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Meonaoonmu xoncouu+ 3:exmonnmu nuecumem



Mocxocxuu eocoacmennmu nuecumem
5xono+uxu, cmamucmuxu u unqo+amuxu

Easuucxuu omxmmmu uncmumm






E.H. Iyccna



MeaepwMea1

}ueno-+emoouuecxuu xo+n:exc
















Mncna 2008
Mcucdcun

2
\jK 65.014
55K 65.290-2
I 962







|cea E.H. MEHEMEHT: \ue6no-xe1opnuecxnn xoxhexc.
M.: Isp. en1p LAOI. 2008. 416 c.


























ISBN 5-374-00029-2 Iycena Lena He1ponna, 2008
Lnpasnncxnn o1xpi1in nnc1n1y1, 2008

3
OIHABHEHHE


Cnepennn o6 an1ope. Cnepennn o pncnhnne ................................. 6

Hpepnconne x hepnoxy nspannn....................................................... 12
Hpepnconne xo n1opoxy nspannn..................................................... 15

Inana 1. nonnn xonehnn xenepxen1a................................. 17
1.1. Cymnoc1i xenepxen1a n nonnn eio 1eopnn n
hpax1nxn.................................................................................. 18
1.2. Oco6ennoc1n poccnncxoio xenepxen1a ......................... 26
1.3 Conpexennin xenepep n eio xpea1nnnoe
o6pasonanne............................................................................. 38
Tec1 ............................................................................................................. 54
Hpax1nxyx................................................................................................ 58

Inana 2. Opiannsann xax cnc1exa yhpanennn ............................. 65
2.1. nsnennin nx n 1nhi opiannsann ........................... 66
2.2. C1pa1einuecxoe yhpanenne opiannsanen..................... 79
2.3. uopxainie n neqopxainie ipyhhi n opiannsann 82
2.4 In1epne1-nnxy6a1op xax nonan pn Ioccnn qopxa op-
iannsann ................................................................................ 87
Tec1 ............................................................................................................. 95
Hpax1nxyx................................................................................................ 100

Inana 3. uynxnn xenepxen1a, nx nsanxocnnsi n pnnaxnsx... 107
3.1. Hannponanne ........................................................................ 108
3.2. npi opiannsanonnix c1pyx1yp yhpanennn n
hpnnnhi hpoex1nponannn c1pyx1ypi yhpanennn
opiannsanen.......................................................................... 117
3.3. Mo1nnann............................................................................... 130
3.4. Kon1poi.................................................................................. 141
Tec1 ............................................................................................................. 148
Hpax1nxyx................................................................................................ 152

Inana 4. Me1opi xenepxen1a........................................................... 159
4.1. xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne xe1opi.................................. 160
4.2. Opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einie xe1opi................ 167
4.3. Conainohcnxooinuecxne xe1opi............................... 172
Tec1 ............................................................................................................. 190
Hpax1nxyx................................................................................................ 195

Mcucdcun

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Inana 5. Iemennn n xenepxen1e ...................................................... 205
5.1. Tpe6onannn x pemennnx n nx xaccnqnxann............... 206
5.2. 1ahi hpnnn1nn pemennn n oenxa
nx qqex1nnnoc1n................................................................. 212
Tec1 ............................................................................................................. 223
Hpax1nxyx................................................................................................ 227

Inana 6. Hpnnnhi yhpanennn hepconaox................................. 233
6.1. Oco6ennoc1n hop6opa n oenxn hpoqeccnonainon
hpniopnoc1n chenanc1on-xapxe1ooion....................... 234
6.2. Hpnnnhi hpoex1nponannn oh1nxainix cnc1ex xo-
1nnann 1pypa......................................................................... 243
Tec1 ............................................................................................................. 246
Hpax1nxyx................................................................................................ 251

Inana 7. ac1i, nnnnne, npepc1no, caxoxenepxen1 n pyxo-
nopc1no...................................................................................... 259
7.1. uopxi nac1n n nnnnne....................................................... 260
7.2. Ocnonnie 1eopnn npepc1na................................................. 263
7.3. Caxoxenepxen1..................................................................... 265
7.4. Opiannuecxne qynxnn pyxonopn1en n apah1ann
c1nen pyxonopc1na x peonix cn1yannx...................... 268
Tec1 ............................................................................................................. 281
Hpax1nxyx................................................................................................ 285

Inana 8. \hpanenne xonqnx1axn, c1peccaxn n nsxenennnxn 291
8.1. Ocnoni xonehnn xonqnx1a n yhpanenne xon-
qnx1non cn1yanen............................................................ 292
8.2. Cymnoc1i yhpanennn c1peccaxn n nsxenennnxn n
opiannsann............................................................................ 309
Tec1 ............................................................................................................. 318
Hpax1nxyx................................................................................................ 322

Inana 9. Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn ................................ 329
9.1. Hoxasa1en qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn n hopxopi x
nx pacue1y ................................................................................ 330
9.2. Iasnunie xe1opnxn oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpan-
ennn......................................................................................... 337
Tec1 ............................................................................................................. 347
Hpax1nxyx................................................................................................ 352

5
Me1opnuecxne pexoxenpann ho nihonennn xypconon n xon-
1poinon pa6o1........................................................................................ 357
Texa1nxa xypconix pa6o1, peqepa1on nn cce............................... 367
Hopnepenne n1oionoio xon1pon ........................................................ 372
apnan1i xon1poinon pa6o1i.......................................................... 372
ohpoci x xsaxeny................................................................................ 387
I1oionin 1ec1.......................................................................................... 390
Chncox n1epa1ypi................................................................................ 400
Ioccapnn.................................................................................................. 403


Mcucdcun

6
1. Caepeaas o aa1ope

Iycena Lena He1ponna xanpnpa1 xonoxnuecxnx nayx, po-
en1 xaqeppi OM n Cu MCI. Tpyponon c1a n MCI 6oee
36 e1. Chenanc1 n o6ac1n xenepxen1a, xnxpoxonoxnuecxon
c1a1nc1nxn, xonoxnxn n c1a1nc1nxn hpephpnn1nn.

Hepeueni nayunix 1pypon an1opa sa hocepnne pecn1i e1:

1. Iycena L. H. (Coan1op). C1a1nc1nuecxnn conapi. M.: unnc1a-
1nnqopx, 1996. 479 c.,
2. Iycena L. H. \hpanenne hponsnopc1nox na xaox hpephpn-
n1nn: \ue6no-hpax1nuecxoe hoco6ne. M.: MCI, 1997. 114 c.
3. Iycena L. H. Hnx hponsnopc1nennoio xenepxen1a (n coan1opc1-
ne c Iienxonon C.j.) . xn. Hponsnopc1nennin xenepxen1: \ue6nnx.
/Hop pep. C.j. Iienxonon. M.: BHITIjAHA, 2000 n 2002. 583 c.
4. Iycena L. H. \hpanenne hponsnopc1nox na xaox hpephpn-
n1nn: \ue6no-hpax1nuecxoe hoco6ne. 2oe nsp., hepepa6. n poh. M.:
MCI, 2001. 232 c.
5. Iycena L. H. Ic1opnn nsnn nipanmeiocn c1a1nc1nxa jxn1pnn
acniennua Cannncxoio // ohpoci c1a1nc1nxn 2002, N8 6972 c.
6. Iycena L. H. Mnxpoxonoxnuecxan c1a1nc1nxa: Iyxonopc1no ho
nsyuennn pncnhnni. M.: MCI, 2003. 51 c.
7. Iycena L. H. Mnxpoxonoxnuecxan c1a1nc1nxa: 5anx 1ec1on.
M.: MCI, 2003. 24 c.
8. Iycena L. H. Mnxpoxonoxnuecxan c1a1nc1nxa: Hpax1nxyx.
M.: MCI, 2003. 14 c.
9. Iycena L. H. (Coan1op). Mnxpoxonoxnuecxan c1a1nc1nxa: \ue6-
noe hoco6ne. M.: MCI, 2003. 308 c.
10. Iycena L. H. Mnxpoxonoxnuecxan c1a1nc1nxa: O6sopnan hpe-
sen1ann nceio xypca. M.: MCI, 2003. 15 c.
11. Iycena L. H. Ocnoni xenepxen1a 5anx 1ec1on ho xypcy. M.:
MCI, 2003. 24 c.
12. Iycena L. H. Ocnoni xenepxen1a Hpax1nxyx ho xypcy. M.:
MCI, 2003. 8 c.
13. Iycena L. H. Ocnoni xenepxen1a Hpesen1ann xypca. M.:
MCI, 2003. 15 c.
14. Iycena L. H. K 100-e1nn co pnn popennn nnpnoio pen1en c1a1n-
c1nxn Ie6a Inanonnua 5axanona // ohpoci c1a1nc1nxn. 2003, N10.
7582 c.
Ccdcuun cc ancpc

7
15. Iycena L. H. C1a1nc1nxa hponsnopc1na n peansann hpopyxnn (n
coan1opc1ne c Iienxonon C.j.). xn. Mnxpoxonoxnuecxan c1a1nc1n-
xa: \ue6nnx /Hop. pep. C.j. Iienxonon. M.: unnanci n c1a1nc1n-
xa, 2004. 544 c.
16. Iycena L.H. Menepxen1: \ue6nan hpoipaxxa ho pncnhnne.
M.: MCI, 2005. 15 c.
17. Iycena L. H. Menepxen1: Hpax1nxyx ho pncnhnne. M.:
MCI, 2005. 65 c.
18. Iycena L. H. Menepxen1: 5anx 1ec1on ho pncnhnne. M.:
MCI, 2005. 57 c.
19. Iycena L. H. Menepxen1: \ue6noe hoco6ne ho pncnhnne. M.:
MCI, 2005. 173 c.
20. Iycena L. H. Menepxen1: C6opnnx hpesen1ann ho pncn-
hnne. M.: MCI, 2005. 236 c.
21. Iycena L. H. Menepxen1: Iyxonopc1no ho nsyuennn pnc-
nhnni. M.: MCI, 2005. 61 c.
22. Iycena L. H. Menepxen1: ex1ponnin yue6nnx. M.:
MCI. CjO Kaxhyc, 2005. 201 c.
23. Iycena L.H. Menepxen1: yue6nohpax1nuecxoe hoco6ne. M.
Mocxoncxnn iocypapc1nennin ynnnepcn1e1 xonoxnxn, c1a1nc1nxn n
nnqopxa1nxn. 2006. 298c.
24. Iycena L.H. xonoxnxa n c1a1nc1nxa hpephpnn1nn. 5anx
1ec1on. M.: MCI, 2006. 24 c.
25. Iycena L.H. xonoxnxa n c1a1nc1nxa hpephpnn1nn. Hpax-
1nxyx. M.: MCI, 2006. 24 c.

2. ena, sapaua, aeoxopaMm o1eM saaaa
pns asyueaas paaao pacqannaam, ocaoaame
aapm saas1a a qopMm ax1aaamx Me1opoa oyueaas


2.1. ena npenopaaaaas pacqannaam

K enx hpehopanannn xenepxen1a o1nocn1cn:
qopxnponanne y c1ypen1on nayunix qynpaxen1ainix 1eope-
1nuecxnx snannn n o6ac1n xenepxen1a;
hpno6pe1enne c1ypen1axn cnc1exnix hpax1nuecxnx nanixon
nihonennn ocnonnix qynxnn xenepxen1a;
onapenne xe1opaxn xenepxen1a;
Mcucdcun

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osnaxoxenne c1ypen1on c xexannsxox hpnnn1nn pemennn n
oenxon nx qqex1nnnoc1n;
nipa6o1xa yxennn n yhpanennn hepconaox, n yhpanennn
xonqnx1axn, c1peccaxn n nsxenennnxn;
o6ocnonanne neo6xopnxoc1n oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn.


2.2. 3apaua MeaepwMea1a

3apaun xenepxen1a, ne sanncnmne o1 1oio nn nnoio o6:ex1a
yhpanennn, a o6yconennie copepannex yhpanenuecxon pen-
1einoc1n:
nsyuenne honn1nn, saxonoxepnoc1en, hpnnnhon, ocnonnix
xa1eiopnn xenepxen1a n nonnn eio 1eopnn n hpax1nxn;
nsyuenne oco6ennoc1en poccnncxoio xenepxen1a;
xapax1epnc1nxa conpexennoio xenepepa n eio xpea1nnnoio
o6pasonannn;
paspa6o1xa n conepmenc1nonanne c1pa1einuecxoio yhpanennn
opiannsanen, ee qopxainix n neqopxainix ipyhh, ocnonnix
qynxnn (hannponannn, opiannsann, xo1nnann, xon1pon);
osnaxoxenne c In1epne1-nnxy6a1opox xax nonon pn Ioccnn
qopxon opiannsann;
nayun1i nchoisona1i xe1opi xenepxen1a:
- xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne;
- opiannsanonno-pachopnpn1einie;
- conaino-hcnxooinuecxne;
pasnn1i nanixn hpnnn1nn pemennn;
nayun1i hpnnnhax yhpanennn hepconaox, c1nnx pyxo-
nopc1na, caxoxenepxen1y;
hpnnn1i nanixn yhpanennn xonqnx1axn, c1peccaxn, nsxe-
nennnxn n oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn.


2.3. HeoxopaMm o1eM saaaa
pns asyueaas paaao pacqannaam

jn xauec1nennoio ycnoennn 1eope1nuecxoio xa1epnaa n hpn-
o6pe1ennn hpax1nuecxnx nanixon cyma1en poni hpepnapn-
1eino nsyun1i 1axne hpepxe1i, xax:
6yxyue1;
Ccdcuun cc ancpc

9
penenoe o6pamenne n xpepn1;
nc1opnn xonoxnxn;
xaxpoxonoxnxa;
xapxe1nni;
xnponan xonoxnxa;
ocnoni 6nsneca;
ocnoni In1epne1xonoxnxn;
pnp ppyinx hpepxe1on n paxxax pasnunix hpoipaxx.


2.4. Ocaoaame aapm saas1a a qopMm ax1aaamx
Me1opoa oyueaas

exnn:
- 1papnnonnie exnn;
- c nchoisonannex ne1papnnonnix 1exnooinn (hpesen1ann
n qopxa1e MS Power Point; nc1ounnxn ns io6ainon xoxhin1epnon
ce1n In1epne1a; pa6o1a c nnqopxanen hocpepc1nox MS Outlook);
cexnnapi n hpax1nuecxne sann1nn:
- 1papnnonnie cexnnapi;
- pa6o1a c poxyxen1axn, nahpnxep, ponoc1nixn nnc1pyx-
nnxn.
n cpepe elearning:
- qopyxi;
- ce1enoe 1ec1nponanne.


3. 3aaaas a yMeaas nocne asyueaas paaao pacqannaam

osnaxoxenne c cymnoc1in xenepxen1a, nonnen eio 1eo-
pnn n hpax1nxn, oco6ennoc1nxn poccnncxoio xenepxen1a; xpea-
1nnnix o6pasonannex xenepepa;
snanne opiannsann xax cnc1exi yhpanennn, ee nsnennoio
nxa, 1nhon opiannsann, c1pa1einuecxoio yhpanennn, qopxai-
nix n neqopxainix ipyhh n opiannsann; In1epne1-nnxy6a1opa
xax nonon pn Ioccnn qopxi opiannsann;
yxenne nihonn1i qynxnn n hpnxenn1i xe1opi xenepxen1a;
onapenne hpnnnhaxn yhpanennn hepconaox, oco6enno-
c1nxn hop6opa n oenxn hpoqeccnonainon hpniopnoc1n chenan-
c1on-xapxe1ooion; hpnnnhaxn hpoex1nponannn oh1nxainix cnc-
1ex xo1nnann 1pypa;
Mcucdcun

10
honnxanne qopx nac1n, nnnnnn, ocnonnix 1eopnn npepc1na,
caxoxenepxen1a, opiannuecxnx qynxnn pyxonopn1en n apah1ann
c1nen pyxonopc1na x peonix cn1yannx;
snanne ocnon xonehnn xonqnx1a, cymnoc1n yhpanennn
xonqnx1nixn cn1yannxn, c1peccaxn n nsxenennnxn n opiannsann;
yxenne oennna1i qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanennn.


4. Cqepm npoqeccaoaanbaoro npaMeaeaas:

Mcncpxcpm 1o:

pyxonopn1en pasnunix yponnen, sannxanmne hoc1onnnyn
ponoc1i n opiannsann n napeennie honoxounnxn n o6ac1n hpn-
nn1nn pemennn n ohpepeennix cqepax pen1einoc1n opiannsann;
naexnie pa6o1nnxn, sannxanmne pyxonopnmne ponoc1n n
opiannsann;
iannie pecypci xapon opiannsann, o1 xauec1na n q-
qex1nnnoc1n 1pypa xo1opix no xnoiox sanncn1 pesyi1a1i pen-
1einoc1n n6on opiannsann, e xonxypen1ochoco6noc1i.

Cqepi hpoqeccnonainon pen1einoc1n xenepepon:
*pa6o1a xenepepox, chenanc1oxxapxe1ooiox nn pyxonopn-
1eex hoppaspeennn:
ay1copcnnionon qnpxi;
6nsnecnnxy6a1opa;
In1epne1-nnxy6a1opa;
nenuypnoio hpephpnn1nn;
xophopann (1pancnanonainon, xeiocypapc1nennon, iocy-
papc1nennon, peinonainon); (acconann, xap1en, xonioxepa1a,
xoncopnyxa, xonepna, cnnpnxa1a, 1pec1a, uHI, xopnnia); (o1pac-
enon, pnnepcnqnnponannon); (xoxxepuecxon, nexoxxepuecxon);
xoxhannn;
xopnepa;
n6on xaon, cpepnen, xpyhnon n cnepxxpyhnon opiannsann;
cospanne co6c1nennoio 6nsneca;
hpopoenne o6yuennn (achnpan1ypa);
hpehopananne n yue6nox sanepennn.
Ccdcuun cc ancpc

11
5. Pacnpepeneaae uacoa no 1eMaM
a aapaM yueamx saas1a

B mo+ uuc:e
N


1
c
m
m

Haanannc 1cmm
B
c
c
r
n

w
a
c
n
n

H
c

n
n
n

H
p
a

1
n
w
c
-
c

n
c

a
a
n
n
-
1
n
n

C
a
m
n
c
1
n
n
-
1
c
n
n
n
a
n

p
a
-
6
n
1
a

1 2 3 4 5 6
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

9.
nonnn xonehnn xenepxen1a
Opiannsann xax cnc1exa yhpanennn
uynxnn xenepxen1a, nx nsanxocnnsi
n pnnaxnsx
Me1opi xenepxen1a
Iemennn n xenepxen1e
Hpnnnhi yhpanennn hepconaox
ac1i, nnnnne, npepc1no, caxoxe-
nepxen1 n pyxonopc1no
\hpanenne xonqnx1axn, c1peccaxn n
nsxenennnxn
Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn
10
6
10

10
10
10
10

10

10
4
2
4

4
4
4
4

4

4
4
2
4

4
4
4
4

4

4
2
2
2

2
2
2
2

2

2
I1oio: 86 34 34 18

Mcucdcun

12
Dpepacnoaae x nepaoMy aspaaam

\ue6no-hpax1nuecxoe hoco6ne ho pncnhnne Menepxen1
nnne1cn opnnx ns exen1on yue6no-xe1opnuecxoio xoxhexca
(\MK).
Hei pannoio yue6no-hpax1nuecxoio hoco6nn oxasa1i ho-
xomi ncex sann1epeconannix nax n nsyuennn n saxpehennn sna-
nnn ho pncnhnne Menepxen1.
Hpepe uex hpnc1yhn1i x nsyuennn hpax1nxyxa n 6anxa 1ec-
1on neo6xopnxo osnaxoxn1icn c nac1onmnx yue6nix hoco6nex, py-
xonopc1nox ho nsyuennn pncnhnni (Study Guide SG), yue6non
hpoipaxxon ho pncnhnne n c6opnnxox hpesen1ann.
ano ycnon1i copepanne, oinxy n c1pyx1ypy yue6no-
hpax1nuecxoio hoco6nn, u1o 6ype1 choco6c1nona1i apexna1noxy noc-
hpnn1nn nohpocon 6anxa 1ec1on n hpax1nxyxa, hpanninoc1n o1ne-
1on na nnx. 3nanne copepannn hepeuncennix exen1on \MK ho-
xoe1 c xenimnxn sa1pa1axn npexenn nepno o1neua1i na xon1poi-
nie n pncxyccnonnie nohpoci, yncnn1i yue6nie (peaino cymec1-
nynmne) cn1yann, pemn1i sapaun.
jannin xypc Menepxen1 nxnuae1 penn1i cnnsannix xe-
py co6on ian. Isyua1i eio xoiy1 n hepnyn ouepepi cyma1en cnc-
1exi pnc1annonnoio o6pasonannn (CjO) n pohonn1einoio o6pa-
sonannn ho chenainoc1n 061500, xnanqnxann chenanc1 xap-
xe1ooi n nce sann1epeconannie na.
hepnon iane xypca c1ypen1i nameio ysa snaxoxn1cn c ho-
nn1nex, cymnoc1in, saxonoxepnoc1nxn, hpnnnhaxn, ocnonnixn
xa1eiopnnxn xenepxen1a, c nonnen xonehnn xenepxen1a,
xpa1xon nc1opnen eio pasnn1nn n oco6ennoc1nxn poccnncxoio xe-
nepxen1a.
1opan iana hocnnmena nsyuennn 1exi Opiannsann xax
cnc1exa yhpanennn. Ohpepeennoe nnnxanne ypeeno nsnennoxy
nxy n 1nhax opiannsann, c1pa1einuecxoxy yhpanennn, a 1axe
qopxainix n neqopxainix ipyhhax n opiannsann, qopxnpo-
nanne n qynxnonnponanne xo1opix hpepc1anne1 co6on pnnaxnu-
nin hpoecc.
1pe1ien iane paccxo1peni ocnonnie qynxnn xenepxen1a
(hannponanne, opiannsann, xo1nnann n xon1poi), nx nsanxo-
cnnsi n pnnaxnsx.
e1nep1an iana hocnnmena oco6ennoc1nx xe1opon xenepxen1a.
1n xe1opi hosnonn1 nccepona1i conaino-xonoxnuecxne nnennn
|pcduc:cuc

13
hocpepc1nox c6opa nnqopxann, ee o6pa6o1xn, xapax1epnc1nxn o6o6-
manmnx hoxasa1een n nx anansa (xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne xe1o-
pi); pema1i opiannsanonnie hpo6exi n pasnix cn1yannx (opiann-
sanonnopachopnpn1einie xe1opi); nsyua1i hpnpopy ueoneuecxnx
nsanxoo1nomennn n ncxycc1no yhpanennn co1pypnnxaxn na cepisnon
nayunon ocnone, ne hoaianci 1oixo na co6c1nennin ohi1 (conaino
hcnxooinuecxne xe1opi).
Hn1an iana oxna1inae1 xoxhexc hpo6ex, cnnsannix c hpn-
nn1nex pemennn, xo1opie nnnn1cn nanon uac1in n6on yhpan-
enuecxon pen1einoc1n. Iemenne paccxa1pnnae1cn xax hpopyx1
yhpanenuecxoio 1pypa, a eio hpnnn1ne xax hpoecc, hocpepc1nox
xo1opoio nipa6a1inae1cn 1o1 hpopyx1. \peeno nnnxanne 1pe6ona-
nnnx x pemennnx, nx xaccnqnxann, 1ahax hpnnn1nn pemennn n
oenxe nx qqex1nnnoc1n.
Hec1an iana hocnnmena hpnnnhax yhpanennn hepconaox,
xo1opin xoe1 cpea1i pa6o1y ychemnon, a opiannsann xonxypen-
1ochoco6non. nnxanne axen1nponano na oco6ennoc1nx hop6opa n
oenxn hpoqeccnonainon hpniopnoc1n chenanc1on-
xapxe1ooion, a 1axe na hpnnnhax hpoex1nponannn oh1nxainix
cnc1ex xo1nnann 1pypa, u1o6i pyxonopc1nona1icn nxn n hpoecce
yhpanennn hepconaox.
cepixon iane paccxa1pnnan1cn nac1i xax xa1eiopnn yhpan-
ennn, ohpepennman nsanxosanncnxoc1i xepy co1pypnnxaxn op-
iannsann; nnnnne xax hpoecc, hpn xo1opox opna ns c1opon c1pe-
xn1cn nsxenn1i honepenne, o1nomenne n nochpnn1ne ppyinx c1opon.
Oco6oe nnnxanne ypeeno ocnonnix 1eopnnx npepc1na, caxoxe-
nepxen1y, c1nn pyxonopc1na n exen1ax, eio ohpepennmnx.
ocixan iana hopio1onena c yue1ox ocnonnix 1enpennn
qynxnonnponannn n pasnn1nn xonqnx1on n opiannsann, a 1axe
c1peccon n nsxenennn. Iaccxo1peni conpexennie poccnncxne n sa-
py6enie xonehnn n o6ac1n yhpanennn xonqnx1nix nsanxo-
penc1nnex npen, cymnoc1i yhpanennn c1peccaxn n nsxenennnxn n
opiannsann.
saxnun1einon, penn1on, iane nnnxanne axen1nponano na
hoxasa1enx qqex1nnnoc1n, hopxopax x nx pacue1y n na pasnunix
xe1opnxax oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn. qqex1nnnoc1i
yhpanennn n ysxox cxice paccxa1pnnae1cn xax pesyi1a1nnnoc1i
co6c1nenno yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n n n mnpoxox qqex1nn-
noc1i qynxnonnponannn yhpannexon cnc1exi n eox.
Mcucdcun

14
\ue6noe hoco6ne ho xypcy Menepxen1 paspa6o1ano an1o-
pox n coo1ne1c1nnn c iocypapc1nennix o6pasona1einix c1anpap1ox
nicmeio hpoqeccnonainoio o6pasonannn OHj.u.06 Menepxen1.
O6c1nm naywcnnn pncnhnni nnnn1cn opiannsann, xo-
1opixn neo6xopnxo yhpann1i, u1o6i po6n1icn ychexa. nac1onmee
npexn yhpanenne nnne1cn poxnnnpynmen pen1einoc1in pn op-
iannsann. Hpcpmc1 xenepxen1a xax 1eopnn yhpanennn oxna1ina-
e1 ncceponanne saxonon n saxonoxepnoc1en nsnepen1einoc1n op-
iannsann, o1nomennn xepy co1pypnnxaxn n hpoecce yhpanen-
uecxon n hponsnopc1nenno-xoxxepuecxon pen1einoc1n, oenxy q-
qex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn.
|pcduc:cuc

15
Dpepacnoaae xo a1opoMy aspaaam

jannoe yue6no-hpax1nuecxoe hoco6ne 1o hepepa6o1annoe n
pohonennoe n1opoe nspanne \HH xypca Menepxen1.
Me1opnxa nsoennn xa1epnaa, 1epxnnooinn, c1pyx1ypa,
hpnopn1e1i, copepanne o1paan1 1enpennn n chenqnxy pasnn-
1nn 1eopnn n hpax1nxn xenepxen1a n Ioccnncxon uepepann.
ocnonnox xa1epna hepnoio nspannn nome n no n1opoe ns-
panne. Opnaxo n1opoe nspanne nainpno hop1neppae1 1o nanoe
hooenne, u1o 1eopnn n hpax1nxa poccnncxoio xenepxen1a hoc1o-
nnno pasnnnan1cn n pae xopomo apah1npyexie xonehnn xoiy1
nsxenn1icn.
nac1onmex nspannn hepnan iana copepn1 1pn hapaipaqa, a
ne pna, xax 6io n hepnox nspannn. Honin 1pe1nn hapaipaq hocnn-
men nanon 1exe Conpexennin xenepep n eio xpea1nnnoe o6pa-
sonanne.
Ceiopnn nce nospac1anmee snauenne nxee1 nn1eex1yainan
pen1einoc1i, 1pe6ynman 1nopuec1na, npoxnonennn, xyi1ypi n
xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn. joxnnnpynmnx n yhpanennn c1anonn1-
cn nn1eex1, xo1opin honimae1 qqex1nnnoc1i ncex nnpon pen-
1einoc1n xenepepa. Haxeuae1cn 1enpennn poc1a ennoc1n 1nop-
uec1na conpexennoio xenepepa n hpoeccax hponsnopc1nenno-
xoxxepuecxon pen1einoc1n opiannsann. Ho1oxy cun1an nnepenne
nonoio hapaipaqa yxec1nix n eecoo6pasnix.
o n1opon iane pannoio nspannn, paspa6o1an nonin ue1nep-
1in hapaipaq In1epne1-nnxy6a1op xax nonan pn Ioccnn qopxa
opiannsann. jen1einoc1i conpexennoio xenepepa nce n 6oimen
c1ehenn sanncn1 o1 c1pexn1einoio pasnn1nn nnqopxanonnix 1ex-
nooinn, nnnonann. Ioccnn n nauae XXI nexa honnncn nonin
nnp 6nsneca n cqepe In1epne1-1exnooinn In1epne1-nnxy6a1op.
Lio honnenne n pasnn1ne o6nsani 1oxy, u1o nn1eex1yainan co6-
c1nennoc1i hpno6pe1ae1 nce 6oimyn c1onxoc1i n snauenne. Ho1o-
xy 6ypymne chenanc1i n n hepnyn ouepepi xenepepi, hoaian,
poni 6i1i nnqopxnponani o hepchex1nnax pannix nnnonann.
O6sop nihonen ho xa1epnaax In1epne1-pecypcon.
Iani 3 n 4 necxoixo hepepa6o1ani 6es snaun1einix pohonennn.
Iana 5, hapaipaq 5.2. pohonen nonix xa1epnaox Honn1ne
hpnnn1nn pemennn n nx xopen, u1o oueni nano, 1ax xax hpnnn-
1ne pemennn n xenepxen1e - cnoeo6pasnin en1p, noxpyi xo1opoio
ocymec1nne1cn ncn pen1einoc1i opiannsann.
Mcucdcun

16
oc1ainie iani n hapaipaqi, a 1axe n 1ec1i, hpax1nxyx n
ioccapnn nneceni pohonennn n nexo1opie xoppex1nni c yue1ox
nnnonann n pasnn1nn poccnncxoio xenepxen1a. An1op ne nic1y-
hae1 hpo1nnnnxox 6oia1oio ohi1a axepnxancxoio, nhoncxoio n ppy-
ioio sapy6enoio xenepxen1a, no c1apae1cn axen1npona1i nnnxa-
nne na chenqnxe o1euec1nennoio xenepxen1a c panonainix
nchoisonannex n Ioccnn poc1nennn nan6oee xonoxnuecxn pas-
nn1ix c1pan xnpa.

Tac:ua 1

C1py1ypa pncnnnnnnm

N
Inanm
Haanannc rnanm
3a1pa1m
npcmc-
nn
n %
n1nry
1. nonnn xonehnn xenepxen1a
14
2. Opiannsann xax cnc1exa yhpanennn
12
3. uynxnn xenepxen1a, nx nsanxocnnsi n pnnaxnsx
15
4. Me1opi xenepxen1a
12
5. Iemennn n xenepxen1e
9
6. Hpnnnhi yhpanennn hepconaox
8
7. ac1i, nnnnne, npepc1no, caxoxenepxen1 n py-
xonopc1no
9
8. \hpanenne xonqnx1axn, c1peccaxn n nsxenennnxn
11
9. Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn
10
I1oio:
100



c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

17
Fnaaa 1.



3aonmqas xoaqenqa MeaepwMea1a






Hsyuaa 1eMy 1, c1ypea1 ponwea
saa1b:
a) honn1ne xenepxen1a;
6) saxonoxepnoc1n xenepxen1a;
n) hpnnnhi xenepxen1a;
i) ocnonnie xa1eiopnn xenepxen1a.

yMe1b:
nson1i nonnn 1eopnn n hpax1nxn xenepxen1a.

npaopec1a aaamxa:
xapax1epnc1nxn oco6ennoc1en poccnncxoio xenepxen1a
n conpexennix yconnn; xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn xe-
nepepa.







