Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 72

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright

By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

EFFECTIVENESS OF CLOZE TEST AS INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENT IN READING COMPREHENSION AT LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY SAN PABLO CITY CAMPUS ACADEMIC YEAR 2012-2013
For more details call the authors: 09103240206 & 09297447542

A Research Paper Presented to the Faculty of the College of Teacher Education Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus San Pablo City

In Partial of Fulfillment Of the Requirements in Methods of Research for the Degree Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English

CARIE JUSTINE P. ESTRELLADO & MARILYN ATIENZA MENDOZA


No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

October 2012
Republic of the Philippines
LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY

San Pablo City Campus San Pablo City

COLLEGE OF TEACHER EDUCATION

Approval Sheet
The Thesis entitled, EFFECTIVENESS OF CLOZE TEST AS INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENT IN READING COMPREHENSION AT LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC YEAR 2012 - 2013 is prepared and submitted by Marilyn A. Mendoza and CJPE in partial of fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education, Major in English, has been examined and is recommended for acceptance and approval for oral examination. NELIA T. SALVADOR, Ed.D. Adviser

PANEL OF EXAMINERS Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with a rating of __1.77__.

NELIA T. SALVADOR, Ed.D. Chairman

ARNOLD ABAD C. TENORIO, M.D. Subject Specialist

ANGELA L. REGINALDO Statistician

RUBY B. BRION, Ph.D. Technical Editor

NERISSA Y. BILO, M.A.T. English Critic

ELSA C. CALLO, Ed.D. Dean, College of Teacher Education

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Date:___________ Research Contribution no.__________

Acknowledgment

The researcher would like to extend her deepest appreciation to those who have helped and supported her throughout the conduct of the study: Daniel, her son who gave her the inspiration to continue despite lifes difficulty; Prof. Nelia T. Salvador, Ed.D., her adviser for the guidance, fondness and concern, without her this study would not be possible; Ms. Angela Reginaldo, Ms. Ruby Brion, Ms. Nerissa Bilo and Mr. Arnold Abad Tenorio who gave her support in finishing this research; To all the respondents who were very cooperative in giving information needed in the conduct of this research; Carrie Justine ISPOY Estrellado for his effort and unsolicited ideas that he shared; Friends, for providing support and concern in the best way they can; and Almighty God who gave her strength and knowledge to be able to accomplish this requirement.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Dedication

To her: Parents; Sister, Myla; Husband, Dennis & Affectionate son, Daniel

Thank you for the Love, Memories, Time and


No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Values
- M.A. Mendoza

ABSTRACT

This study aims to know the effectiveness of cloze test as integrative assessment in reading comprehension at Laguna State Polytechnic University, San Pablo City Campus, Academic Year, 2012-2013.

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 Age; 1.2 Gender; and 1.3 Grade point in english subject? 2. What is the level of perception of the following assessment related variables as perceive by the respondents: 2.1 Controllability; 2.2 Reliability and validity; and 2.3 Usability? 3. What is the mean score of the respondents in Cloze test? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the assessment related factors and the mean score in Cloze test?

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

5. Is the grade point average in English is significantly related to the result of Cloze test mean score?

This study used the descriptive type of research in determining the effectiveness of Cloze Test in measuring reading comprehension as a subject in secondary level. The possible solutions obtained through a questionnaire as well as interviews and observation made by the researcher. This study used of the third year students in Laguna State Polytechnic University as its respondents, the main source of data. The instrument used was a collaboration of information based on Crystal, David (2004). Contextual Constraints in Cloze Test. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53032-6. Some of its modifications were undertaken to adapt on the research problem and scope of the study. Findings Majority of the respondents are in age 15y/o with a frequency and percentage of twenty (20) or 69%; seventeen (17) or 56.62% are female students; ten (10) or 34% of the grade point average of 3rd year students lie between 87 89. All of the assessment related variables such as Controllability (mean = 4.32), Reliability & Validity (mean = 4.53), and Usability (mean = 4.32) and interpreted as Strongly Agree. The Cloze test result has a frequency of two hundred twenty one (221) and has a mean of 0.28 which is overall interpreted as Fair.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

The assessment related variables such as Controllability, Reliability and Validity and Usability are all Significant to result of Cloze test. Grade Point Average of the 3rd year students are Not significant to the result of Cloze test having a p value of 0.0676.

Conclusion Based on the findings posited in the study the following are hereby concluded: 1. The hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the assessment related factors and their mean score in Cloze test is Rejected. 2. The hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between grade point average in English and their result of Cloze test is Accepted.

Recommendations Based on the findings and conclusions made in the study, the following recommendations are hereby presented: 1. Institutions may provide proper and concrete assessment procedure since the manner of determining the complex ability of a child starts from the institution strongly claimed by Greene (2001) may endow materials such as Audio media since the respondents has low frequency rate in cloze test and specially provide good environmental atmosphere for learners.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

2. For the concern of students improvement, teachers may suit the interest particularly those specializing in Communication arts so that they will encourage students to study more. 3. Since the assessment related variables are significant to the result of cloze test it is associated that parents are vital provocative when it comes to their children in assessing academics according to colloquium experts (International Cognitive studies Association, 2001) have been mentioned as one of the recommendations, to wit: Parents are direct response indicator for their young and influentially provide such learners needs to gave interest; help them (children) to develop journal or diary and reading factual references in English; schedule periodic parent teacher meetings so that parents can discern their progress; enforce rules frequently to limit them to play and provide a pleasant climate so that when they go to school predicaments is partially reduced in view of the fact also in assessment in academics. 4. Researchers must supplement more various factors that will help contribute to the proper assessment in English subject. 5. Finally, there is a need for more researches and case studies about effectiveness of cloze test so that implications can be drawn and adopted on a wider basis for the learners needs.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE ................................................................................................................i APPROVAL SHEET ....................................................................................................ii ACKNOWLEDGMENT...............................................................................................iii DEDICATION ..............................................................................................................iv ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................v TABLE OF CONTENTS ..............................................................................................ix LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................xi LIST OF FIGURE.........................................................................................................xii

Chapter I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction ...........................................................................................1 Background of the Study ......................................................................3 Statement of the Problem ......................................................................6 Significance of the Study ......................................................................7 Scope and Limitation of the Study........................................................7 Theoretical Framework .........................................................................8 Conceptual Framework .........................................................................10 Hypotheses ............................................................................................11 Definition of Terms...............................................................................12

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

II.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Related Literature..................................................................................13 Related Studies......................................................................................19

III.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design....................................................................................24 Respondents of the study ......................................................................24 Research Instrument..............................................................................25 Statistical Treatment of Data ................................................................25

IV .

PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA ...........................................................28 38

V.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of Findings ............................................................................39 Conclusion ............................................................................................42 Recommendations .................................................................................43

BIBLIOGRAPHY .........................................................................................................44 APPENDICES ..............................................................................................................46 CURRICULUM VITAE ...............................................................................................56


No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

List of Tables

Table

Title

Page

1. Distribution of Respondents According to Age ...................................................28 2. Distribution of Respondents According to Gender ..............................................29 3. Distribution of Respondents According to Grade Point Average ........................29 4. Respondents Perception on Controllability As a Factor of Integrative Assessment .................................................................30 5. Respondents Perception on Reliability and Validity As a Factor of Integrative Assessment.................................................................31 6. Respondents Perception on Usability As a Factor of Integrative Assessment.................................................................32 7. Distribution of Results in Cloze Test ...................................................................34 8. Correlation between Assessment related Variables And Cloze Test .....................................................................................................36 9. Correlation between Grade Point Average in English And Cloze Test ....................................................................................................37

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

List of Figure

Figure

Title

Page

1.

