C
5A diagrammatic

5C myrmicine
ant

Integument (except for abdomen) uniformly finely punctate and subopaque (pi. 137B)
pharaoh ant, Monomomm pharaoms
Body light yellowish. widely distributed found by cities United States hotels, apartment buildings, groceries, places food commercially; feeds buildings variety

Integument shining, impunctate, sometimes with

transverse striations

posterior margin of head and epinotum (pi. 137C, 138A&B)


--.-------,-.-.-..-..-...-..,................,....,.....other species of Monomorium
species

pbaraonis.

7 Clypeus without sharp, raised margin in front of antennal insertion (7A) ---,--.-.-.------.-,-.-..-.,-..-...-..,......,...,......other species of Myrmicinae
Body length and antennal pi. representatives Aphaenogaster, Atta, Crematogaster, Pheidole, Ochetomyrmex; representatives

buildings

storage

Posterior border of ciypeus forming sharp, raised margin in front of antennal insertion (7B). Genus Teframor/um-------------------"------Antenna
length: 2.5-4 3-segmented club (see 3D); body

7A myrmicine
ant

7B

Tetramorium

305

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

9 Head without antennal sulcus (p(. 143A); head and thorax with longitudinal striations; body color brownish to black--------pavement ant, Tetramorium caespitum
species throughout

Europe
metropolitan ting wood,
nivorous;

the

States; largely
soil,

objects,

feed

ot homes; household foods, preferring

grease.

Head with antenna! sulcus (pi. 143B); head and thorax usually rugulose; color yellowish brownish---------------other North American species of Tetramorium
species

States; they may caespitum, they

buildings,

southern does

Gaster with distinct constriction between the first and second gastric segments (9A)
pone rine ants, Ponerinae
Species associated subfamily industry.

Gaster entire (9B)--

10

9A ponerine

9B Iridomyrnlex
humilis

10 Acidopore absent (anal slit is transverse, subapical, and ventral) (1 OA). Dolichoderinae (dodchoderine ants); p(. 143C, 144--------------------Acidopore present (terminal, circular, and usually surrounded by fringe of hairs) (10B). Formicinae (formicine ants); pi. 145-150---------------

11
14

10A dodchoderine

10B formicine
ant

306

Ants (Formicidae, Hymenoptera)

Dolichoderinae

11 Petiolar node vestigial (11 A). Genus Tapinoma---view

12

and

gaster (11A)-

Petiolar node suberect to erect, usually easily

in profile

(11B)-

11 A Tapinoma
sessile

11 B Iridomyrmex
humilis

12 Body

uniform light brown to black, 2.4 to 3.3

long; pi. 143C


-odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile

Mexico, United States, soil, bark, objects, wide variety plant cavities, and sites; omnivorous, feeding variety household foods preferring

Canada; stumps,

Head and thorax brownish black; antennae, legs, and gaster whitish to yellowish; length 1-3 to 1.5 mm; pi. 144A-------------Tapinoma melanocephalum
widely distributed by the world; regions higher latitudes, heated buildings; wide variety substances. prefers habitats:

13 Propodeum in profile short (about twice

high

long) (pi. 144B) Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis

usually
posterior by

hairs; propodeum Distribution: widely


California;

Southern States found mostly wide variety habitats,


wood, ground; especially

almost any sweets;


pest

soil, objects food


persistent

the

Propodeum not twice

high

long (pi. 144C&D)--other species of Dolichoderinae


hairs; propodeum posterior

usually

(pi. 144D) elevation.

(pi. 144C)

307

Insect and Mite Pests in Food

Formicinae

14 Antenna inserted far from posterior margin of clypeus; thorax in profile usually evenly curved (14A); pi. 145, 146, 147A&B--------------carpenter ants, Camponotus
Mostly larger species ranging length States; throughout wood; buildings usually monly rot, is only when begun wood; omnivorous, enlarge adjacent households. kinds of food taking virtually
Drawings

Antenna inserted at
in orofile f14B^

very

posterior margin of clypeus; thorax irregularly curved


15

14A Camponotus

14B formicine
ant

15 Eye closer to posterior margin of head than to base of mandible (15A); pi. 147C, 148, 149, 150A----------------------other species of Formicinae
scape
usually

large subfamily with United Stales. Some, throughout

open fields; Lasius spp., often founyellowish Acanthomyops walls; species large mounds; commonly jects search food; virtually buildings food prefer

Eye closer to base of mandible than to posterior margin of head (15B). Genus
16
Antennal hairs.

15A

formicine

15B Paratrechina

308

Ants (Formicidae, Hymenoptera)

16 Antennae and legs disproportionately long; body slender (pi. 150B) crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis
Suberect hairs usual!/ Distribution: widely by world; throughout regions States, found only north; variety buildings locations trash, piles, soil, the ground; buildings, objects
preferring

Antennae and legs not disproportionately long; body robust (pi. 150C)
other species of Paratrechina
Stiff

hairs always present

tibiae species key

present

scape.
mostly occasional

here: they
Stales; often

pests

References Cited
Creighton, W.S. 1950. The ants of North America. But. Mus. Comp. Zool. (Harvard) 104:1-585, 57 pi.
2 Smith,

D.R.
1979.
Formicidae. In Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico, vol. 2, pp. 1323-1467, ed. by K.V. Krombein et al. Smithsonian

Institution, Washington DC.


3 Smith, M.R.

1965.

House-infesting ants of the eastern United States.


USDATech. Bull. 1326:1-105. (Note: Illustrations from this bulletin.) in pi. 135-150

309

(nsect and Mite

Pests in Food

Notes and Sketches

310