Mcucdcun

18
Hu usuenuu me+m 1 neoxoou+o:

Hn1a1n iany 1 yue6noio hoco6nn ho xenepxen1y n exnn.
Bmnnnnn1n aapannc hpax1nxyxa n 6anxa 1ec1on ho xenep-
xen1y ho paspey 1: o1ne1n1i na xon1poinie nohpoci, hpnnn1i yua-
c1ne n o6cypennn pncxyccnonnix nohpocon, yue6nix cn1yann, 1ec-
1nponannn. Hopio1onn1i xypconyn pa6o1y, peqepa1 nn cce n hpn-
oennn ho 1exax:
1. nonnn xonehnn xenepxen1a;
2. Ic1opnn pasnn1nn hpax1nuecxoio xenepxen1a;
3. Oco6ennoc1n poccnncxoio xenepxen1a;
4. Cymnoc1i nonon yhpanenuecxon hapapnixi n xnpe n Ioccnn;
5. 3nauenne xenepxen1a xax nnpa hpax1nuecxon pen1einoc1n;
6. Conpexennin xenepep n eio xpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne
(c1ypen1ax, xo1opie pemnn yiy6nno nsyun1i 1exy 1).

pexn caxin oipannuennin xahn1a, n ecn ne xoemi nx
pachopna1icn, ne cxoemi pachopna1icn nnuex ppyinx.
|uncp [paxcp

Ticnuee1nnxn naxahnnan1cn n neuno nny1 n cone necxe1-
nie coxponnma ueoneuecxon xicn n ohi1a.
M. A. uc:cxc



1.1. Cyaoc1b MeaepwMea1a a saonmqas
ero 1eopaa a npax1axa

Honn1ne xenepxen1 n qynpaxen1ainix 1pypax poccnn-
cxnx n sapy6enix chenanc1on uame nceio npen1nuno honn1nn
yhpanenne opiannsanen. Ho n nexo1opix yue6nix hoco6nnx co-
npexennix sapy6enix n o1euec1nennix an1opon xono nc1pe1n1i
y1neppenne: \hpanenne ec1i nceo6man ueoneuecxan pen1ei-
noc1i, a xenepxen1 eio chenqnuecxan o6ac1i, nxnuanman pen-
1einoc1i hpoqeccnonaon, chenanc1on ho o6echeuennn ychemnon
pen1einoc1n opiannsann. Hoaian, u1o o6a ohpepeennn xop-
pex1ni. Cymec1nyn1 n ppyine ohpepeennn.
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

19
xenepxen1e xax hpoecce nipenn1 cepynmne nan6oee
cymec1nennie achex1i:
1) nihonenne ohpepeennon conoxyhnoc1n chenqnuecxnx
nnpon pen1einoc1n (qynxnn xenepxen1a): hannponanne, op-
iannsann, xo1nnann, xon1poi;
2) hpnnn1ne n peansann yhpanenuecxnx pemennn;
3) hepepa6o1xa n nipa6o1xa nnqopxann n hpoecc xoxxy-
nnxann, cnnsinanmnn noepnno nce coc1annnmne cnc1exi
yhpanennn.

Cymnoc1i xenepxen1a saxnuae1cn n panonainox yhpanennn
nchoisonannex opiannsanen 1axnx xonoxnuecxnx pecypcon xax:
1. 3nannn ocosnannan nnqopxann c ein e hpeo6pasonannn,
hoyuennn pesyi1a1on, ypone1nopnnmnx o6mec1nennie n (nn) nu-
nie ho1pe6noc1n n hoyuennn xaxcnxaino nosxonon hpn6in;
2. Hpephpnnnxa1eicxne choco6noc1n yxenne np1n na pncx hpn
cospannn nonon opiannsann nn hpn nneppennn nonon npen, hpopyx-
nn nn ycyin; noy-xay;
3. Inqopxann cnepennn o qax1ax, co6i1nnx, nnennnx, hpoec-
cax, npnx, hpepxe1ax nesanncnxo o1 qopxi hpepoc1anennn;
4. Tpyp eecoo6pasnan pen1einoc1i ueonexa, nahpanennan na
cospanne c hoxomin cpepc1n hponsnopc1na xa1epnainix n ppyinx en-
noc1en;
5. Kahn1a ocnonnon (spannn, c1anxn, xamnni, o6opypona-
nne n 1.p.), o6opo1nin (cipie, xa1epnai n 1.p.), sapenc1nonannin n
honcepnennon pen1einoc1n opiannsann;
6. 3exn ne 1oixo 1eppn1opnn hop spannnxn, coopyennnxn
n 1.p. opiannsann, no n hoesnie ncxohaexie, eca, hon n nce u1o
1ax pac1e1, nopnie pecypci n ppyine hpnpopnie pecypci, nchoisye-
xie opiannsannxn, c ein ypone1nopennn o6mec1nennix n nu-
nix ho1pe6noc1en n hoyuennn xaxcnxaino nosxonon hpn6in.

Menepxen1 1o cnn1es nayxn, ncxycc1na n ohi1a ho o6pasno-
xy y1neppennn hpoqeccopa H.I. Lnenxo an1opa nc1yhn1einon c1a-
1in x yue6nnxy M. Mecxon n pp. Ocnoni xenepxen1a [16, c.10]

.
Menepxen1 6i hpnsnan caxoc1on1einix nnpox pen1eino-
c1n 1oixo n nauae XX nexa. 3axonoxepnoc1i honnennn n Ioccnn
1epxnna, 1eopnn n yue6non pncnhnni Menepxen1 chenan-

3peci n paee nce ccixn pani na pohonn1einyn n1epa1ypy.


Mcucdcun

20
c1i cnnsinan1 c peqopxnponannex namen xonoxnxn n nxopennex
Ioccnn n sony c1pan c pasnn1on pinounon xonoxnxon.
o ncex xnoioo6pasnn 1eopnn n conpexennon hpax1nxn axe-
pnxancxnn xenepxen1 hoxa oc1a1cn nan6oee xomnon yhpanen-
uecxon nnnnsanen. Menepxen1 hosnon Axepnxe sann1i n-
pnpynmee hooenne n xnponox coo6mec1ne. CHA nhepnie
cqopxnponanci 1eopnn n conpexennan hpax1nxa xenepxen1a. Ko-
neuno, neisn ceho cepona1i ninopax axepnxancxnx 1eope1nxon n
pexoxenpannx hpax1nxon, no sna1i nx xonehnn, 6esyconno, ne-
o6xopnxo, a u1o-1o c yue1ox xonxpe1nix yconnn n chenqnxn xo-
no nchoisona1i n poccnncxnx opiannsannx.
Hpnnnhi xenepxen1a nhepnie cqopxynponani axepn-
xancxnx nnenepox n xenepepox upepepnxox \nncoy Tenopox
n xnnie Hayunan opiannsann 1pypa, Hpnnnhi nayunoio xe-
nepxen1a nn Hpnnnhi nayunoio yhpanennn n 1911 iopy. On
cun1ae1cn ocnona1eex mxoi nayunoio xenepxen1a n an1opox,
hpepe nceio, ue1ipex hpnnnhon yhpanennn, hoyunnmnx nasna-
nne 1enopnsx:
1. Hayunin hopxop x nihonennn xapoio exen1a pa6o1i;
2. Hayunin hopxop x hpnneuennn, o16opy, o6yuennn n 1pe-
nnponxe pa6oueio;
3. Koohepann c pa6ounxn;
4. Iaspeenne o1ne1c1nennoc1n sa pesyi1a1i pa6o1i xepy
xenepepaxn n pa6ounxn.

Ocnonnon nxap u. \. Tenopa n 1eopnn xenepxen1a co-
c1on n 1ox, u1o on paccxa1pnna yhpanenne xax ynnnepcainin
hpoecc, coc1onmnn ns necxoixnx nsanxocnnsannix qynxnn,
nsonn hpnnnhi xenepxen1a. On cqopxynpona cnc1exa-
1nsnponannyn 1eopnn yhpanennn opiannsanen, nipenn xe-
nepxen1 xax chenqnuecxnn nnp pa6o1i.
Iannix hpopoa1eex, pasnnnmnx npen u. \.Tenopa,
cun1an1 pyxonopn1en 6oimon qpanyscxon xoxhannn ho po-
6iue yin Anpn uanon. Lio nnoipa nasinan1 o1ox xenep-
xen1a n cospa1eex mxoi apxnnnc1pa1nnnoio yhpanennn. On
cqopxynpona mec1i nahpanennn pen1einoc1n apxnnnc1pa-
nn hponsnopc1nennon opiannsann:
1exnnuecxan pen1einoc1i (xon1poi nchpannoc1n c1anxon,
xamnn, o6opyponannn, nnc1pyxen1on);
xoxxepuecxan pen1einoc1i (saxyhxa, hpopaa, o6xen);
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

21
qnnanconan pen1einoc1i (honcxn xahn1aa n eio nchoisonanne);
samn1nan pen1einoc1i (o6echeuenne 6esohacnoc1n);
xxayn1nni nn 6yxia1epcxan pen1einoc1i (yu1, xon1poi, c1a-
1nc1nxa n ppyine ohepann);
apxnnnc1pnponanne (xo1nnnponanne pa6o1nnxon, cx. 14 hpnnn-
hon xenepxen1a).

A.uanoi cun1a, u1o xenepep poen pyxonopc1nona1icn 14
hpnnnhaxn hpn pemennn yhpanenuecxnx sapau (cx. 1a6. 1.1).

Tac:ua 1.1.

Hpnnnnnm mcncpxmcn1a A. uannnn
[Ta6na coc1anena an1opox na ocnone 16, c. 68]

N
n/n
Hpnnnnn Cnpcpxannc npnnnnna
1. Iaspeenne
1pypa
Chenansann 1pypa ec1ec1nenna pn ue-
onexa, ho1oxy ein paspeennn 1pypa
nnne1cn nihonenne 6oimen ho xonue-
c1ny n yumen ho xauec1ny pa6o1i hpn 1ex
e yconnnx. 1o poc1niae1cn sa cue1 co-
xpamennn unca een, na xo1opie poni
6i1i nahpaneni nnnxanne n ycnnn.
2. Honoxounn n
o1ne1c1nen-
noc1i
jeeinponannie honoxounn n nnpe hpnxa-
sa poni cohponopa1icn o1ne1c1nenno-
c1in sa oh1nxainoe nihonenne hopyuen-
noio pea. Ipe pan1cn honoxounn 1ax
nosnnxae1 o1ne1c1nennoc1i.
3. jncnhnna Heo6xopnxo hocymanne n ynaenne 1pe-
6onannn pa6ounxn, a xenepepi poni
hpnxenn1i chpanepnnie canxnn x napy-
mn1enx pncnhnni.
4. Lpnnonauane Ia6o1nnx poen hoyua1i hpnxasi 1oixo
o1 opnoio nehocpepc1nennoio nauainnxa.
5. Lpnnc1no
nahpanennn
Kapan ipyhha, penc1nynman n paxxax op-
non en, pona 6i1i o6:epnnena epnnix
hanox n nxe1i opnoio pyxonopn1en.

Mcucdcun

22
Tac:ua 1.1. (cxcunauuc)

N
n/n
Hpnnnnn Cnpcpxannc npnnnnna
6. Hopunnennoc1i
nunix nn1epecon
o6mec1nennix
In1epeci opiannsann hpnopn1e1ni
hepep nn1epecaxn opnoio pa6o1nnxa
nn ne6oimon ipyhhi.
7. osnaipapenne
hepconaa
enx o6echeuennn hpepannoc1n n
nepnoc1n opiannsann hepconay ne-
o6xopnxo ha1n1i chpanepnnoe nosna-
ipapenne sa qqex1nnnin 1pyp.
8. Hen1pansann Hyumne pesyi1a1i poc1nian1cn hpn
oh1nxainox coo1nomennn en1pan-
sann n peen1pansann. Honoxo-
unn poni peeinpona1icn hpohop-
nonaino o1ne1c1nennoc1n.
9. Cxanpnan ehi Ho ehn nehocpepc1nennix nauai-
nnxon, hepepan1cn pachopnennn n
ocymec1nnn1cn xoxxynnxann xe-
py ncexn yponnnxn opiannsann
(nepapxnn).
10. Hopnpox Lc1i xec1o pn nceio n nce na cnoex xec-
1e.
11. Chpanepnnoc1i jo6po1a pona coue1a1icn c hpanocy-
pnex.
12. C1a6ninoc1i
pa6oueio xec1a
pn hepconaa
5oiman 1exyuec1i xappon cnnae1
qqex1nnnoc1i pen1einoc1n opiann-
sann, ho1oxy hepconay napo cospa-
na1i yconnn pn poiocpounon pa6o1i.
13. Innna1nna Iaspa6o1xa hana n o6echeuenne eio
ychemnon peansann hpnpan1 opia-
nnsann cny n nepinn.
14. Kophopa1nnnin
pyx
Cons 1o cna, xo1opan nnne1cn pe-
syi1a1ox iapxonnn hepconaa.

nonnn xonehnn xenepxen1a xono hpepc1ann1i n
cepynmen hocepona1einoc1n (cx. 1a6. 1.2).



c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

23
Tac:ua 1.2.

Cnc1cma1nanpnnannmn npcmcnnnn nnpxnp annnmnnn
nnncnnnn mcncpxmcn1a
N
n/n
Cymnnc1n nnp-
xnpa mcncpx-
mcn1y
Inpm
Inannmc aan-
nnmcpnnc1n,
npnnnnnm n
nmwcnmc nn-
nnxcnnn nn-
ncnnnn
Ocnnnnmc a1c-
rnpnn, ncnnnn-
aycmmc n n cn-
npcmcnnnm mc-
ncpxmcn1c
1. Hayunoe
yhpanenne
1885
1920
Ianonansann
nihonennn pa-
6o1 na ocnone
na6npennn, sa-
xepon, anansa
ocnonnix xoxho-
nen1on pa6o1i
(u. \. Tenop).
Hayunt noxo x
menexmenry n
npnnnnnam ynpan-
nennx. Hcnontso-
nanne mnxpoxpo-
nomerpa n xnno-
xamept
2. Kaccnuecxan nn
apxnnnc1pa1nn-
nan mxoa n
yhpanennn
1920
1950
Iaspeenne 1pypa
n yhpanennn. Ho-
c1poenne c1pyx1y-
pi opiannsann n
yhpanennn pa-
6o1nnxaxn (14
hpnnnhon yhpan-
ennn Anpn uan-
on). A. K. Iac1en.
Anans choco6on
nihonennn pa-
6o1i c ein ee
conepmenc1nona-
nnn. Oha1a 1py-
pa xax nanen-
mnn exen1 xo-
1nnann pa6o-
1anmnx
3. Hopxop c 1ouxn
spennn ueoneue-
cxnx o1nomennn
1930
1950
Koex1nn xax
oco6an conainan
ipyhha (Xo1opn-
cxne xchepnxen-
1i 1ona Mno).
A. K. Iac1en.
Ichoisonanne n
xenepxen1e qax-
1opon xoxxynnxa-
nn, ipyhhonon
pnnaxnxn, xo1n-
nann n npepc1na
4. Honepenuecxne
nayxn
1950
ho
na-
c1on-
mee
npexn
Menunoc1nie
o1nomennn xax
qax1op poc1a
qqex1nnnoc1n n
ho1ennaa xa-
poio pa6o1nnxa
(jyiac Max
Ipeiop, upepe-
pnx Iep6epi).
Icceponanne
honepennn npen
n opiannsannx.
O1nomenne x
uenax opiannsa-
nn xax x ax1nn-
nix n xo6ni-
nix xonoxnue-
cxnx pecypcax
Mcucdcun

24
Tac:ua 1.2. (cxcunauuc)

N
n./n.
Cymnnc1n nnp-
xnpa mcncpx-
mcn1y
Inpm
Inannmc aan-
nnmcpnnc1n,
npnnnnnm n
nmwcnmc nn-
nnxcnnn nn-
ncnnnn
Ocnnnnmc a1c-
rnpnn, ncnnnn-
aycmmc n n cn-
npcmcnnnm mc-
ncpxmcn1c
5. Konuec1nennin
hopxop
1950
ho
na-
c1on-
mee
npexn
Hpnxenenne c1a-
1nc1nxn, xono-
xnxoxa1exa1n-
uecxnx xe1opon,
xopenponannn n
niuncn1einon
1exnnxn (Hn1ep
jpaxep n ppyine).
Ichoisonanne
xonuec1nennix
nsxepennn hpn
hpnnn1nn peme-
nnn. Hpnxenenne
nnqopxanon-
nix cnc1ex yhpan-
ennn n niuncn-
1einon 1exnnxn
6. Cnc1exnin n
cn1yanonnin
hopxopi
1960
ho
na-
c1on-
mee
npexn
sanxocnnsi ncex
xoxhonen1on op-
iannsann. inn-
enne n yue1 cn-
1yanonnix he-
pexennix oxpy-
anmen cpepi
(Hn1ep jpaxep n
ppyine).
Hpnnn1ne yhpan-
enuecxnx peme-
nnn na ocnone
cnc1exnoio nsy-
uennn ncen cono-
xyhnoc1n cn1ya-
nonnix qax1o-
pon n conpexen-
nix xoxhin1ep-
nix 1exnooinn

Hoppo6nee o xenepepax, nonnn yhpanenuecxon xicn
cxo1pn1e [16, cc. 3687] n [20, cc. 1238].
Hpax1nxa xenepxen1a hpoma xnoionexonyn nonnn n pas-
nix o6mec1nennoxonoxnuecxnx qopxannx pasnunix c1pan xnpa.
osnnxnonenne n pasnn1ne hpax1nuecxoio xenepxen1a nacun1inae1
hpnxepno 7 1icnuee1nn, xaccnqnnponannix na 5 1ahon:
I 1ah, hoyunnmnn nasnanne peninosnoxoxxepuecxoio.
Lio cnnsinan1 c paccoennex nicmen xac1i cnnmennnxon, hepeqop-
xynponanmnx ocnonohoaianmne peninosnie hpnnnhi, o uex
xi ysnan c honnennex hncixennoc1n. Ha innnnix 1a6nuxax,
pomepmnx po nac, sahncani cnepennn o xoxxepuecxnx cpexax n sa-
xonax ppennnx o6mec1n Hyxepnn, Linh1a, u1o poxasinae1 cymec1no-
nanne 1ax hpax1nxn yhpanennn.
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

25
II 1ah cne1cxo-apxnnnc1pa1nnnin cnnsinan1 c nxenex nann-
oncxoio apn Xaxxypahn (17921750 i. i. po n. .). Hop eio pyxonopc1nox
n hpn nehocpepc1nennox yuac1nn paspa6o1an cnop saxonon yhpanennn
iocypapc1nox, nnepen nxec1o peninosnoio cne1cxnn c1ni yhpanennn,
ycnncn xon1poi n o1ne1c1nennoc1i sa nihonenne pasnunix nnpon
pen1einoc1n. Lcn na I 1ahe yhpanenne 6io 1oixo na xnxpoxono-
xnuecxox yponne, 1o na II 1ahe ono nixopn1 n na xaxpoxonoxnuecxnn.
III 1ah hponsnopc1nenno c1pon1einin no npexena hpan-
ennn nannoncxoio apn Honyxoponocopa II (605562 i. i. po n. .). To-
ipa hponsomo coepnnenne iocypapc1nennix xe1opon yhpanennn c
xon1poex ceicxoxosnnc1nennoio, hpoximennoio n c1pon1einoio
hponsnopc1n. 1o1 hepnop paspa6o1ana n nneppena cnc1exa hpons-
nopc1nennoio xon1pon n sepnoxpannnmax, hpn c1pon1eic1ne a-
nnoncxon 6amnn, cospannn nncnunx capon Cnxnpaxnpi, na 1ex-
c1ninix qa6pnxax c hpnxenennex ne1nix npixon (nchoisye-
xix y nac n cenuac).
In1epecnie yhpanenuecxne nononnepennn 6in nneppeni n
jpennex Inxe. Hahpnxep, cnc1exa 1eppn1opnainoio yhpanennn
jnoxe1nana (243316 i.i. n. .) n apxnnnc1pa1nnnan opiannsann
Inxcxon xa1onuecxon epxnn, xo1opan po cnx hop oennnae1cn xax
conepmennan qopxainan opiannsann n c1panax 3ahapnon Lnpohi.
Ha 1ox 1ahe hponsomn cymec1nennie nsxenennn n chenansa-
nn ocnonnix qynxnn xenepxen1a, n xapponox xenepxen1e, n
opiannsann cnc1exi nac1n n qopxnponannn an1opn1e1a yhpan-
nnmnx.
IV 1ah hpoqeccnonainoio yhpanennn. On cnnsan c sapope-
nnex xahn1ansxa n nnpyc1pnainoio pasnn1nn n c1panax 3ahapnon
Lnpohi. osnnxa ho1pe6noc1i y hpephpnnnxa1een n hpoqeccnonai-
nox yhpanennn hponsnopc1nox. Hponsomo qopxnponanne naexnoio
yhpannnmeioxenepepa, xo1opin eme ne c1a hpoqeccnonaox nico-
xon xnanqnxann, 1.x. ne nxe nosxonoc1n o6yua1icn nssa o1cy1c1nnn
1eopnn xenepxen1a.
V 1ah panonainon 6npoxpa1nn xone XIX nauao
XX nexa. \hpanenne c1ao 1eope1nuecxon pncnhnnon, naunnan c
1911 i. hoce ohy6nxonannn upepepnxox \. Tenopox xnnin
Hpnnnhi nayunoio yhpanennn, 1papnnonno cun1anmeiocn
nauaox hpnsnannn xenepxen1a caxoc1on1einon o6ac1in ncce-
ponannn n 1eopnen yhpanennn.

Mcucdcun

26
nac1onmee npexn 1epxnn Menepxen1 1pax1ye1cn ho
pasnoxy. Han6oee o6mee eio ohpepeenne, na xon nsinp, cepyn-
mee: xenepxen1 1o cnc1exa hpoipaxxnoeenoio, cnc1exnoio
yhpanennn, 1exymeio n hepchex1nnnoio hannponannn n hpoinosn-
ponannn nayuno1exnnuecxnx paspa6o1ox, opiannsann hponsnopc1-
na, xo1nnann n xon1pon, peansann hpopyxnn n ycyi ncepc1-
nne nsxenennn nnemnen cpepi n pinxa c ein honimennn qqex-
1nnnoc1n xosnnc1nonannn, ypone1nopennn ho1pe6noc1en pinxa n
o6mec1na n eox (nxnuan conainie), ynenuennn hpn6in.
Iaccxo1pnx oco6ennoc1n poccnncxoio xenepxen1a na conpe-
xennox 1ahe pasnn1nn namen c1pani.


1.2. Ocoeaaoc1a poccacxoro MeaepwMea1a

Hoc1nian 1eopnn, ncxycc1no n hpax1nxy xenepxen1a, n Ioc-
cnn oco6enno ncno ocosnan eio snaunxoc1i xax nonon 1eopnn, hpax-
1nxn n yue6non pncnhnni, nosnnxmnx n pesyi1a1e hponopnxix n
namen c1pane xonoxnuecxnx peqopx. Menepxen1 xax co6npa-
1einoe o1 xenepepon 1o ohpepeennan xa1eiopnn npen, con-
ainin con 1ex, x1o ocymec1nne1 pa6o1y ho yhpanennn. C 1ouxn
spennn yhpanennn n Ioccnn hepnonauaino yconno nipenn 1pn
ocnonnie xopen xenepxen1a:
1. Mopei 3ppannrn cmmcna, na6npaexan n hocepnex pecn-
1ne1nn XX n., no xnoinx opiannsannx 1ax nasinaexix nonix pyc-
cxnx. 5oiman uac1i 1nx xenepepon po 1oio 6in xex yiopno:
nnenepaxn, xonoxnc1axn, npnc1axn, hpoipaxxnc1axn 1oixo
ne hpoqeccnonaaxn n yhpanennn. Xopomo em, u1o 6nsnec n 1e
iopi 6i poc1a1ouno hpoc1ix, xenepxen1 na hepnon c1apnn pasnn-
1nn 6nsneca 1oe 6i exen1apnix. Opnaxo ho xepe poc1a opiann-
sann sppanoio cxica hepec1ao xna1a1i pn saxemennn yhpan-
enuecxoio hpoqeccnonansxa.
2. Mopei 3anapnnn ynn1ypm hpepc1anena sahapnixn op-
iannsannxn c1pan speon pinounon xonoxnxn, pa6o1anmnxn na
poccnncxox pinxe. Hpeynenunna1i nnnnne sahapnon xyi1ypi
xenepxen1a na poccnncxne opiannsann ne cepye1, no neisn n ne
saxeua1i nexo1opix cepon nospenc1nnn. Hahpnxep, xopennan pe-
xonc1pyxnn 1exnooinuecxon 6asi xenepxen1a, xo1opan hpo-
nsoma sa hocepnne iopi. Ha noopyennn y conpexennoio xenep-
epa hepconainie xoxhin1epi, nonenmne cnc1exi cnnsn, 6asi
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

27
pannix c ypaennix poc1yhox, pasnunie hpoipaxxnie cpepc1na,
Internet. Hapnpy c 1nx, xnoine opiannsann nochpnnnn n nnemnne
a1pn6y1i sahapnoio xenepxen1a: eian1noc1i, nennoc1i co-
1pypnnxon, xopomyn xe6ei. Ho paime nnemnen qopxi, 1exnoo-
inuecxoio n 1exnnuecxoio noopyennn peo ne mo. hocepnne io-
pi hpopnnennn n c1opony co6c1nenno sahapnix 1exnooinn, xop-
hopa1nnnoio yhpanennn, xeipyhhonoio nsanxopenc1nnn homn
6ic1pee. Menepxen1 c1pan speon pinounon xonoxnxn saxe1no
honnn na qopxy, 1exnnuecxyn c1opony n oxasinae1 cymec1nennoe
nospenc1nne na xyi1ypy poccnncxoio xenepxen1a.
3. Mopei Tpapnnnnnnmx (cnnc1cnx) mc1npnn ynpanncnnn
em hpopoae1 qynxnonnpona1i n nexo1opix opiannsannx Ioc-
cnncxon uepepann.

Teopnn n hpax1nxa poccnncxoio xenepxen1a xennn1cn c he-
pexopox x nonenmnx nnqopxanonnix n ppyinx 1exnooinnx.
nac1onmee npexn xono nipen1i 3 xonehnn pasnn1nn poccnn-
cxoio xenepxen1a:
1. Kohnponannn sahapnon 1eopnn xenepxen1a. Ona ne yun1inae1
oco6ennoc1en poccnncxon xen1ainoc1n, ho1oxy 6echepchex1nnna.
2. Apah1ann sahapnon 1eopnn xenepxen1a x poccnncxon che-
nqnxe. 1a xonehnn hepchex1nnna na pannox 1ahe pasnn1nn
xenepxen1a n Ioccnn, no n painenmex hpnopn1e1 6ype1 o1pan
1pe1ien xonehnn.
3. Cospannn poccnncxon 1eopnn xenepxen1a c nchoisonannex
poc1nennn sahapnon n noc1ounon xopeen yhpanennn n nan6oee
qqex1nnnix achex1on xnponoio xenepxen1a caxan hepchex1nn-
nan xonehnn.
Conpexennin poccnncxnn xenepxen1 6oime opnen1npye1cn
na 1o, u1o nama c1pana nsna xypc na hponepenne pinounix peqopx,
o6echeunnanmnx cno6opy n 6aiococ1onnne ipapan, xonoxnuecxoe
nospopenne iocypapc1na, hpnpoc1 nanenmnx 1exnnxo-
xonoxnuecxnx hoxasa1een.
Ioccnncxnn xenepxen1 poen yun1ina1i o6:ex1nnnie ho-
1pe6noc1n peqopxnpyexon xonoxnxn, o6mec1na n eox, a 1axe
iannie, xnuenie xoxen1i, hpnxenenne xo1opix hpn hoc1poennn
nonon cnc1exi yhpanennn pa1 eaexin pesyi1a1 oxonua1eino-
io hepexopa x pinounon xonoxnxe n ocymec1nenne eio c nan-
xenimnxn ho1epnxn pn o6mec1na n eox n xapoio ipapannna n
o1peinoc1n.
Mcucdcun

28
Iaccpepo1ouenne, painenman peen1pansann xenepxen1a
ne hpephoaiae1 honoc1in o1xasa o1 iocypapc1nennoio peiynpona-
nnn conaino-xonoxnuecxnxn hpoeccaxn, hponcxopnmnxn na
pasnunix yponnnx. Iinox ne choco6en pemn1i xnoine hpo6exi,
cnnsannie c nypaxn nceio o6mec1na, nahpnxep, xooinuecxon
6esohacnoc1in, conaino-xonoxnuecxnx epnnc1nox Ioccnn; ocy-
mec1nennex qynpaxen1ainix nayunix ncceponannn, poiocpou-
nix noennix hpoipaxx, oco6enno n o6oponno-hpoximennox xox-
hexce (OHK).
Honie nsinpi na xenepxen1 nauan qopxnpona1icn n 70
80 i. i. XX n. hoce hy6nxann Hn1epa jpaxepa, xo1opin cqopxy-
npona cepynmne 6asonie hpnnnhi xenepxen1a: cn1yanon-
noc1i; cnc1exnoc1i; conainan nahpanennoc1i; in6xoc1i; apah1nn-
noc1i - hpnchoco6enne x hoc1onnnix nsxenennnx nnemnen cpepi,
xo1opie uac1o pnx1yn1 opiannsannx paspa6o1xy nonon c1pa1einn n
1ax1nxn.

Ocnonnie uep1i n 1enpennn conpexennoio poccnncxoio xe-
nepxen1a:
1. Chenansann;
2. Conansann;
3. Hpoqeccnonansann;
4. Koxhin1epnsann;
5. Io6ansann.

Iannie oco6ennoc1n conpexennoio poccnncxoio xenepxen-
1a, nahpnxep:
1. Tpapnnn (1exnooinuecxnn hopxop x yhpanennn, cxon-
noc1i x choncopc1ny).
2. Hayunoc1i (nicoxnn nayuno-nn1eex1yainin ho1enna,
hpepe nceio n OHK).
3. Ohi1 (iocypapc1nennoio peiynponannn xonoxnxn, ocnoennn
nicoxnx 1exnooinn).
4. C1anonenne (o6pasonannn, n 1ox unce xpea1nnnoio n hpo-
qeccnonainan hopio1onxa xenepepon).
5. Cnoeo6pasne (xen1an1e1a, opiannsanonnon xyi1ypi).
6. Hpephpnnxunnoc1i (n yconnnx n6epainon xonoxnxn).
7. 3a1pypnennn (nahpnxep, n peinonaino-hon1nuecxox achex1e).

Cymec1nennix qax1opox honimennn pesyi1a1nnnoc1n xe-
nepxen1a nnne1cn chenansann yhpanennn. coo1ne1c1nnn c
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

29
1nx xono nipen1i cepynmne nnpi xenepxen1a, hpepc1anen-
nie na pnc. 1.1.















Puc. 1.1. Hcn1npmc nnpm cnnpcmcnnnrn pnccnncnrn mcncpxmcn1a

upaixen1apno paccxo1pnx cymnoc1i o1peinix ocnonnix nn-
pon conpexennoio poccnncxoio xenepxen1a.

Kappnnmn mcncpxmcn1 1o cnc1exa1nuecxan, eenahpan-
ennan pen1einoc1i pyxonopnmeio coc1ana opiannsann n chena-
nc1on hoppaspeennn cnc1exi yhpanennn hepconaox, nxnuan-
man paspa6o1xy xonehnn n c1pa1einn xapponon hon1nxn n xe1o-
pon yhpanennn hepconaox.
Ocnonnie sapaun xapponoio xenepxen1a:
qopxnponanne cnc1exi yhpanennn hepconaox;
hannponanne xapponon pa6o1i;
hponepenne xapxe1nnia hepconaa;
honcx, hpnneuenne n o16op hepconaa;
nanx, o6yuenne n ynoinenne xappon.

