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CHAPTER 3: ELECTROMAGNETISM

An electromagnet is a magnet in which a magnetic field is produced by the flow of electric current. The magnetism of an electromagnet is temporary and can be switched on and off.

Magnetic Field Pattern


Can be represented by field lines that show the shape of the field. Magnetic field lines which are close together represent a strong field. The field direction is defined as the direction indicated by a compass needle placed in the magnetic field.

(I) Magnetic Field Due To A Current In Straight Wire

When the direction of the current is reversed, the pattern of the magnetic field is unchanged. However, the directions of the needles of the compasses are reversed. This show that the direction of the magnetic field is reversed.

Direction of the magnetic field round the wire use right hand grip rule. The right hand grip rule for a current carrying straight wire states that:

thumb of the right hand points to the direction of a current, other 4 curled fingers point to the direction of its magnetic field.

(2) Magnetic Field Due To A Current In A Coil

Direction of the magnetic field round the coil use right hand grip rule. The right hand grip rule for a current carrying circular coil states that:

other 4 curled fingers points to the direction of a current, thumb point to the direction of its magnetic field.

(3) Magnetic Field Due To A Current In A Solenoid

Direction of the magnetic field round the solenoid use right hand grip rule. The right hand grip rule for a current carrying in solenoid states that:

other 4 curled fingers points to the direction of a current, thumb points towards north pole of the magnetic field.

I , strength

N , strength

More closer, strength

HOW?? Use Ushaped soft iron core Soft-iron can be magnetized and demagnetized easily when the current is switched on and off.

Application of e.m
(1) Electric Bell

contacts

When the switch is pressed, a current flows in the coils of the e.m, causing it to be magnetized. The magnetized e.m attracts the soft-iron armature, causing the hammer to strike the Gong. The movement of the armature breaks the contact and causes the e.m to lose it magnetism. The light spring pulls the armature back, remaking the contact and completing the circuit again.

The cycle is repeated so long as the bell push is pressed and continues ringing occurs.

(2) Magnetic Relay contacts pivot Soft-iron armature

Soft-iron core

When the switch is turned on, a current flows in the coil, causing the soft-iron core to be magnetized. The magnetized soft-iron core then attracts the L-shaped iron armature, causing it to rock on its pivot. The movement of the iron armature closes the contacts in he second circuit, thereby turning on the second circuit. When the switch is turn off, the soft-iron core loses its magnetism. This enables the spring to bring the iron armature back to its original position, causing the contacts to open and subsequently turning off the second circuit.

Force On A Current Carrying Conductor In A Magnetic Field When a wire carries an electric current through another magnetic field, a force
is exerted on the wire.

If polarities of magnet are reversed, copper wire move in other direction.


This shows that the force acts on wire depends on the direction of the magnetic field. If the current flowing through the copper wire is reversed, copper wire move in other direction. This shows that the force acts on wire depends on the direction of the current The direction of the magnetic force, F acting on the wire can be determined by using Flemings left hand rule.

Force First finger Field Second finger Current

Combined Magnetic Field In A Magnetic Field The force acting on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field can be
explained by considering the combined field due to the current and the magnet.

Below the conductor: - Magnetic field lines of the magnet and the conductor are in the same - Result in a stronger magnetic field below the conductor. Above the conductor: - Magnetic field lines of the magnet and the conductor are in the opposite
direction - Result in a weaker magnetic field above the conductor. The stronger magnetic field below the conductor will result in a upward force that acts on the conductor. The action of the combined magnetic field may be likened to that an elastic catapult therefore known as the catapult field. direction.

No forced produces if current Turning force/effect on a current carrying coil in a magnetic field. parallel to the field

Also use flemings left hand rule The turning force on a current carrying coil in a magnetic field is also known as
a couple.

Direct Current (d.c) Motor

Current is flown through the coil via the carbon brush.

Purpose using a split ring commutator is to enable the current in the coil to
change direction each time the coil passes through the vertical position. The change in the direction of current in the coil enables it to rotate in the same direction after it passes through the vertical direction.

The working of a simple direct current motor is described below:

0o

90o

180o

270o

Stage 1 (0o): The arms PQ of the coil turned upwardsAccording to Flemings left hand rule The arms RT of the coil turned downwards Therefore, the coil rotates in a clockwise direction. Stage 2 (90o): There is no current flowing through the coil because the circuit is broken at the carbon brushes. However the coil continues to rotate due to its inertia. After passing the vertical position, there is a contact between the commutator and the carbon brushes. Stage 3 (180o):

The direction of the current flowing in the arms PQ & RT are reversed compared to the stage 1. The arms PQ of the coil turned downwards According to Flemings left hand rule The arms RT of the coil turned upwards Hence the coil continues to rotate in a clockwise direction.