Research Paradigm ........................................................................................11

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Chapter I The Problem and Its Background

Introduction

The cloze procedure is considered by many as an 'integrative' method of assessment, in contrast with 'discrete point' methods, The Cloze procedure deals with several linguistic components at once, focusing more on language use, and typically requiring the examinees to read and comprehend a substantial amount of discourse. Much research has been devoted to the validity and the reliability of Cloze tests. Cloze tests are reported to have moderate to high correlations with standardized tests and their subtests such as listening comprehension and reading comprehension. The report on high correlations between Cloze tests and International Journal of Human and Social Sciences tests of listening comprehension, writing, reading comprehension, and oral interview. The findings of these researchers reveal a relation between the scores on Cloze and global language ability tests. As for C-test, since its inception in 1981, its principles have been applied to more than 20 languages. C-tests have been used in numerous contexts and for various purposes .C-tests, then, figure prominently in the fields of language testing and assessment. Ctests, like the classic Cloze test, are an operationalization principle of reduced test.
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Although there are weaknesses in the reliability of cloze procedure, it is widely used in English teaching. As Legenza and Elijah (2001) point out, many studies have been conducted on cloze procedure concerning the construction of cloze tests, the relationship between cloze and reading comprehension, and the usefulness of cloze as a teaching technique. Cloze procedure has been used in English teaching in accordance to communication subject for decades since 1953. It was firstly used as an instrument for assessing the readability of written materials for school children in the United States (Brown, 2002). Then it was used in teaching for different purposes. Cloze procedure is not only valuable in providing information as to how readable the particular texts are for the students who are going to have to use them, but also invaluable as a means of comparing different text. Cloze procedure is also used for testing purposes. It seems that a wide range of skills like vocabulary, grammar, structure, and reading skills are involved in the process of completing a cloze procedure. Many researchers indicate that cloze procedure is a good test of overall English language proficiency and in History. For example, Ahluwalia (2005) claims that cloze procedure is an integrative, global measure of language competence. She explains that cloze tests measure the grammar of expectancy underlying the skills of thinking, understanding, speaking, reading, understanding and writing. For Cohen (2001 cited in Ahluwalia, 2005) cloze procedure measures global language competence consisting of linguistic knowledge, textual knowledge, and knowledge of the world. As it calls on examinee to use knowledge such as vocabulary, grammar, sentence construction, text structure,

cohesion and the readers prior background knowledge.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Askes (2002) regards cloze procedure as one of the integrative tests (global tests) that integrate language components into a total language event, which requires an integrated performance from the learner in a meaningful context. Thus for Steinman (2002), a cloze can replace the sections on test structure, written expression, vocabulary, and reading comprehension not only in English subject as well as different areas of learning. The reason behind giving a Cloze test and obtaining a test score is interpreting that score as an indicator of what a test taker knows or what he/she can do with that knowledge. Furthermore, our interpretation of that test score forms the basis for decision making. As such, when using a test score, we make an implicit link between test performance and a domain of language knowledge the test taker has or something the test taker can do with language in some language use domain beyond the test itself. In other words, when we use test scores, we are essentially reasoning from evidence, using the test score as the evidence for inferences or interpretations and decisions we want to make. Yet, we cannot simply draw on test score to make inferences and decisions without efficient justification. If we want to use a test score for a particular purpose, we must justify it through a rationale and supporting evidence. As Bachman (2005) puts it, "We need to demonstrate, with logical argumentation and empirical evidence, that the intended interpretations and uses are valid." Validity in testing and assessment has traditionally been understood to mean "discovering whether a test measures accurately what it is intended to measure", or uncovering the "appropriateness of a given test or any of its component parts as a measure of what it is purposed to measure".

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Background of the Study

Cheng (1999) claims that the term cloze procedure was first developed by Wilson Taylor in 1953. He explains that the term cloze derived from the Gestalt psychology concept of closure. It describes a tendency that humans have to complete a familiar but not-quite-finished pattern. Ellis (2004) further explain that it refers to the tendency of individuals to complete a pattern once they have grasped its overall significance. Rye (1982) explains that Cloze procedure is essentially a cognitive task. The reader has to reason and construct suggestions to fill the gap on the basis of the evidence derived from the context the completion of meaning, based on understanding and reasoning is a cognitive task. Brown (2002) claims that it is not difficult to get people to take a cloze test because of the compulsive human need to fill gaps. Clarke (2001) was the first to study cloze procedure for its effectiveness as an instrument for determining the readability of materials in the readers native language in 1953. After that initial study, it was investigated for its appropriateness as a measure of readability of L1 and L2 materials. In the 1960s, studies focused on cloze tests as a measurement of reading comprehension in L1 and L2. During the 1970s, cloze tests began to be used as a measurement of overall L2 proficiency (Ahluwalia, 1992:82). Today, cloze tests are widely used in some places (such as China) and as part of some large-scale language. What is a cloze test? A standard cloze test is a passage with blanks of standard length replacing certain deleted words which students are required to complete by filling in the correct words or their equivalents. During traditional cloze testing, every fifth word is removed from a 250-500 word reading passage, and is
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

replaced by a standard-length blank space (Helfeldt et al, 1986:216). Usually, no word is omitted either in the first or the last sentence of the passage. Students are required to supply either the original word of the author or an appropriate equivalent in the blank space. Many studies show that the reliability and the validity of cloze tests are affected by factors like the rate of deletion, nature of the text and scoring systems, etc. Deletion rate refers to the frequency of deleting words. As Steinman (2002:293-294) explains, there are two options in designing a cloze test according to its deletion rate: a random cloze or a rational cloze. A random cloze deletes every nth word consistently, so that all classes and types of words have an equal chance of being deleted. A rational cloze is the one in which a specific type of word is deleted according to a linguistic principle, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. Alderson (2000) cited by Yamashita (2003:269) clearly differentiates between these two types of format by calling the rational cloze gap-filling tests and confining the term cloze only to the random cloze. Ahluwalia (1992:83-84) states that different deletion rates would result in either increasing the difficulty of the text or in unpredictable differences in the difficulty. Another factor that would affect the reliability and the validity of the cloze is the nature of the text. The nature of the text such as its familiarity level and difficulty level would improve or hamper cloze performance (Ahluwalia, 1992:86-88). However, Alderson (1980, 1983 cited in Ahluwalia, 1992:86) and Yamashita (2003:286-287) argue that cloze test performance is not directly related to the difficulty level of the text; it involves other factors such as scoring procedures, and content
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

familiarity for the readers. Different scoring methods include: exact word method, multiple-choice scoring method and contextually acceptable word method. 16Exact word method requires the examinee to provide the original word deleted from the text while contextually acceptable word method allows for the words that fit the gap either to be synonyms of the deleted. Statement of the Problem This study aims to know the effectiveness of cloze test as integrative assessment in reading comprehension at Laguna State Polytechnic University, San Pablo City Campus, Academic Year, 2012-2013.

6. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 6.1 Age; 6.2 Gender; and 6.3 Grade point in english subject? 7. What is the level of perception of the following assessment related variables as perceive by the respondents: 7.1 Controllability; 7.2 Reliability and validity; and 7.3 Usability? 8. What is the mean score of the respondents in Cloze test? 9. Is there a significant relationship between the assessment - related factors and their mean score in Cloze test mean score?
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

10. Is the grade point average in English is significantly related to the result of Cloze test mean score?

Scope and Limitations This study focused on the effectiveness of cloze test in measuring performance related to English subject. It is limited only to twenty - nine (29) respondents of the third year students who are enrolled in Academic Year 2012-2013 at Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus, they were purposively selected. In this study, the researcher used instruments such as survey questionnaire intended for students and 25 items for measuring their performance using Cloze type of test which served as the main instrument of the study. Significance of the Study The study will be significant to the following: Teachers and instructors especially for those specializing English, for it will benefit them in a way of identifying the factors underlying proper assessment;

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Students, for it will help them to improve and be competent in studying English and provoke their interest. Parents, to furnish and give aid for their children an interest to learn the complexities of motivating a child in reading; And finally, for researchers, for it will help them gain satisfaction for knowing some insights about the given problem and develop research skills to be more productive in the field that they had chosen to belong in the future. Theoretical framework Cloze technique, developed by Taylor (1952), is firstly designed as a tool for measuring readability of texts, and now it has been used widely as an exercise or test method in foreign language teaching and testing. It works on the principle of closure and anticipation, in that the reader is required to reconstruct systematically mutilated passage (Hofman, J. E. & Habib-Allah, M., 1982:276). Actually, as early as 1971, John Oller advocated that cloze testing was an excellent integrative test. Joseph Boyle and Peter Falvey (1994) claims that cloze test is one variant of integrative tests, too. And they believe that for cloze test, it is pragmatic expectancy grammar that constitutes the trait that reflects linguistic competence. In addition, many researches from 1970s to 1980s on cloze test supply people with an objective viewpoint that cloze test is a reliable and valid test method to investigate the difficulty level of the text and the test-takers capability in reading comprehension. It can be used as a part of standard integrative language proficiency testing and a subsidiary tool for language teaching.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Cloze is originally called cloze procedure, whose theoretical foundation is Gestalt psychology. Those psychologists believe that when people observe the shape of an object, they will unconsciously fill in the broken part. Such is the case in reading process. A sentence or a passage, deleted some words, is just like a broken picture. People will complete it unconsciously according to their comprehensive language knowledge. The Gestalt theory also claims that the more familiar with the picture the easier for people to recognize it. Expounded in language learning, the case is that the higher language proficiency the higher ability to complete the broken passage.

Besides the Gestalt theory, researchers try to use Redundancy Information theory and Expectancy Grammar theory to explain the cloze test. In Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, redundancy is defined as the degree to which a message contains more information than is needed for it to be understood. Languages have built-in redundancy, which means that utterances harbor more information than is necessary for comprehension. And 50% of normal language is said to be redundant. Li Xiaoju (2001) also approves that in cloze test, people use the redundancy information of natural language to complete the broken language. Actually, this theory is crucial for Chinese learners when learning English. The process of accumulating language knowledge is the process of recognizing the redundancy information in English language. However, the information is necessary in that it can make the meaning of the text much more accurate, although it is regarded as more than is needed. For Chinese students, the recognition of the redundancy information is helpful for them to improve their sensitivity to the English language environment and their

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

ability to understand the inner relationship in language itself and the consistency of its usage, which enhances the students language proficiency. Therefore, the cloze test removes some redundancy information from the completed text to examine whether testtakers obtain the capability to comprehend the broken passage and to fill in the blanks or not.

Expectancy Grammar was firstly advocated by Oller in 1976. Later Carter (1998) believes that it refers to language users comprehensive language ability to use syntax, semantic and discourse knowledge. In reading process, the reader can use the ability to predict in what way the sentence will end and to what trend the text will develop. Cloze test investigates the very ability acquired by language learners through long-term learning and perception, and proficient mastering of language structure as well as basic use principle of the target language. In a broken passage, according to the context and their language ability, students can predict the syntactic and semantic function of the deleted word, along with the relationship between the word and the other part within the sentence.

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework of this study is presented to give view of the work to be done. The inputs or the independent variables are the profile of the respondent mainly 3rd year high school students and their perception regarding the effectiveness of a test which composed of Controllability, Reliability and Validity and Usability.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

The process is the strategy to be used such as generating data through the use of questionnaire. The possible output or the dependent variable is the result or their performance in English by means of using Cloze Test. It is assumed to be affected by the independent variable.

Paradigm Independent Variables Dependent Variable

I. Profile of the respondents Age Gender Grade in English II. Assessment related factors Controllability Reliability & Validity Usability

Cloze Test

Figure1. Shows the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable.
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Hypotheses 3. There is no significant relationship between the assessment related factors and the mean score in Cloze test. 4. There is no significant relationship between grade point average in English and their result of Cloze test.

Definition of Terms For a better understanding of this study, the following terms are

operationally defined. Age. Refers to how old or young a particular person was. Cloze Test. Refers to integrative assessment in measuring higher cognitive task, deals with several knowledge components at once, focusing more on cognitive language used, and typically requiring the examinees to read and comprehend having a substantial discourse. Controllability. It refers to the level of manipulation of effectiveness of Cloze type of test.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Gender. It refers to a particular person whether s/he is a male or a female. Grade Point Average. Refers to the recent average grade of 3rd year high school students during 2012 2013. Reading Comprehension. Refers to intellectual capacity of the respondents regarding the passage of History of Cat. Reliability. Refers to the consistency of Cloze test in assessing English subject. Validity. Refers to what purports to measure in a given context.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Chapter II Review of Related Literature and Studies The chapters presents a selection of literature and studies that has a bearing on present study. Most of the literature gathered comprises Cloze Test procedure.

Related Literature

Cloze test has been changing and developing. According to different deletion and fill-in-blank methods, it can be mainly classified to fixed-ratio cloze, rational cloze, multiple choice cloze, C-test and banked cloze.

Fixed-ratio cloze was proposed by Oller in 2005. It is constructed by deleting words according to a fixed pattern, either at even numbers (4, 6, 8, 10, etc.) or at odd numbers (5, 7, 9, 11, etc.). This procedure is intended to sample regularly various variants of words, some of which are governed by local grammatical constraints and wide discipline vocabularies in sorted areas of History, Mathematics, Statistics, others of which are governed by long-range textual constraints. The advantages of this cloze variant are convenience and high consistency, while there are also a lot of problems such as some of the blanks being too easy or too difficult, the broken passage sometimes arousing testtakers dislike and resulting in a dilemma for testers to choose subjective or objective scoring method, and being lack of control which possibly leads to examine the language points the designer doesnt want to test actually. Rational cloze can also be called open
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

cloze or gap-filling. The test developer control over the types of the words deleted such as functional words, verbs or nouns, and thus the language traits measured. This selected deletion changes the random of cloze testing into objectivity and practicality. Just like in fixed-ratio cloze, test-takers have to fill in the blanks in rational cloze according to their comprehension capability. Rational cloze research and practice rests on the assumption that different cloze items can be explicitly chosen to measure different language traits (Chapelle & Roberta, 1990:122). The understanding advantage of rational cloze is that the test designer can select particular item to determine test-point. However, it is confronted with the problem that subjective or objective scoring method, either.

In order to solve the scoring problem of fixed-ratio and rational cloze, test developers design multiple-choice cloze. This cloze test format requires test-takers to select the correct answer from the provided options. It offers four or five options to each blank, while only one is the correct answer and the others are distracters. There are no accepted answers which get rid of scoring controversies. Generally speaking, high reliability is the specialty of multiple-choice cloze. However, the inappropriate options or explanation of new words will give test-takers some hints, which possibly reduce the difficulty level and the validity of test. Therefore, multiple-choice cloze demands test developers enough attention and obeying some strict rules.