Texnooinn xapponoio xenepxen1a oxna1inae1 mnpoxnn xpyi
hpo6ex, nahpnxep:
hpanonix;
nopxa1nnno-xe1opnuecxnx;
nnqopxanonnix;
peohponsnopc1nennix;
canxnonnix.
Kappnnmn Hpnnannpc1ncnnmn Cnnnannnmn
C1pa1crnwccnn
Hnncc1nnnnnnmn
Mapc1nnrnnmn
Hnnnnannnnnmn
Knmmynna-
nnnnnmn
Knmmcpwccnn
Hnqnpmannnnnmn An1npnancnmn unnancnnmn


Mcncpxmcn1
Mcucdcun

30
Hpanonon achex1 xapponoio xenepxen1a nxee1 nce 6oee nos-
pac1anmee snauenne n yconnnx conainoxonoxnuecxnx hpeo6pa-
sonannn n namen c1pane, ho1oxy u1o nopxi 1pyponoio hpana peiy-
npyn1 o6mec1nennie o1nomennn, sa1painnanmne hpana, nn1epeci
n o1ne1c1nennoc1i xnnonon pa6o1nnxon.
Kax nsnec1no, nxopenne namen c1pani n xnponoe coo6mec1no
iocypapc1n, hponosiamanmnx hpnnnhi co6npennn hpan ueone-
xa, ho1pe6onao n nanonainox saxonopa1eic1ne Ioccnncxon ue-
pepann yuec1i xepynapopnie c1anpap1i 1pypa, saxpehennie
nopxa1nnnixn ax1axn Opiannsann O6:epnnennix Hann, xon-
nennnxn n pexoxenpannxn Mepynapopnon opiannsann 1pypa,
ax1axn Lnpohencxoio consa n pp. c 6oimnn o6mec1nennin nn1e-
pec hponnne1cn x cpannn1einix xapax1epnc1nxax yponnn pasnn1nn
ueoneuecxoio ho1ennaa, xo1opin ho oenxax chenanc1on, sa-
nnxanmnxcn hpo6exaxn ncuncennn nanonainoio 6oia1c1na,
coc1anne1 hpnxepno 67% naxohennoio nanonainoio 6oia1c1na,
paccun1annoio n xnponox xacm1a6e
2
.
Han6oee ychemnie, xonxypen1ochoco6nie opiannsann
c1pan speon pinounon xonoxnxn hpnxennn1 n cnoex xapponox
xenepxen1e ax1nnnie xe1opi honcxa, hpnneuennn, o16opa ni-
coxoxnanqnnponannoio hepconaa, ynenunnan1 sa1pa1i na
eio o6yuenne.
coo1ne1c1nnn c nsxenennnxn, hponcxopnmnxn n pasnunix
cqepax pen1einoc1n namen c1pani, xappnnaino xennn1cn en n
sapaun o1pea xappon. 1n o1pei, hponpn hy1i o1 qopxainix
nchoxoia1einix c1pyx1yp, xaxnxn onn 6in n hpomox, po opnon
ns caxix snaunxix cy6 n conpexennix opiannsannx, uac1o nc-
hoisyn1 nnoc1pannin ohi1, no, x coaennn, ne nceipa qqex1nn-
no. Ho1oxy nosnnxae1 neo6xopnxoc1i cospannn co6c1nennon cnc1e-
xi xapponoio xenepxen1a, u1o 1pe6ye1 nce nonix pohonn1einix
paspa6o1ox.
Lme pnapp jexnni hopuepxnna: Toixo 6oee conepmennoe
yhpanenne hepconaox xoe1 hpnnec1n neo6xopnxie nsxenennn.
Hpnnnh hpnopn1e1noc1n ennoc1n ueonexa, eio hpan n cno6op
hponnsinae1 Konc1n1ynn Iu. 1a xonc1n1ynonainan peainoc1i

2
Kysneona L. . Hahpanennn pasnn1nn ueoneuecxoio ho1ennaa n c1panax c
pasnunix yponnex xonoxnuecxoio pasnn1nn// ohpoci c1a1nc1nxn. 2003,
N10 c.18.
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

31
pona ohpepen1i hpax1nxy saxono1nopuec1na n hpnxenennn saxo-
nopa1eic1na. C1. 2 Konc1n1ynn Iu saxpehne1 hpnopn1e1 hpan n
cno6op ueonexa. Cpepn 1nx hooennn naxopn1cn n 1axne conai-
noxonoxnuecxne hpana, xax hpano na 1pyp n o1pix, hpano na con-
ainoe o6echeuenne, hpano na o6pasonanne n pp.
jn ncex opiannsann yhpanenne npixn nxee1 hepnoc1e-
hennoe snauenne. 5es oh1nxaino o1o6pannix, pacc1anennix n
hpoqeccnonaino hopio1onennix xappon nn opna opiannsann ne
cxoe1 poc1nui cnonx een. 1o y1neppenne nnne1cn ocnonohoa-
ianmnx n xonehnn xapponoio xenepxen1a.
I1ainncxnn xicn1ei Toxxaso Kaxhanea y1neppa:
Kpn1epnex nc1nni nnne1cn ohi1. xapponox xenepxen1e 1eo-
pnn n xonehnn nnnn1cn o1paennex o6o6mennoio ohi1a yhpan-
ennn hepconaox.
3axonopa1eino yc1anonennie xpn1epnn 1pyponix o1nome-
nnn hosnonn1 yume ocosna1i snaunxoc1i xapponoio xenepxen1a.
jen1einoc1i xenepepon ho yhpanennn hepconaox hpenpamae1cn
n hpec1nnyn hpoqeccnn.

Isyunn co6c1nennin n xnponon ohi1 yhpanennn hepconaox,
an1op hpepaiae1 cxexy ocnonnix 1ahon xapponoio xenepxen1a n
opiannsann (cx. pnc. 1.2.).
jn ychemnon pen1einoc1n opiannsann neo6xopnx nepymnn
xenepep ho xappax, nahpannnmnn ycnnn xapoio pa6o1nnxa n
nx conoxyhnoc1i na nihonenne o6mnx sapau, pae xoipa cymec1-
nynmne hpn 1ox nsanxoo1nomennn ne honoc1in nhncinan1cn n
pexoxenponannie pyxonopc1nox paxxn.
Kapin pyxonopn1ei ho yhpanennn hepconaox poen sna1i
n honnxa1i choco6i, xe1opi n 1ahi yhpanennn pa6o1nnxaxn:
Co6npenne xonc1n1ynonnix iapan1nn 1pyponix hpan n cno-
6op, ncxnuanmee n6yn pncxpnxnnann; Tpyponoio Kopexca Iu,
c1a1in xo1opoio ni1exan1 ns hooennn Konc1n1ynn Iu.
Ocymec1nenne xapponoio hannponannn, saxnuanmeecn n
o6echeuennn opiannsann neo6xopnxon uncennoc1in pa6o1nnxon
n n ohpepeennn nens6enix hpn 1ox nspepex.
Honcx n pexpy1nponanne xappon. Hpnneuenne hepconaa c
ein cospannn neo6xopnxoio pesepna ho1ennainix xanpnpa1on
ho ncex (oco6enno pyxonopnmnx) ponoc1nx.
Mcucdcun

32


Puc. 1.2. Cxcma ncnnnnmx a1annn appnnnrn
mcncpxmcn1a n nprannaannn

Oenxa xanpnpa1on na m1a1nie ponoc1n n o16op yumnx ns
pesepna, cospannoio n xope na6opa.
Ohpepeenne c1pyx1ypi oha1i 1pypa, iio1 n enx hpnne-
uennn n coxpanennn pa6o1nnxon.
Oh1nxainan hpoqopnen1ann n apah1ann, nnepenne nann-
1ix pa6o1nnxon n hoppaspeennn opiannsann, qopxnponanne y nnx
honnxannn 1oio, u1o pe1 o1 nnx opiannsann n xaxon 1pyp n nen
hoyuae1 oh1nxainyn oenxy.
Iaspa6o1xa hpoipaxx ho o6yuennn 1pyponix nanixax, neo6-
xopnxix pn 6oee qqex1nnnoio nihonennn pa6o1i.
Cospanne xe1opnx oenxn 1pyponon pen1einoc1n n ponepenne
nx po pa6o1nnxon.
Iaspa6o1xa xe1opon hepexemennn pa6o1nnxon na ponoc1n c
6oimen nn xenimen o1ne1c1nennoc1in, honimenne nx hpoqec-
cnonainoio ohi1a hocpepc1nox hepexemennn na ppyine ponoc1n
nn yuac1xn pa6o1i, a 1axe 6es6oesnennix, 6oee iyxannix hpo-
epyp hpexpamennn nanxa.
Oprannaa-
nnn nnnca
n nanma
appnn
O16np
ncpcnnana,
mn1nnannn
Onpcpcncnnc n
nn1pnnn nnna-
1m 1pypa
O6ywcnnc n
nmpawa
ccp1nqna1nn
Oncna
1pypnnnn
pcn1cnnnn-
c1n
jnpanncnnc
npnpnnxcnncm
nn pa6n1c
Kpnpnwccan
n1nc1c1ncnnnc1n
Kpnpnwccnc
nnpmm
Hnnmmcnnc,
nnnnxcnnc, ncpcnnp,
ynnnnncnnc
pa6n1nna
Knnc1n1ynnnnnmc rapan1nn 1pypnnmx npan n cnn6np pa6n1nnnn
Hnannpnna-
nnc wncncn-
nnc1n pa6n1-
nnnn
Hpnqnpncn-
1annn n
apan1annn
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

33
Cospanne hpoipaxx, nahpanennix na pasnn1ne choco6noc1en
n honimenne qqex1nnnoc1n 1pypa pyxonopnmnx xappon.
Iy6oxoe n hoc1onnnoe nsyuenne npnpnuecxnx nopx, peiynpyn-
mnx o1nomennn xepy pa6o1nnxaxn n opiannsanenpa6o1opa1eex.
Ipaxo1noe hpnxenenne npnpnuecxnx canxnn ho o1nomennn
x hpanonapymn1en, hpepe nceio cepynmnx: pncnhnnapnix;
xa1epnainix; apxnnnc1pa1nnnix;yioonnix.

Hpnnannpc1ncnnmn mcncpxmcn1 1o eenahpanennoe
nospenc1nne na xoex1nni pa6o1nnxon pn opiannsann n xooppn-
nann nx pen1einoc1n n hpoecce hponsnopc1na; conoxyhnoc1i ho-
cepona1einix penc1nnn yhpanenuecxoio hepconaa ho ohpepee-
nnn sapau pn o6:ex1on yhpanennn n nx qax1nuecxoio coc1onnnn
hocpepc1nox peinc1pann n o6pa6o1xn coo1ne1c1nynmen nnqopxa-
nn, ho qopxnponannn n hpnnn1nn xonoxnuecxn o6ocnonannix
hponsnopc1nennix hpoipaxx, ohepa1nnnix sapannn n ppyinx peme-
nnn hponsnopc1nennoio xapax1epa.
c1panax speon pinounon xonoxnxn, a n nac1onmee npexn n
n Ioccnn, nipenn1cn nonie nahpanennn n xonehnn ho pasnn1nn
hponsnopc1nennoio xenepxen1a:
1. Iennnnnpnni, nn hepec1ponxa na conpexennon xoxhin1ep-
non n ppyion 1exnooinuecxon ocnone opiannsann pen1einoc1n n
yhpanennn hponsnopc1nox.
2. Iasnn1ne xonehnn nny1pennnx pinxon opiannsann, 1.e. nc-
hoisonanne pinounix hpnnnhon no nny1pennen pen1einoc1n op-
iannsann, nce hoppaspeennn xo1opix c1anonn1cn an1onoxnixn
sneninxn, hpno6pe1anmnxn 1onapi n ycyin xax nny1pn opiannsa-
nn, 1ax n sa ee hpepeaxn. Opnonpexenno 1n hoppaspeennn o6:e-
pnnnn1cn epnnixn xoxhin1epnixn ce1nxn, hpephpnnnxa1eicxon
c1pyx1ypon n qnnanconixn cnc1exaxn.
3. hponsnopc1nennox xenepxen1e hponcxopn1 nn1eipanon-
nie hpoecci, opnen1nponannie na 6oee qqex1nnnoe hpnxene-
nne ncex pecypcon, u1o choco6c1nye1 honnennn xnoioo6pasnix
qopx iopnson1ainoio o6:epnnennn opiannsann.
4. ce 6oimee pachpoc1panenne hoyuan1 neqnnanconie nsxe-
pn1en qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn hponsnopc1nox, hocpepc1nox
xo1opix oh1nxaino oennnan1cn poc1nennn opiannsann. Taxn-
xn neocnsaexixn xpn1epnnxn oenxn nnnn1cn:
snannn;
hpephpnnnxa1eicxne choco6noc1n;
nn1eex1yainin xahn1a;
Mcucdcun

34
ypone1nopennoc1i ho1pe6n1een;
hono1a n xoxhexcnoc1i nchoisonannn xoxhin1epnix 1ex-
nooinn.

Conpexennie poccnncxne opiannsann c1an ypen1i
6oime nnnxannn opiannsann hponsnopc1na, qopxnponannn
c1pyx1yp, o6echeunnanmnx ncnoe n ue1xoe paspeenne 1pypa,
xon1poi nihonennn n c1nxynponanne nchonn1een ho pe-
syi1a1ax nx pen1einoc1n.
O6:ex1ox nsyuennn hponsnopc1nennoio xenepxen1a nnnn1-
cn hponsnopc1nennie cnc1exi n hponsnopc1no (cx. pnc. 1.3.).





Puc. 1.3. Cxcma mcxannama qynnnnnnpnnannn npnnannpc1ncnnnn
cnc1cmm nprannaannn (paapa6n1ana an1npnm)




Pccypcm

Pcaynn1a1m
Bxnp
Hpnnccc
npcn6paannannn
pccypcnn
Bny1pcnnnn
cpcpa
Bmxnp
Incxn
Hnmcxn cnnnnc (nncpannnnnnc)
npyxcnnc nprannaannn
(nnypcn1m, nnc1anmn-
n, nn1pc6n1cnn n pp.).
Hnannpnnannc, nprannaannn,
mn1nnannn, nn1pnnn
Hpo6exi
unnnnnc (n6mcc)
Opyxcnnc nprannaannn
(nnnn1nwccnc, cnnnannnnc,
annnmnwccnc n pp.)
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

35
Hop hponsnopc1nox honnxan1 eenahpanennyn pen1ei-
noc1i ho cospannn ueion6o hoesnoio, a hop hponsnopc1nennon
cnc1exon eenahpanennin hpoecc, hpenpamanmnn o1pei-
nie xoxhonen1i (pecypci) n hoesnyn hpopyxnn nn ycyiy.
Ohpepeennin nxap n paspa6o1xy cnc1exnoio hopxopa n opiann-
sanonnix hpo6ex yhpanennn hponsnopc1nox nneca xn6epne-
1nxa, hosnonnman nchoisona1i hpnnnh o6pa1non cnnsn.
hponsnopc1nennox xenepxen1e o6iuno hoppo6no paccxa1-
pnnan1cn nohpoci opiannsann n yhpanennn hponsnopc1nennixn
hpoeccaxn, pae1cn xapax1epnc1nxa 1nhon hponsnopc1na, ocnonnix
paspeon n 1exnnxo-xonoxnuecxnx hoxasa1een hponsnopc1nennon
hpoipaxxi, hponsnopc1nennon xomnoc1n. Ohpepenn1cn ho1pe6no-
c1n n 1pyponix, xa1epnainix, qnnanconix n ppyinx pecypcax pn
nihonennn hponsnopc1nennon hpoipaxxi n ocymec1nennn xon-
1pon sa nihonennex 1on hpoipaxxi.
hponsnopc1nennox xenepxen1e ypene1cn nnnxanne opiann-
sann n o6cynnannn pa6ounx xec1, hponsnopn1einoc1n n oha1e
1pypa, yhpanennn xauec1nox, ocnonax oinc1nxn sahacon, cnc1exe
cxapnponannn n cxapcxon hepepa6o1xe hpopyxnn, xonoxnuecxnx n
hponsnopc1nennix pncxax, a 1axe xe1opax anansa pasnunix hoxa-
sa1een pn hpnnn1nn o6ocnonannix yhpanenuecxnx pemennn.
ce uame n hponsnopc1nennox xenepxen1e paccxa1pnnan1cn
ncceponannn ohepann: chenainie sapaun nnennoio hpoipax-
xnponannn, pnnaxnuecxoe hpoipaxxnponanne n pe1epxnnnponan-
nie xopen yhpanennn sahacaxn. Hoppo6nee cx. [18, C. 432580].

Cnnnannnmn mcncpxmcn1 opna ns pasnonnpnoc1en xe-
nepxen1a, xo1opoxy cnonc1nenni:
hannponanne, opiannsann, xo1nnann, xon1poi;
ohepa1nnnoe pyxonopc1no;
yue1 n nayunoe nsyuenne o6mec1nennon nsnn.

Oco6ennoc1in conainoio xenepxen1a nnne1cn 1o, u1o on
xoe1 nxe1i poc1a1ouno conie opiannsanonnie cxexi yhpane-
nnn. conainox xenepxen1e nosnnxan1 hpo6exi yue1a n co-
iaconannn xonoxnuecxnx, 1exnnuecxnx, opiannsanonnix, cono-
oinuecxnx, hcnxooinuecxnx, hon1nuecxnx n ppyinx achex1on.
Cqepa conainoio xenepxen1a nxnuae1 nehponsnopc1nen-
nie hpoecci, o1nocnmnecn x nayxe, xyi1ype, ncxycc1ny, o6pasona-
nnn, sppanooxpanennn n xnoinx ppyinx.
Mcucdcun

36
Hpepxe1ox nsyuennn conainoio xenepxen1a nnnn1cn:
yhpanenne opiannsannxn conainon cqepi;
yhpanenne npixn, nx conainixn o1nomennnxn, u1o 1pe-
6ye1 pocxonainoio snannn conainix saxonon.

Conainin xenepxen1 nxee1 peo c ueonexox n eio con-
ainox xauec1ne, a 1axe c yhpanennex hpoeccaxn nsanxopenc1nnn
conainon cpepi n nunoc1n. Conainin xenepxen1 nahpanen
na nsxenennn n hooennn yhpannexoio o6:ex1a nn pesyi1a1on 1ex
nn nnix conainix hpoeccon. Opnon ns nanenmnx sapau con-
ainoio xenepxen1a nnne1cn o6echeuenne eenahpanennoio nos-
penc1nnn na yhpannexin o6:ex1 c ein hoppepannn pannonecnn n
pasnn1nn. Hpn pemennn sapau neo6xopnxi iy6oxne snannn hcnxoo-
inn, conooinn, yxenne ocymec1nn1i na6npenne, c6op, cnopxy,
ipyhhnponxy n anans chenainon nnqopxann hocpepc1nox hpn-
xenennn conainon c1a1nc1nxn n o6ocnonannn yhpanenuecxnx n
ppyinx pemennn n pasnunix achex1ax conainoio xenepxen1a.
Ho1oxy n conainox xenepxen1e pacxpinan1cn cymnoc1i n
oco6ennoc1n conainix hpoeccon, xexannsx qynxnonnponannn
pasnunix c1pyx1yp. conpexennox poccnncxox conainox xenep-
xen1e oco6oe nnnxanne ypene1cn sann1oc1n naceennn; iocypapc1nen-
non hon1nxe n o6ac1n sann1oc1n; pen1einoc1n n qynxnnx opianon
sann1oc1n; conainon samn1e o1 6espa6o1ni; hpoeccax xnipann
npen. ipenn1 nanoc1i yhpanennn hpoeccaxn qopxnponannn,
pachpepeennn n nchoisonannn poxopon, n 1ox unce yhpanennn ho-
1pe6n1eicxnx chpocox uepes peiynponanne poxopon naceennn. Hpn
1ox oco6enno qqex1nnni xonn1opnni n conainoc1a1nc1nuecxan
pnainoc1nxa. Hoppo6nee cx. [19, C. 212268].
Conainie pesyi1a1i pasnn1nn hponnnn1cn uepes hoxasa-
1en mnpoxo 1pax1yexoio o6pasa nsnn, nxnuanmne xapax1epn-
c1nxn yponnn, xauec1na, c1nn nsnn, o6pasona1einoio, xyi1ypnoio
yponnen, npanc1nennoc1n n 1.p.
Honon yhpanenuecxon hapapnixe (cnc1exe nsinpon na xe-
nepxen1) coo1ne1c1nyn1 cqopxynponannie n 90e i. i. hpnnnhi
xenepxen1a. nnx iannin axen1 peacn na wcnnnca, a c nauaa
XXI nexa na anannn xax na xnuenon pecypc opiannsann n na cos-
panne yconnn pn peansann eio ho1ennaa.
nac1onmee npexn chenanc1i nipenn1 cepynmne 1pn ipyh-
hi npnnnnnnn mcncpxmcn1a:
1. Texnooinn yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n:
eenahpanennoc1i: paspeenne o1ne1c1nennoc1n, ue1xoc1i een
n sapau, nosnaipapennn sa poc1nenne en;
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

37
coiaconanne pen1einoc1n: panonainie pncnhnnapnie
1pe6onannn; epnnonauane n xoeinainoc1i; hanonoc1i n cnc1ex-
noc1i; coiaconanne nn1epecon nn hpnopn1e1 ohpepeennix nn1e-
pecon, nahpnxep, nn1epecon ho1pe6n1een; nepapxnn nac1n n o1ne1-
c1nennoc1n, co6npenne xopexcon honepennn; panonainie xoxxy-
nnxann n pp.;
o6echeuenne qqex1nnnoc1n pen1einoc1n: oh1nxainoe paspee-
nne 1pypa n chenansann, xonoxnunoc1i, panonainoe coue1anne
en1pansann n peen1pansann, hpoqeccnonansx n hoc1onnnoe ho-
nimenne xnanqnxann xappon;
2. nnnne na honepenne co1pypnnxon:
ax1nnnsann pen1einoc1n: coc1nsa1einoc1i, hpoex1nponanne oh-
1nxainix cnc1ex xo1nnann 1pypa, o1ne1c1nennoc1n, cospanne 6aio-
hpnn1noio xnxa1a n opiannsann;
o6echeuenne ypone1nopennoc1n 1pypox: chpanepnnoc1i, oni-
noc1i x nchonn1enx, uec1noe o1nomenne n ponepne x co1pypnnxax;
3. O6meyhpanenuecxne hpnnnhi:
conainan nahpanennoc1i xenepxen1a;
xophopa1nnnin pyx;
1nunoc1i 6nsneca n n6on pen1einoc1n;
yhpanenuecxne nnnonann;
nayunin hopxop x paspa6o1xax n hpnnn1nn pemennn;
cn1yanonnin hopxop cnoenpexennoe peainponanne na nsxene-
nne peonoio n qononoio oxpyennn [17, C. 8 9].

Ioccnncxne 1eope1nxn xenepxen1a O. C. nxancxnn n A. I.
Hayxon y1neppan1, u1o n painenmex 6ypy1 hpeo6apa1i ue1ipe
nan6oee nanix qax1opa nnnnnn na xenepxen1 [7, C. 1721]:
1. Han6oee ax1yainon 6ype1 npen pnqqepennann. Lcn cenuac,
hoaian1 onn, yhpanenuecxan 1eopnn yun1 1oxy, xax cpannnna1i cnoe
yhpanenne c yhpanennex n ppyinx opiannsannx, 1. n. (6enuxap-
xnn), xax nsxepn1i 1o cpannenne, 1o yhpanenuecxne 1eopnn n XXI n.
6ypy1 yun1i 1oxy, xax ne 6i1i 1axnx, xax nce oc1ainie, xax yn1n o1
c1anpap1on, o1 hpnnn1ix cnc1ex, o1nua1icn o1 ppyinx.
2. Hpnnnhnainoe snauenne 6ype1 nxe1i choco6 coepnnennn
ueonexa co cpepc1naxn 1pypa. C pasnn1nex nnqopxa1nsann
nan6oee nanon n XXI n. c1ane1 hpo6exa nnqopxanonnon co-
nxec1nxoc1n. Heo6xopnxo 6ype1 cpea1i 1ax, u1o6i:
a) ne hpohapaa nynan nnqopxann;
6) ne honnnaci nenynan nnqopxann.
Mcucdcun

38
3axe1nx, u1o poc1yh x In1epne1y nxee1 12% xnponoio coo6-
mec1na.
3. XXI n. ocnonnix poxnnnpynmnx hpopyx1ox c1ane1 spo-
ponie ueonexa. Opiannsann 6ypy1 oueni cnino opnen1npona-
ni na cospanne nonix exapc1nennix hpehapa1on, ncenosxonix
hpn6opon, xo1opie hosnon1 npnx cpea1i cnoe 1eo 6oee spo-
ponix, c1a1i 6oee c1peccoyc1onunnix n choxonnix, na 1o 6y-
pe1 opnen1nponana n cqepa ycyi.
4. \cnenne nnnnnn xyi1ypi na xenepxen1. Oueni 6oi-
mon axen1 n XXI n. 6ype1 pea1icn na yhpanenne pasnoo6pasn-
ex n, cxen po6ann1i, na snannn.

O. C. nxancxnn n A. I. Hayxon o1xeuan1, u1o pea1i hpoino-
si ho honopy 1oio, u1o nac onpae1 n 6ypymex, neo6xopnxo. Opnaxo
hpn 1ox ne cepye1 sa6ina1i o 1ox, u1o nce xoe1 hponson1n nnaue,
uex onn hpephoaian1.
epnexcn n nac1onmee npexn n paccxo1pnx, u1o hpepc1anne1
co6on hpoqeccnn - xenepep.

1.3. CoapeMeaam Meaepwep a ero
xpea1aaaoe opasoaaaae

Menepep - 1o hpoqeccnonainin yhpannnmnn; pyxonopn-
1ei pasnunoio yponnn, sannxanmnn hoc1onnnyn ponoc1i n op-
iannsann n napennin ohpepennixn honoxounnxn n o6ac1n
hpnnn1nn pemennn n xonxpe1nix cqepax pen1einoc1n 1on opiann-
sann; xnuenan qniypa opiannsann, ocymec1nnnman yhpanen-
uecxyn pen1einoc1i n pemanman yhpanenuecxne sapaun. Lc1i n
ppyine ohpepeennn.
conpexennix yconnnx honn1nn xenepep, 6nsnecxen,
hpephpnnnxa1ei uac1o yho1pe6nn1cn n yue6non, nayunon n1epa1y-
pe, n cpepc1nax xacconon nnqopxann 6es pasipannuennn honn1nn.
Ioccnn hpoqeccnn xenepepa honnnaci n xone 80-x nn
ipe-1o n nauae 90-x ii. XX - io nexa n xope hepec1ponxn conaino-
xonoxnuecxon n hon1nuecxon nsnn o6mec1na, hepexopa namen
c1pani na pinounyn cnc1exy yhpanennn. Heo6xopnxo 6io ocnan-
na1i pinounie o1nomennn, xo1opie hpephoaian1:
* pexoxpa1nuecxne xe1opi pa6o1i;
* xonxypennn;
* uac1nyn co6c1nennoc1i;
* nunin nn1epec xapoio ueonexa;
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

39
* yu1 ec1xnx hpann pinxa;
* eanne nsneui xaxcnxaino nosxonyn niiopy ns hpep-
hpnnn1oio pea;
* nonie nsanxoo1nomennn pyxonopn1ei-hopunnnnin;
* 6nsnec n honnenne 6nsnecxena.
5nsnecxen-1o co6c1nennnx, nchoisynmnn cnon nn hpnne-
unnin xahn1a c ein opiannsann pea nn sann1nn (6nsneca)
pn ypone1nopennn o6mec1nennix n ( nn ) nunix ho1pe6noc1en n
pesyi1a1e 1oio hoyuennn hpn6in. On xoe1 nxopn1i n hpane-
nne nn hoheun1eicxnn cone1 n cnoen opiannsann, no xoe1 n ne
sannxa1i n nen nnxaxon ponoc1n.
Hpephpnnnxa1ei (1epxnn 6i nnepn n n1epa1ypy n nauae
18-io nexa qpanyscxnx xonoxnc1ox Inmapox Kan1nonox ) -
hpephpnnxunnin, hpax1nunin ueonex, xo1opin 6ep1 na ce6n
pncx, cnnsannin c opiannsanen nonoio nnpa ycyi, hpopyxnn,
npen, hpepaiaexix o6mec1ny.
ano yncnn1i, u1o 1epxnni xenepep, 6nsnecxen, hpep-
hpnnnxa1ei ne nnnn1cn cnnonnxaxn, xo1n n 6nsxne honn1nn.
Hpephpnnnxa1ei uame nceio pncxye1 cnonx xahn1aox, a xe-
nepep cnoen ponoc1in. Xo1n n pnpe cyuaen xenepep xoe1
6i1i conapeiex opiannsann, nxe1i e axnn n pncxona1i nxn.
Opiannsann ne xoiy1 ychemno qynxnonnpona1i 6es xenepepon.
Ho xnennn pnpa yunix, nosnnxae1 neo6xopnxoc1i n pono-
c1non nepapxnn xenepepon. Hahpnxep, Konn Xnc nipene1 ce-
pynmne yponnn nepapxnn xenepepon:
1. Ahhapa1nie xenepepi o1neuan1 sa nihonenne qynxnn,
nehocpepc1nenno cnnsannix c nehponsnopc1nennon pen1einoc1in
opiannsann, nahpnxep, sa hoc1anxn, sa npnpnuecxne n ppyine
nohpoci, uac1nuno sa hepcona. Hpn yhpanennn cnonx hepcona-
ox, ahhapa1nie xenepepi, xax hpanno, penc1nyn1 1ax e, xax
nnennie.
2. Hnnennie xenepepi o6iuno o1neuan1 sa nihonenne qynx-
nn, nehocpepc1nenno cnnsannix c hponsnopc1nox. Onn o6apan1
nnennixn honoxounnxn, xo1opie hepepan1cn o1 xenepepa ne-
hocpepc1nenno hopunnnnoxy n hpepoc1annn1 xenepepy ysaxo-
nennyn nac1i.
3. uynxnonainie xenepepi, xax hpanno, necy1 o1ne1c1nen-
noc1i sa o1peinie exen1i pen1einoc1n opiannsann, nahpnxep,
1axne, xax yhpanenne ncceponannnxn, xapxe1nniox. Onn hopun-
nnn1cn ienepainoxy xenepepy.
4. Ienepainie xenepepi uame nceio o6echeunnan1 nihone-
nne opiannsanen e ocnonnoio hpepnasnauennn, nahpnxep, paspa-
Mcucdcun

40
6a1inan1 c1pa1einn honepennn opiannsann n peonox n qononox
oxpyennn, necy1 qopxainyn o1ne1c1nennoc1i sa pesyi1a1i ncen
pen1einoc1n opiannsann.
jannan xaccnqnxann xenepepon nn1epecna pn honnxa-
nnn cymnoc1n xenepxen1a.
Ocymec1nnn yhpanenuecxyn pen1einoc1i, xenepepi, ho
xnennn Mnn6epia, nipan1 n opiannsann 10 pasnix poen, xo1o-
pie on xaccnqnnpye1 n paxxax 1px xpyhnix xa1eiopnn:
Menunoc1nie pon;
Inqopxanonnie pon;
Ion ho hpnnn1nn pemennn. ( Hoppo6noc1n cx. 16, C. 3638 ).