Stage 4 (270o): There is no current flowing through the coil as in the stage 2. However the coil continues to rotate due to its inertia. This goes until the plane of the coil is parallel to the magnetic field lines again as in the stage 1.

Electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic induction is the production of an electric current by a


changing magnetic field.

The induced current is produced only when there is relative motion between
the conductor/coil & the magnetic field lines.

HOW??

Moving a straight wire quickly across a magnetic field between 2 flat magnets.

Moving a permanent magnet towards 1 end of a solenoid.

Each time the straight wire across the magnetic field or permanent
magnet moves towards the solenoid, a current is induced in the coil and the deflection is observed in the sensitive galvanometer. This current is called induced current. (1) Electromagnetic Induction In A Straight Wire

(i) Wire is moved upwards:

Galvanometer needle is deflected momentarily Indicating that a current is induces in the straight wire. (ii) Wire is moved downwards: Galvanometer needle is deflected momentarily but in the opposite direction Indicating that an induced current flows through the straight wire in the opposite direction.

(iii)

Wire is moved parallel to the magnetic field: Galvanometer needle remains in the centre zero position Indicating that no current is produced. (iv) Wire is held stationary in the magnetic field: Galvanometer needle remains in the centre zero position Indicating that no current is induced in the wire. REMEMBER!! The current is induced in a straight conductor ONLY when it moves & cuts the magnetic field lines. The motion of the straight wire MUST be perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field lines so that an induced current will be produced. Direction of the induced current in a straight wire can be worked out using Flemings right hand rule. Motion of force First finger Field

Induced Current Second finger

(2) Electromagnetic Induction In A Solenoid

(i) Magnet is moved into the solenoid

Galvanometer is deflected momentarily Indicating that a current is induced in the solenoid. (ii) Magnet is moved out of the solenoid Galvanometer is deflected momentarily but in the opposite direction Indicating that an induced current flows through the solenoid in the opposite direction. (iii)Solenoid is moved towards a stationary magnet Galvanometer is deflected momentarily Indicating that a current is induced in the solenoid. (iv) Solenoid is moved away from a stationary magnet (initially inside the solenoid) Galvanometer is deflected momentarily but in the opposite direction Indicating that an induced current flows through the solenoid in the opposite direction. (v) Magnet is stationary in the solenoid Galvanometer needle remains in the centre zero position Indicating that no current is produced. REMEMBER!! The current is induced in a solenoid ONLY when there is relative motion between the solenoid and magnet. Direction of the induced current in a solenoid can be worked out using Lenzs Law: The direction of the induced current in a solenoid is such that its magnetic effect always opposes the charge producing it.

The phenomenon of e.m induction is explained by Faradays Law: The size of the induced e.m.f in a conductor is directly proportional to
the rate at which the conductor cuts through the magnetic field lines.

Application Of Electromagnetic Induction


(1) Alternating Current Generator

An alternating generator is almost identical to an electric motor but it operate in the opposite manner. An electric generator converts the kinetic energy to the electrical energy.

Stage 1 (0o): The arms PQ of the coil turned upwards The arms RT of the coil turned downwards These arms cut the magnetic field lines and a current is induced in the coil. Stage 2 (90o): The 2 arms of the coil are now moving parallel to the magnetic field lines and no field line is cut. Therefore no current is induced in the coil. However the coil continues to rotate due to its inertia. Stage 3 (180o): The direction of the current flowing in the arms PQ & RT are reversed compared to the stage 1. The arms PQ of the coil turned downwards The arms RT of the coil turned upwards Hence the coil continues to rotate in a clockwise direction. Stage 4 (270o): There is no current flowing through the coil as in the stage 2. However the coil continues to rotate due to its inertia. This goes until the plane of the coil is parallel to the magnetic field lines again as in the stage 1. Hence, the current through the external circuit is thus an alternating current.