A cloze test (also cloze deletion test) is an exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a portion of text with certain words removed (cloze text), where the participant is asked to replace the missing words. Cloze tests require the ability to understand context and vocabulary in order to identify the correct words or type of words that belong in the
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

deleted passages of a text. This exercise is commonly administered for the assessment of native and second language learning and instruction.

The word cloze is derived from closure in Gestalt theory . The exercise was first described by W.L. Taylor in 1953.

Words may be deleted from the text in question either mechanically (every nth word) or selectively, depending on exactly what aspect it is intended to test for. The methodology is the subject of an extensive academic literature; nonetheless, teachers commonly devise ad hoc tests.

A Cloze test removes certain words from a sample of your text and asks users to fill in the missing words. Your test participants must rely on the context as well as their prior knowledge of the subject to identify the deleted words. Its based on the Gestalt theory of closurewhere the brain tries to fill in missing piecesand applies it to written text.

It looks something like this:

If you want to __________ out whether your site __________ understand your content, you __________ test it with them. It looks a lot like a Mad Lib, doesnt it? Instead of coming up with a sentence that sounds funny or strange or interesting, participants must guess the exact word the author used. While Cloze tests are uncommon in the user experience field, educators have used

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

them for decades to assess whether a text is appropriate for their students, particularly in English-as-an-additional-language instruction. Heres how to do it:

Take a sample of textabout 125-250 words or so. Remove every fifth word, replacing it with a blank space. Ask participants to fill in each space with the word they think was removed. Score the answers by counting the number of correct answers and dividing that by the total number of blanks.

A score of 60% or better indicates the text is appropriate for the audience. Participants who score 40-60%, will have some difficulty understanding the original text. Its not a deal breaker, but it does mean that the audience may need some additional help to understand your content. A score of less than 40% means that the text will frustrate readers and should be rewritten.

It might sound farfetched, but give this method a try before you dismiss it. In a government study on healthcare information readability, an expert panel categorized health articles as either easy or difficult. We ran a Cloze test using those articles with participantswho had low to average literacy skillsand found that the results reflected the expert panels findings. The average score for the easy version was 60, indicating the article was written at an appropriate level for these readers. The average score for the difficult version was 39: too hard for this audience.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Cloze tests are simple to create, administer, and score. They give you a good idea as to whether the content is right for the intended audience. If you use Cloze testseither on their own or with more traditional usability testing methodsknow that it takes a lot of cognitive effort to figure out those missing words. Aim for at least 25 blanks to get good feedback on your text; more than 50 can be very tiring.

When to test

Test your content at any point in your site development process. As long as you have content to test, you can test it. Need to convince your boss to budget for content testing? Run it through a readability formula. Got content but no wireframes or visual design? Run a Cloze test to evaluate content appropriateness. Understands the content key to a task or workflow? Display it in context during usability testing.

What to test You cant test every sentence on your site, nor do you need to. Focus on tasks that are critical to your users and your business. For example, does your help desk get calls about things the site should communicate? Test the content to find out if and where the site falls short.

So get to it

While usability testing watches what users do, not what they say they do, content testing determines what users understand, not what they say they understand.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Whatever your budget, timeline, and access to users, theres a method to test whether your content is appropriate for the people reading it. So test! And then, either rest assured that your content works, or get cracking on that rewrite.

A language teacher may give the following passage to students:

Today, I went to the ________ and bought some milk and eggs. I knew it was going to rain, but I forgot to take my ________, and ended up getting wet on the way ________.

Students would then be required to fill in the blanks with words that would best complete the passage. Context in language and content terms is essential in most, if not all, cloze tests. The first blank is preceded by "the"; therefore, a noun, an adjective or an adverb must follow. However, a conjunction follows the blank; the sentence would not be grammatically correct if anything other than a noun were in the blank. The words "milk and eggs" are important for deciding which noun to put in the blank; "supermarket" is a possible answer; depending on the student, however, the first blank could either be store, supermarket, shop or market while umbrella or raincoat fit the second.

The definition of success in a given cloze test varies, depending on the broader goals behind the exercise. Assessment may depend on whether the exercise is objective (i.e. students are given a list of words to use in a cloze) or subjective (i.e. students are to fill in a cloze with words that would make a given sentence grammatically correct).

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

I saw a man lay his jacket on a puddle for a woman crossing the street. I thought that was very ______.

Given the above passage, students' answers may then vary depending on their vocabulary skills and their personal opinions. However, the placement of the blank at the end of the sentence restricts the possible words that may complete the sentence; following an adverb and finishing the sentence, the word is most likely an adjective. Romantic, chivalrous or gallant may, for example, occupy the blank, as well as foolish or cheesy. Using those answers, a teacher may ask students to reflect on the opinions drawn from the given cloze.

In addition to use in testing, cloze deletion can be used in learning, particularly language learning, but also learning facts. This may be done manually for example, by covering sections of a text with paper, or highlighting sections of text with a highlighter, than covering the line with a colored ruler in the complementary color (say, red ruler for green highlighter), so the highlighted text disappears; this is popular in Japan, for instance. Cloze deletion can also be used as part of spaced repetition software, and the Super Memo application features semi-automated creation of cloze tests, particularly as part of its incremental reading feature.

Related Studies The Cloze test is used primarily to determine a students level of reading ability. A student is first tested for reading level; in this case the Slosson oral has previously been

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

administered. After a students reading level has been determined, a reading selection is taken from a book of like grade level. As is standard, every fifth word is removed and replaced by a blank space, in this assignment there were 20 blanks in the selection. In this assignment, as was suggested, a paragraph of text preceded the actual test material. Evaluation of the test determines a students reading level; an independent reading level indicates that the student could read the selected book on their own, instructional level means that the student can read the book with assistance and frustration level means that the book is difficult for the student to read and is likely above the students reading grade level. For the purposes of this assignment, the following scale was assigned for evaluation: the independent reading level is based as 50% or more of the blanks filled in correctly, instructional level is 30% 50% and frustration level.

On Friday, October 6, 1995, I administered a Cloze test to a student named Natalie at Stivers Middle School in Dayton, who I had administered a Slosson oral test to the previous week. On the Slosson oral, Natalie scored in the 8th grade reading level (8.95 to be exact). Taking her Slosson score, I set out in search of a text book involving African American studies, an area she is very interested in. After much searching, I secured the book African American History at the Wright State ERC and submitted it to Fry Graph analysis (attachment 1). Taking three 100 word samples randomly from the book I computed the approximate reading grade level of the book. Sample 1 consisted of 7.3 sentences and 149 syllables, sample 2 had 9.2 sentences and 155 syllables and sample 3 had 8.5 sentences and 158 syllables. The average of the samples was 8.33 sentences and 154 syllables. I plotted this point on the graph, and fortunately it fell within the 8th grade reading level. I then constructed a Cloze test to be administered.
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

The test was administered to Natalie during the 4th period in the same conference room Mrs. King had selected for me to give Natalie the Slosson oral test the previous week. I explained the test to Natalie and gave her the test to fill out (attachment 2). While Natalie was taking the test, I either sat down at a nearby table or walked to a nearby window. Natalie finished the test in about eight minutes, and I quickly compared it to my master copy (attachment 3). I then sat down with Natalie and asked her why she had chosen each of her selections, the correct and incorrect ones alike. I recorded her responses, and thanked her for helping me and she returned to class.

Natalie correctly filled in 11 of the 20 blanks (55%) and placed in the independent reading level. Below is a chart of error, indicating the correct response, the response given, the reason the answer was given, if there was a change in grammar and if there was a change in the meaning of the statement. Following the chart will be a more detailed account of why each incorrect answer was given for different items.