Taxnx o6pasox, xenepxen1 (ho y1neppennn H. jpaxepa) 1o
oco6in nnp pen1einoc1n, hpenpamanmen neopiannsonannyn 1ohy n
qqex1nnnyn eenahpanennyn n hponsnopn1einyn ipyhhy.
Ixenno xenepxen1 n 6oimen c1ehenn, uex u1o-n6o ppyioe,
o6:ncnne1 caxin snaunxin conainin qenoxen XX1 nexa: nspin
O5IA3OAHI2, no ne n6oio, a hpepe nceio KILATIHOIO!
conpexennix yconnnx pasnn1nn xonoxnxn xauec1no peme-
nnn, hpnnnxaexix n hpoeccax yhpanennn, nehocpepc1nenno sann-
cn1 o1 nccepona1eicxoio hopxopa x yhpanennn, yxennn nsyua1i
hpo6exi, ohpepen1i nx nc1oxn n hocepc1nnn.
Ho xenepep c1axnnae1cn c hpo6exaxn ne 1oixo n o6:ex1e
yhpanennn pasnn1nn opiannsann, no n n hpoecce yhpanennn,
xo1opin poen conepmenc1nona1icn n eio conepmenc1nonanne ceio-
pnn ye ne xicnxo 6es cepiesnon nccepona1eicxon pa6o1i.
Kpea1nnnoe ximenne 1o opnn ns nanenmnx nnc1pyxen-
1on conpexennoio xenepepa, nxec1e c 1ex 1o nnc1pyxen1 oueni
penxa1nin, 1pe6ynmnn nnnxannn, a iannoe eenahpanennoio
nochn1annn.
Mnoine chenanc1i, n cny nx 1papnnonnon cnc1exi o6y-
uennn, 1nio1en1 x anan1nuecxoxy ximennn. Hnmi nexnoine,
nnopn1 n penc1nne xpea1nnnie hpoepypi. xec1e c 1ex, hou1n nce
npn, 1ax nn nnaue, nchoisyn1 n cnoen hpax1nuecxon pen1eino-
c1n nn1ynnn n 1nopuec1no.
Honn1nn xpea1nnnan pen1einoc1i, xpea1nnnie choco6no-
c1n, xpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne ceiopnn ye mnpoxo nchoisyn1cn
xax n sahapnon, 1ax n n poccnncxon nayunon, yue6non n1epa1ype n
nxen1 nhone xonxpe1noe n necixa snaun1einoe hpax1nuecxoe co-
pepanne. o xnoinx c1panax, n uac1noc1n n enxo6pn1annn, n ne-
xo1opix mxoax 6nsneca nepe1cn chenainan hopio1onxa xenepe-
pon ho hpoipaxxe xpea1nnnoio xenepxen1a.
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

41
O6pasonanne saxapinae1 ho1enna ychexa n painenmen
hpoqeccnonainon pen1einoc1n chenanc1a. hpoecce o6pasona-
nnn qopxnpye1cn xoxhexc neo6xopnxix snannn n nanixon, hpo-
qeccnonainix yc1anonox, io1onnoc1i x ohpepeennix nnpax pen-
1einoc1n n x ee poenon c1pyx1ype. O6pasonanne ohpepene1 ypo-
neni pasnn1nn 1ex nn nnix choco6noc1en n pae xoppex1npye1 n
qopxnpye1 nnpnnnpyainoc1i nn nunoc1nie uep1i chenanc1a.
O6pasonanne ho eio nnpax, copepannn, qopxax, hpopon-
1einoc1n, eenix yc1anonxax, xe1opax xoe1 6i1i pasnunix. Ho
pn conpexennoio xenepepa ceiopnn nnnn1cn nan6oee ax1y-
ainixn n hepchex1nnnixn cnc1exnoe, xpea1nnnoe, nehpepinnoe,
qynpaxen1aino-hpax1nuecxoe, napna1nnnoe, opnen1nponannoe na
xauec1no pen1einoc1n n ohepeanmee (hepchex1nnnoe). Opnaxo
en1painoe xec1o cpepn nnx sannxae1 xpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne.
Ono xax 6i nn1eipnpye1 nce ppyine nnpi, coepnnne1 nx n xoxhexc
necixa nanix, hosn1nnnix xapax1epnc1nx hpoqeccnonainoio
qopxnponannn n c1anonennn xenepepa. Keamunoe oasoanue
ccpa-cauuc, cpucunupcauucc ua pa-unuc ncpnccxux cnccccuccncu
nc:ccxa, ua -axpcn:cuuc cec npcqcccucua:tuc cc-uauuu qcnaucxu ua
uuucauu, x:rnarcc aua:u- npcc:c u apuaunc dcnnc:tuccnu. 1o
o6pasonanne, xo1nnnpynmee caxoc1on1einoe ocxicenne penc1nn-
1einoc1n, caxohosnanne nnpnnnpyainoc1n, hpenpamennn snannn n
ho1enna ximennn n caxopasnn1nn.
Kpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne nnne1cn ai1epna1nnon o6pasonannn
pehpopyx1nnnoxy, hpenxymec1nenno hpaixa1nuecxoxy, o6pasona-
nnn snannn ohi1a, nopxa1nnnoxy (nchonn1eicxoxy).
Kpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne opnen1nponano na y1neppenne n
pasnn1ne ncxycc1na yhpanennn, xo1opoe popae1cn n hponnne1cn
nmi hpn ohpepeennix o6c1on1eic1nax n n ohpepeennix yconn-
nx o6pasonannn.
Kpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne pacmnpne1 pnahason nnpennn hpo-
6ex pasnn1nn n hpoex1nponannn napnan1on nx pemennn. 1o, po-
no 6i1i iannix n pen1einoc1n conpexennoio xenepepa. Ono 6y-
pe1 o6echeunna1i exy ychex n xonxypen1non 6opi6e, hpn neonpan-
nix nsxenennnx xonoxnuecxon xon:nnx1ypi n hpoeccax ycxope-
nnn 1exnooinuecxoio hpoipecca n yho1nennn npexenn, ycone-
nnn conaino-hcnxooinuecxon c1pyx1ypi conpexennoio ueonexa,
n yconnnx xappnnainoio nsxenennn o6pasa nsnn hop nospenc1nn-
ex hpoeccon yp6annsann, nnqopxanonnoio 6yxa, poc1a 1exnn-
uecxnx cpepc1n caxoio pasnunoio nasnauennn. Ho1pe6noc1i n xpea-
1nnnox o6pasonannn xenepepa n nosxonoc1i eio peansann
hpepc1anena na pnc. 1.4. (15. C. 219).
Mcucdcun

42

Puc. 1.4. Cxcma nn1pc6nnc1n n pca1nnnnm n6paannannn

Conpexennin xenepep nc n 6oimen c1ehenn poen c1ano-
nn1icn 1nopox, nccepona1eex, nnnna1opox, npoxnonn1eex. Ha-
hpnxep, n 2honnn xenepep cun1ae1cn ne nauainnxox, a yun1eex,
n npn, xo1opixn on yhpanne1, paccxa1pnnan1cn nx (n onn caxn
cun1an1 ce6n) n xauec1ne ne hopunnennix, a hocepona1een. 1ox
ec1i iy6oxnn cxic, pacxpinanmnn 1enpennn pasnn1nn conpe-
xennoio xenepxen1a. Toixo 1nope xoe1 nec1n sa co6on. Ho 1a-
xnx 1nopox xenepep poen c1a1i n hpoecce o6pasonannn.
1ox, 6i1i xoe1, o1nune honn1nn o6pasonanne n hopio1onxa.
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

43
Menepepa napo ne hpoc1o io1onn1i x ohpepeennon pen1einoc1n.
Menepep poen cqopxnpona1icn, o6pasonina1icn n xauec1ne
1nopa, choco6noio nnpe1i, pachosnana1i, honnxa1i n paspema1i co-
npexennie hpo6exi. O6pasona1einin hpoecc poen opnen1n-
pona1icn na 1y poenyn hosnnn xenepepa. Conpexennoe o6paso-
nanne pono o1neua1i ho1pe6noc1nx qqex1nnnoio, 1nopuecxoio n
hepchex1nnnoio xenepxen1a.
1o ne 1oixo hpo6exa hepnonauainoio nicmeio o6pasona-
nnn. cnc1exe n1opoio, pohonn1einoio n xnanqnxanonnoio o6-
pasonannn ona nxee1 ne xenimee, ecn ne 6oimee snauenne. epi
speci qopxnponanne hpoqeccnonainoio cosnannn hponcxopn1 ne c
unc1oio nc1a, a na ocnone nsxenennn nexo1opix yc1onnmnxcn xon-
cepna1nnnix yc1anonox, neia1nnnix npnnmwc, nparma1nwccnx
nanmnn. O6pasona1einin nospac1 ycnnxnnc1 a1n npnncccm.
Kpea1nnnin xenepxen1 nawnnac1cn c pca1nnnnrn n6paan-
nannn, ipe 6i ono nn ocymec1nnoci n ynnnepcn1e1e nn mxoe
6nsneca, n hpoecce caxoo6pasonannn nn n hpax1nuecxon pen1ei-
noc1n.
osxonoc1i n ho1pe6noc1i 1nopuec1na honnnn1cn n 1ox cy-
uae, xoipa hoyuaexie n hoyuennie snannn coc1annn1 iapxonnu-
nyn eoc1noc1i, coo1ne1c1nyn1 hpnnnhax nsanxnoio pohonennn
n nsanxnoio ycnennn, xoipa nx coue1anne nahpaneno na qopxnpo-
nanne 1nopuecxoio ho1ennaa, honcx n pasnn1ne nnpnnnpyainix
choco6noc1en. C1ypen1 ne nceipa snae1 o cnonx choco6noc1nx n oueni
uac1o o6pasona1einin hpoecc nahonne1 ueonexa snannnxn, no
hpn 1ox ne hosnone1 exy ncxpi1i cnon choco6noc1n, honn1i n ho-
uync1nona1i cnon nnpnnnpyainoc1i. 1o 6inae1, xoipa ysxan
chenansann ponee1 nap c1ypen1ox n 1euenne nceio o6-
pasona1einoio hpoecca nn xoipa iannon yc1anonxon nnne1cn
sahoxnnanne o6mnpnoio yue6noio xa1epnaa n nochponsnepenne eio
n hepnop xsaxenon, xoipa yue6nin xa1epna o1opnan o1 nunoc1n n
a6c1pax1en o1nocn1eino nnpnnnpyainon pen1einoc1n ueonexa.
Inoipa nsnmne hpeynenuennan hpaixa1nuecxan nahpanennoc1i
o6yuennn ne choco6c1nye1 pasnn1nn n peansann 1nopuecxnx cho-
co6noc1en, npepn1 1oxy. Oueni uac1o 1o na6npae1cn n mxoax
6nsneca hpax1nuecxan nnqopxa1nnnoc1i 6oime hpax1nue-
cxon nnqopxann 6es ocxicennn hpnunn ychexa, 1enpennn pas-
nn1nn, hpoinoson, nnnnnn nsxenennn n xaxpocpepe n hp.
.M. Kopo1xon 1eope1nx xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn n Ioccnn
6oimoe snauenne hpnpa1 cnc1exnoc1n o6yuennn.
Mcucdcun

44
Cnc1exnoe hoc1poenne o6pasona1einoio hpoecca hpepycxa1-
pnnae1 n 1pe6ye1 coiaconannn n iapxonnunoio coue1annn ncex e-
xen1on o6pasona1einon hpoipaxxi. Ocnonon 1axoio coue1annn nn-
ne1cn qopxnponanne ho1pe6noc1n n 1nopuec1ne hpn hpax1nuecxox
nchoisonannn snannn. Taxan ho1pe6noc1i nosnnxae1 hpn coepnne-
nnn pasnunix pncnhnn ohpepeennix o6pasox. Koxhosnnn
snannn popae1 n c1nxynpye1 1nopuec1no. Cenuac neo6xopnxo o6-
pama1i nnnxanne na xonqniypann snannn, nx nsanxopenc1nne,
1exnooinn ocnoennn. Ixenno 1n qax1opi n ohpepenn1 qopxn-
ponanne 1nopuecxnx ho1pe6noc1en n 1nopuecxoio ho1ennaa xe-
nepepa.
Texnooinn o6pasona1einoio hpoecca oxasinae1 cymec1nen-
noe nnnnne na pa-unuc ncpnccxux cnccccuccncu cucdcpa. Mono
hponec1n hpoc1on hpax1nuecxnn xchepnxen1. sn1i pne ipyhhi c
opnnaxonix ho1ennaox snannn, ohi1ox hpax1nuecxon pen1eino-
c1n (ecn 1o n1opoe nn pohonn1einoe o6pasonanne), npen1nuni-
xn nunoc1nixn xapax1epnc1nxaxn. jaee opnon ipyhhe pana1i
snannn n opnon hocepona1einoc1n, a ppyion ipyhhe n nnon. Ho-
1ox hpn hoxomn 1ec1nponannn oenn1i ncn conoxyhnoc1i nsxene-
nnn, xo1opie hponsomn hpn hoyuennn opnnaxonoio o6:exa sna-
nnn, opnnxn n 1exn e hpehopana1enxn, no ho pasnix 1exnooin-
uecxnx cxexax. Iesyi1a1i 6ypy1 cymec1nenno pasnua1icn.
Texnooinn o6pasona1einoio hpoecca ohpepene1 nosnnxno-
nenne n cosnannn ueonexa ohpepeennix cnnsen n nsanxopenc1nnn
snannn, nx pannponannn o1nocn1eino yc1anonox hpoqeccnonai-
non pen1einoc1n, nx hpax1nuecxon snaunxoc1n n xonxpe1nix cn-
1yannx. uax1opi 1exnooinn xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn hpepc1an-
eni na pnc. 1.5. (15. C. 231).
Cxoixo pasnunix hopxopon hpepaiaoci n hpomox ho 1ex-
nooinuecxnx cxexax o6pasona1einoio hpoecca. 1o n nehpepin-
nan (pac1nny1an) xa1exa1nuecxan nn iyxann1apnan hopio1onxa, n
hocepona1einan - n ppyiox napnan1e. 5i ohi1 naunna1i yue6nin
hpoecc chenainon hopio1onxon hpnxo c hepnix xypcon, nnepenn-
ex n chenainoc1i; paee neci cpox o6yuennn chenainie pnc-
nhnni, n onn nnnn1cn iannix c1epnex o6pasona1einoio hpo-
ecca (nce iyxann1apnie, ec1ec1nennonayunie n qynpaxen1ainie
pncnhnni paccxa1pnnanci xax cohy1c1nynmne n pohonnnmne).
5in hpepoennn xnnnxnsnpona1i exnonnie sann1nn n o6mex
o6:exe pncnhnn; nnpnnnpyansnpona1i o6pasona1einin hpoecc
hocpepc1nox ycnennn n pacmnpennn caxoc1on1einon pa6o1i. c
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

45
1o 1exnooinuecxne xapax1epnc1nxn, nsyuenne xo1opix n o1peino-
c1n ne pae1 qqex1a, ecn ne cnnsano c nhone ohpepeennon, xon-
1ponpyexon ein n ne paccun1ano ho xonxpe1nix xpn1epnnx.


Puc.1.5. Cxcma qa1npnn 1cxnnnnrnn pca1nnnnrn n6paannannn

Ceiopnn nax neo6xopnxo nsxenenne 1exnooinn o6pasonannn
n honox xoxhexce ee xapax1epnc1nx n opnen1nponannon na en
qopxnponannn 1nopuecxoio ho1ennaa xenepepa.
Cymec1nye1 +noecmo asnooasnmx +emooo no:uenun
snanuu. qqex1nnnoc1i 1nx xe1opon o1nocn1eino 1nopuecxnx cho-
Mcucdcun

46
co6noc1en ueonexa pasnuna. Opnn xe1opi opnen1npyn1 eio na xe-
xannuecxoe n xonuec1nennoe naxohenne snannn, ppyine na
1nopuecxoe ohepnponanne nxn n pemennn hpax1nuecxnx hpo6ex, na
pasnn1ne caxoc1on1einoio ximennn. 3peci, xoe1 6i1i, caxix
iannix nnne1cn ne nsyuenne ohepann hpoqeccnonainon pen-
1einoc1n, a nsyuenne ce6n n conoxyhnoc1n ohepann hpoqeccno-
nainon pen1einoc1n. coo1ne1c1nnn c 1nx oco6oe snauenne hpn-
o6pe1ae1 pasnoo6pasne xe1opnuecxnx hpnexon, nchoisyexix n o6-
pasona1einox hpoecce. Ix xoxhexc hosnone1 c1ypen1y nn cy-
ma1en nan1n nnpnnnpyainie xox6nnann, 1o pae1 omy1nxin
qqex1 n o6ac1n xpea1nnnoio xenepxen1a.
Me1opnuecxoe o6echeuenne o6pasona1einoio hpoecca ceio-
pnn c1pon1cn iannix o6pasox na yue6nnxax n yue6nix hoco6nnx.
Ho hpepc1anenne o 1ox, xaxnx poen 6i1i yue6nnx, nnno yc1a-
penmee. Ceiopnn ye oueni xnoio nihymeno yue6nnxon ho xenep-
xen1y. Onn pasnuni ho c1pyx1ype, axen1nponannn xa1epnaa,
c1nn nsoennn, o6:exax, no conepmenno opnnaxoni ho xapax1e-
pnc1nxax xpea1nnnoio ho1ennaa - ne pan1 nosxonoc1n 1nopue-
cxoio ocxicennn snannn, hoipyennn n hpo6exa1nxy. Heo6xopn-
xi xoxhin1epnie hpoipaxxi, xo1opie, cohponopan yue6nnx, cho-
co6ni ycnn1i nochpnn1ne xonehnn, hpepc1ann1i ee n nnox 1ex-
nooinuecxox xnue, hponipa1i snannn, cpea1i caxooenxy n ca-
xoanans honnxannn xa1epnaa.
Conpexennan xoxhin1epnan 1exnooinn pona pa6o1a1i na
xpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne. MCI, nahpnxep, mnpoxo hpnxennn1cn
pasnunie hpesen1ann, CjO Kaxhyc n pp.
Ceiopnn n namex o6pasonannn, oco6enno n hopio1onxe xenep-
epon 6oimoe pachpoc1panenne hoyuno o6yuenne ho xencax. 1o,
6esyconno, xopoman 1enpennn, xo1opan coo1ne1c1nye1 enx xpea-
1nnnoio o6pasonannn. Kenci yua1 xicn1i caxoc1on1eino n 1nopue-
cxn, hpn6nan1 o6yuenne x xonxpe1nix hpax1nuecxnx cn1yannx,
choco6c1nyn1 onapennn nnc1pyxen1apnex hpax1nuecxoio anansa.
Ho hpn 1ox cepye1 hoxnn1i, u1o cnepenne nceio o6pasona1einoio
hpoecca x xencax, a nxenno 1axne 1enpennn xoiy1 nosnnxny1i,
xoe1 6i1i, ne xenee ohacno c 1ouxn spennn qqex1nnnoc1n o6paso-
nannn, xax n cnepenne nceio o6pasona1einoio hpoecca 1oixo x ex-
nnx hpehopana1en.
Tnopuecxnn ho1enna qopxnpye1cn na ocnone pasnoo6pasnn,
ni6opa, oenxn ai1epna1nn, ocosnannn en. ce 1o neo6xopnxo
hpepycxa1pnna1i n 1exnooinn o6pasonannn.
anix qax1opox xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn nnne1cn oocma-
mounan qnoa+enma:tnan nooeomoxa. Hepepxo n conpexennox o6-
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

47
pasonannn na6npae1cn cnoeo6pasnan 6opi6a pnyx 1enpennn. C op-
non c1oponi, cymec1nye1 c1pexenne x 1eope1nsann o6pasonannn,
xa1exa1nuecxoxy o6o6mennn n a6c1painponannn, c ppyion x
hpaixa1nxe, pe1ansann, hpepeinon hpax1nuecxon xonxpe1noc1n.
I 1o, n ppyioe n hpeynenuennox nnpe ne pae1 omy1nxoio qqex1a.
A6c1pax1noc1i c1nxynpye1 hpnniuxn ne saxeua1i uac1noc1n, ne
o6pama1i na nnx nnnxannn. pa6o1e xenepepa nnoipa nxenno xe-
oun nnnn1cn nehpeoponxix hpehn1c1nnex n pemennn hpo6exi.
Ho n nsnmnnn pe1ainan xonxpe1noc1i ne nnne1cn 6aiox. Ona
hpn1yhne1 c1pexenne nnpe1i nnemnnn cpepy hpoqeccnonainon
pen1einoc1n, ne c1nxynpye1 pasnn1ne hepchex1nnnoio ximennn,
iy6nni honnxannn hpo6ex, omymenne qax1opa npexenn.
5oimon hpo6exon n conpexennox o6pasonannn nnne1cn oh-
1nxainoe coue1anne 1eope1nuecxoio n hpax1nuecxoio ocnoennn
hpoqeccnonainon pen1einoc1n. Ho hpo6exa em iy6e.
uynpaxen1ainoe o6pasonanne 1o ne 1oixo ocnoenne 1eopnn,
xax 1o nepepxo hpepc1anne1cn, no n xo1opoe o6apae1 cnc1exa1nsn-
pynmnx qqex1ox, u1o, xoe1 6i1i, n nnne1cn qynpaxen1ox hoce-
pona1einoio n hpax1nuecxn qqex1nnnoio napamnnannn snannn n
hpoqeccnonainon pen1einoc1n, u1o choco6c1nye1 nehpepinnoxy o6-
pasonannn n c1nxynpye1 eio. 1o hepchex1nnnoe o6pasonanne, hosno-
nnmee hpepnnpe1i 6ypymee, oennna1i 1enpennn pasnn1nn.
Keamunoe oasoanue nc ccpa-cauuc npcc:cucc uc nc:t-
xc nc cncdunccxu cec xapaxncpucnuxa, uc u nc cnpqxnqpuc-
npcdcnuu. Iannixn cpepn yue6nix pncnhnn n nac1onmee npe-
xn nnnn1cn connmnecn o6ac1n snannn, n coo1ne1c1nnn c xo1opi-
xn hponcxopn1 pnqqepennann nayx, penc1nynmne 1papnnn,
nosxonoc1n n chenansann hpehopana1een. Taxon hopxop ca6o
c1nxynpye1 pasnn1ne hpo6exnoio ximennn, nnoipa noo6me pac-
xopn1cn co c1pyx1ypon peainix hpo6ex. Hpo6exi xpea1nnnoio
o6pasonannn hpepc1aneni na pnc. 1.6.
oo6me n xpea1nnnox o6pasonannn iannix qax1opox eio ho-
c1poennn, c1pyx1ypnsann, xe1opnxn nnne1cn hpo6exa, u1o oueni
nano ceiopnn ocosna1i.
epi oenme:tnocmt +eneoea nc pcucuuc npcc:c, u nc:txc
pcucuuu cu ucnc:t-qcn -uauun u udun ux ucccxcduccnt u cuuccnt. \ nac
c1ao 1papnnen n cnc1exe nicmeio o6pasonannn, u1o o6pasona1einin
hpoecc naunnae1cn c pncnhnn iyxann1apnon n ec1ec1nennonayunon
hopio1onxn, paee hpopoae1cn ho pncnhnnax o6mehpoqeccno-
nainon n chenainon hopio1onxn, a n saxnuenne npy1 pncnhnni
chenansann. Ohpanpanno n 1o? Hexo1opie ynepenno o1ne1n1: pa.
I apiyxen1npyn1, u1o cymec1nye1 pasnoe nasnauenne 1nx nxon hop-
Mcucdcun

48
io1onxn n c1pyx1ype hpoqeccnonainoio cosnannn. Opnn ohpepenn1
o6mnn yponeni o6pasonannn n xyi1ypi, xe1opooinn ximennn,
ppyine chenainie snannn n nanixn.


Puc.1.6. Cxcma npn6ncm pca1nnnnrn n6paannannn
cnnpcmcnnnrn mcncpxcpa

Hoqeccun nc cn:a xq:tnqpu, xapaxncpa uc:unc:tucu dcn-
nc:tuccnu u cncua:tuux -uauuu u uauxc. C 1nx nenosxono cho-
pn1i. Ho xax, n nceipa n xi poc1niaex 1oio chana? conpexennox
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

49
o6pasona1einox hpoecce nepepxn cyuan, xoipa 1n nxi naxo-
pn1cn n hpo1nnopeunn, n o1uypennoc1n ppyi c ppyiox.
qqex1nnnoc1i hpoqeccnonainoio cosnannn ohpepene1cn iap-
xonnen snannn, 1o ec1i nx coue1annex, cohpnennex, c1pyx1ypon.
Ho hpo6exi hponnnn1cn ne 1oixo n c1pyx1ype pncnhnn, no
n n xe1opnxe nx hpepc1anennn. Mono pana1i snannn n nnpe yc1onn-
mnxcn, o6mehpnnn1ix hooennn, ahpo6nponannix pexoxenpann,
6ecchopnix 1pax1onox n 1.p., no xono (n 1o n 6oimen xepe coo1ne1-
c1nye1 sapauax xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn) n nnpe ne sac1inmnx nc1nn, a
nehpepinnoio nxnuecxoio hpoecca pasnn1nn snannn, n xo1opox
iannyn poi nipan1 hpo6exa n hy1n ee paspemennn. 1o xe1opnxa
ienesnca snannn, xe1opnxa hpepc1anennn nx uepes hpo6exy, nceipa
nnnnmyncn nc1ounnxox xax nosnnxnonennn n oqopxennn snannn,
1ax n nx qqex1nnnoio n 1nopuecxoio ocnoennn n o6pasona1einox
hpoecce. Hpnexi xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn nso6paeni na pnc. 1.7.


Puc.1.7. Cxcma npncmnn pca1nnnnrn n6paannannn
Mcucdcun

50
Coe+ennoe xeamunoe oasoanue nenosxono hpepc1ann1i
6es eio coo1ne1c1nynmen opiannsann. Iannix n opiannsann xpea-
1nnnoio o6pasonannn nnne1cn nosxonoc1i ni6opa pncnhnn, qop-
xnponanne o6pasona1einix ipyhh, yue6nan naipysxa cyma1een nn
c1ypen1on, qopxi, xonuec1no n pachpepeenne xon1poinix xepo-
hpnn1nn. Iaccxo1pnx xapin ns 1nx qax1opon n o1peinoc1n.
i6op pncnhnn, nosxonoc1i caxoc1on1einoio qopxnpo-
nannn o6pasona1einon hpoipaxxi nn yuac1nn n ee qopxnponannn
nxee1 6oimoe snauenne n xpea1nnnox o6pasonannn. Ceiopnn c1y-
pen1 nn cyma1ei nmen nosxonoc1n ni6opa pncnhnn ho co6-
c1nennon nnnna1nne. 1o nmae1 eio nosxonoc1n n xo1nnnpona-
nnn 6oee iy6oxoio ocxicennn cnonx choco6noc1en, o6pasona1ei-
nix ho1pe6noc1en n cnoen peonon xapiepi.
Keamunoe oasoanue 1o nonin 1nh o6pasonannn, xo1opin
nenosxono poc1niny1i 1oixo opiannsanonnon hepec1ponxon. On
1pe6ye1 n qnnanconix noennn, n honimennn xnanqnxann hpeho-
pana1een n xo1nnnponannn 1nopuec1na n nx pa6o1e, n cospannn yconnn
pn nnnonanonnon pen1einoc1n. Mono n ha1y sa o6yuenne pnq-
qepennpona1i ho xonuec1ny n xauec1ny hpepaiaexix yue6nix xyp-
con, a 1axe peainoxy xnanqnxanonnoxy yponnn hpehopana1en,
oennnaexoxy hpn hoxomn coo1ne1c1nynmnx 1ec1on.
do+uoanue oasoame:tnmx enn nanin xoxen1 n
xpea1nnnox o6pasonannn. O1 1oio, xax cqopxnponana ipyhha, sann-
cn1 yc1anonenne conaino-hcnxooinuecxon a1xocqepi honcxa,
1nopuec1na, co1pypnnuec1na, nn1eipann nn1eex1yainix ho1en-
naon. \ue6nan ipyhha pona 6i1i 1nopuecxnx xoex1nnox.
}uenan naesxa n cyma1en, n hpehopana1en, xoe1
6i1i opnen1nponana n6o na hoyuenne nn hepepauy snannn, n6o
na qopxnponanne hpoqeccnonainoio, 1nopuecxoio cosnannn, xo1o-
poe hpephoaiae1 ycnoenne snannn c hosnnn cnoen nnpnnnpyaino-
c1n, hepchex1nn painenmeio pasnn1nn, honnxannn hpoqeccnn, cnc-
1exi ennoc1en.
Ixenno 1o hpephoaiae1 peansann ohpepeennon nn1en-
cnnnoc1n ocnoennn xypcon, hoipyennn n nx hpo6exa1nxy, pn1xa
yue6noio hpoecca, hpax1nuecxoio xo1nnnponannn iy6nni snannn
n honnxannn nx hpo6ex.
Ha 1nopuec1no poen 6i1i opnen1nponan n xon1poi snannn.
Hapo oennna1i ne nx o6:ex, a hono1y, cnc1exnoc1i, yc1onunnoc1i,
nnc1pyxen1ainoc1i (nosxonoc1i nchoisona1i), iy6nny. uopxi
xon1pon xoiy1 n poni 6i1i pasnoo6pasnixn: hncixennie pa6o-
1i, 1ec1nponanne, co6eceponanne, xsaxenanonnie nchi1annn,
oenxa ho 6ano-pen1nnionon cnc1exe n pp.
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

51
anix hpnsnaxox xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn nnne1cn eio
+omuauun. Kapin ns nnpon o6pasonannn ohnpae1cn na ohpepeen-
nie xo1nnanonnie qax1opi. Ixn xoiy1 6i1i: hpoqeccnonainin
c1a1yc, hop1neppennin pnhoxox, ho1pe6noc1i nn1eex1yainoio
pasnn1nn, peansann nnpnnnpyainix choco6noc1en, o6oiamanmee
o6menne co chenanc1axn, hpoqeccnonainie ax6nnn, ho1pe6-
noc1i n snannnx n nanixax conpexennon hpoqeccnonainon pen-
1einoc1n (snanne nsixa, napenne xoxhin1epox n hp.), apa o1-
xpi1nn, xopa na o6pasonanne.
ce 1n qax1opi penc1nyn1 n conoxyhnoc1n. Ho, 1ax nn nnaue,
n peainon penc1nn1einoc1n peainin ueonex nceipa o1pae1 uexy-
1o hpephou1enne, xaxon-n6o ns 1nx qax1opon nnne1cn hpnopn1e1-
nix, poxnnan1nix, npxo nipaennix.
jenc1nnex qax1opon xo1nnnponannn nyno yhpann1i n o6pa-
sona1einix hpoeccax, ohnpanci na nnx, 1axnx o6pasox, xo1opin
coo1ne1c1nye1 cy1n n copepannn xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn. Hahpn-
xep, xono hponopn1i o6yuenne qaxyi1a1nnno, hponepn1i ne sna-
nnn, a 1nh hpoqeccnonainoio ximennn, oennna1i ne 1ouxy spe-
nnn, a ee apiyxen1nponannoc1i, hoompn1i ne hpanninoc1i ninopon
(pemennn), a nx hpax1nuecxyn qqex1nnnoc1i.
Kpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne nnne1cn nanenmnx yconnex n
xpn1epnex xauec1na hopio1onxn conpexennoio xenepepa.
Mono hpepc1ann1i pnp hooennn, ho xo1opix 1papnnonno
nn nchoisyn nnnonann, c1pon1cn conpexennoe o6pasonanne xe-
nepepon:
1. 1o yume: honexnoiy o6o ncex nn nce, o nexnoiox. 1o
paccxa1pnnae1cn uac1o xax epnnc1nenno nosxonie ai1epna1nni
o6pasonannn. Koneuno, nn 1o, nn ppyioe ceiopnn ne xoe1 6i1i hpn-
snano qqex1nnnix: hepnoe honepxnoc1no, n1opoe ysxo chenansn-
ponano. Cymec1nye1 ai1epna1nna, xo1opyn napo ncxa1i n naxopn1i.
2. ce o iannox n o6ac1n pen1einoc1n n 1oixo iannoe o6o
ncex n penc1nn1einoc1n. 1o qopxya chenainoio o6pasonannn,
nxon1nponannoio n hoe mnpoxohpoqninoio.
3. O6pasonanne pono 6i1i ne hopio1onxon x ohpepeennoxy
nnpy pen1einoc1n, a qopxnponannex neo6xopnxoio ximennn pn
pachosnanannn hpo6ex ohpepeennoio xacca. Conpexennoe o6pa-
sonanne pono 6i1i 1axnx, n xo1opox iannoe: nnp snannn, xe1opo-
oinn n 1exnooinn o6pasonannn, xonn1opnni xauec1na, hepaioinxa
co1pypnnuec1na, ncceponanne ce6n n hpoecce o6pasonannn.
4. Ocpa-cauuc 1o ne c1oixo hoyuenne snannn, cxoixo
pasnn1ne choco6noc1en. Mcpa -uauuu n honnxannn n c1ehenn pas-
Mcucdcun