Comparison between the a.c current and d.c current

Frequency of an alternating current

The frequency (f) of an alternating current is the number of complete


cycles or alternations produced by the a.c source in 1 second. The unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz). One hertz is equal to one cycle per second. The time for the a.c to make 1 complete cycle is known as its period (T). The relationship between f and T is given by:

The period of a.c shown in figure below is 0.5s. its frequency is given by:

1 cycle Effective Value of an Alternating Current An alternating current or voltage is measured by its effective or root mean
square (r.m.s) value. The r.m.s value is the current or voltage of an a.c that can produce the same heating effect in a conductor as that of a direct current of the same value. Figure 3.53 shows 2 similar lamps, P and Q, that are lit by a d.c and an a.c source respectively. If both the lamps are of the same brightness, then the r.m.s voltage of the a.c is equal in value to the voltage of the d.c current. If the voltage of the d.c is 2V, then the r.m.s value of the a.c is also 2V.

Figure 3.53

The peak value of an a.c is the maximum value of the alternating current.
Note that the values an a.c increases from zero to its maximum value and then decreases to zero again before it alternates. The relationship between the r.m.s value and its peak value is as follows:

= 0.707 Vp

The stated value of an a.c is usually its r.m.s value.

Transformers Transformer is an electrical device which increases or decreases an


alternating voltage based on the principle of electromagnetic induction.

A transformer consists of 2 coils of insulated copper wire wound around a laminated soft-iron core. The coil connected to the input voltage is called the primary coil. The coil connected to the output voltage is called the secondary coil. A transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. When a.c voltage, Vp is applied to the primary coil of transformer, an a.c flows through the coil. The soft-iron core is magnetized in one way and then the other. This means that the magnetic flux linkage in the secondary coil is constantly changing. An alternating e.m.f is induced across it to produce an a.c voltage, Vs in the secondary coil and a.c current flows through the second coil. The frequency of the secondary voltage, Vs is the same as that of the primary voltage, Vp. The magnitude of the secondary voltage, Vs depends on the ratio of the number of turns of the primary and secondary coils.

Why does the transformer not work with d.c supply? A current is induced in the secondary coil only when there is a changing
magnetic flux due to a changing primary current (change direction & magnitude). A d.c power supply gives a constant current in the primary circuit. A constant direct current whose magnitude and direction is constant does not create a changing magnetic flux in the secondary coil. Therefore, electromagnetic induction does not take place.

Relationship between numbers of turns in coils with voltage in a transformer


According to Faradays Law:

Voltage Number of turns in coils

Step-up and step-down transformer


Step-up transformer Step-down transformer

A transformer which increases voltage of an alternating current. Ns is greater than Np Vs is greater than Vp Is is lower than Ip

the A transformer which decreases voltage of an alternating current. Ns is lower than Np Vs is lower than Vp Is is greater than Ip

the

Relationship between output power & input power in transformer

In an ideal transformer, there is no energy loss during the process of


transforming the voltage.

Energy Loses in a transformer An ideal transformer is 100% efficient because it is assumed to have no
energy loss. Under such circumstances, the output is equal to its input power. Ideal transformers do not exist because in a real transformer, some energy is lost in the transformer especially in the form of heat. Since energy loss in the transformer cannot be avoided, the efficiency of a practical transformer will always be less than 100%.

Efficiency of a transformer

The power loss due to: Heating of the coils Eddy currents in the iron core Magnetization and demagnetization of core Leakage of magnetic flux

Causes of energy loss in transformers and ways to improve the efficiency

Generation & Transmission of Electricity

Electricity is

generated in power stations transmitted (sent) through long-distance cables distributed to consumers.

Sources of energy

Renewable sources Non-renewable sources An energy source that is continually An energy source that is cannot be replaced and will not run out. replaced once it has been used. - Hydroelectric energy - Coal - Geothermal energy - Petroleum - Biomass energy - Natural gas - Solar energy - Nuclear energy - Wing energy - Wave energy

Hydro-electric power station: Coal-fired power Solar : station : Whenenergy the water is allowed Solar originates from
A huge dam is built across rivers to contain water.

Biomass: Nuclear power station: plants andpower agricultural Gas-fired Energy from nuclear fission wastes:such as station 235 oil palm
Biomass includes rotting

Coal is burned & heat to flow down to a lower the sun. energy is used toenergy produce level, the kinetic of high pressure steam. Solar cells use sun energy the moving water is usedto generate smallturbines, electrical to drive water The steam produced is used energy to power which is turn drive the to drive the generators calculators. generators to produce to produce electricity. electricity. Solar panels use sun energy The energy to generate heat energy to The energy changes: changes: chemical energy heat water at home. potential energy heat kinetic energy kinetic energy energy electric energy.