I asked Natalie why she chose each of her selections, and asked her if other words would make sense in the context of the sentence. I did this for all 20 selections; including the ones she got right as well as the ones she got wrong. For example on selection 1, which she filled in correctly, I asked her if is would have worked. She promptly told me that everything was in the past, so is would be wrong. In her first mistake on the test, Natalie substituted food for the word literature. I asked Natalie if the word literature would fit better, and Natalie told me that most likely books would be together with art. On the second mistake, Natalie used the phrase brought on instead of stimulated. I asked her about using stimulated and I
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

was promptly asked what the word meant. The third mistake made was the substitution of the phrase in many instead of of. When I asked Natalie about this, she read the sentence back with of in its place and said it didnt sound right. On this I really had to agree. The fourth mistake made was the usage of racism instead of oppression. When I asked Natalie about this I was met with the same response I got for stimulated: what does it mean? Natalies next mistake came when she used art instead of society in the selection. Again I asked her about using society in the sentence, and Natalie said it seemed right to her since art had been used before in the paragraph. Natalies sixth error was in putting something in the selection instead of things. When I asked her about the possibility of using things, she simply told me that nobody used that word that way. Again, I would have to agree with her since I have heard few people ever say things new. The seventh mistake was the use of movement instead of Renaissance. As I had done several times before, I asked her about her choice and asked if Renaissance would have worked. Natalies response was that it wouldnt work because a renaissance is something 'really old'. I could understand this reasoning, since the only time students really hear this term is in early European history. The eighth mistake made on the Cloze test was the use of the word racist instead of this. I really didnt understand this substitution, and when I asked about it Natalie said that she couldnt think of anything else, that she had used racist before in the selection and racist was the only thing she could associate with New York in the context of the sentence. The ninth, and final, mistake Natalie made was the use of the
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

phrase period for instead of by. By this time Natalie seemed tired of all this and simply said she couldnt think of any other word to use. She wanted to return to her class, so I thanked her for putting up with me and my tests and let her return to the room. From my perspective, most of Natalies errors on the Cloze test could be attributed to two things: she was unfamiliar with some of the vocabulary used and the text in some places was written in a way in which few students (or adults for that matter) speak. So, what can be done about it? If this had been an actual textbook assignment, one thing that could be done is to provide the students with a list of vocabulary words they do not understand completely strongly affirmed According to most researchers in Europe.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Chapter III Research Methodology This chapter describes how the study was conducted and the researcher used in gathering the necessary data for the completion of the study. This includes the research design, the population and sampling, sampling procedure, data gathering procedure, research instrument and the statistical treatment of data.

Research Design This study used the descriptive type of research in determining the effectiveness of Cloze Test in measuring reading comprehension as a subject in secondary level. The possible solutions obtained through a questionnaire as well as interviews and observation made by the researcher. This study used of the third year students in Laguna State Polytechnic University as its respondents, the main source of data. The instrument used was a collaboration of information based on Crystal, David (2004). Contextual Constraints in Cloze Test. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53032-6. Some of its modifications were undertaken to adapt on the research problem and scope of the study. Respondents of the Study This study was conducted at Laguna State Polytechnic University, San Pablo City Campus Academic Year 2012-2013. The researcher gets a representative for 3rd year high school department to suit the twenty - nine (29) respondents needed for the study. A purposive sampling as a sampling technique was utilized.
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Research Instrument The main instrument used in the study is a questionnaire which was used to know person related factors such as age, gender, and grade point in English during second semester A.Y. 2012- 2013. And an integrative assessment in reading comprehension comprises of twenty five (25) items using Rational Cloze Test procedure. After reading and studying samples of questionnaire from related studies, the researcher adopted a rational cloze test which based on Crystal Davids educational research: Cambridge year 2004. She also consulted some knowledgeable people and sees to it that there were enough items to collect data to cover all aspects of the problem and to answer all the specific questions under the statement of the problem.

Statistical Treatment of Data The data were gathered from the respondents treated and interpreted using the statistical tools. The following statistical analysis was coded in the study:

Survey Questionnaire Age Legend: 14y/o below 1 15y/o 2 16y/o and above 3

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Gender Legend: Male 1 Female 2 Current Grade Point in English Legend: 93 and above 1 90 92 2 87 89 3 84 86 4 81 83 5 80 and below 6 Cloze test Legend: correct 1 incorrect - 0

Percentage distribution was utilized to describe the person related variables in terms of, age, gender, and grade point in English. For the assessment related factors, the researcher utilized the mean and standard deviation using a Likert scale, 5 being the highest, denotes strongly agree and 1 being the lowest, denotes strongly disagree.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

To find that if there is a relationship existing between the independent and dependent variables, Pearson Product Moment of Correlation Coefficient was used to tell how well two sets of continuous data correlate to each other at 0.05 level of significance.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Chapter IV Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data This chapter presents the findings of the study in illustrative tables and analysis as well as the interpretation based from the treatment of the data.

Table 1 Distribution of Respondents According to Age Age Frequency 14 y/o below 8 15y/o 20 16y/o and above 1 TOTAL 29

Percent 28 69 3 100

Table 1 shows the distribution of respondents according to their age, the majority of the respondents are 15y/o having twenty (20) or 69% of the total respondents.

This implies though the inability to randomize the selection because the research has lack of features of the true experiment and based on the experimental values the respondents are equipped subject for experimental condition since they undergone English as subject. As Datta (2002) mentioned Cloze tests require the ability to understand context and vocabulary in order to identify the correct words or type of words that belong in the deleted passages of a text most of the studies underlies puberty period. This exercise is commonly administered for the assessment of knowledge and second language complex learning and instruction.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Gender Male Female TOTAL

Table 2 Distribution of Respondents According to Gender Frequency 12 17 29

Percent 41.38 56.62 100

Table 2 clearly shows that female outnumbered the male having a frequency of 17 or 56.62% and the male has 12 frequency or 41.38%. This implies that more female are subjected in the study.

Table 3 Distribution of Respondents According to Grade Point in English Grade point Frequency Percent 93 and above 0 0 90 92 6 21 87 89 10 34 84 86 8 28 81 83 5 17 80 and below 0 0 TOTAL 29 100 Table 3 shows the grade point average in English of the respondents. The highest grade point average that the respondents attained ranged from 87 89 having a frequency of ten (10) or 34% second ranging from 84 86 having a frequency of 8 (eight) or 28% followed by 90 92 having six (6) or 21% subsequent to that is ranged from 81 83 and the grade point average of 93 and above and 80 below has zero frequency.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Table 4 Respondents Perception on Controllability as a Factor of Integrative Assessment

Indicators 1. The Cloze test procedure can easily adjust the instructional planning. 2. It can limit the learners the extension of different vocabularies. 3. Can easily manipulate by the teachers and learners as well. 4. Placement of the blank at the end of the sentence in the passage restricts the possible words that may complete the sentence. 5. The instructors can readily assume the fairness in the interpretation results. TOTAL
Legend: 4.21 5.0 : Strongly Agree 3.41 4.20 : Agree 2.61 3.40 : Fair 1.81 2.60 : Disagree 1.0 1.80 : Strongly Disagree

Mean 4.59 4.72 3.72 4.59 4.0 4.32

Standard Deviation 0.56 0.58 0.83 0.56 0.74 0.65

Remarks Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Agree

Table 4 shows the respondents perception on Controllability as a variable of assessment related factors. As we observed item number four reigns the other indicators having a mean of 4.49 and interpreted as Strongly agree by the respondents on cloze test. Along with the total average resulted with 4.32 and interpreted as Strongly agree over all. This implies a strong affirmation on the effectiveness of cloze test in assessing reading comprehension.