52
nn1oc1n cnonx choco6noc1en. He1 hpepea snannnx, ec1i hpepe nos-
xonoc1nx nx nchoisonannn. A onn ohpepenn1cn coo1ne1c1nnex
c1pyx1ypi choco6noc1en ueonexa n c1pyx1ypi eio snannn.
5. Caxon ennon choco6noc1in ueonexa nnne1cn choco6noc1i
x 1nopuec1ny. Kpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne ohnpae1cn na 1y choco6noc1i
n pasnnnae1 ee.
|:anoe xeamuno+ oasoanuu: a) o6pasnoe n iooipaqn-
uecxoe ximenne, 6) pasnn1oe noo6paenne, n) spoponin cxeh1n-
nsx, i) qynpaxen1ainie snannn, p) xe1o- pooinuecxan xyi1ypa
(yxenne xicn1i oinuno, poxasa1eino, ue1xo n 1.h.), e) cnc1exnoc1i
snannn (c6aancnponannoc1i, coue1anne, nn1eipann n pp.), ) yxe-
nne yun1icn n yun1i, s) nehpepinnoc1i o6pasonannn, n) nnnonan-
onnin ho1enna, x) hpo- qeccnonainan o1ne1c1nennoc1i.
6. Ho1pe6noc1i n snannnx ne 1opec1nenna ho1pe6noc1n n o6-
pasonannn. Ho1pe6noc1i n o6pasonannn oueni nana, n iannoe speci
ei o6pasonannn. He xapin ee ocosnae1. Oasoanue ne no-
me:enue snanuu, a ux axxqq:upcauuc d:n ucpeuu ncpnccna.
Iaccxo1pnx hpoqeccnonainyn pen1einoc1i xenepepa c ho-
snnn 1ex poen, xo1opie on peansye1 n 1on pen1einoc1n. Kax onn
xoiy1 6i1i pasnoo6pasni? Kaxne nexicnxie xox6nnann onn xo-
iy1 coc1ann1i? xaxnx conix hpo1nnopeunnx xoiy1 oxasa1icn?
Koxanpnp hponsnopc1na, opiannsa1op, nchonn1ei, ap6n1p, ipoxo-
o1nop, pyxonopn1ei. Menepep 1o n nccepona1ei, n nona1op, n
xoncyi1an1, n npep, n hpepnopn1ei, n hoxomnnx, n hpepc1ann-
1ei, n xypa1op, n 1.p.
Ha hpax1nxe nce 1n pon hepehe1eni, cymec1nyn1 n ohpepeen-
non xox6nnann. Ho nceipa ec1i hpnopn1e1i 1ex nn nnix poen. Kax
onn qopxnpyn1cn? Kaxyn poi speci nipae1 o6pasonanne? Kaxnx
pono 6i1i o6pasonanne? Ono pono 6i1i opnen1nponannix ne
1oixo na qynxnn pen1einoc1n, no n na pon conpexennoio xenep-
epa. I ne na pon noo6me, a na pon nhone ohpepeennie.
cnnsn c 1nx nosnnxae1 n neo6xopnxoc1i, n ho1pe6noc1i n
xpea1nnnox o6pasonannn, ho1oxy u1o 1oixo ono choco6no opnen1n-
pona1i na pon nccepona1en, nona1opa, hpepnopn1en n 1.p. Ianime
iannon sapauen o6pasonannn 6io pa1i neo6xopnxie snannn n na-
nixn pn hpoqeccnonainon pen1einoc1n. A uex ohpepennci ne-
o6xopnxoc1i snannn n nanixon? O1pacenixn nn nepoxc1nennixn
nopxa1nnaxn. Hapo 6io sna1i nx n ychex n pa6o1e o6echeuen. Ho
nepi 1o opnen1ann na 6espyxnoe nchonn1eic1no, xo1opoe c1ano-
nn1cn hpnniuxon, a ho1ox ocnonon ncen opiannsann yhpanennn n
c1nn pa6o1i.
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

53
Paccmn1pcn ncnnnnmc acnc1m pcnmcnpannn cncnnannc1nn
n npnnaranpnc1nn pca1nnnnrn n6paannannn, mnxnn cpcna1n cnc-
pymmnc nmnnpm:

1. Innonanonnin n nccepona1eicxnn ho1enna conpexen-
noio xenepepa ohpepene1cn ne 1oixo eio yc1anonxaxn na ncce-
ponanne, no n xapax1epox o6pasonannn, c1pyx1ypon snannn, nanixa-
xn 1nopuecxon pen1einoc1n, 1nhox hpoqeccnonainoio ximennn.
Choco6noc1i x nccepona1eicxon pen1einoc1n xapax1epnsye1 1axe
1axyn nanyn uep1y xenepepa, xax ncxycc1no yhpanennn, xo1opoe
nexicnxo 6es ncceponannn, 1nopuec1na, c1pexennn x iy6oxoxy
ocxicennn ncex hpo6ex, pemaexix hocpepc1nox paspa6o1xn
yhpanenuecxnx pemennn.
2. Conpexennin xenepep 1oixo 1oipa xoe1 6i1i penc1nn-
1eino ychemnix, xoipa on naxopn1cn n hoc1onnnox n nehpepinnox
pasnn1nn, xoipa on opnen1nponan na nsxenennn, o6echeunnanmne
nsnec1onxoc1i opiannsann, ee ho1enna nnnonann n eeyc1-
pexennoc1n. Hpnxenenne xpea1nnnoio hopxopa n conpexennox xe-
nepxen1e c1anonn1cn opnon ns ocnonnix qynxnn yhpanennn.
3. Menepepy neo6xopnxo nnpe1i n oennna1i nsxenenne cnc-
1exi ennoc1en, nn1epecon n xo1nnon, yc1anonox n yconnn pen1ei-
noc1n ueonexa. Ha ocnone ohi1a n nunix xauec1n 1o nosxono
nmi hpn yconnn yhpanennn n cpannn1eino ne6oimnx xacm1a-
6ax n hpn ncxnun1einon c1a6ninoc1n qynxnonnponannn opia-
nnsann. Ho n conpexennix yconnnx honimennon pnnaxnunoc1n
xonoxnuecxoio pasnn1nn, xonxypennn n yconennn conaino-
hcnxooinuecxnx ocnon hpnxenenne 1nopuecxoio, nec1anpap1noio,
xpea1nnnoio hopxopa nnne1cn saoiox ychexa.
4. Iasnn1ne xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn, 1pe6ye1 peqopxi ncen
o6pasona1einon cnc1exi, nchoisonannn nonix xe1opnx, 1exnnue-
cxnx cpepc1n n 1.p. Ho, hoayn, caxix iannix nnne1cn peqopxn-
ponanne cosnannn n nochpnn1nn xnoinx xnnonon npen, xo1opie
ne xo1n1 nn ne xoiy1 hepen1n na xauec1nenno nonin yponeni pasnn-
1nn cnonx choco6noc1en.
5. 1o6i 6i1i ychemnix, conpexennin xenepep poen po-
6n1icn pesyi1a1nnnoc1n n qqex1nnnoc1n pen1einoc1n opiannsa-
nn, ypenn nnnxanne pnnepcnqnxann hponsnopc1na, pasnn1nn
nnqpac1pyx1ypi, noennnx n ueoneuecxnn xahn1a.
Mcucdcun

54
Tec1

1. Meneo+enm m: nusnan ca+ocmonme:tnm+ uoo+ oen-
me:tnocmu mo:txo :
a) nauae XIX nexa;
6) cepepnne XIX nexa;
n) nauae XX nexa;
i) cepepnne XX nexa.

2. 3axono+enocmt non:enun Poccuu me+una +eneo+enm
cneuua:ucmm cnsmamm c:
a) peqopxnponannex namen xonoxnxn;
6) nxopennex Ioccnn n sony c1pan pasnn1on pinounon xo-
noxnxn;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

3. Hunuunm +eneo+enma neme m:u cqo+:uoanm u
on:uxoanm eoo:
a) 1811;
6) 1861;
n) 1891;
i) 1911.

4. Amoo+ xnueu Hunuunm naunoeo +eneo+enma m::
a) A. Cxn1;
6) j. Inxappo;
n) u. Tenop;
i) u. Xepoypn.

5. |:anm+ nooo:ame:e+, asuuu+ uoeu ocnoame:n uxo-
:m naunoeo +eneo+enma, cuumamm:
a) u. Tenopa;
6) A. uanon;
n) . Mno;
i) M. Mecxona.

6. Amoo+ sna+enummx xomoncxux 5xcneu+enmo n:nemcn:
a) M. Ai6ep1;
6) j. MaxIpeiop;
n) u. Iep6epi;
i) . Mno.
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

55
7. B om:uuue om meouu osnuxnoenun u asumun naxmuue-
cxuu +eneo+enm nacuummaem nu+eno .. mmcnue:emuu:
a) 5;
6) 6;
n) 7;
i) 8.

8. Cuecmennm+ qaxmoo+ nomuenun es:tmamunocmu
occuucxoeo +eneo+enma n:nemcn:
a) hpnpoc1 nanenmnx 1exnnxoxonoxnuecxnx hoxasa1een;
6) ypnoenne H na pymy naceennn x 2010 iopy n cpannennn c
2002 i.;
n) xonoxnuecxoe nospopenne Ioccnn;
i) chenansann yhpanennn.

9. Ho ouenxa+ cneuua:ucmo, sanu+amuuxcn no:e+a+u uc-
uuc:enun nauuona:tnoeo oeamcma, ue:oeuecxuu nomenuua: co-
cma:nem nu+eno .% naxon:ennoeo oeamcma, accuumannoeo
+uoo+ +acumae:
a) 47;
6) 57;
n) 67;
i) 77.

10. Amo meoenun: Kumeue+ ucmunm n:nemcn
onmm +mc:ume:t:
a) A6yiuapap 5ap 6pen cnpnncxnn;
6) Apnc1o1ei ppenneipeuecxnn;
n) Konqynn xn1ancxnn;
i) Toxxaso Kaxhanea n1ainncxnn.

11. Anu dauo:t ocnonou qnxuueu na:enun cuuma::
a) 1exnnuecxyn pen1einoc1i;
6) xoxxepuecxyn pen1einoc1i;
n) qnnanconyn pen1einoc1i;
i) apxnnnc1pnponanne.

12. Ocnoono:onuxo+ uxo:m ue:oeuecxux omnouenuu cuu-
maemcn:
a) j. Kapnein;
6) M. ypxox;
n) . Mno;
i) M. Cxo.
Mcucdcun

56
13. Henouoanue o:u ue:oeuecxoeo u ennooeo qaxmoo
nousoocme xaaxmeno o:n uxo:m na:enun:
a) ueoneuecxnx o1nomennn;
6) honepenuecxon;
n) xaccnuecxon;
i) nepno (6+n).

14. Cumauuonnmu nooxoo omnocumcn x:
a) anansy cnc1ex;
6) nayxe yhpanennn c ncceponannex ohepann;
n) xonuec1nennoxy hopxopy;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a .

15. Omxmman cucme+a xaaxmeusemcn:
a) caxoo6echeuennex;
6) nsanxopenc1nnex c nnemnen cpepon;
n) nesanncnxoc1in o1 cpepi, oxpyanmen cnc1exy;
i) ne1 nepnoio .

16. Anu dauo:t cqo+:uoa: . nunuuno ao+unucmu-
oanun::
a) 5;
6) 9;
n) 14;
i) 18.

17. Ooexmo+ usuenun +eneo+enma n:nemcn oeanusauun:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

18. Honnmue +eneo+enm :umeame nuxoeoa ne omooe-
cm:nemcn c nonnmue+ na:enue:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

19. Ho Anu dauo:m cnaeo:uocmt 5mo +ecmo o:n ceeo u
ce na coe+ +ecme:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

20. enme:tnocmt +eneoeo no na:enum necona:o+ ne-
auaemcn necmunm noqeccum!
a) pa;
6) ne1;
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

57
Hs:oume asnmme omemm na c:eomuue (21-26) onocm:

21. Koeo nasmamm +eneoeo+?
22. Ha xaxue oa neuooa c:ono +ono x:accuquuuoamt
+uom ucmoum asumun +eneo+enma?
23. mo n:nemcn e:oa:tnou ue:tm +eneo+enma?
24. Kaxoeo snauenue +eneo+enma na coe+enno+ 5mane as-
umun ouecma?
25. Koeo Poccuu cuumamm neonunu+ame:e+?
26. B ue+ ocoennocmu occuucxoeo +eneo+enma?

27. 2:nmmcn :u me+unm +eneoe, neonunu+ame:t,
usnec+en cunonu+a+u?
a) pa;
6) ne1.

28.B Poccuu noqeccun +eneoea nonu:act ocnono+ xon-
ue eooo XX exa:
a) 60;
6) 70;
n) 80;
i) 90.

29.Meneoe uaue ceeo ucxem:
a) cnonx xahn1aox;
6) cnonx nxymec1nox;
n) cnonx nxnpex;
i) cnoen ponoc1in.

30.Ocuecm:nn na:enuecxm oenme:tnocmt, +eneoem,
no +nenum Munueea, ueamm o:eu:
a) 5;
6) 10;
n) 15;
i) 20.
Mcucdcun

58
Dpax1axyM

1. Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm

1.1.1. Cqopxynpyn1e 1pn xpa1xnx ohpepeennn xenepxen1a.
1.1.2. 2nnn1cn n npen1nunixn honn1nn xenepxen1 n
yhpanenne? O6ocnyn1e am o1ne1.
1.1.3. jan1e ohpepeenne hpepxe1a xenepxen1a.
1.1.4. Cqopxynpyn1e 1pn snauennn 1epxnna xenepep.
1.1.5. Kex nhepnie 6in cqopxynponani n ohy6nxonani hpnn-
nhi xenepxen1a?
1.1.6. Hepeuncn1e ue1ipe hpnnnha yhpanennn, hoyunnmnx na-
snanne 1enopnsx.
1.1.7. Koio cun1an1 iannix hpopoa1eex, pasnnnmnx npen
upepepnxa \nncoy Tenopa?
1.1.8. Hasonn1e mec1i nahpanennn pen1einoc1n apxnnnc1pann
hponsnopc1nennon opiannsann, cqopxynponannix o1ox xe-
nepxen1a.
1.1.9. jan1e xapax1epnc1nxn ocnonnix mxoax xenepxen1a.
1.1.10. Cxoixo 1ahon nacun1inae1 hpax1nuecxnn xenepxen1,
xaxoe nasnanne onn hoyunn?

2. ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm

1.2.1. Houexy snannn nnnn1cn xonoxnuecxnxn pecypcaxn n na-
cxoixo, na am nsinp, 1o ax1yaino pn Ioccnn na conpexennox
1ahe pasnn1nn xonoxnxn?
1.2.2. Hpoanansnpyn1e mec1i nahpanennn pen1einoc1n apxn-
nnc1pann hponsnopc1nennon opiannsann, paspa6o1annix Anpn
uanoex.
1.2.3. Kax 6i i oxapax1epnsonan pasnunie 1pax1onxn 1epxn-
na xenepxen1, xax hpo1nnohoonie nn xax nsanxopohonnn-
mne, pasnnnanmne? Hpoxoxxen1npyn1e am o1ne1.
1.2.4. uex saxnuan1cn ocnonnie oco6ennoc1n poccnncxoio xe-
nepxen1a? Honcnn1e amy hosnnn.
1.2.5. Iacxpon1e copepanne 1pex xopeen poccnncxoio xenep-
xen1a. \ xaxon xopen ec1i hepchex1nna pasnn1nn? O6ocnyn1e amy
1ouxy spennn.
1.2.6. Hasonn1e pecn1i ocnonnix nnpon conpexennoio poccnncxoio
xenepxen1a. Oxapax1epnsyn1e n6on opnn nnp.
1.2.7. K1o 6i nnnna1opox cospannn n Ioccnn nayunon opiannsa-
nn 1pypa? Kaxon nxap, ho amexy xnennn, on nnec n xenepxen1?
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

59
1.2.8. Cpannn1e oco6ennoc1n nexo1opix ocnonnix nnpon conpe-
xennoio poccnncxoio xenepxen1a. Kaxne ns hpnnnhon yhpane-
nnn copepa1cn n 6oimnnc1ne ns nnx? A xaxne, na am nsinp, na-
c1oixo chenqnuni, u1o copepa1cn 1oixo n opnox?

3. jwc6nmc cn1yannn

1.3.1. (1) Hpephoon1e, u1o i pemnn cospa1i cnoe co6c1nennoe
peo hopxnuenne xoxhin1epon x In1epne1y ho eannn na-
peien xoxhin1epon. Kex i 6ype1e xenepepox, 6nsnecxenox
nn hpephpnnnxa1eex? Kaxne hpnnnhi xenepxen1a, paspa6o-
1annie Anpn uanoex, 6ypy1 pn ac nan6oee ax1yainixn?
1.3.2. (2) Hpephoon1e, u1o ax hopyunn cpea1i poxap na 1e-
xy: Oco6ennoc1n poccnncxoio xenepxen1a. Kaxne ocnonnie no-
hpoci i 6ype1e ocnema1i? Houexy?
1.3.3. (3) ipen1e ue1ipe nan6oee nanix qax1opa, ohpepe-
nnmnx pasnn1ne xenepxen1a n XXI nexe n o6ocnyn1e nx hpnopn-
1e1noc1i.

Ocnnnnmc nmnnpm, nnnn1nn, nnpcpcncnnn

Menepxen1 1nhnuno axepnxancxnn 1epxnn, osnauanmnn:
yhpanenne opiannsanen, qynxnonnpynmen n yconnnx pinxa;
yhpanenne opiannsanen c nchoisonannex snannn, ncxycc1na n
ohi1a;
yhpanenne opiannsanen c ein ypone1nopennn uinxn6o
ho1pe6noc1en, honimennn qqex1nnnoc1n hponsnopc1na n hoy-
uennn xaxcnxaino nosxonon hpn6in.

Lc1i n ppyine ohpepeennn honn1nn xenepxen1. sinpi
na xenepxen1 pasnnnanci nxec1e c pasnn1nex o6mec1nennix o1-
nomennn, nnpyc1pnansann n nnqopxa1nsann. 1o pasnn1ne nn-
ne1cn nehpepinnix hpoeccox n n nac1onmee npexn.
Hpepxe1ox xenepxen1a (pannon pncnhnni) nnne1cn nsy-
uenne cymnoc1n, xpa1xon nc1opnn, oco6ennoc1en poccnncxoio xe-
nepxen1a n xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn xenepepa; nsnennoio
nxa, 1nhon opiannsann, c1pa1einuecxoio yhpanennn opiannsa-
nen, qopxainix n neqopxainix ipyhh n opiannsann; qynxnn
xenepxen1a, nx nsanxocnnsn n pnnaxnsxa (hannponanne, opiann-
sann, xo1nnann n xon1poi), In1epne1-nnxy6a1opon xax nonon pn
Ioccnn qopxi opiannsann; xe1opon xenepxen1a (xonoxnxo
c1a1nc1nuecxnx, opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einix, conaino
hcnxooinuecxnx); pemennn n xenepxen1e n ppyinx nan6oee ax1y-
ainix n nac1onmee npexn hpo6ex.
Mcucdcun

60
O6:ex1ox nsyuennn pannon pncnhnni nnnn1cn opiannsa-
nn, xo1opie n conpexennix yconnnx ne xoiy1 cymec1nona1i 6es
xenepepon:
naexnix pa6o1nnxon, sannxanmnx pyxonopnmne ponoc1n n
opiannsann;
pyxonopn1een pasnunix yponnen, napeennix honoxounnxn
pn pemennn yhpanenuecxnx sapau n pasnunix cqepax pen1ei-
noc1n opiannsann;
chenanc1on, o6echeunnanmnx nihonenne opiannsanen ee
xnccnn, een, paspa6a1inanmnx c1pa1einn pen1einoc1n opia-
nnsann n nsxennnmexcn peonox n qononox oxpyennn, hpep-
c1annnmnx ee nn1epeci n pasnoo6pasnix xepohpnn1nnx n 1.p.
Lc1i n ppyine ohpepeennn hpoqeccnn xenepep.
c1panax speon pinounon xonoxnxn n xonehnnx xe-
nepxen1a oco6in axen1 peae1cn na:
sapaun hponsnopc1na;
ueonexa;
yhpanenuecxyn pen1einoc1i n eox.
ce yuennn o xenepxen1e xaccnqnnpyn1cn na:
opnoxepnie: 1eopnn paspa6a1inaaci hpenxymec1nenno x sapa-
uax hponsnopc1na, yhpanennn hepconaox, pen1einoc1n n eox;
cnn1e1nuecxne yhpanenne paccxa1pnnaoci xax xnoiohano-
noe, xoxhexcnoe, nsxennnmeecn nnenne, cnnsannoe pasnoo6pas-
nixn qynxnonainixn n xoppennonnixn cnnsnxn c nny1-
pennen cpepon, peonix n qononix oxpyennex.
K npnnmcpnmm ywcnnnm o1nocn1:
nayunoe yhpanenne (u.Tenop n pp.);
6nxennopnc1cxne yuennn (. Mano, A. Macoy n pp.);
opiannsanonnie 1eopnn (A. uanoi, M. e6ep n pp.).
u. Tenop nhepnie cqopxynpona n ohy6nxona hpnnnhi
xenepxen1a:
1. Hayunin hopxop x nihonennn xapoio exen1a pa6o1i (pnn-
ennn, npexenn n 1.p.);
2. Hayunin hopxop x hpnneuennn, hop6opy, o16opy, o6yuennn,
1pennponxe pa6oueio, oha1e eio 1pypa n 1.p.;
3. Koohepann xenepepon c pa6ounxn;
4. Iaspeenne o1ne1c1nennoc1n sa pesyi1a1 pa6o1i xepy xenepepa-
xn n pa6ounxn, hoppepannex ppyecxnx o1nomennn xepy nnxn.
Hpopon n pasnn npen u. Tenopa qpanys A. uanoi,
hponnmnn 84 iopa n 58 e1 hpopa6o1anmnn n xoxhannn ho hepepa-
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

61
6o1xe yin n eesnon pypi. On nipen xenepxen1 xax oco6in
nnp pen1einoc1n c 5-n o6nsa1einixn qynxnnxn (hannponanne,
opiannsann, pachopnpn1eic1no, xooppnnann, xon1poi). Iaccxa1-
pnnan opiannsann xax epnnoe eoe, on cqopxynpona mec1i na-
hpanennn pen1einoc1n, xo1opie pasnixn hepenopunxaxn na pyc-
cxnn nsix hepenopn1cn ne nceipa opnnaxono:
1exnnuecxan pen1einoc1i (hponsnopc1no);
xoxxepuecxan pen1einoc1i (saxyhxn, hpopan, o6xen);
qnnanconan pen1einoc1i (honcx n oh1nxainin pacxop xahn1aa);
pen1einoc1i 6esohacnoc1n (samn1a co6c1nennoc1n npen);
xxayn1nni (pen1einoc1i ho yue1y, c1a1nc1nxe, anansy);
apxnnnc1pnponanne (14 hpnnnhon xenepxen1a).
Cnn1c1nwccnc ywcnnn opnen1nponanni, hpepe nceio, na
cnc1exnin hopxop. Caxix nipanmnxcn 1eope1nxox 1oio hopxopa n
noo6me conpexennoio xenepxen1a cun1an1 Hn1epa jpaxepa, xo1o-
pin paspa6o1a xonehnn yhpanennn ho enx, hpepon 1eo-
pnn caxoyhpannnmeiocn 1pyponoio xoex1nna.
Toxac Hn1epc n Io6ep1 \o1epxan n xnnie honcxax qqex-
1nnnoio yhpanennn, a 1axe Inuapp Hacxai n n1onn A1oc n xnnie
Icxycc1no nhoncxoio yhpanennn: hoco6ne pn axepnxancxnx yhpan-
nnmnx hpnmn x ninopy, u1o qqex1nnnan opiannsann cospae1cn
na ocnonannn cexn xoxhonen1on, hoaninncxn naunnanmnxcn na
S: c1pa1einn, c1pyx1ypa, cnc1exa, m1a1, c1ni, xnanqnxann, paspe-
enne ennoc1en. 1a xonehnn hoyuna nasnanne 7S.
K cnn1e1nuecxnx yuennnx o1nocn1 n cn1yanonnin hopxop
neo6xopnxoc1i yun1ina1i xonxpe1nie cn1yann. Icxycc1no xe-
nepepa honn1i cn1yann, pacxpi1i ee xapax1epnc1nxn, ni6pa1i
coo1ne1c1nynmee yhpanenne.
Opnaxo, axepnxancxnn hpoqeccop \ninx Oyun n 1981 i. ni-
pnnnyn 1eopnn z, cpea hohi1xy o1xasa o1 cn1yanonnoio hopxo-
pa n hoisy o6o6mennoio ohncannn xenepxen1a, axen1npyn nnn-
xanne na yhpanennn npixn: poiocpounin naex; ipyhhonoe hpn-
nn1ne pemennn; nnpnnnpyainan o1ne1c1nennoc1i; xepennan oen-
xa xappon, nx yxepennoe hpopnnenne ho cy6e; neohpepeennin,
neqopxainin xon1poi ue1xnxn, qopxansonannixn xe1opaxn;
nechenansnponannan xapiepa; ncec1oponnnn sa6o1a o pa6o1nnxax.
Lio npen oueni 6nsxn nhoncxon xopen xenepxen1a.
Taxoni xpa1xne xapax1epnc1nxn ocnonnix 1eope1nuecxnx
mxo xenepxen1a.
Hpa1nwccnn mcncpxmcn1 nacun1inae1 hn1i 1ahon: peninosno
xoxxepuecxnn, cne1cxo-apxnnnc1pa1nnnin, hponsnopc1nennoc1pon1ei-
nin, hpoqeccnonainoio yhpanennn, panonainon 6npoxpa1nn.
Mcucdcun

62
Ocn6cnnnc1n pnccnncnrn mcncpxmcn1a saxnuae1cn n hepe-
xope o1 exen1apnix xopeen (3ppanoio cxica, 3ahapnon xyi-
1ypi, Tpapnnonnix (Cone1cxnx) xe1opon yhpanennn) x chena-
nsann yhpanennn. Iaspa6o1xe xnoinx nnpon xenepxen1a, na-
hpnxep, xapponoio, hponsnopc1nennoio, conainoio, nnnonanon-
noio, nnnec1nnonnoio, nnqopxanonnoio, c1pa1einuecxoio, qn-
nanconoio, an1nxpnsncnoio n pp.
Innna1opox cospannn n Ioccnn nayunon opiannsann
1pypa 6i Aexcen Kahn1ononnu Iac1en, cqopxynponanmnn 16
hpann ho nayunon opiannsann 1pypa. On 6i chenanc1ox n
o6ac1n xonoxnxn, conooinn, conainon nnenepnn, xn6ep-
ne1nxn, o6men 1eopnn cnc1ex.
Conpexennin xenepep n eio xpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne neo6-
xopnxi n Ioccnn n nac1onmee npexn, 1ax xax uex 6oime 1nopuecxnx
nicoxoxauec1nennix chenanc1on, 1ex n 6oimen c1ehenn onn sann-
cn1 o1 opiannsann. Hahpnxep, n CHA 90% npen, nxenmnx o6pa-
sonanne nime cpepne-mxoinoio, hponopn1 ncn cnon nsni n xauec1-
ne cyamnx yhpannexix opiannsann n ne cxoiy1 n1i n sapa6a-
1ina1i ce6e na nsni nne opiannsann [16, c.39],

Oqnpmncnnc nn c1anpap1y

3apannn ho 1exe 1 nxnuan1:
1.1. Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 110 m1.
1.2. jncxyccnonnie nohpoci ho 1exe 1 8 m1.
1.3. \ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 1 3 m1.

Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 1

Hnc1annna aapannn
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 1 pasxemeni n CjO Kaxhyc n
qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 1.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 xpa1xnn o1ne1 (ne 6oee 200 cnxnoon) na
xapin nohpoc n qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 1 po nauaa
aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 1 (cx. Kaenpapnin han xypca).
O1ne1i na nohpoci n qopyxe cepye1 pasxema1i, xnxnyn na
cnxno O1ne1n1i. am o1ne1 poen honnn1icn n pepene coo6me-
nnn hop coo1ne1c1nynmnx nohpocox. HL ICHOHI3\ITL KHOH-
K\ (cospa1i) jH2 OTLTA HA OHIOCI.
Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
O1ne1i na nohpoci pasxeman1e ncen ipyhhon n qopyxe
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 1.
c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

63
Tac:ua 1

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na nn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 1

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn
O6naa1cnn-
nmc napa-
mc1pm
B
a
n
n

Pcnmcnpyc-
mmc
napamc1pm
B
a
n
n

1. Konuec1no hpanninix o1ne1on 7 ns 10 4 8 n 6oee ns 10 6
2. O1ne1i pasxemeni hop nohpo-
caxn (n pepene coo6mennn)
pa 1

ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 1

Hnc1annna aapannn
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci 6ypy1 yc1no o6cypa1icn na cexn-
nape ho 1exe 1. ax neo6xopnxo hopio1onn1icn x 6ecepe ho pannix
nohpocax.
Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 o6ocnonannan hosnnn ho xapoxy
nohpocy, osnyuennan no npexn aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 1 (cx.
Kaenpapnin han xypca); n xope cexnnapa i 6ype1e o1neua1i na
nohpoci n cyuannox hopnpxe; xapin c1ypen1 poen yche1i o1ne-
1n1i na 1 nn 2 nohpoca.
ama hosnnn pona 6i1i ocnonana na n1a1ax ns yue6nix
xa1epnaon ho 1exe 1.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
ax neo6xopnxo yc1no nson1i n o6ocnona1i cnon hosnnn n
xope aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 1.

Tac:ua 2

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na pncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 1

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn
O6nsa1ei-
nie hapa-
xe1pi
5
a


Iexoxenpye-
xie
hapaxe1pi
5
a


1. Konuec1no hpanninix o1ne1on 1 10 2 n 6oee 13
2. O6ocnonannoc1i o1ne1on (nc-
hoisonanne n1a1 ns yue6nix
xa1epnaon)
ec1i 2
3. Ichoisonanne pohonn1einix
nc1ounnxon
1 nc1ounnx
n 6oee
5
Mcucdcun

64
jwc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 1. Bapnan1 1 nnn 2, nnn 3

Hnc1annna aapannn
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 1 paccxa1pnnan1cn axn caxoc1on-
1eino.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 qan c o1ue1ox ho opnon cn1yann,
oqopxennin ho HA5HOH\ N___ (cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc),
nicannin 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn CjO Kaxhyc po nauaa
cepynmeio aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 2 (cx. Kaenpapnin han
xypca); ni xoe1e o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen-
1axn n qopyxe \ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 1.
Ha6on o1ue1a (Tn1yinan c1panna. Chncox ocnonnix paspe-
on) cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc. O6mnn o6:ex nameio 1exc1a n
o1ue1e ho 1exe 1 ne 6oee 1 c1panni (3000 snaxon).

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
Io1onin o1ue1 hepeciae1cn 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn CjO
Kaxhyc. 3aioonox coo6mennn c qanox poen copepa1i nasnanne
ipyhhi, uIO c1ypen1a, nasnanne pncnhnni, noxep 1exi n noxep
yue6non cn1yann, nahpnxep O1ue1_uIO_ju102_
Menepxen1_\ue6nan_cn1yann_1.3.2(2). i xoe1e o6cypa1i yue6-
nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen1axn n qopyxe \ue6nie cn1yann ho
1exe 1. Ichoisyn1e qopyx ohpoci x 1in1opy pn xoncyi1ann.

Tac:ua 3

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na ywc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 1.

Hapaxe1pi n 6ai
Kpn1epnn
O6nsa1ei-
nie
hapaxe1pi
5
a


Iexoxen-
pyexie
hapaxe1pi
5
a


1. uan o1ue1a oqopxen ho ma6ony pa 1
2. uan o1hpanen n cpox pa 2
3. O6:ex 1exc1a ne hpenimae1 1pe6ona-
nnn
pa 2
4. O1ne1 nxee1 o6ocnonanne (xonuec1no
cciox n n1a1)
3 2 5 4
5. O1ne1 ynnxaen (ne1 hon1opon n ana-
oion n o1ue1ax ppyinx c1ypen1on)
pa 4

c:run xcucnuu cucdcuna

65
Fnaaa 2.



Opraaasaqas xax cac1eMa ynpaaneaas





Hsyuaa 1eMy 2, c1ypea1 ponwea
saa1b:
a) nsnennin nx opiannsann;
6) 1nhi m1a1noio pasnn1nn opiannsann;
n) hepexopnie hepnopi xepy 1ahaxn nsnennoio
nxa.
i) In1epne1-nnxy6a1op xax nonan pn Ioccnn qopxa
opiannsann.

yMe1b:
pasnua1i 6asonie c1pa1einn n ai1epna1nni c1pa1einn
yhpanennn opiannsanen.

npaopec1a aaamxa:
ohpepeennn n xapax1epnc1nxn qopxainix n neqop-
xainix ipyhh n opiannsann.