Ways of Generati ng Electrici ty

(splitting of U atoms) is kernels & household The burning of natural gas used to produce high Wind generator : sewage that are used to produces high pressure pressure steam to drive High speed wind can be used produce methane & steam that is used gas to drive turbines. to turn the blades of large alcohol. turbines. windmills which will in turn The energy changes: nuclear drive generators produce Heat energy from to the The energy changes: energy heat energy electricity. burning of biomass is used chemical energy heat kinetic energy electric to generate electricity. energy kinetic energy energy.

Transmission of Electricity
When electricity travels long distances it is better to have it at higher voltages. Another way of saying this is that electricity can be transferred more efficiently at high voltages.

Electrical energy is transmitted from power station to the consumer using long transmission cables. Electrical energy is transmitted at a high voltage and use alternating current. A step-up transformer which increases the voltage to as high as 110000 or 132000 V. Step-down transformers are used to decrease the voltage before being delivered to the consumers. The long thick cables used as transmission lines are made of copper or aluminium because they have a low resistance.

Energy Loss in Electricity Transmission The heating effect due to the resistance of the cables causes loss of
electrical energy as heat energy. When the current flows in a cable, the power loss through heating is given by:

P = I2R
Where P = power loss I = current flows in cables R = resistance of the cables.

The power loss can be reduced by: Reduce the resistance of the cables (use thick cables) Reduce the current in the cables.
The current in the cables:

I=P V
This means that the current in the cables is inversely proportional to the
voltage of the cables for a certain value of power station.

When the power is transmitted at lower voltage, the current in the cables is
large. The greater the current in the cables, the greater the power loss.

National Grid Network National Grid Network is a network system of high voltages cables which
connects all the power stations in the country to the consumers.

Electricity is generated at 25 kV at the power station. It is then stepped up in a


transformer to 132 kV before it is sent to the grid network.

The purpose of increasing the voltage to 132 kV is to lower the current flowing
through the grid, and this reducing power loss during transmission.

The high voltage in the grid is subsequently reduced by sub station


transformers for distribution to local users. Heavy industries will be supplied with power at 33 kV. Light industries will be supplied with power at 11 kV. Offices will be supplied with power at 415 V while domestic users will be supplied with power at 240 V.

Importance of the National Grid Network (NGN)


Cost of generation of electricity is reduced because high voltage transmission reduces the current flowing through the cables & hence reduces power loss in the cables. If a particular station breaks down or is shut down for maintenance work, the other stations can supply electrical energy to the affected area.

Importa nce of NGN

Power stations in areas where the demand is low can supply electricity to areas where the demand is high.

Enables less efficient stations to be shut down at off-peak period, thereby reducing the overall cost of generation & transmission.

Power stations can be located outside city limits so that air and environmental pollution can be reduced.

Problems/ Issues Involving Electricity Transmission

Effects On The Environment

Energy resource Hydro

Advantages Renewable energy Water is freely available in large quantities Clean and does not pollute the environment Water stored in dams can be used to irrigate farms Dams can be used to control floods Dams can be promoted as recreational centre At present it is still available in large quantities Can be transported to the location where it is to be used Renewable energy Freely available Clean and no pollution

Disadvantages Building of dams can upset the balance of the ecosystem Not suitable in areas where natural disasters such as earthquakes may occur Not suitable in flat & dry regions.

Oil & natural gas

Solar

Coal

Nuclear

Plenty of resources available for up to 200 years Can be transported to the location where it is to be used A small amount uranium can release a large quantity of energy Minimum discharge of carbon dioxide Reactor in nuclear power stations can be used to produce useful radioisotopes to be used in industry, medicine & agriculture

Biomass

Renewable energy Reduces problem of disposal of organic waste Renewable energy

Wind

Non-renewable energy Discharges harmful gases that can pollute the environment High cost Requires very large space to collect sufficient energy Lower efficiency in the generation of electricity Intensity of sunlight is dependent of seasonal changes, climate and latitude of the region. High cost Non-renewable energy Discharges harmful gases that can pollute the environment High cost of building Waste in the form of used fuel rods which are very hot and highly radioactive Hot water discharged causes thermal pollution to the environment Risk of accidents which may lead to the leakage of large amounts of radioactive substances to the environment. Requires large storage space far from human population if the biomass is animal dung or sewage. Requires many windmills

Clean and does not pollute environment

which cover a larger area Generates high level of noise