However, Alderson (1980, 1983 cited in Ahluwalia, 1992:86) and Yamashita (2003:286287) supported that cloze test performance is not directly related to the difficulty level of the text; it involves other factors such as scoring procedures, and content familiarity for the readers to be able them to manipulate their cognitive concerns.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Table 5 Respondents Perception on Reliability and Validity as a Factor of Integrative Assessment

Indicators 1. Cloze test have adequacy and representativeness of learning outcomes. 2. The passage measures what it purports to measure. 3. Cloze test must first consider the errors of measurement. 4. It can easily interpret the test results to improve teaching and learning. 5. It has a value of testing as a tool to improve instruction and learning performance. TOTAL
Legend: 4.21 5.0 : Strongly Agree 3.41 4.20 : Agree 2.61 3.40 : Fair 1.81 2.60 : Disagree 1.0 1.80 : Strongly Disagree

Mean 4.55 4.14 4.31 4.76 4.90 4.53

Standard Deviation 0.56 0.59 0.70 0.73 0.55 0.63

Remarks Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree

Table 5 shows the respondents perception on the reliability and validity of cloze test in assessing knowledge in english. As the total mean yields 4.53 and is interpreted as Strongly agree, which implies the elevating consistency and efficiency in english assessment treatment.

. Much research has been devoted to the validity and the reliability of Cloze tests. Cloze tests are reported to have moderate to high correlations with standardized tests and their subtests such as listening comprehension and reading comprehension. The report on high correlations between Cloze tests and International Journal of Human and Social Sciences tests of listening comprehension, writing, reading comprehension, and oral interview. The findings of these researchers reveal a relation between the scores on Cloze and global cognitive ability tests (Greene, 2001).
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Table 6 Respondents Perception on Usability as a Factor of Integrative Assessment

Indicators 1. It manifests strong retention constructed response type. 2. Creates critical reasoning for learners on how to arrive on precise conclusions. 3. Learners can employ to assess vocabulary, understanding facts, seeing, relationships, drawing inferences, detecting authors style, and approximating the patterns of language structure. 4. The test provides communicative skills in understanding such areas of learning. 5. Contributes logical argumentation and empirical evidence for learners such as resourceful in resolving authentic problems in studying english. TOTAL
Legend: 4.21 5.0 : Strongly Agree 3.41 4.20 : Agree 2.61 3.40 : Fair 1.81 2.60 : Disagree 1.0 1.80 : Strongly Disagree

Mean 3.48 4.62

Standard Deviation 1.04 0.89

Remarks Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree

4.48

0.56

4.55

0.97

4.46

0.62

4.32

0.82

Table 6 shows the level of perception of 3rd year students with regards to the usability of cloze test in assessing reading comprehension. Based on the statistical treatment the overall mean is 4.32 and the standard deviation is 0.82 and interpreted as Strongly agree which also implies cloze test useful in measuring complex cognitive ability of the respondents. As Greene (2001) claimed that sentence or a passage, deleted some words, is just like a broken picture. People will complete it unconsciously according to their comprehensive knowledge. The Gestalt theory also claims that it is very useful in recognizing evaluative range of knowledge since the more familiar with the picture the easier for people to recognize it. Expounded in language No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

learning, the case is that the higher language proficiency the higher ability to complete the broken passage and promotes higher order thinking skills but also more on life relating tendencies which could be applicable to further level of a child.

Item no. 1 2 3

Table 7 Distribution of Result in Rational Cloze Test Frequency Percent Mean 13 52 0.45 13 52 0.45 8 32 0.27

Interpretation Satisfactory Satisfactory Fair

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 TOTAL Legend: 24 25 : Outstanding 20 23 : Very Satisfactory 13 19 : Satisfactory 8 12 :Fair 0 7 : Needs Improvement

9 13 12 2 12 5 15 15 11 2 10 12 8 12 0 5 0 8 11 6 6 13 221

36 52 48 8 48 20 60 60 44 8 40 48 32 48 0 20 0 32 44 24 24 52 100

0.31 0.45 0.44 0.06 0.17 0.51 0.51 0.37 0.06 0.34 0.04 0.27 0.41 0.17 0 0.51 0 0.27 0.06 0.22 0.22 0.45 0.28

Fair Satisfactory Fair Needs improvement Fair Needs improvement Satisfactory Satisfactory Fair Needs improvement Fair Fair Needs improvement Fair Needs improvement Needs improvement Needs improvement Fair Fair Needs improvement Needs improvement Satisfactory Fair

This table shows the result of the cloze test of 3rd year high school, as we observed both item number 10 and 11 has a high frequency which interpreted as Satisfactory based on the scale values above having a 60% of the total correct answer. As we look generally there are more results ranged from 8 12, thus the mean score of the respondents based on the experiment is interpreted as Fair.

This implies that the respondents performed the test even-handedly since the total interpretation is said to be Fair with regards to this Legenza (2001) reasoned behind giving a No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Cloze test and obtaining a test score is interpreting that score as an indicator of what a test taker knows or what he/she can do with that knowledge. Furthermore, our interpretation of that test score forms the basis for decision making. As such, when using a test score, we make an implicit link between test performance and a domain of knowledge the test taker has or something the test taker can do with schema in some area use domain beyond the test itself.

The advantages of this cloze variant are convenience and high consistency, while there are also a lot of problems such as some of the blanks being too easy or too difficult, the broken passage sometimes arousing test-takers dislike and resulting in a dilemma for testers to choose subjective or objective scoring method, and being lack of control which possibly leads to examine the language points the designer doesnt want to test actually. Rational cloze can also be called open cloze or gap-filling.

Table 8 Correlation between Assessment related variables and Cloze Test

Variables Controllability

r - value .789

p - value .0376

Interpretation Significant

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Reliability and Validity Usability


Legend: p >.05 : not significant p <.05 : significant

.076 .098

.0167 .0092

Significant Significant

Table 8 clearly shows that all of the assessment related variables are interpreted as Significant since their p values are less than 0.05 level of significance.

This procedure is intended to sample regularly various variants of words, some of which are governed by cognitive constraints and wide discipline vocabularies in sorted areas of History, Mathematics, Statistics, others of which are governed by long-range textual constraints (Datta, 2002). Also supported by Greene (2001) Much research has been devoted to the validity and the reliability of Cloze tests. Cloze tests are reported to have moderate to high correlations with standardized tests and their subtests such as listening comprehension and reading comprehension.

Table 9 Correlation between Grade Point Average in English and Cloze Test

Variable

r - value

p - value

Interpretation

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Grade Point Ave.


Legend: p >.05 : not significant p <.05 : significant

-0.565

.0676

Not Significant

Table 9 shows the correlation between the grade point average of third year students and their results in cloze test. Clearly observed that the grade point average in english is interpreted as Not Significant to the result in cloze test since the p value is greater than 0.05 level of significance.

Askes (2002) regards cloze procedure as one of the integrative tests (global tests) that integrate language components into a total language event, which requires an integrated performance from the learner in a meaningful context. Thus for Steinman (2002) a cloze can replace the sections on test structure, written expression, vocabulary, and reading comprehension not only in English subject as well as different areas of learning. The reason behind giving a Cloze test and obtaining a test score is interpreting that score as an indicator of what a test taker knows or what he/she can do with that knowledge. Furthermore, our interpretation of that test score forms the basis for decision making. As such, when using a test score, we make an implicit link between test performance and a domain of language knowledge the test taker has or something the test taker can do with language in some language use domain beyond the test itself. In other words, when we use test scores, we are essentially reasoning from evidence, using the test score as the evidence for inferences or interpretations and decisions we want to make.
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Yet, we cannot simply draw on test score to make inferences and decisions without efficient justification. If we want to use a test score for a particular purpose, we must justify it through a rationale and supporting evidence.