Mcucdcun

66
Hu usuenuu me+m 2 neoxoou+o:

Hn1a1n iany 2 yue6noio hoco6nn ho xenepxen1y n exnn.
Bmnnnnn1n aapannc hpax1nxyxa n 6anxa 1ec1on ho xenep-
xen1y ho paspey 2: o1ne1n1i na xon1poinie nohpoci, hpnnn1i yua-
c1ne n o6cypennn pncxyccnonnix nohpocon, yue6nix cn1yann, 1ec-
1nponannn. Hopio1onn1i xypconyn pa6o1y, peqepa1 nn cce n hpn-
oennn ho 1exax:
1. Tenpennn nxnuecxoio pasnn1nn opiannsann;
2. C1pa1einuecxoe yhpanenne opiannsanen;
3. uopxnponanne n qynxnonnponanne qopxainix n neqop-
xainix ipyhh n opiannsann xax pnnaxnunin hpoecc n xeipyh-
honoe nsanxopenc1nne.
4. In1epne1-nnxy6a1op nonan pn Ioccnn qopxa opiannsann
(c1ypen1ax, xo1opie pemnn 6oee yiy6enno nsyun1i 1exy 2).


ce hpnxopn1 pn 1oio, x1o yxee1 pa1i
|cuauu [u-pa:u

2.1. Xasaeaam qaxn a 1anm opraaasaqa

conpexennon n1epa1ype ho xenepxen1y opiannsann oh-
pepene1cn xax conoxyhnoc1i npen, ipyhh, o6:epnnennix pn poc-
1nennn ohpepeennix een, pemennn sapau na ocnone hpnnnhon
paspeennn 1pypa, o6nsannoc1en n nepapxnuecxon c1pyx1ypi; o6me-
c1nennoe o6:epnnenne, iocypapc1nennoe yupepenne. Opiannsann
cospan1cn pn ypone1nopennn caxix pasnix ho1pe6noc1en qnsnue-
cxnx n npnpnuecxnx n, nxen1 pasnunoe nasnauenne, c1pyx1ypy,
pasxepi n ppyine xapax1epnc1nxn. xauec1ne opiannsann paccxa1-
pnnan1cn hpephpnn1nn, max1i, pypnnxn, xac1epcxne, a1eie, neq1e-
hpoxici, c1paxonie xoxhannn, 6anxn, xaiasnni, opiannsann cep-
nncnoio o6cynnannn, a 1axe c1pyx1ypnie epnnni cnc1exi io-
cypapc1nennoio yhpanennn.
Lnpohencxne an1opi ocnon xenepxen1a j.5oppn n
I.Hen1on paspa6o1an nn1eipainyn xopei opiannsann,
nxnunn n ne cepynmne hepexennie:
1) Hen, na poc1nennn xo1opix cocpepo1ouena pen1ei-
noc1i hepconaa;
2) 5nsnec-hpoecci, c hoxomin xo1opix hepcona n hpo-
ecce conxec1noio 1pypa hpeo6pasye1 xonoxnuecxne pecypci n
cospa1 hpopyxnn nn oxasinae1 ycyin, poc1nian en;
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

67
3) Texnooinn, hpepe nceio, axen1npye1 nnnxanne na co-
npexennon 1exnnxe.
4) Hnpn xax hepcona opiannsann, 1ax n oxasinanmne
nnnnne na e pen1einoc1i ns peonoio n qononoio oxpyennn.
5) ac1i nppo xenepxen1a, cospanne xo1opoio hponcxo-
pn1 ho xepe o6oco6ennn yhpanennn xax oco6oio nnpa pen1ei-
noc1n n opiannsann.
6) C1pyx1ypa choco6 paspeennn n xooppnnann 1pypa n
opiannsann pen1einoc1n n opiannsann n mnpoxox cxice
7) Kyi1ypa honn1ne, 6asnpynmeecn na nexa1epnainix
xa1eiopnnx.

c1pyx1ype xonoxnxn namen c1pani n nac1onmee npexn hpe-
o6apan1 xoxxepuecxne opiannsann, ho1oxy paccxo1pnx nx ne-
cxoixo hoppo6nee (cx. 1a6. 2.1.).


Tac:ua 2.1.

Oprannaannnnnnnpannnmc qnpmm n xapa1cpnc1na
nmmcpwccnx nprannaannn Pnccnn

N
n/n
Oprannaannnnnn
npannnan qnpma
Xapa1cpnc1na nprannaannn
1
Honie 1onapnmec1na
n 1onapnmec1na na ne-
pe


O6:epnnenne qnsnuecxnx n, ne 1pe-
6ynmee nanunn yc1ana xax yupepn1eino-
io poxyxen1a n xnnnxainoio pasxepa
cxapounoio xahn1aa. Lpnnie n epnnc1-
nennie co6c1nennnxn cnoeio nxymec1na.
2
Axnonepnie o6mec1-
na c oipannuennon nn
pohonn1einon
O1ne1c1nennoc1in


O6:epnnenne xahn1aon, 1pe6ynmee
nanunn yc1ana n yc1annoio xahn1aa ne
xenee ohpepeennoio xnnnxyxa, n xo1o-
pox yuac1nnxn necy1 pncx y1pa1i n cyx-
xe cnonx nxapon. Lpnnie n epnnc1nen-
nie co6c1nennnxn cnoeio nxymec1na.
Lc1i o1xpi1ie n saxpi1ie AO.
3
Hponsnopc1nennie
Koohepa1nni



jo6ponoinoe o6:epnnenne ipapan pn
conxec1non pen1einoc1n, ocnonannon na
nx nunox 1pyponox n nnox yuac1nn n
o6:epnnennn eio uenaxn nxymec1nen-
nix haenix nsnocon. osxono yuac1ne n
npnpnuecxnx n.
Mcucdcun

68
Tac:ua 2.1. (cxcunauuc)

N
n/n
Oprannaannnnnn
npannnan qnpma
Xapa1cpnc1na nprannaannn
4
\nn1apnie hpephpn-
n1nn (iocypapc1nennie
nn xynnnhainie)





Opiannsann, ne napeennie hpanox
co6c1nennoc1n na saxpehennoe sa nnxn
nxymec1no, xo1opoe nepenxo n ne pac-
hpepene1cn ho nxapax (hanx, ponx), n
1ox unce xepy pa6o1nnxaxn hpephpn-
n1nn. Ixymec1no naxopn1cn n iocypapc1-
nennon nn xynnnhainon co6c1nenno-
c1n n hpnnapen1 hpephpnn1nnx na
hpane xosnnc1nennoio nepennn nn ohe-
pa1nnnoio yhpanennn.

Ioccnn nn1epecnix conpexennix hopxopox x nipeennn
nny1pennnx hepexennix opiannsann, nxenmnx nn1eipnpynmee
snauenne, nnne1cn hopxop, nsoennin n yue6nnxe \hpanenne
opiannsanen hop pepaxnen A.I.Hopmnena, 3.H.Iyxnnenon,
H.A.Cooxa1nna. Onn y1neppan1, u1o nny1pennnn cpepa xapon
opiannsann cospae1cn hop nospenc1nnex cepynmnx hepexennix:
c1pyx1ypi opiannsann, e xyi1ypi n xonoxnuecxnx pecypcon.
j. Ie6pen1 xnoio nnnxannn ypen hpoex1nponannn opia-
nnsann xax cnc1exi yhpanennn. Ix o6osnaueni qax1opi,
nnnnmne na hpoex1nponanne opiannsann:
1) nemnnn cpepa o6mee oxpyenne (hoppo6noc1n nsoeni nne);
2) Texnooinn pa6o1i paspeenne 1pypa n cospanne hoppaspeennn;
3) C1pa1einuecxnn ni6op npeooinn yhpanennn, xo1opon
hpnpepnnae1cn nicmee pyxonopc1no; pinxn c6i1a, 1eppn1opn-
ainoe pasxemenne hponsnopc1na n xaxne ho1pe6n1en 6ypy1 o6-
cynna1icn.
Ha pnc. 2.1. hpepc1anena xaccnqnxann opiannsann cep-
nncnoio 6nsneca.
Cymec1nyn1 n nexoxxepuecxne opiannsann: ho1pe6n1eicxne
xoohepa1nni, qonpi, yupepennn, acconann, consi, o6mec1nen-
nie n peninosnie.
Hn6an opiannsann hpoex1npye1cn n coo1ne1c1nnn c hpnnn1ix
e pyxonopc1nox pemennex ho xnoinx achex1ax e nsnepen1eino-
c1n. Iaccxo1pnx pemennn, o1nocnmnecn x 1axnx exen1ax, xax:
1. Iaspeenne 1pypa n chenansann - iopnson1ainan che-
nansann (xa1epnaino-1exnnuecxoe cna6enne, hponsnopc1no,
c6i1) n nep1nxainan chenansann (paspeenne pa6o1 ho yponnnx
nepapxnn xax n eox n opiannsann, 1ax n n e o1peinix hoppas-
peennnx).
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

69

Puc. 2.1. Cxcma naccnqnannn nprannaannn ccpnncnnrn 6nancca

2. jehap1axen1ansann nnennan (o1nocn1einan an1onox-
noc1i n pa6o1e) n xa1pnunan (6aanc xoxhpoxncca xepy peennex n
o6:epnnennex n ipyhhi pa6o1 noxpyi pecypcon n pesyi1a1on).
3. ipaenne o1nomennn, 1.e cnnsn n opiannsann nep1nxai-
nie (coepnnnn1 nepapxnuecxne yponnn n opiannsann n e hoppas-
peennnx) n iopnson1ainie (xepy pnyxn n 6oee hoppaspeennn-
xn opiannsann).
4. Macm1a6 yhpannexoc1n - mnpoxnn (xaxcnxaino nosxonan
uncennoc1i hopunnennix na opnoio pyxonopn1en n xnnnxainoe
unco yponnen nepapxnn); ysxnn (xnnnxainan uncennoc1i hopun-
nennix y opnoio pyxonopn1en).
1. Tpe6ynmne
xon1ax1a
c ho1pe6n1eex
2. Tpe6ynmne
nehocpepc1nennoio yua-
c1nn ho1pe6n1en
3. He 1pe6ynmne
o6nsa1einoio
xon1ax1a
c ho1pe6n1eex
20% Kon1ax1 c ho1pe6n-
1eex pn hpnexa, nipa-
un saxasa n hpnxepxn
80% Hponsnopc1no
nspenn
90% \uac1ne ho1pe6n1en n
hpoecce hponsnopc1na, hpe-
poc1anennn n ho1pe6ennn
ycyin

10% Hponsnopc1no uac1n
ycyin
An1oxac1epcxne
Hpaueunie
Xnxunc1xn
Iexon1 xnap1np
Iec1opani
Ioc1nnni
Hapnxxaxepcxne
Hxoi
Honxnnnxn
\3i
A1eie ho homnny
opepi, o6ynn ho
nnpnnnpyainoxy
saxasy
uo1ocaoni
OPIAHH3AHHH CEPBHCHOIO BH3HECA:
OCO6EHHOCTH OPFAHH3AHH DPOH3BOQCTBA

10% Hpnex n nipaua
saxasa

90% Hponsnopc1no
ycyin
XAPAKTEPHLE HPHMEPL
Mcucdcun

70
5. C1pyx1ypa nac1n nepapxnn n opiannsann n e snennoc1i,
1anoc1i opiannsann (912 yponnen).
6. Iachpepeenne hpan n o1ne1c1nennoc1n nn honoxounn ho
yponnnx nepapxnn 1-an cnc1exa c1pon1cn na ocnone hpnnnha
epnnc1na hopunnennn (ee cxexi hoxon na eouxy) - nchonn1ei
hoyuae1 pachopnennn o pa6o1e 1oixo o1 opnoio nauainnxa; 2-an
cnc1exa pnonnoio nn xnoec1nennoio hopunnennn xa1pemxa -
hpana n o1ne1c1nennoc1i nimec1onmeio pyxonopn1en honoc1in
hoioman1 hpana n o1ne1c1nennoc1i ncex nnec1onmnx pyxonopn1e-
en, nahpnxep ohpnunnna hpn Inane Iposnox, ocymec1nna 1o-
1ainin xon1poi.

Kapan opiannsann 1o o1xpi1an cnc1exa, 1.x. ne xoe1 cy-
mec1nona1i an1onoxno. sanxocnnsi c nnemnen cpepon nnne1cn op-
non ns caxix snaunxix xapax1epnc1nx opiannsann. nemnnn cpepa
xaccnqnnpye1cn na:
1. jeonoe (ohepanonnoe) oxpyenne, nahpnxep:
xonxypen1i;
hoc1anmnxn;
ho1pe6n1en.

2. uononoe oxpyenne (o6mee), nahpnxep:
hon1nuecxn-hpanonoe;
xonoxnuecxoe;
conaino-pexoipaqnuecxoe;
xooinuecxoe n hpnpopno-ieoipaqnuecxoe;
nayuno1exnnuecxoe n nnqopxanonnoe;
1exnooinuecxoe;
xyi1ypnoo6pasona1einoe;
xepynapopnoe.

3anncnxoc1i o1 nnemnen cpepi, xo1opan ne hopunnne1cn
pyxonopc1ny opiannsann n hoc1onnno xenne1cn, nnne1cn ian-
non hpnunnon o1cy1c1nnn a6con1nix hpann n xenepxen1e.
Ha peonoe oxpyenne opiannsann xoe1 oxasina1i nehocpep-
c1nennoe nospenc1nne, a na qononoe ne1, no caxa opiannsann pona
6i1i io1ona x nnnnnn qononon cpepi. Hoppo6nee o6 exen1ax opia-
nnsann n hpoecca yhpanennn cx. [16, C. 2560 n 88162]
pasnn1nn opiannsann (xax n n6on conainoxonoxnn-
uecxon cnc1exi) cymec1nyn1 nsnennie nxi (cx. pnc. 2. 2.).
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

71

Puc. 2.2. Cxcma xnancnnnrn nnna nprannaannn

nac1onmee npexn n n1epa1ype ho xenepxen1y paccxa1pn-
nan1cn pasnunie hopxopi x nipeennn nsnennix nxon pasnn-
1nn opiannsann. Han6oee panonainix nnne1cn nipeenne hn-
1n1ahnoio nsnennoio nxa pasnn1nn. Kapoxy ns 1ahon coo1ne1-
c1nyn1 ohpepeennie oco6ennoc1n, coc1onnnn opiannsann, xapax-
1epnsynmne ee 1nh (cx. pnc. 2.3.)




Puc. 2.3. nancnnmc nnnm n 1nnm m1a1nnrn paann1nn nprannaannn
[1, c.120 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]

1n 1ah a c n n c p c n 1 n mn . On xapax1epnsye1 sapope-
nne opiannsann n pinounon xonoxnxe, cospanne ee hepnonauai-
non c1pyx1ypi. 1o 1ah nennpnxoio (a1en1noio) pasnn1nn 6ypy-
men opiannsann. He1 hpnsnaxon honon nnemnen pnqqepenna-
nn n nny1pennen nn1eipann opiannsann, no ye nosnnxn ee o1-
5 4 3 2 1
3kcnnepeu:
Ha:neu:
Bnoneu:
KoMMy:au:
Pe:aneu:
Hn nnpcma
Pcnprannaannn
Cnap
Canannn
Banpn1c1nn
Hnnnpannn Cnapannc
C1annnncnnc
Paann1nc (nnpcm)
Tnh
opiannsann
nsnennie
nxi
Mcucdcun

72
peinie ho1ennainie xapax1epnc1nxn, nexo1opie uep1i. Opiann-
sann, xo1n eme ne oqopxnaci oxonua1eino, no ye hoc1anne1 na
pinox nonie npen, ycyin, nsyuae1 pinox na hpepxe1 chpoca. Ha
1ox 1ahe opiannsann xoe1 ncuesny1i, no nochpnnnxae1 1o
cpannn1eino eixo, 1.x. o6iuno nxee1 hpnxpi1ne, naxopnci n c1pyx-
1ype 6oee xpyhnon n yc1onunnon opiannsann.


Puc. 2.4. Kpa1an xapa1cpnc1na nprannaannnacnncpcn1a
[1, C.113 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]

xchepen1nie opiannsann xapax1epnsyn1cn ne6oimnx xo-
ex1nnox nnnna1nnnix chenanc1on, a nx npepox, xax hpanno,
nnne1cn oueni cninin, noenon ueonex, choco6nin yneui hpnne-
xa1einon npeen, hoisynmnncn 6oimnx an1opn1e1ox, yxenmnn
hpepnnpe1i xonoxnuecxyn hepchex1nnnoc1i (cx. pnc. 2.4.).
Opraaasaqassxcnnepea1
jcnnnnn
cnapannn
ua1npm paann1nn
Knmwcnmc
npnnnnnm
Hpnwnnm,
ncra1nnnn
nnnnmmnc
na paann1nc
nprnnn
1. Opnrnuansuas
npes, npoaepeu
uas ua npak:nke
2. Cnenannc:b,
sanu:epecoaau
ube a peannsann
npen
3. Hepcnek:nab
cb:a npopyknn,
nonyueuuo ua
ocuoae pauuo
npen
4. HeoxopnMbe
nuaec:nnn

1. 1aua:nsM nnpepa
2. Cnnoueuuoc:s konnek:naa
aokpyr nnpepa
3. Nonnsuoc:s n rnkoc:s
nepexopa k papnkansubM uoaa-
nsM
4. NnunMansub ynpaaneuue-
ckn annapa:
5. Hpoc:be opraunsanouube
cassn
6. Bbc:poe ocaoeune uoabx
anpoa pes:ensuoc:n nepcouanoM
7. Bbcokas asanMosaMeuseMoc:s
cnenannc:oa
8. e:kas cnenannsans uayu-
uo uanpaaneuuoc:n
9. Taopueckas a:Mocqepa a
konnek:nae
10. Bbcmas oeuka nu:ennek:y-
ansuoro npopyk:a
Hpnunnb nnpepa:
1. Bype:e pena:s
:onsko :o n :ak, u:o
n kak s ckaxy
2. O:cy:c:ane acsko
opraunsann nyu-
mas opraunsans
Ocuoaube npnunub
uera:naubx sane-
un:
1. HeyMeune
nnpepa np:n ua
koMnpoMncc
2. Hexaa:ka pecyp-
coa
3. Hera:nauas
pbuouuas kou-
kuk:ypa
4. Cnabe kpepn:-
ube aosMoxuoc:n
5. Pasnnuube
neperpyskn
6. Cpaaun:ensuo
nnoxne ycnoans
:pypa n conans-
uoro oecneueuns
7. Hnskas onna:a
:pypa
8. Cnoxuoc:n
npeapaeuns
nu:ennek:yansuoro
npopyk:a a nu:en-
nek:yansuyk
coc:aeuuoc:s
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

73

Puc. 2.5. Kpa1an xapa1cpnc1na nprannaannnna1ncn1a
[1, C.114 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]

2on 1ah na1ncn1nmn, na xo1opox opiannsann ypauno pasnn-
nae1cn, hpopoae1 pac1n n ynenunna1icn. C 1enpennnxn poc1a 1o1
1ah 1pe6ye1 hepec1ponxn c1pyx1ypi, pnqqepennann qynxnn
yhpanennn, honimennn qqex1nnnoc1n pen1einoc1n, sanoenannn
ceixen1a pinxa, yhpounennn cnonx pinounix hosnnn, nipa6o1xn n
hpnxenennn xonxypen1non c1pa1einn, honimennn pon xapxe1nnia n
yhpanennn opiannsanen. ame nceio 1o1 1ah xapax1epnsye1cn xax
Opraaasaqasna1aea1
Ycnoaas
cospaaas
Hannune:
1. Hoabx ycnyr,
npopyknn,
npoaepeuubx
pbukoM
2. Cnenannc:oa,
sanu:epecoaauubx a
saaoeaaunn
pbuka
3. Hepcnek:na
nponsaopc:aa,
cb:a npopyknn n
okasauns ycnyr
4. HeoxopnMbx
nuaec:nn
Ocaoaame
qax1opm
pasaa1as
1. Hannune rpynnb
nnpepoa
au:ysnac:oa, pao-
:aknx a opuoM
uanpaaneunn n
ppyxuo
2. Oepnueune
konnek:naa aokpyr
rpynnb au:ysnac:oa
3. Bbc:pb nepexop
k uoaansM ocoeu-
uo a uauane qyuk-
nounpoaauns
opraunsann
pauuoro :nna
4. On:nMansube
opraunsanouube
cassn
5. YMeune
qopMnpoaa:s
no:peuoc:n pbuka
ncxops ns caonx
nu:epecoa
Knmueame npaaqanm
Hpnunnb nnpepa:
1. Bbxnaae: :onsko
cnnsuemn
2. O:nnuuo :o, u:o
nnoxo koukypeu:y
3. eMokpa:ns Moxe:
b:s nsnpa:ensua
a ueko:opbe ppyrne
Dpauaam
aosMowamx
aera1aaamx
saneaa
Ocuoaube npnunub
uera:naubx sane-
un:
1. Cyec:aeuube
pasuornacns a
konnek:nae
2. Hosaneune
ppyro
nunna:nauo
rpynnb
3. eqnn:
pecypcoa, ocoeuuo
nepcouana,
cnocouoro
nepec:panaa:scs a
npoecce
xnsueuuoro nkna
opraunsann
4. Haxoxpeune a
nopunueuuoM
nonoxeunn o:
pbuouuo
koukuk:ypb
5. O:cy:c:ane uaab-
ka qopMnpoaa:s
no:peuoc:n pbuka,
ncxops ns caonx
aosMoxuoc:e
6. Heperpyskn a
pao:e n nnoxas
nopro:oaneuuoc:s
nponsaopc:aa n
ycnoan :pypa
7. Heapekaa:uas
onna:a :pypa
Mcucdcun

74
1ah xonuec1nennoio poc1a, hepec1ponxa yhpanennn opiannsanen
cnnsana c xonuec1nennixn nsxenennnxn.
Ha 1ox 1ahe cymec1nye1 ohacnoc1i chapa, no ona xaa, 1.x.
nny1pennee pasnn1ne xapax1epnsye1cn c1a6ninoc1in. Opiannsan-
nxha1nen1ax iannix o6pasox yipoae1 qononoe oxpyenne:
nnemnne nsnennie nxi pasnn1nn xonoxnxn, hon1nxo
hpanonix 1enpennn n nexo1opix ppyinx. Ha 1ox 1ahe hpn 6aio-
hpnn1nix yconnnx opiannsann xoe1 ynenunna1icn po necxoi-
xnx 1icnu ueonex, n 1o ynenuenne 6ype1 ohpanpannix, 1.x. ono
cnnsano c ho1pe6noc1nxn pasnn1nn (cx. pnc. 2.5.).
3-nn 1ah pasnn1nn opiannsann nnnncn1nmn, na xo1opox
ona poc1niae1 speoc1n, c1a6ninoio hooennn na pinxe. O6iuno
opiannsannnnoen1i pa6o1an1 n 6oimox 6nsnece c nicoxnx
yponnex conpexennon 1exnooinn, xacconix nihycxox hpopyxnn, c
hpenimanmen ppyinx xonxypen1ochoco6noc1in (cx. pnc.2.6.).


Puc. 2.6. Kpa1an xapa1cpnc1na nprannaannn nannnnannnnrn nnnncn1a
[1, C.116 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]
Opraaasaqasaaonea1
Ycnoaas
cospaaas
1. \xenne hoi-
sona1icn cei-
xen1ox pinxa c
honix eio
nacimennex
2. Ia6o1a che-
nanc1on,
sann1epeconan-
nix n conep-
menc1nonannn
cnc1exi hpons-
nopc1na n c6i1a
3. C1a6ninoc1i
n pen1einoc1n
opiannsann
4. osxonoc1i
hoyuennn
hpn6ien
Ocaoaame
qax1opm
pasaa1as
1. Koex1nn, pa6o-
1anmnn nap nxnpex
opiannsann
2. O1nunoe xauec1no
pa6o1i hepconaa n eio
conainan o6echeuen-
noc1i
3. \c1onunnin, hoc1o-
nnnin accop1nxen1
hpopyxnn nicmeio
xauec1na n xonxypen1o-
choco6noc1n
4. Oh1nxainie hpons-
nopc1nennie xomno-
c1n, 1exnnuecxan ocna-
mennoc1i, epnnc1no
nayunix n hponsnopc1-
nennix hpoeccon
5. Cpannn1eino xaie
nspepxn hponsnopc1na
n o6pamennn
6 unnanconan yc1onun-
noc1i n xaxcnxaino
nosxonoe hoyuenne
hpn6ien
Knmueame
npaaqanm
aaonea1a
Hpnnnhi Hn-
pepa nnoen1a:
1. Hei nce
pnnenne x nen
nnu1o
2. Xopomo nne1
1o1, x1o yxee1
xopomo n1i
Dpauaam
xpasaca
Ocnonnie hpnunni
xpnsnca:
1. Ioc1 cymec1nennix
pasnoiacnn n xo-
ex1nne, 6oiman
uncennoc1i yhpan-
enen n honnenne
ohhosnnn
2. Oipannuennoc1i
pecypcon n opiannsa-
nonnan nnep1noc1i
c1pyx1ypi
3. Maopnnaxnunie
nayunie c1pyx1ypi n
xoncepna1nsx n nnno-
nannx
4. O1cy1c1nne hpnn-
nhnaino nonon
hpopyxnn
5. Conie xoxxy-
nnxanonnie cnnsn n
sanncnxoc1i o1 pi-
nounon xon:nnx1ypi

Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

75
Chenanc1i cun1an1, u1o nnoen1i nic1yhan1 n cepynmnx
nnpax:
nanonainin;
nn1epnanonainin;
pec1pyx1ypnponannin.

Hannnnannnmc nnnncn1m, xax hpanno, cospan1 nenuypnie n
xchepen1nie opiannsann, opnen1nponannie na paspa6o1xy no-
non hpopyxnn, pnsanna, nonix yhopnpouennix c1pyx1yp hponsnop-
c1na n hpopan.
Opnaxo nepepxo nnoen1i 1epnn1 pnnaxnsx pasnn1nn, hoha-
pan n hosnnn 1ax nasinaexoio xoiyueio cona, xapax1epnsyn-
myncn 6oimnxn pasxepaxn, pnnepcnqnxanen, o6mnpnon ce1in
qnnaon, n 1ox unce n sa py6eox. Hpopoennex nanonainoio
nnoen1a nnne1cn nn1epnanonainin nnoen1.
Hn1cpnannnnannnmc nnnncn1m qynxnonnpyn1 ho saxonax
xnponoio pinxa.
Ioccnn c1axnnae1cn n 1ox cyuae c pnpox xapax1epnix hpo-
6ex, pemenne xo1opix n nac1onmee npexn sa1pypneno. Hahpnxep,
c1pani speon pinounon xonoxnxn c1apan1cn hepexec1n1i n namy
c1pany xooinuecxn ipnsnie hponsnopc1na, u1o xoe1 yipoa1i
namen nanonainon 6esohacnoc1n.
cc1py1ypnpnnannmc nnnncn1m 1o coc1onnne hoce naua-
a saxa1a opiannsann nehonopo1nnoio 6eiexo1a, xo1opan xoe1
hpnnec1n x ho1epe caxoc1on1einoc1n n hepexopy na n1opoc1ehennie
pon n xonoxnuecxox pasnn1nn.

4-in 1ah nmmy1an1nmn, hpepc1annnmnn co6on coc1onnne
opiannsann n hepnop c1apennn, yhapxa, hpn xo1opox hapaxe1pi
nsnepen1einoc1n cymec1nenno yxypman1cn. Opiannsann
xoxxy1an1i, xax hpanno, ocymec1nnn1 cpepnnn n xain 6nsnec,
ypone1nopnnmnn xonxpe1nie peinonainie ho1pe6noc1n, no nno-
ipa xoxxy1an1axn xoiy1 6i1i n xpyhnie opiannsann (cx. pnc. 2.7.).