Chapter V Summary, Conclusions, And Recommendations This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions, and

recommendations related to the effectiveness of cloze test in assessing reading comprehension.

Summary This study aims to know the effectiveness of cloze test as integrative assessment in reading comprehension at Laguna State Polytechnic University, San Pablo City Campus, Academic Year, 2012-2013.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 Age; 1.2 Gender; and 1.3 Grade point in english subject? 2. What is the level of perception of the following assessment related variables as perceive by the respondents: 2.1 Controllability; 2.2 Reliability and validity; and 2.3 Usability? 3. What is the mean score of the respondents in Cloze test? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the assessment related factors and the mean score in Cloze test? 5. Is the grade point average in English is significantly related to the result of Cloze test mean score?

This study used the descriptive type of research in determining the effectiveness of Cloze Test in measuring English as a subject in secondary level. The possible solutions obtained through a questionnaire as well as interviews and observation made by the researcher. This study used of the third year students in Laguna State Polytechnic University as its respondents, the main source of data. The instrument used was a collaboration of information based on Crystal, David (2004). Contextual Constraints in Cloze Test. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53032-6. Some of its modifications were undertaken to adapt on the research problem and scope of the study.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Findings Majority of the respondents are in age 15y/o with a frequency and percentage of twenty (20) or 69%; seventeen (17) or 56.62% are female students; ten (10) or 34% of the grade point average of 3rd year students lie between 87 89. All of the assessment related variables such as Controllability (mean = 4.32), Reliability & Validity (mean = 4.53), and Usability (mean = 4.32) and interpreted as Strongly Agree. The Cloze test result has a frequency of two hundred twenty one (221) and has a mean of 0.28 which is overall interpreted as Fair.

The assessment related variables such as Controllability, Reliability and Validity and Usability are all Significant to result of Cloze test. Grade Point Average of the 3rd year students are Not significant to the result of Cloze test having a p value of 0.0676.

Conclusion Based on the findings posited in the study the following are hereby concluded: 1#The hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the assessment related factors and their mean score in Cloze test is Rejected. 2#The hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between grade point average in English and their result of Cloze test is Accepted.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Recommendations Based on the findings and conclusions made in the study, the following recommendations are hereby presented: 1. Institutions may provide proper and concrete assessment procedure since the manner of determining the complex ability of a child starts from the institution strongly claimed by Greene (2001) may endow materials such as Audio media since the respondents has low frequency rate in cloze test and specially provide good environmental atmosphere for learners. 2. For the concern of students improvement, teachers may suit the interest particularly those specializing in English so that they will encourage students to study more. 3. Since the assessment related variables are significant to the result of cloze test it is associated that parents are vital provocative when it comes to their children in assessing academics according to colloquium experts

(International Cognitive studies Association, 2001) have been mentioned as one of the recommendations, to wit: Parents are direct response indicator for their young and influentially provide such learners needs to gave interest; help them (children) to develop journal or diary and reading factual references in English; schedule periodic parent teacher meetings so that parents can discern their progress; enforce rules frequently to limit them to play and provide a pleasant climate so that when
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

they go to school predicaments is partially reduced in view of the fact also in assessment in academics. 4. Researchers must supplement more various factors that will help contribute to the proper assessment in English. 5. Finally, there is a need for more researches and case studies about effectiveness of cloze test so that implications can be drawn and adopted on a wider basis for the learners needs.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ahluwalia, N. (1992). Major Issues in the Cloze Procedure. Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics. (Volume No is not available):81-96. Askes, H. (1991). Some Techniques in Communicative Second Language Testing. Journal for Language Teaching. Vol.25.1:36-63. Bai, J. (2004). An Analysis of Methods for Facilitating the Completion of Cloze (Chinese). English Coaching Paper (for Senior Grade Three).Vol.2004/01/26.
No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Carrell, P. L. & Eisterhold, J. C. (1988). Schema Theory and ESL Reading Pedagogy. In Carrell, P. L., Devine, J. & Eskey, D. (eds.) Interactive Approaches to Second Language Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7389. 92CET public website. (2004). College English Test. [Online]. Available: http://www. cet.edu.cn [Accessed on 2004, August 19]. Chan, D. & Mok, K. (2001). Educational Reforms and Coping Strategies under the Tidal Wave of Marketisation: a Comparative Study of Hong Kong and the Mainland. Comparative Education. Vol.37.1: 21-41. Cheng, K. (1999). Young Adults in a Changing Socialist Society: Post-compulsory Education in China. Comparative Education. Vol.30.1: 63-73. Clarke, M. A. & Silberstein, S. (2001). Toward a Realization of Psycholinguistic Principles in the ESL Reading Class. In Long, M. H. & Richards, J. C. (eds.) Methodology in TESOL. New York: Newbury House. 233-247. Datta, S. & Macdonald-Ross, M. (2002). Reading Skills and Reading Habits: a Study of New Open University Undergraduate Reservees. Open Learning. Vol.7.1: 69-88. Dreyer, C. & Nel, C. (2003). Teaching Reading Strategies and Reading Comprehen- sion within a Technology-enhanced Learning Environment. System. Vol.31. 3: 349-366. 93Du, H. (2001). The globalisation of the English language: Reflections on the Teaching of English in China. International Education Journal Educational Research Conference 2001 Special Issue. Vol.2.4: 126-133. Ellis, R. (1994). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Greene, B. B. (2001). Testing Reading Comprehension of Theoretical Discourse with Cloze. Journal of Research in Reading. Vol.24.1: 82-98. Groebel, L. (1981). Reading: The Students Approach as Compared to Their Teachers Recommended Method. English Language Teaching Journal. Vol. XXXV.3: 282-287. Helfeldt, J. P., Henk, W. A. & Fotos, A. (1986). A Test of Alternative Cloze Test Formats at the Six-Grade Level. Journal of Educational Research. Vol.79.4: 216-221.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright


By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City Campus With Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado

2013

Legenza, A. & Elijiah, D. (2001). The cloze procedure: Some New Applications. The Journal of Educational Research. Vol.72.6: 351-355.

No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission from the publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

46

Appendix A Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus


San Pablo City

LETTER TO THE DIRECTOR OF LABORATORY HIGH SCHOOL

Date: Nelia T. Salvador, Ed.D. Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus, San Pablo City

Greetings of the day! I am fourth year student of Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus, taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education, major in Social Studies. I am presently conducting a study entitled Effectiveness of Cloze Test in Reading Comprehension at Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus A.Y 2012-2013. I would like to ask permission from your good office to evaluate teachers performance by administering a researcher-made test to twenty - nine (29) third year high school students of LSPU-SPCC. It is in this juncture that I express my warmest gratitude. Should my request be granted. Thank you very much.

Truly yours, MARILYN A. MENDOZA Researcher

47

Appendix B
Republic of the Philippines
LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY San Pablo City Campus San Pablo City

COLLEGE OF TEACHER EDUCATION

LETTER TO THE RESPONDENT

Date: Dear Respondents,

This is in reference to my study of the requirements for the course Methods of Research entitled Effectiveness of Cloze Test in Reading Comprehension at Laguna State Polytechnic University. The data that will be gathered from you will be extremely useful for the successful realization of my research.

It is in this juncture that I express my warmest gratitude. And will be treated with strictest confidentiality. Thank you very much.