5-in 1ah nsnennoio nxa opiannsann n c 1 a n c n 1 -
n mn, o1nuanmnncn ee pec1pyx1ypnsanen, hpexpamennex qynx-
nonnponannn n hpenex nnpe.
conpexennox xenepxen1e Ioccnn nano snanne nsnennix
nxon n 1nhon opiannsann, 1.x. 1o pae1 nosxonoc1i paspa6a1i-
na1i xepohpnn1nn ho hpepo1npamennn nn cxniuennn neia1nnnix
n ycnennn hosn1nnnix hocepc1nnn n pasnn1nn opiannsann.
Mcucdcun

76

Puc. 2.7. Kpa1an xapa1cpnc1na nprannaannnnmmy1an1a
[1, C.119 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]

Honimenne nepon1noc1n pncxonannoio pasnn1nn nosnnxae1
n hepexopnie hepnopi xepy 1ahaxn nsnennoio nxa. Che-
nanc1i 1axne hepexopnie hepnopi paccxa1pnnan1 n nnpe hn1n
xe1ahnix hpoeccon hepexopa opiannsann ns opnoio coc1on-
nnn n ppyioe.
3apnxpcnnc nn1cnnnana paann1nn hepnin hepexopnin he-
pnop, hpepmec1nynmnn 1ahy honnennn opiannsannxchepen1a.
On xapax1epnsye1cn hpoeccaxn sapopennn nonon opiannsann n
neppax ye cymec1nynmen, hpo1nnopeunno nnne1 na ee nsnepen-
1einoc1i. Hpnuex neia1nn n hosn1nn nepepxo 1ecno hepehe1an1cn,
hopopan ohacnoc1i pncxonannoio pasnn1nn opiannsann. Opnaxo
OpraaasaqasxoMMy1aa1
Ycnoaas
cospaaas
1. Iaspeenne
nn1epnanonai-
non opiannsann
na nanonainie
2. eanne co-
xpann1i cnon
xoex1nn, ne-
cxo1pn na eio
c1apenne
3. Konxypen1i ne
xo1n1 hoio1n1i
1y opiannsann
Ocaoaame qax1o-
pm pasaa1as
1. Hnpep, xopomo
honnxanmnn che-
nnqnxy nano-
nainoio pinxa
2. Konxypen1ocho-
co6noc1i 1onapa
3. He1pe6ona1ei
noc1i hepconaa
4. O1nunan 1exnn
uecxan ocnamen-
noc1i
5. \xenne ypepa1i
cnoeio hoxyha1en
Knmueame
npaaqanm
xoMMy1aa1a
Hpnnnhi
npepa
xoxxy1an1a:
1. Lc1i eme
hopox n
hopoxonnnax
2. Lcn 6i
xoopoc1i sna-
a, ecn 6i
c1apoc1i xoia
Dpauaam xpasacao
ca1yaqaa
Ocnonnie hpnunni
xpnsncnon cn1yann:
1. Ioc1 ohhosnnn n
xoex1nne n ee ycne-
nne
2. Heyxenne nnocn1i
cymec1nennie yconep
menc1nonannn n xauec1-
no n pnsann 1onapon
3. 3naun1einoe unco
yhpanenen,
poc1anmnxcn n nacep-
c1no o1 nnoen1a
4. Hepoipysxa hpons-
nopc1nennix xomno-
c1en n ca6opnnaxnu-
nie nayunie c1pyx1ypi
5. 5oimne ypeinie
nspepxn hponsnopc1na
n o6pamennn
6. \conenne xapxe-
1nnionix nccepona-
nnn, sanncnxoc1i o1
pinounon xon:nnx1y-
pi n cyenne pinxa
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

77
pncx ne nceipa hpnnopn1 x paspymn1einoxy xpnsncy, xo1opin xo-
e1 6i1i n xpnsncox honcxa, o6nonennn nn ycxopennn pasnn1nn
opiannsann.
Hpn cospannn xchepen1on, n 6oimnnc1ne cyuaen, xpnsnc-
nie cn1yann nesnaun1eino nnnn1 na o6myn pinounyn o6c1a-
nonxy, ho1oxy u1o 1n opiannsann o6iuno xaouncenni, nxen1
nesnaun1einie pinounie hosnnn n caxn io1oni x neypaue. 3na-
un1einan uac1i 1axnx opiannsann, oco6enno nnoni nosnnxmnx n
hoyunnmnx npnpnuecxnn c1a1yc, ncuesae1, o uex cnnpe1eic1nye1
c1a1nc1nxa xnoinx c1pan. Hahpnxep, nccepona1en enxo6pn1a-
nnn o1xeuan1, u1o po xona n1opoio iopa cymec1nonannn oc1an1cn
qynxnonnpona1i ne 6oee 2030% aninncxnx opiannsann hepno-
io hepexopnoio hepnopa.
C1annnncnnc n1opon hepexopnin hepnop, xapax1epnsyn-
mnncn nosnnxnonennex nonon caxoc1on1einon opiannsann, ni-
c1yhanmen n xauec1ne npnpnuecxoio na n nxenmen ohpepeen-
nie pinounie hosnnn ha1nen1a.
ha1nen1i hepexopn1 ns xchepen1on, ho1oxy na nauainon
c1apnn onn oueni 6nsxn ho nnnnnn na pinox, a na saxnun1ei-
non c1apnn pasnn1nn ha1nen1i hpn6nan1cn x nnoen1ax. Che-
nanc1i cun1an1, u1o ha1nen1i nan6oee 1pypnoyhpannexie op-
iannsann nssa nx aipeccnnnoc1n n ninopnponannn nnemnen cpepi.
Toixo hpephpnnnxa1eicxan xyi1ypa nceio o6mec1na xoe1 xox-
hencnpona1i nx aipeccnnnoc1i.
j1ncpxpcnnc 1pe1nn hepexopnin hepnop, xapax1epnsyn-
mnncn honnennex ohpepeennix xonxypen1nix hpenxymec1n, pea-
nsanen nx n honepennn na pinxe n saxpehennex 1ax 1nx hosn-
nn. Opiannsann n 1o1 hepnop caxoy1neppae1cn na pinxe, no
nosxono n ee paspeenne na necxoixo opiannsann, 1.x. nnoen1i
nnnn1cn nan6oee xpyhnixn opiannsannxn, oxasinanmnxn
cninoe nnnnne na pinounyn cn1yann. osxono n o6oc1penne
xonxypen1non 6opi6i, nnnonanonnon haccnnnoc1n, conaino
hcnxooinuecxon nahpnennoc1n, u1o hpnnopn1 x 6anxpo1c1ny, oxa-
sinanmexy nnnnne xax na xonoxnxy peinona, 1ax n io6ainie
xonoxnuecxne o1nomennn c1pani n pae xnpa. Ho1oxy n na pe-
inonainox, n na iocypapc1nennox yponnnx neo6xopnxi xon1poi n
peiynponanne pen1einoc1n 1nx opiannsann.
Hapcnnc ue1nep1in hepexopnin hepnop, xapax1epnsynmnn-
cn yxypmennex xnoinx nanenmnx hoxasa1een nsnepen1einoc1n
opiannsann. Opnaxo na 1ox 1ahe eme nosxoen oh1nxainin ni-
xop hocpepc1nox cnc1exi iocypapc1nennoio peiynponannn, nahpan-
Mcucdcun

78
ennon na ospoponenne o6meio conainoxonoxnuecxoio pasnn-
1nn opiannsann.
Hcxnp hn1in hepexopnin hepnop, xapax1epnsynmnncn
oxonua1einix pasnaox n nxnnpanen opiannsann. 1o6i 1oio
ne hponsomo, xapan opiannsann pona c1pexn1icn x paspa6o1xe
1axon conainoxonoxnuecxon hon1nxn n c1pa1einn, xo1opie
hosnon1 en hoppepnna1i xonxypen1ochoco6noc1i. Hoppo6nee cx.
[1, C.101124].
nac1onmee npexn n 1eopnn n hpax1nxe xenepxen1a cymec1-
nyn1 pasnunie xaccnqnxann 1nhon opiannsann, nahpnxep:
I. Ho nsanxopenc1nnn c nnemnen cpepon:
1. Mexannc1nuecxnn 1nh opiannsann (c1xan nepapxnn nac1n
n opiannsann, py1nnnan 1exnooinn);
2. Opiannuecxnn 1nh opiannsann (ne py1nnnan 1exnooinn, na-
hpnxep hponsnopc1no ex1ponnxn);
II. Ho nsanxopenc1nnn hoppaspeennn:
1. Tpapnnonnan opiannsann (nnenno-qynxnonainie cxexi);
2. jnnnsnonainan opiannsann (o1peenuecxne cxexi);
3. Ma1pnunan opiannsann (yhpanenne ho hpoex1y, npexennie
eenie ipyhhi, hoc1onnnie xoxhexcnie ipyhhi);
III. Ho nsanxopenc1nnn c ueonexox:
1. Kophopa1nnnan opiannsann (oco6an cnc1exa cnnsn xepy
npixn n hpoecce conxec1non pen1einoc1n);
2. Inpnnnpyanc1nuecxan opiannsann (hpana ne1o);
IV. Honoe n 1nhax opiannsann:
1. pxoxpa1nuecxan opiannsann (xoxhe1en1noc1i hepconaa);
2. Mnoioxepnan opiannsann (iannan ei pasnn1ne xnoio-
xepnon opiannsann n ee hepconaa);
3. Hap1ncnha1nnnan opiannsann (nepapxnn n pexoxpa1nn);
4. Hpephpnnnxa1eicxan opiannsann (hepenepny1an hnpaxnpa);
5. Opiannsann, opnen1nponannan na pinox (pnnnxan pinxox);

npi opiannsanonnix c1pyx1yp yhpanennn n hpnnnhi ho-
c1poennn c1pyx1ypi yhpanennn xax coc1annnman o6men xoneh-
nn opiannsann paccxo1peni n iane 3. 3.2.
conpexennix yconnnx c1xon xonxypen1non 6opi6i n
c1pexn1eino nsxennnmencn cn1yann opiannsannx neo6xopnxo
nipa6a1ina1i poiocpounyn c1pa1einn yhpanennn.


Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

79
2.2. C1pa1erauecxoe ynpaaneaae opraaasaqae

C1pa1crnn nprannaannn 1o ienepainin han penc1nnn, oh-
pepennmnn hpnopn1e1i c1pa1einuecxnx sapau, pecypci n hocepona-
1einoc1i penc1nnn ho poc1nennn c1pa1einuecxnx een opiannsa-
nn. Iannan sapaua c1pa1einn hepenop opiannsann ns hooennn
pannoio xoxen1a n 6ypymee hooenne, eaexoe pyxonopc1nox.
ospac1anne xonxypennn sa xonoxnuecxne pecypci, io6an-
sann 6nsneca; c1pexn1einoe pasnn1ne xoxhin1epnix 1exnooinn,
panmee nosxonoc1i xinonenno hepepana1i n hoyua1i nnqopxann;
nsxenenne pon 1pyponix pecypcon nce 1o hpnneo x cymec1nennoxy
nospac1annn snauennn c1pa1einuecxoio yhpanennn n namen c1pane.
C1pa1einuecxoe yhpanenne
1
n coo1ne1c1nnn c ns6pannix o6:-
ex1ox xoe1 6i1i:
xophopa1nnnix c1pa1einn opiannsann n eox;
6nsnecc1pa1einuecxnx c1pa1einn o1peinoio c1pa1einue-
cxoio hoppaspeennn opiannsann;
qynxnonainoc1pa1einuecxnx c1pa1einn qynxnonai-
non soni opiannsann.
Hpepxe1ox c1pa1einuecxoio yhpanennn nnne1cn pemenne
cepynmnx ocnonnix hpo6ex, cnnsannix c:
* ienepainix na 6ypymee honimennex qqex1nnnoc1n ee
pen1einoc1n;
* hpno6pe1ennex nonoio pn opiannsann 1exnooinuecxoio
o6opyponannn, hpniamennex 6oee xnanqnnponannix chena-
nc1on n 1.h.;
* nexon1ponpyexixn nnemnnxn qax1opaxn, iannix o6pasox,
qononoio oxpyennn.

Chenanc1i n namen c1pane n nac1onmee npexn nipenn1 pna
nahpanennn pasnn1nn c1pa1einuecxoio yhpanennn opiannsanen:
1. Ieiynpnoe c1pa1einuecxoe yhpanenne pasnn1ne c1pa1einue-
cxoio hannponannn, nxnuanmee hopcnc1exy anansa n hannponannn
c1pa1einn n hopcnc1exy peansann c1pa1einn;

1
Tepxnn c1pa1einn hponsome o1 ipeuecxoio strategos, ncxycc1no ienepa-
a. Ixenno strategos hosnono Aexcanppy Maxeponcxoxy sanoena1i xnp.
[16,C.257]. Conocoue1anne c1pa1einuecxoe yhpanenne 6io nnepeno n n-
1epa1ypy na c1ixe 60-70-x ii. pn o1paennn o1nunn yhpanennn, ocymec1n-
nexoio na nicmex yponne o1 1exymeio yhpanennn na yponne hponsnopc1na
[6, C.182].
Mcucdcun

80
2. C1pa1einuecxoe yhpanenne n peainox xacm1a6e npexenn
pemenne neonpanno nosnnxmnx c1pa1einuecxnx sapau.

Hen1painix xoxen1ox c1pa1einuecxoio yhpanennn opiann-
sanen nnne1cn ni6op c1pa1einn hoce anansa nnemnnx ohacno-
c1en n nonix nosxonoc1en.
Ocnonnie qax1opi, nnnnmne na ni6op c1pa1einn:
* nnp 6nsneca n oco6ennoc1n o1pacn, n xo1opon qynxnonn-
pye1 opiannsann;
* c1a6ninoc1i peonoio n qononoio oxpyennn;
* xapax1ep een n ennoc1en pyxonopc1na opiannsann;
* yponeni pncxa n eio pohyc1nxoc1i;
* cninie n ca6ie c1oponi opiannsann n ee nny1pennnn
c1pyx1ypa;
* ohi1 peansann hpepipymnx c1pa1einn;
* qax1op npexenn.

Hoppo6nee o cymnoc1n c1pa1einn cx. [16, C. 257268].
Opiannsann ocymec1nne1 oxonua1einin ni6op c1pa1einn
ns necxoixnx c1pa1einuecxnx ai1epna1nn.
C1pa1crnwccnc ann1cpna1nnm 1o na6op pasnunix uac1-
nix c1pa1einn, hosnonnmnx poc1nui c1pa1einuecxne en opiann-
sann n paxxax ns6pannon 6asonon c1pa1einn n oipannuennn na nc-
hoisonanne nxenmnxcn xonoxnuecxnx pecypcon (cx. pnc. 2.8.).
Hoce ni6opa c1pa1einn yhpanennn opiannsanen neo6xopn-
xa peansann 1on c1pa1einn, 1o ec1i nnp yhpanenuecxon pen1ei-
noc1n, 1pe6ynmen snaun1einix ycnnn n sa1pa1 npexenn.
Ocnonnie hpoecci n 1exnooinn n c1pa1einuecxox yhpane-
nnn opiannsanen:
1. jnnaxnsx n hpnxenennn xonoxnuecxnx pecypcon, pean-
sann nnnonanonnix hpoipaxx;
2. Ichoisonanne hpoipaxxnoeenix hopxopon n 1exnooinnx
paspa6o1xn n peansann yhpanenuecxnx pemennn;
3. Oco6an uync1nn1einoc1i x qax1opy npexenn n hpoeccax
yhpanennn, n ocymec1nennn cnoenpexennix penc1nnn ho pnnaxnxe
cn1yann;
4. Honimenne nnnxannn x hpepnapn1einix n hocepynmnx
oenxax yhpanenuecxnx pemennn n ni6opa ai1epna1nn honepennn
n pen1einoc1n.
5. Hpnxenenne an1nxpnsncnoio xpn1epnn xauec1na pemennn
hpn nx paspa6o1xe n peansann.
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

81


Puc. 2.8. Cxcma nnncnnnn 6aannmx n ann1cpna1nnnmx
c1pa1crnn ynpanncnnn nprannaanncn


Axepnxancxne yuenie . He1epcon n . Hoyxen an1opi ns-
nec1non xnnin Opiannsann 6nsneca n xenepxen1 cnnsinan1
c1pa1einuecxoe yhpanenne c painenmen chenansanen xenep-
xen1a n nipenn1 6 ocnonnix eio nnpon:
1. Hpann1eic1no (eio pen1einoc1i coo1ne1c1nye1 o6mexy honn-
1nn xenepxen1a, xo1n 1epxnn xenepxen1 onn ne yho1pe6nn1).
2. Iocypapc1nennin xenepxen1 (choco6nin penc1nona1i mnpo-
xo n xyppo, n xacm1a6ax nceio iocypapc1na).
3. oennin xenepxen1 (oco6in nnp iocypapc1nennoio xenep-
xen1a).
4. Acconanonnin (xy6nin) xenepxen1.
5. 5nsnecxenepxen1 (oco6in nnp xenepxen1a, o1nuanmnn-
cn o1 hpann1eic1nennoio n iocypapc1nennoio).
6. Menepxen1 n iocypapc1nennon co6c1nennoc1n (chenainin
nnp 6nsnecxenepxen1a).
6A3OBME CTPATEFHH
Orpaaaueaam
poc1
Poc1
Coxpaeaae, ana
c1pa1eras no-
cnepaero cpepc1-
aa
KoMaaapoaaaaas
c1pa1eras
BM6OP
Doppepwxa
c1aanbaoc1a
aaopoM
pononaa1enbamx
pecypcoa

Paccua1aaam
pacx
Yc1paaeaae ana
acnonbsoaaaae
nocnepc1aa
pacxa

Dpo1aaopec1aae
saMepneaam
npoqeccoa
pasaa1as
ARbTEPHATHBM CTPATEFHH YDPABREHHR
Mcucdcun

82
Opnaxo Hn1ep u. jpaxep nic1yhae1 hpo1nn pacmnpn1einoio
1oxonannn honn1nn xenepxen1, cun1an, u1o eio cepye1 hpnxe-
nn1i 1oixo x opiannsann, nihycxanmen hpopyxnn nn oxasi-
nanmen pasnunie nnpi ycyi.
C1pa1einuecxoe yhpanenne mnpoxo hpnxennn1 axepnxan-
cxne xophopann, naunnan c 80x ii. XX n. C1pa1einuecxoe yhpan-
enne 1pe6ye1 cospannn chenainon c1pa1einuecxon c1pyx1ypi, n
coc1an xo1opon nxopn1 o1pe c1pa1einuecxoio pasnn1nn na nicmex
yponne yhpanennn n c1pa1einuecxne xosnnc1nennie en1pi
(CXH). Kapin CXH o6:epnnne1 necxoixo hponsnopc1nennix
hoppaspeennn xophopann, nihycxanmnx opno1nhnyn hpopyx-
nn, 1pe6ynmyn npen1nunix pecypcon n 1exnooinn, nxenmyn
o6mnx xonxypen1on. nco CXH n xophopann, xax hpanno, cy-
mec1nenno xenime unca hponsnopc1nennix hoppaspeennn. Hpn
cospannn CXH 6oimoe snauenne nxee1 hpanninin ni6op nnpa
pen1einoc1n. CXH o1neuae1 sa cnoenpexennyn paspa6o1xy xonxy-
pen1ochoco6non hpopyxnn n ee c6i1. anenmen coc1annon ua-
c1in pa6o1i xophopann nnne1cn c1pa1einuecxoe hannponanne,
nosnnxmee n yconnnx nacimennn pinxa n saxepennn poc1a pnpa
xophopann. C1pa1einuecxoe hannponanne cpepnnae1 c1pexe-
nne pyxonopn1een x hoyuennn xaxcnxainon 1exymen hpn6i-
n n ymep6 pemennn poiocpounix sapau, hosnone1 yc1anonn1i
o6ocnonannie hpnopn1e1i pachpepeennn xax hpanno oipann-
uennix pecypcon n cospae1 6asy pn hpnnn1nn qqex1nnnix
yhpanenuecxnx pemennn.
Hpoecci n 1exnooinn c1pa1einuecxoio yhpanennn n6on
opiannsanen no xnoiox xoiy1 6i1i c1pyx1ypnponani, n nnx cyme-
c1nennyn poi 6ype1 nipa1i hoompenne hepconaa sa ennie hpep-
oennn ho nipa6o1xe nonon c1pa1einn, paspa6o1xe nonix pinxon
c6i1a, cnc1exi hannponannn. Hocepnee 6ype1 hoppo6no paccxo1-
peno n hapaipaqe 3.1., no hpepe xpa1xo osnaxoxnxcn c ipyhhaxn n
nx snaunxoc1in n opiannsann.


2.3. OopManbame a aeqopManbame
rpynnm a opraaasaqaa

M. Mecxon, M. Ai6ep1, u. Xepoypn n xnnie Ocnoni xenep-
xen1a cepnn 3apy6enin xonoxnuecxnn yue6nnx 1ax ohpepen-
n1 honn1ne ipyhha: pna na nn 6oee, xo1opie nsanxopenc1nyn1
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

83
ppyi c ppyiox 1axnx o6pasox, u1o xapoe no nnne1 na ppyioio
(ppyinx) n nchi1inae1 na ce6e eio nnnnne [16, C.683].
O1euec1nennie an1opi cun1an1, u1o ipyhha 1o conoxyh-
noc1i npen, o6:epnnennix o6mnoc1in nn1epecon, hpoqeccnn,
pen1einoc1n. Lc1i n ppyine 6oee hpoc1pannie ohpepeennn.
Ipyhhi xaccnqnnpyn1 na:
* qopxainie chenaino cqopxnponannie pyxonopc1nox
hoc1pepc1nox opiannsanonnoio hpoecca. Hein qopxainon
ipyhhi, xax hpanno, nnne1cn nihonenne xaxoion6o xonxpe1no-
io sapannn;
* neqopxainie chon1anno nosnnxanmne ipyhhi npen,
peiynpno nc1yhanmne no nsanxopenc1nne pn poc1nennn conxe-
c1non en.

Opiannsann n ee hoppaspeennn 1axe nnnn1cn ipyhha-
xn. eni ipyhhi paspa6a1inan1 hpnexexie pn nnx hpanna,
yc1anonxn, ennoc1n n onpannn n nohpocax, cnnsannix c honn-
xannex honepenuecxon nopxi, 1.e. c1anpap1on honepennn. ex n
6oimen c1ehenn pa6o1nnx opiannsann enn1 hpnnapenoc1i
x ipyhhe, 1ex apexna1nee eio honepenne.


Puc. 2.9. Knaccnqnannn rpynn nprannaannn

Koxanpa xoex1nn co1pypnnxon opiannsann nn c1pyx-
1ypnoio hoppaspeennn, pa6o1anmnx xax epnnoe eoe, hponnnn-
mnx xaxcnxyx nnnna1nni n o1ne1c1nennoc1n.
Ipyhha pyxonopn1een xoe1 coc1on1i ns pnpex1opa n 6n-
anmnx eio saxec1n1een nn ns ienepainoio xenepepa n ian-
nix xenepepon ho hpopyx1onoxy hpnnnhy n 1.h. sanncnxoc1n o1
nihonnexix qynxnn n nepapxnn pyxonopn1en xoiy1 6i1i nic-
meio, cpepneio n nnsonoio snenien.
OPFAHH3AHR
OopManbame rpynnm HeqopManbame rpynnm
Fpynnb
pykoaopn:ene
Ueneabe
(paoune) rpynnb
KoMn:e:b KoMaupb
Mcucdcun

84
Heenan ipyhha (pa6ouan) coc1on1 ns nchonn1een, o6:epn-
nennix pn nihonennn xonxpe1noio sapannn.
Koxn1e1 xoeinainin opian, pyxonopnmnn xaxonn6o
pen1einoc1in. Heenon xoxn1e1 npexennan ipyhha, cospannan pn
poc1nennn xonxpe1non en.
Ha pesyi1a1nnnoc1i pen1einoc1n xax qopxainix, 1ax n ne-
qopxainix ipyhh oxasinan1 nospenc1nne cepynmne, xax hpanno,
opnn n 1e e qax1opi:
Hnpcp - nanune cninoio pyxonopn1en;
Bcnnwnna rpynnm unco ee uenon, c poc1ox xo1opoio yc-
onne1cn o6menne, a nny1pn 6oimon ipyhhi xoe1 cqopxnpo-
na1icn nonan, hpecepynman co6c1nennie en. Oh1nxainin pas-
xep ipyhhi o1 5 po 11 ueonex;
Cxnxcc1n nn paannwnc wncnnn rpynnm, nxenmnx co6c1nen-
nyn 1ouxy spennn na pasnunie yhpanenuecxne pemennn n uex onn
nnpnnnpyainee, 1ex oh1nxainee 6ype1 hpnnn1oe pemenne, 1.x.
xnoec1no 1ouex spennn n paspa6o1xa hepchex1nn pasnn1nn opiann-
sann nceipa hosn1nnni;
Hnpmm nnncpcnnn, hpnnn1ie ipyhhon, oxasinan1 cninoe
nnnnne na honepenne xapoio uena xoex1nna, a 1axe na 1o, n xaxox
nahpanennn 6ype1 pa6o1a1i ipyhha: na poc1nenne een opiannsa-
nn nn na xonqpon1ann. Hopxi xoiy1 nxe1i hosn1nnnyn n neia-
1nnnyn nahpanennoc1i, nahpnxep, hoompn1i noponc1no, hpoiyi, ne-
xonc1pyx1nnnyn xpn1nxy pyxonopn1een opiannsann n 1.h.

Ipyhhonie nopxi xono xaccnqnnpona1i, nahpnxep, 1a-
xnx o6pasox:
1. Ioppoc1i sa opiannsann n cospanne o1nunoio nxnpa;
2. joc1nenne een opiannsann hpn xnnnxyxe sa1pa1;
3. Copenc1nne n hoyuennn xaxcnxaino nosxonon hpn6in;
4. Koex1nnnin 1pyp n poc1 eio hponsnopn1einoc1n;
5. Hannponanne n oh1nxainan xo1nnann 1pypa;
6. Kon1poi ncex achex1on pen1einoc1n opiannsann;
7. Hpoqeccnonainan hopio1onxa xappon;
8. Innonann n nnpe nonon hpopyxnn (ycyin), nonoio 1exnooin-
uecxoio hpoecca n 1.p.;
9. O1nomenne c peonix oxpyennex, pacmnpenne pinxon
c6i1a;
10. Hopnpounoc1i, uec1noc1i n sa6o1a o uenax ipyhhi.

Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

85
Cnnnwcnnnc1n rpynnm xepa hpn1nennn ppyi x ppyiy n x
ipyhhe n eox, 1.x. chouennan ipyhha pa6o1ae1 6oee qqex1nnno,
nxee1 xenime nepaspemnxix hpo6ex n o6mennn, nahpnennoc1n,
npape6noc1n, neponepnn.
Ipynnnnnc cpnnnmmcnnc 1enpennn hopanennn nsinpon c
1ex, u1o6i ne napyma1i iapxonnn ipyhhi, no 1o, xax hpanno, hpnno-
pn1 x 1oxy, u1o yhpanenuecxoe pemenne hpnnnxae1cn xenee qqex-
1nnnoe, 1.x. ncn neo6xopnxan nnqopxann n ai1epna1nnnie napnan1i
ne o6cypan1cn n ne oennnan1cn. Hpn ipyhhonox epnnoxicnn pac-
1e1 nepon1noc1i hpnnn1nn hocpepc1nennoio yhpanenuecxoio pemennn.
Knnqnn1nnc1n 1o hpoecc, n xo1opox o1peinin uen
ipyhhi c1pexn1cn x poc1nennn co6c1nennix een hocpepc1nox
yc1panennn, hopunnennn ce6e nn ynnu1oennn ppyinx, c1pexnmnx-
cn x ncxopnix enx. Hpnunni xonqnx1a, yhpanenne nx 6ypy1
paccxo1peni n i. 8.
C1a1yc wncnnn rpynnm 1o hpanonoe hooenne, coc1onnne,
ohpepenexoe pnpox qax1opon: c1apmnnc1nox n ponoc1non nepap-
xnn, nasnannex ponoc1n, o6pasonannex, 1aan1axn, nnqopxnponan-
noc1in, hponsnopc1nennix ohi1ox n 1.p. jn hpnnn1nn qqex1nnnix
yhpanenuecxnx pemennn neo6xopnxo hpnaia1i conxec1nie ycnnn
papn o6echeuennn 1oio, u1o6i xnennn uenon ipyhhi, nxenmnx 6oee
nicoxnn c1a1yc, ne poxnnnponan n nen n ne hopannn oc1ainix.
Pnnn wncnnn rpynnm xaccnqnnpyn1cn, nahpnxep, na:
1. Heenie pon pachpepeeni 1ax, u1o6i nxe1i nosxonoc1i o1-
6npa1i ipyhhonie sapaun n nihonn1i nx, a 1axe ocymec1nnn1cn
xooppnnnponanne, o6o6menne.
2. Hoppepnnanmne pon hoppasyxenan1 honepenne, choco6c1-
nynmee hoppepannn n ax1nnnsann pen1einoc1n ipyhhi, nahpn-
xep, hoompenne, o6echeuenne yuac1nn, yc1anonenne xpn1epnen nc-
honn1einoc1n, nipaenne uync1n ipyhhi.

Ocnonnie hpnunni nc1yhennn n ipyhhi xono hpepc1ann1i
n nnpe 6oxon:
* opiannsanonnohponsnopc1nennie;
* conainohcnxooinuecxne;
* xa1epnainie.

uopxnponanne n qynxnonnponanne qopxainix n neqop-
xainix ipyhh n opiannsann hpepc1anne1 co6on pnnaxnunin
hpoecc.
Mcucdcun

86
Isyuenne conainix qax1opon ipyhhonon pnnaxnxn naua-
oci c qax1opnix xchepnxen1on . Mno, xo1opie hosnonn exy
cpea1i xnoio nayunix o1xpi1nn. On hpepc1ann poxasa1eic1na
neo6xopnxoc1n yue1a conainix nsanxoo1nomennn xepy pa6o1-
nnxaxn, 1ax xax xpoxe xonoxnuecxnx ho1pe6noc1en y nnx nosnnxa-
n1 n conainie ho1pe6noc1n, ypone1nopenne xo1opix nepe1 x
nsanxopenc1nnn o1peinix nunoc1en n qopxainix n neqopxai-
nix ipyhhax.
o n1opon hoonnne XX n. nce nac1onunnee c1an 1pe6onannn
pa6o1nnxon ho yyumennn nx conainoxonoxnuecxoio hooe-
nnn. Mnoine 1eope1nxn xenepxen1a hpnmn x y6epennn, u1o pnp
opiannsann ne poc1niae1 cnonx een nssa ninopnponannn hpo1n-
nopeunn 6ic1po xennnmencn conainon cpepi. pesyi1a1e 1oio
honnnaci pox1pnna hponsnopc1nennon pexoxpa1nn (hap1ncnha-
1nnnoe yhpanenne nn pexoxpa1nn na pa6ounx xec1ax), an1opaxn
xo1opon hpnnn1o cun1a1i axepnxancxnx conooion j. Koya n
A. Iopa. Onn hpeponn yhpanenne opiannsanen ocymec1nn1i
hocpepc1nox hponsnopc1nennix cone1on, xon1ponpyexix pa6ounxn,
hpepoc1anenne nx hpana cospana1i pa6oune ipyhhi ho nn1epecax.
Opnaxo pen1einoc1i opiannsann no xnoiox ohpepene1cn
qqex1nnnoc1in qynxnonnponannn qopxainix ipyhh. Ho1oxy
pyxonopn1en conpexennix opiannsann c1pexn1cn x qopxnpona-
nnn xoxanpi hpoqeccnonaonepnnoximennnxon. Ho xnennn
chenanc1on xapax1epnc1nxn xoxanpi n ipyhhi pasnuni :
1. xoxanpe npepc1no paspeeno xepy ee uenax, a n ipyhhe,
xax hpanno, opnn npxo nipaennin npep.
2. xoxanpe nunan o1ne1c1nennoc1i pohonne1cn xoex1nnnon,
a n ipyhhe poxnnnpye1 nunan o1ne1c1nennoc1i.
3. xoxanpe hpopyxnn nn ycyin nnnn1cn pesyi1a1ox xo-
ex1nnnon pen1einoc1n, a n ipyhhe nnpnnnpyainon.
4. Koxanpa o6cypae1, hpnnnxae1 pemenne n nihonne1 eio, a
ipyhha o6cypae1, pemae1 n peeinpye1 nihonenne pemennn.

Koxanpa nceipa nnne1cn ipyhhon, no ne ncnxon ipyhhe hpn-
cym xoxanpnin pyx. Koxanpa, xax hpanno, nxee1 6oee nicoxne
pesyi1a1i 1pypa, uex ppyine ipyhhi ncepc1nne 1oio, u1o xapin
uen xoxanpi c1pexn1cn x poc1nennn o6men en, ue1xo nihonn-
e1 cnon o6nsannoc1n, nsanxopenc1nye1 c ppyinxn co1pypnnxaxn pn
xooppnnann conxec1non pen1einoc1n n cun1ae1 ce6n uac1in eo-
io. pesyi1a1e nosnnxae1 cnnepie1nuecxnn qqex1 sa cue1 nny1-
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

87
pennnx nsanxocnnsen, hpepannoc1n pey, coiaconannoc1n penc1nnn,
ponepnn ppyi ppyiy, co1pypnnuec1na, opnnx ennoc1en. eni xo-
xanpi xoiy1 pa6o1a1i nnpnnnpyaino n pasnix hoxemennnx n o6-
ma1icn hocpepc1nox ex1ponnix cpepc1n cnnsn.
qqex1nnnan xoxanpnan pen1einoc1n hpephoaiae1 yue1 na-
nonainix oco6ennoc1en hpn qopxnponannn xoxanpi n poc1a1ou-
no nicoxoio yponnn speoc1n n hpoqeccnonansxa [17, C.205 206].


2.4. Ha1epae1-aaxya1op xax aoaas
pns Poccaa qopMa opraaasaqaa

nauae XXI nexa n Ioccnn honnnaci n cqepe nnqopxanon-
nix 1exnooinn nonan qopxa opiannsann-In1epne1-nnxy6a1op.
Hn1cpnc1 - Hny6a1np 1o sneno nn uac1i xon1ponpyexon
n In1epne1e cpepi, o6echeunnanmen sa6o1y, nipamnnanne n sa-
mn1y nonix opiannsann na caxon pannen c1apnn nx c1anonennn
nho1i po o6pe1ennn nxn caxoc1on1einoio pasnn1nn.
Hn1cpnc1-nny6a1np (Internet-incubator) hpepe nceio nen-
uypnan nnnec1nnonnan opiannsann, ein xo1opon nnne1cn ycxo-
pennan hopio1onxa n 6ic1pin ninop na pinox In1epne1-xoxhannn
n nx hpoex1on.
In1epne1-nnxy6a1op nnne1cn pasnonnpnoc1in 6nsnec-
nnxy6a1opa.
Ha ceiopnnmnnn peni n xnpe nacun1inae1cn hpnxepno oxoo
1icnun In1epne1-nnxy6a1opon.
Iannie hpnunni honnennn n Ioccnn In1epne1-nnxy6a1opon-1o:
1. Cospanne 6oee conepmennix xoxhin1epnix n 6no-1exno-
oinn;
2. \nenuenne snauennn penei n xauec1ne 1onapa:
3. Ioc1 o6:xon nenuypnix qonpon.