Very truly yours, Marilyn A. Mendoza Researcher

48

Appendix C
Republic of the Philippines LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY San Pablo Campus Del Remedio, San Pablo City COLLEGE OF TEACHER EDUCATION BACHELOR OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

Survey Questionnaire I. Profile of the Respondents

Direction: Please fill in the blanks with your personal information Name (optional):____________ Age:__________ Gender: male ( ) female ( ) Grade point in English subject 1st semester 2012 2013:____________

II.

Perception of the respondents ABOUT EFFECTIVENESS OF CLOZE TEST AS INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENT IN READING COMPREHENSION.

Direction: Please indicate your responses on the following statements by putting a check () using the scale below as follows:

5 Strongly Agree 4 Agree 3 Fair 2 Disagree

49

1 Strongly Disagree A. Controllability indicators 1. The Cloze test procedure can easily adjust the instructional planning. 2. It can limit the learners the extension of different vocabularies. 3. Can easily manipulate by the teachers and learners as well. 4. Placement of the blank at the end of the sentence in the passage restricts the possible words that may complete the sentence. 5. The instructors can readily assume the fairness in the interpretation results. B. Reliability & Validity indicators 1. Cloze test have adequacy and representativeness of learning outcomes. 2. The passage measures what it purports to measure. 3. Cloze test must first consider the errors of measurement. 4. It can easily interpret the test results to improve teaching and learning. 5. It has a value of testing as a tool to improve instruction and learning performance. C. Usability indicators 1. It manifests strong retention constructed response type. 2. Creates critical reasoning for learners on how to arrive on precise conclusions. 3. Learners can employ to assess vocabulary, understanding facts, seeing, relationships, drawing inferences, detecting authors literary style, and approximating the patterns of language structure. 4. The test provides communicative skills in understanding such areas of learning. 5. Contributes logical argumentation and empirical evidence for learners such as resourceful in resolving authentic problems in studying communication arts. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

50

III.

Cloze test (adopted from Crystal Davids educational research: Cambridge 2004)

Directions: Read the passage and hint or predict the word that was removed and replace it with the word that best fits the intended meaning in a passage. (Time allotment is 25minutes).

The cat has a 1.__________ as fascinating and mysterious as the creature itself. The true beginnings of the domestic cat are unknown, but the cat may have first appeared around3000 B.C. in a 2.__________ called Nubia, which bordered Egypt. By 2500 B.C., the cat was domesticated in Egypt. The cat's first 3.__________ in Egypt was Mau. The Maus 4.__________ in Egypt grew rapidly; she was eventually considered guardian of the temple and was worshipped as a goddess. Besides being worshipped as goddesses, cats also had a practical 5.__________: they kept 6.__________ from overrunning the Egyptian grain store-houses. The Greeks were probably the first 7.__________ to recognize cats for their mouse- catching talents. When International Journal of Human and Social Sciences 5:9 2010556Egyptians refused to sell or trade any of their cats, the Greeks 8.__________ several of the Egyptian cats and sold the 9.__________ of these stolen cats to Romans. The cat became the 10.__________ of liberty in ancient Rome. By the end of the eleventh 11.__________ cats were popular among sailors because of their rat-catching skills. Sailors admired cats because they 12__________ disease-infested rats which lived on ships. Many sailors believed that cats possessed special powers that could 13.__________ them at sea. Although the cat was held in high regard and fancied during 14.__________ times, the cat didn't fare will in Europe in the Middle Ages. Cats were associated with evil, witchcraft, and black 15.__________. Many people believed that 16.__________ regularly transformed themselves into cats. Men and women were killed for helping a 17.__________ or injured cat. During the witch-hunts in Europe many innocent people were accused of witchcraft simply because they owned cats. Black cats were especially

51

feared. Some legends and 18.__________ about cats exist today, like that about the nine lives of cats. Another legend that survived from Europe's Middle Ages into the present states that a black cat crossing one's path brings bad 19.__________. Today the elegant, graceful cat has become a popular house 20.__________ throughout the 21.__________. The cat is one of the smartest of tame animals, but they are independent and harder to train. Cats are valued for their gentle, affectionate natures. They have 22.__________ memories; they 23.__________ who treats them well and who treats them badly. A cat's loyalty is earned; a cat won't stay where it is 24.__________. They respond to loving owners with loyalty, affection, and respect. Cats are noted for their keen senses: their sharp hearing, sense of smell, and ability to 25.__________ in near darkness. Perhaps Leonardo Da Vinci summed it up best when he referred to the cat as Natures Masterpiece.

52

Appendix D

The Cloze test answer key:

1. history 2. country 3. name 4. status 5. function 6. mice 7. Europeans 8. stole 9. kittens 10. symbol 11. century 12. destroyed 13. protect 14. ancient 15. magic 16. witches 17. sick 18. superstitions 19. luck 20. pet 21. world 22. good 23. remember 24. mistreated 25. see

53

54

DATA MATRIX
Profile of the respondents Perception of the respondents A. Controllability # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 age 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 gender 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 grade point 3 4 2 4 3 5 4 5 3 4 2 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 3 3 3 4 5 A1 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 A2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 3 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 A3 3 4 4 4 5 2 5 3 4 5 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 3 4 3 2 A4 5 5 5 4 5 4 3 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 A5 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 5 4 3 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 B. Reliability & Validity B1 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 4 B2 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 4 1 4 5 5 5 5 5 3 3 4 5 4 B3 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 3 4 B4 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 5 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 5

55

24 25 26 27 28 29

2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 1 1 1 1

5 2 2 3 3 4 3.4137931

3 5 5 5 5 4 4.55 0.56

5 5 5 3 5 5 4.72 0.58

3 4 4 5 3 4 3.72 0.83

5 5 4 5 5 5 4.59 0.56

4 5 3 3 5 4 4.00 0.74

4 5 4 5 4 4 4.55 0.56

5 3 4 1 3 4 4.14 1.11

3 3 4 5 3 4 4.31 0.70

5 5 5 5 5 5 4.76 0.73

56

Cloze Test C. Usability B5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 C1 4 3 4 3 3 3 5 3 4 5 5 5 3 4 4 2 1 4 3 2 3 3 2 C2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 3 5 C3 4 4 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 5 3 5 C4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 2 5 5 5 2 5 5 5 5 5 C5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 3 4 4 3 4 5 5 5 item no. 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 2 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 6 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

57

5 5 5 5 5 2 4.90 0.55

3 3 5 5 3 4 3.48 1.04

5 5 4 5 1 5 4.62 0.89

4 5 5 4 5 4 4.48 0.56

3 5 4 5 5 2 4.55 0.97

5 5 4 5 4 5 4.46 0.62

0 0 1 0 1 0

0 1 1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 1

1 0 1 0 0 0

0 1 1 1 0 1

1 0 1 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 1 0

0.45 0.45 0.28 0.31 0.45 0.41 0.07 0.41 0.5 13 0.5 0.45 0.46 13 8 9 0.5 0.49 0.25 0.49 13 12 2 12

58

9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0

10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

11 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0

12 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

13 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

14 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

15 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

16 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

17 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0

18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

19 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

21 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

22 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

23 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

24 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1

25 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0

59

0 0 0 0 0.17 0.38 5

1 1 1 1

0 0 1 1

0 1 1 1

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1 0.34 0.48 10

0 1 1 0

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0.41 0.49 12

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0.17 0.38 5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0.28 0.45 8

1 1 1 0 0.38 0.49 11

0 0 0 0 0.21 0.41 6

0 0 0 0

1 1 0 0

0.52 0.52 0.5 15 0.5 15

0.38 0.07 0.49 0.25 11 2

0.41 0.28 0.49 0.45 12 8

0.21 0.45 0.41 6 0.5 13