Knaccnqnannn Hn1cpnc1-nny6a1npnn.

nac1onmee npexn chenanc1i hpepaian1 cepynmyn xac-
cnqnxann In1epne1-nnxy6a1opon:
1. enuypnie In1epne1 - nnxy6a1opi. (Ix hpnxepno 54% o1
o6meio unca ncex In1epne1-nnxy6a1opon).
2. enuypnie axceepa1opi. ( Oxoo 38%) .
3. enuypnie hop1ai 4%.
4. Ce1enie In1epne1-nnxy6a1opi 4% . (Cx. pnc. 2.10).
Mcucdcun

88
54% 38%
4%
4%
Beuypuue uukyafopu
Beuypuue akcenepafopu
Beuypuue nopfanu
Cefeeue uukyafopu


Puc. 2.10. narpamma naccnqnannn Hn1cpnc1-nny6a1npnn

In1epne1-nnxy6a1opi pasnuan1cn na6opox n copepannex
oxasinaexix nxn ycyi. Ipanni xepy pasnixn nnpaxn necixa
pasxi1i, a nx co6c1nennoe nanxenonanne uac1o ne oueni honn1no.
Bcnwypnmc Hn1cpnc1-nny6a1npm caxin pachpoc1panennin
nnp. Onn hpepoc1annn1 nan6oee honin chex1p ycyi, a nxenno:
oqncnan nnqpac1pyx1ypa (hoxemenne, xe6ei, oqncnan 1ex-
nnxa, xoxhin1epi, nny1pennnn ce1i, nnemnnn cnnsi, poc1yh n In-
1epne1, xonqepen-sai n ppyine ycyin);
6x-oqnc (xnanqnnponannin hepcona, 1exnnuecxan hop-
pepxa, conpexennoe HO n 1.h.);
1exnooinuecxan hoppepxa (hoxomi xchep1on, hoc1anonxa
cnc1exi xenepxen1a, pasnn1ne nn1eex1yainon co6c1nennoc1n);
xonca1nnionan hoppepxa (xax co6c1nennixn pecypcaxn In-
1epne1-nnxy6a1opa, 1ax n hocpepc1nox hpnneuennn o1pacenix xc-
hep1on);
ycyin ho o6yuennn (nxnuan c1anponxn n pasnix opiannsan-
nx, honimenne yponnn xoxhe1ennn xenepepon n ppyinx chenan-
c1on);
npnpnuecxne n xxay1nnionie ycyin;
yhpanenne 1pyponixn pecypcaxn (honcx n nanx 1pe6yexix
xnuenix chenanc1on);
son1nunin 6pnp In1epne1-nnxy6a1opa n cymec1nynmne cnn-
sn (nahpnxep, hpn nsanxopenc1nnn c nenuypnixn nnnec1opaxn, op-
ianaxn iocypapc1nennon nac1n, anaoinunixn xpyhnixn opiann-
sannxn xonoxnuecxn pasnn1ix c1pan xnpa).
Bcnwypnmn accncpa1np n 6oimen c1ehenn cepnncnan xox-
hannn, oxasinanman hoxomi naunnanmnx opiannsannx n ce-
pynmnx cqepax:
xoncyi1anonnie ycyin ho hopio1onxe 6nsnec-hana, xapxe-
1nniy n hosnnonnponannn hpoex1a, ninepennn na pinox
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

89
copenc1nne n hpoecce 1ma1einoio osnaxoxennn c ho1enn-
ainix nenuypnix nn ppyinxn nnnec1opaxn;
nnpi cepnnca, xo1opie neo6xopnxi naunnanmen opiannsa-
nn n sa xo1opie ona pachaunnae1cn co6c1nennixn axnnxn.

Inoipa axceepa1opi hpepoc1annn1 n oqncnyn nnqpac1pyx-
1ypy nn nnie nnpi cepnnca, 6oee cnonc1nennie nenuypnix In-
1epne1-nnxy6a1opax. 1ox cyuae 1axne axceepa1opi, xax hpann-
o, nnnn1cn c1pyx1ypnixn hoppaspeennnxn nenuypnix qonpon
nn xonca1nnionix opiannsann.

Bcnwypnmn nnp1an.
Hpepc1anne1 co6on In1epne1 - nn xc1pane1-can1, o6:epn-
nnnmnn coo6mec1no naunnanmnx n ohi1nix In1epne1-
hpephpnnnxa1een, xoncyi1an1on n nnnec1opon.
1o1 can1 hosnone1 hpephpnnnxa1enx hpepc1ann1i nnnec1o-
pax cnon 6nsnec-hani, hoyun1i hoxomi n nx ponopxe, a nnnec1o-
pax nan1n xopomne nosxonoc1n pn nnnec1nponannn.
Cc1cnmc Hn1cpnc1-nny6a1npm.
Ix c 6oimon poen yconnoc1n nasinan1 icmen nion
In1epne1-nnxy6a1opon. Kax hpanno, onn hpepc1annn1 co6on coue-
1anne co6c1nenno nenuypnix qonpon n yhpannnmen xoxhannn.
hoisy 1on 1ouxn spennn ionopn1 1o1 qax1, u1o caxin npxnn hpep-
c1ann1ei 1axon xa1eiopnn In1epne1-nnxy6a1opon CMGI pacho-
aiae1 nnnec1nnonnix qonpox n pasxepe 1 xpp. poapon CHA.
Ixen 1axon penenin qonp, CMGI ne pasxennnae1cn na xeoun, a
ocymec1nne1 nnnec1nnn n1opoio-1pe1ieio xpyia, uac1o nic1yhan n
xauec1ne c1pa1einuecxoio nnnec1opa. Ho1oxy CMGI uac1o pa6o1ae1 c
opiannsannxn, naxopnmnxncn n pasnix iopopax, hoxeman n In-
1epne1-nnxy6a1op 1oixo pa6ouyn ipyhhy nn hoppaspeenne nnxy-
6npyexon opiannsann.
Cymec1nyn1 n ppyine xaccnqnxann Inepne1-nnxy6a1opon.
Hahpnxep:
1. ep1nxainie nn o1pacenie In1epne1-nnxy6a1opi. K
nnx o1nocn1cn In1epne1-nnxy6a1opi, chenansnpynmnecn na
nipamnnannn opiannsann, hpnnapeamnx opnoxy nep1nxai-
noxy pinxy. Hahpnxep, pinxy xo6ninon xoxxepnn. 1axox In-
Mcucdcun

90
1epne1-nnxy6a1ope xoiy1 naxopn1icn opiannsann, sannxanmnecn
nnqpac1pyx1ypnixn paspa6o1xaxn (nahpnxep na yponne hpo1o-
xoon hepepaun nnqopxann, o6echeuennn 6esohacnoc1n). A 1axe
opiannsann, chenansnpynmnecn na xo6ninox xon1en1e n hpo-
paax uepes xo6ninie yc1ponc1na poc1yha.
2. 3axpi1ie In1epne1-nnxy6a1opi, opnen1nponannie na xop-
hopa1nnie npen. ame nceio x 1on ipyhhe o1nocn1cn In1epne1-
nnxy6a1opi cospannie hpn yuac1nn xpyhnix 1pancnanonainix
xophopann. Onn sannxan1cn pasnn1nex opiannsann, cospannix
nny1pn 1nx xophopann, na 6ase nx nny1pennnx npen. jpyinx na-
pnan1ox ohopi na nny1pennne npen nnnn1cn In1epne1-
nnxy6a1opi, chenansnpynmnecn na xoxhannnx 1nha 2. Lcn 1n
nnxy6a1opi opiannsyn1cn npixn, nnnnmnxncn xchep1axn n xa-
xon-1o oqqannonon o6ac1n 6nsneca, nhone hpepc1annn1 1e nos-
xonoc1n, xo1opie xoe1 pa1i 1oxy 6nsnecy yhpomenne n nn1en-
cnqnxann o6xena nnqopxanen. \ nnx honnne1cn nosxonoc1i na
6ase co6c1nennix npen qopxnpona1i xoxanpi paspa6o1unxon, hpn-
nexa1i xnanqnnponannix xenepepon n ocymec1nn1i o6mnn
napsop sa nx pa6o1on.

Cnnpancnnpnan nnn cnnpannnan mnpcnn Hn1cpnc1-
nny6a1npa a npna na mnpcncn nncnn npnnnca1cnnnnc1n npn-
c1nn.

j. 5onpapen cun1ae1, u1o xapin In1epne1-hpephpnnnxa1ei,
hpn eannn xoe1 hpnxenn1i 1y xopei pn oenxn cnoeio hpo-
ex1a eme po 1oio, xax o6pa1n1cn c hpepoennex n In1epne1-
nnxy6a1op.
1a xopei pexonc1pnpye1 1nhonon hpoecc pasnn1nn In1ep-
ne1-hpoex1a, pae1 nosxonoc1i yuec1i 1axne qax1opi, xax eio nnne-
c1nnonnan hpnnexa1einoc1i, nepon1noc1i ypaunix hepeionopon
o6 nnnec1nponannn, c1eheni ychemnoc1n xoxanpi hpoex1a n 1.p.
Mopei hosnone1 c1anpap1nsnpona1i ohncanne hpoex1a n ynnpe1i
6ypymee cnoeio hpoex1a. (Inc. 2.11). Koneuno, xax n n6an xopei,
ona pa1 hpepc1anenne 1oixo o6 o6men 1enpennn, 1ax xax n nsnn
ne 6inae1 sac1inmeio na opnon 1ouxe hpoex1a. Hahpnxep, xaxan-1o
uac1i hpoex1a xoe1 naxopn1icn n 1ouxe A, a xaxan-1o n 1ouxe .
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

91


Puc. 2.11. Cnnpancnnpnan mnpcnn Hn1cpnc1-nny6a1npa.

Ohncanne xopen:

1.Cocmonnue noexma mouxe A (naua:tnou mouxe cnua:u)
Hpoex1 naxopn1cn na nauainox yponne ec1i npen, ipyhha
paspa6o1unxon, o1cy1c1nye1 nohomenne, ne1 ho1pe6n1een.
1ox cyuae ipyhha hpoex1a io1ona yc1yhn1i snaun1einyn
pon n hpoex1e, nsnn ce6e oueni nexnoio nho1i po necxoixnx
hpoen1on.
Hennoc1i hpoex1a n 1on 1ouxe caxan nnsxan.
Hop ennoc1in hpoex1a honnxae1cn eio ennoc1i pn nnne-
c1opa, xax xopomnn choco6 noennn penei.
Mcucdcun

92
2.Cocmonnue noexma mouxe B
Ipyhha hpoex1a poc1nia 1ex een, xo1opie c1anna hepep co-
6on n caxox nauae. Hpoex1 io1on x sahycxy, ipyhha hpoex1a c1aa
xoxanpon.
1ox cyuae, napeii hpoex1a ne oueni-1o cxonni pacc1a-
na1icn c 6oimon poen n hpoex1e, hocxoixy cun1an1, u1o 1ehepi
onn nhone chpann1cn caxn n xo1n1 honna1i hopi cnonx ycnnn,
nn c xex ne penci. jon n hpoex1e, na xo1opyn onn hpe1enpyn1 n
hpoecce hepeionopon c nnnec1opaxn, c1pexn1cn x epnnne .

3.Cocmonnue noexma mouxe A
apeii hpoex1a c1oxnynci c hpo6exaxn n hpoecce pas-
nn1nn hpoex1a, nnpn1 eio ca6ie c1oponi n nxen1 nonin han sna-
un1einoio ycxopennn pasnn1nn hpoex1a. ac1o n 1o1 xoxen1 xo-
noxnuecxne pecypci, sa cue1 xo1opix po cnx hop poc hpoex1, ncuep-
hani.
1ox cyuae napeii hpoex1a ohn1i io1oni pacc1a1icn co
snaun1einon poen n hpoex1e pn 1oio, u1o6i nxe1i nosxonoc1i
cpea1i cepynmnn mai.
Iasnny n ennoc1n hpoex1a n 1ouxax A n A xono nasna1i
eme n pacc1onnnex xepy nn1xaxn chnpan, xo1opan o1paae1
choco6noc1i xoxanpi pasnnna1i hpoex1.

4.Cocmonnue mouxe B
apeii hpoex1a cnona ninen hpoex1 na nonin yponeni, xo1n1
peansona1i cnon ychex, no ne cxonni hpnnnxa1i xoio-1o n pon.
Hnnnn poenoio yuac1nn nainpno hoxasinan1, u1o chnpai
naxonnan: ho xepe ynenuennn ennoc1n hpoex1a (pnnennn ho
chnpan nnepx) 1ouxn A n cnnxponno cxeman1cn nhpano, pexonc1-
pnpyn ocosnanne xoxanpon hpoex1a eio ennoc1n n, coo1ne1c1nenno,
nx c1pexenne oc1ann1i sa co6on nosxono 6oimyn pon n nex.
Han6oee nn1epecnan o6ac1i, n xo1opon In1epne1-
nnxy6a1opy xax nenuypnoxy nnnec1opy nan6oee niiopno pa6o1a1i.
Hanxenee nn1epecnan o6ac1i coo1ne1c1nenno n xo1opon
ne niiopno pa6o1a1i.
Hanxenonanne 1on uac1n chnpan, na xo1opon naxopn1cn hpo-
ex1 (nahpnxep hepnan hoonnna hepnoio nn1xa) hosnone1 u1xo n
xpa1xo pa1i o6mee ohncanne 1oio hpoex1a n nchoisyexon cnc1exe
xooppnna1. Kax n6an xopei ona hoxasinae1 nmi poxnnnpynmyn
1enpennn.
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

93
Hpn ncen hpoc1o1e 1on xopen, ona hosnone1 pea1i apexna1-
nie hpoinosi o1nocn1eino hepchex1nn pasnn1nn 6ypymnx nsanxo-
o1nomennn c hpoex1nixn ipyhhaxn, hpepaianmnxn cnon npen pn
In1epne1-nnxy6nponannn.

Cncpyc1 n1mc1n1n ncn1npmc ncra1nnnmc mnmcn1m Hn1cp-
nc1-nny6a1npa:
1. Ienepa1opi npen ne nceipa xoiy1 samn1n1i cno noy-xay, xo-
1opoe onn ponepnn In1epne1-nnxy6a1opy, o1 necanxnonnponan-
noio, xnoioxpa1noio nchoisonannn, o1uypennn npen.
2. Hpephpnnnxa1en, o6pa1nnmnecn n In1epne1-nnxy6a1op,
xoiy1 nchi1a1i hcnxooinuecxnn pncxoxqop1, nahpnxep, 6ec1ax1-
nie qopxynponxn, a6c1pax1noc1i o6pamennn n 1.h.
3. Hoc1onnnie nnqopxanonnie hepeipysxn, c1xan hpnnns-
xa x xoxhin1epy, hpenpamenne hpephpnnnxa1en n nnn1nx oi-
poxnon nnqopxanonnon cnc1exi.
4. Isnmne pe1ansnponannin xon1poi, ynenunnanmnn na-
hpnennoc1i pen1einoc1n hpephpnnnxa1en, cospanmnn nepnos-
nyn o6c1anonxy.
5. 3ahycx n In1epne1 nexoppex1non nnqopxann o hpephpn-
nnxa1ee.

B ncnnm Hn1cpnc1-nny6a1np nnan1nncn, 1.. cnncn6cn:
1. \cnn1i nn1eex1 hpephpnnnxa1en, o6napyn1i 6oimoe
unco hpo6ex, 1ma1einee anansnpona1i hpnunni nx nosnnxnone-
nnn, copepanne, ni6npa1i nan6oee qqex1nnnie napnan1i peme-
nnn pasnix conix nohpocon n sapau.
2. sn1i na ce6n o6pa6o1xy 6oimoio o6:xa nnqopxann n
hpnxenn1i e ne 1oixo pn xoncyi1nponannn, no n pn o6yuennn, n
1ox unce n xpea1nnnoio.
3. \cxopn1i pen1einoc1i hpephpnnnxa1en c xenimen nepo-
n1noc1in pasnunix omn6ox.
4. K hap1npc1ny n cnnepinn - coc1onnnn, hpn xo1opox o6:e-
pnnenne ycnnn hpnnopn1 x 6oimexy qqex1y, ho1oxy qopxnpo-
nanne ainncon n hap1npcxnx o1nomennn oueni ea1eino.
5. Kyi1nnnpona1i 1aan1i, hpepe nceio 1e, xo1opie naxopn1-
cn n o6ac1n xnuenon xoxhe1ennn opiannsann.
6. Io6ansnpona1i ximenne hpephpnnnxa1een.
Mcucdcun

94
1anm ywac1nn n Hn1cpnc1-nny6a1npc:
1. 3ahonenne anxe1 na can1e;
2. Co6eceponanne;
3. Ieansann hpoex1a;
4. Honcx n naxopenne nonix nnnec1opon;
5. Menepxen1:
* yhpanenne nnqopxanen;
* yhpanenne qnnancaxn;
* xxayn1nni;
* yhpanenne hepconaox n pp.;
6. Bpnpnuecxan hoppepxa.

O6pamam1cn n Hn1cpnc1-nny6a1np n ncnnnnnm:
* 1aan1nnan xoopi hoce oxonuannn nysa;
* speie chenanc1i;
* xyponnxn n my1nnxn.

Heo6xopnxo hoxnn1i, u1o In1epne1-nnxy6a1op 1o nmi
cpepc1no pn poc1nennn en, hpnxenenne xo1opoio pono coo1-
ne1c1nona1i npanc1nennix xpn1epnnx nsnepen1einoc1n ynae-
nnn, coiacnn, po6poea1einoc1n, iyxannsxy. Ocnonon xnnnxn-
sann pncxa n poc1nennn ychexa nnnn1cn npn c nx npenxn, In-
1epne1 n ypaunoe nihonenne pnnaxnunix, nsanxocnnsannix
qynxnn xenepxen1a.


Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

95
Tec1

1. ooo:tnoe ooeounenue eaoan o:n co+ecmnou oen-
me:tnocmu, ocnoannou na ux :uuno+ mooo+ u uno+ uacmuu u
ooeounenuu eeo u:ena+u u+uecmennmx naemx snoco, os+ono
uacmue u muouuecxux :uu 5mo:
a) honie 1onapnmec1na;
6) 1onapnmec1na na nepe;
n) axnonepnie o6mec1na;
i) hponsnopc1nennie xoohepa1nni.

2. Ko++euecxue oeanusauuu 5mo:
a) ho1pe6n1eicxne xoohepa1nni;
6) ynn1apnie hpephpnn1nn;
n) acconann;
i) qonpi.

3. donooe oxenue oeanusauuu 5mo:
a) xonxypen1i;
6) hoc1anmnxn;
n) ho1pe6n1en;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

4. Oeanusauun +oem oxasmamt nenoceocmennoe osoeu-
cmue na oxenue:
a) qononoe;
6) peonoe;
n) nepno (a n 6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

5. Tun oeanusauuu, naxoonueucn na nuxe noooe+a no:uu: na-
sanue:
a) xchepen1;
6) ha1nen1;
n) nnoen1;
i) xoxxy1an1.

6. Hnmmu 5man usnennoeo uux:a oeanusauuu, om:uuamuuucn
ee oecmxmusauueu, nasmaemcn:
a) ha1nen1;
Mcucdcun

96
6) nnoen1;
n) xoxxy1an1;
i) e1aen1.

7. Te+un cmameeun osnauaem cocmanm uacmt oennoeo
ucxccma, neocma:nmum ee mcum o:acmt neeooe c:
a) a1inn;
6) ipeuecxoio;
n) aninncxoio;
i) nexexoio.

8. Cmameeun oeanusauuu ue:o+ nasmaemcn:
a) qynxnonainoc1pa1einuecxon;
6) 6nsnecc1pa1einuecxon;
n) xophopa1nnnon;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

9. Heo+emo+ cmameeuuecxoeo na:enun ne n:nemcn eue-
nue c:eomuux ocnonmx no:e+, cnsannmx c:
a) ienepainixn enxn opiannsann, opnen1nponannix na
6ypymee honimenne qqex1nnnoc1n ee pen1einoc1n;
6) hpno6pe1ennex nonoio pn opiannsann 1exnooinuecxoio
o6opyponannn, hpniamennex 6oee xnanqnnponannix chena-
nc1on n 1.h.;
n) nexon1ponpyexixn nnemnnxn qax1opaxn, iannix o6pa-
sox, qononoio oxpyennn;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

10. Bce ennm oeanusauuu, neoe ceeo, x:accuquuummcn na:
a) qopxainie;
6) neqopxainie;
n) xoxanpi ;
i) xoxn1e1i.

11. K uuc: os+onmx neeamunmx xaaxmeucmux neqo-
+a:tnmx enn ne omnocnm:
a) nosxonoc1i qopxnponannn hpo1nnopeunnix c opiannsan-
en een;
6) oipannuenne nn1encnnnoc1n n pesyi1a1nnnoc1n pen-
1einoc1n;
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

97
n) cohpo1nnenne nsxenennnx n xonqopxnsx;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

12. Heu+uecma na:uuun neqo+a:tnmx enn oeanusa-
uuu 5mo:
a) o6eiuenne naipysxn na xenepxen1;
6) yyumenne xoxxynnxann;
n) cnnenne xonqnx1noc1n;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

13. mom cmanumt neeamunoe u cu:umt nosumunoe
:unnue neqo+a:tnmx enn, xooocm ne ue:ecooasno:
a) hpnsna1i nx cymec1nonanne;
6) yun1ina1i xnenne neqopxainix npepon n uenon ipyhhi;
n) hpnnexa1i neqopxainie ipyhhi x paspa6o1xe n hpnnn-
1nn pemennn;
i) nepno (a+6+n);
p) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

14. Teoun u naxmuxa +eneo+enma neo:aeamm c:eomuue
uom qo+a:tnmx enn:
a) pa6ouan (eenan);
6) pyxonopnman (xoxanpnan);
n) xoxn1e1 (xoxnccnn nn cone1);
i) nepno (a+6+n);
p) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

15. do+a:tnme ennm cex uoo ne +oem cosoaamtcn
c:eomuux oeanusauunx:
a) hpann1eic1nennix;
6) peninosnix;
n) xoxxepuecxnx;
i) nepno (a+6+n);
p) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

16. B cmxme 5xono+uxu Poccuu neo:aoamm xo++eue-
cxue oeanusauuu:
a) pa;
6) ne1.
Mcucdcun

98
17. Kaoan oeanusauun nacmonuee e+n n:nemcn saxm-
mou cucme+ou:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

18. Bnmennnn ceoa oeanusauuu x:accuquuuemcn na o-
uee (qonooe) u oneauuonnoe (oe:ooe) oxenue:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

19. Ko++manm 5mo moou 5man, na xomoo+ oeanusauun
oauno asuaemcn, nooo:aem acmu:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

20. Hexomome a+euxancxue uenme moe:nmm, nanu+e, c:e-
omuue uom +eneo+enma: eocoacmennmu, oennmu, x:nmu:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuue (21-25) onocm:

21.C xaxou ue:tm cosoammcn oeanusauuu ceucnoeo usneca?
22. Kaxue oeanusauuu, xaxux oeanusauuonno naomx
qo+ neo:aoamm Poccuu nacmonuee e+n?
23. Kaxue usnennme uux:m cuecmmm asumuu oeanu-
sauuu?
24. B ue+ nunuunua:tnoe om:uuue uo:enma om 5xcn:eenma?
25. mo neocma:nem coou ennoan ouna+uxa nouecce
na:enun u asumun oeanusauuu?

26.Kaxan cmana m:a unuuuamoo+ cosoanun neoeo +ue
Hnmenem-unxamoa?
a) enxo6pn1annn;
6) I1ann;
n) Ioccnn;
i) CHA.

27. B xaxo+ eoo m: cosoan Poccuu nemu Hnmenem-
unxamo?
a) 1990;
6) 1995;
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

99
n) 2000;
i) 2005.

28. Hon:enue Hnmenem-unxamoa nenoceocmenno cnsa-
no, neoe ceeo, co cneuuquxou mnxa:
a) xoxhin1epon;
6) nicoxnx 1exnooinn;
i) cipienix pecypcon;
p) chenanc1on.

29. Hauo:ee acnocmanennmu uo Hnmenem-unxamoa -
5mo:
a) ce1enie nnxy6a1opi;
6) nenuypnie hop1ai;
n) nenuypnie axceepa1opi;
i) nenuypnie nnxy6a1opi.

30. Ho +nenum eouux occuucxux +eneoeo, ceonuu cox
noooexu noexma Hnmenem-unxamoe, noso:nmuuu ne
mo:txo cmamoamt noexm, no u ocoumt mnox 5mo:
a) 1 xecn;
6) 2-4 xecna;
n) 5-8 xecnen;
i) 9-12 xecnen.




Mcucdcun

100
Dpax1axyM

1. Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm

2.1.1. Kax n conpexennon n1epa1ype ho xenepxen1y ohpepen-
n1 opiannsann xax cnc1exy yhpanennn?
2.1.2. jn ueio cospan1cn opiannsann?
2.1.3. Kaxne hpeo6apan1 opiannsann n c1pyx1ype xonoxnxn
namen c1pani? O6ocnyn1e am o1ne1.
2.1.4. Hasonn1e ue1ipe opiannsanonnohpanonie qopxi xox-
xepuecxnx opiannsann.
2.1.5. Hasonn1e xo1n 6i hn1i 1nhon opiannsann cepnncnoio 6nsneca.
2.1.6. Hpnnepn1e hn1i hpnxepon nexoxxepuecxnx opiannsann.
2.1.7. Kaxon cnc1exon (o1xpi1on nn saxpi1on) nnne1cn opiann-
sann n houexy?
2.1.8. ex peonoe oxpyenne o1nuae1cn o1 qononoio c 1ouxn
spennn opiannsann?
2.1.9. Hpnnepn1e xo1n 6i 1pn hpnxepa peonoio oxpyennn 1op-
ionon opiannsann.
2.1.10. Cxoixo nsnennix nxon pasnn1nn opiannsann nipe-
nn1 n conpexennon n1epa1ype ho xenepxen1y? Hasonn1e 1nhi
opiannsann.

2. ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm

2.2.1. Kax nasinae1cn hepnin 1ah nsnennoio nxa opiannsa-
nn? 1o on xapax1epnsye1? O1paae1 n, na am nsinp, nasnanne
cymnoc1i? O6ocnyn1e am o1ne1.
2.2.2. 1o xapax1epnsye1 1nh opiannsann, naxopnmencn xepy
xchepen1ox n nnoen1ox? Kaxoni, ho amexy xnennn, hepchex1n-
ni eio pasnn1nn?
2.2.3. uex o1nune nanonainix nnoen1on o1 nn1epnano-
nainix? xaxon ns 1nx opiannsann i xo1en 6i pa6o1a1i? Ho-
uexy?
2.2.4. Kaxoni yconnn cospannn n hepchex1nni pasnn1nn opiann-
sannxoxxy1an1a?
2.2.5. Hasonn1e hn1in 1ah nsnennoio nxa opiannsann. ex,
na am nsinp, on o1nuae1cn o1 hpepipymnx?
2.2.6 Hasonn1e hn1i xe1ahnix hpoeccon hepexopa opiannsa-
nn ns opnoio coc1onnnn n ppyioe n pan1e xpa1xyn xapax1epnc1nxy
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

101
xapoio. Kaxon 1ah, ho amexy xnennn, caxin pncxonannin? Ho-
uexy?
2.2.7. 1o nnne1cn hpepxe1ox c1pa1einuecxoio yhpanennn opia-
nnsanen? Apiyxen1npyn1e amy hosnnn.
2.2.8. Kaxne i snae1e 6asonie c1pa1einn yhpanennn n xaxne
ai1epna1nni?
2.2.9. jan1e xaccnqnxann ipyhh opiannsann n xaxne qax1o-
pi (xo1n 6i hn1i) oxasinan1 nospenc1nne na pesyi1a1nnnoc1i nx
pen1einoc1n?

3. jwc6nmc cn1yannn

2.3.1. (4) Kaxne opiannsann (xoxxepuecxne nn ne1) hpeo6apa-
n1 n c1pyx1ype xonoxnxn Ioccnn n nac1onmee npexn? Houexy? 1o
ax o nnx nsnec1no? Hpnnepn1e hpnxepi.
2.3.2. (5) opiannsann xaxoio 1nha m1a1noio pasnn1nn i xo1e-
n 6i pa6o1a1i? Apiyxen1npyn1e am ni6op.
2.3.3. (6) i osnaxoxnnci c nxapox n 1eopnn n hpax1nxy ncce-
ponannn hponsnopc1n n opiannsann poccnncxoio yuenoio A. K. Iac-
1ena (18821941), xo1opin cqopxynpona hpanna ho nayunon opia-
nnsann 1pypa [17, c. 52; 18, c. 16, 17]:

Hpepe uex 6pa1icn sa pa6o1y, napo ncn ee hpopyxa1i 1ax,
u1o6i oxonua1eino conaci xopei io1onon pa6o1i n hopnpox
1pyponix hpnexon. Lcn nce e po xona hpopyxa1i neisn, 1o ce-
pye1 hpopyxa1i iannie nexn, a nauao pa6o1i hpopyxa1i pocxo-
naino.
Hpnio1oni neci nynin nnc1pyxen1 n hpnchoco6ennn.
\6epn c pa6oueio xec1a nce nmnee, ypan ipnsi.
Inc1pyxen1 pachoaian n c1poiox hopnpxe.
Hpn pa6o1e nmn ypo6noio hooennn 1ea.
He 6epnci sa pa6o1y xpy1o. xopn n pa6o1y nchopnoi. Lcn
napo cnino hpnnaeui, 1o cnauaa hpnapicn, nchpo6yn na hocn-
i, a ho1ox ye 6epnci no ncn.
He pa6o1an po honon yc1aoc1n. jean pannoxepnie o1pixn.
Ia6o1an ponno, 1ax xax pa6o1a hpnc1yhaxn, ciopnua hop1n1
pa6o1y n xapax1ep.
o npexn pa6o1i ne cepye1 ec1i, xypn1i, hn1i uan, no o1pix
o6nsa1een.
Mcucdcun

102
Hoesno n cyuae neypaun pa6o1y hpepna1i, nanec1n hopnpox n
cnona sa pa6o1y.
Hpn ypaunox nihonennn pa6o1i ne c1apancn ee hoxasina1i,
xnan1icn, a hpn neypaue ne hapan pyxox cnona naunn pa6o1y.
Konun pa6o1y hpn6epn pa6ouee xec1o.

Lc1i n ppyine hpanna.

1o hpnnnhnaino nonoio i ysnan ns 1nx hpann? Kaxne
pexoxenpann A. K. Iac1ena i nihonne1e?

(7) ax hopyunn paspa6o1a1i nopxi honepennn n neqopxai-
non ipyhhe. Kax 6i i xaccnqnnponan 1n hpanna?

Ocnnnnmc nmnnpm, nnnn1nn, nnpcpcncnnn

conpexennon n1epa1ype ho xenepxen1y opiannsann
ohpepenn1 xax cnc1exa1nsnponannoe, cosna1einoe, o6:epnnenne
penc1nnn npen pn nihonennn xnccnn, poc1nennn ohpepeen-
nix een: xax o1xpi1yn cnc1exy, nsanxopenc1nynmyn c peonix n
qononix oxpyennex.
Menepxen1y hpnnapen1 xnuenan poi n hoppepannn
oh1nxainoio hopnpxa (6aanca) xepy hpno6pe1ennex pecypcon,
hponsnopc1nox hpopyxnn (ycyin) n ee peansanen. 1n 1pn hpo-
ecca nsnenno nani pn opiannsann. jen1einoc1in n6on hpo-
nsnopc1nennon opiannsann nnnn1cn hpoecci, cnnsannie c hpons-
nopc1nox, xappaxn, xapxe1nniox, xxayn1nniox n qnnancaxn.
Opiannsann cospan1cn pn nihonennn pasnunix pa6o1,
hoppepnnanmnx nx cymec1nonanne no nsanxopenc1nnn c peonix n
qononix oxpyennex. jn ncex opiannsann neo6xopnxo ohpepe-
n1i xnccnn n en, paspa6o1a1i c1pa1einn, hannpona1i n hpoex-
1npona1i pen1einoc1i, xo1nnnpona1i hepcona, xooppnnnpona1i n
xon1ponpona1i pa6o1y, yun1ina1i, oennna1i ee pesyi1a1i n ocy-
mec1nn1i o6pa1nyn cnnsi.

c1pyx1ype xonoxnxn Ioccnn n nac1onmee npexn hpeo6apa-
n1 xoxxepuecxne opiannsann cepynmnx opiannsanonno
hpanonix qopx:
1. Honie 1onapnmec1na n 1onapnmec1na na nepe;
2. Axnonepnie o6mec1na c oipannuennon nn pohonn1einon
o1ne1c1nennoc1in;
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

103
3. Hponsnopc1nennie xoohepa1nni;
4. \nn1apnie hpephpnn1nn (iocypapc1nennie nn xynnnhainie);

K opiannsannx cepnncnoio 6nsneca o1nocn1cn, nahpnxep, 1a-
xne nx 1nhi, xax ioc1nnni, pec1opani, hapnxxaxepcxne, honxn-
nnxn, qo1ocaoni, a1eie, hpaueunie, xnxunc1xn, an1oxac1epcxne.
K nexoxxepuecxnx opiannsannx o1nocn1cn, nahpnxep, ho-
1pe6n1eicxne xoohepa1nni, qonpi, acconann, consi, peninos-
nie opiannsann.
Hpepxe1ox c1pa1einuecxoio yhpanennn opiannsanen nnne1-
cn anans qononoio n peonoio oxpyennn n nny1pennen cpepi; oh-
pepeenne xnccnn n een ; ni6op c1pa1einn, nihonenne c1pa-
1einn, oenxa n xon1poi 1oio nihonennn.
Ha pesyi1a1nnnoc1i pen1einoc1n ipyhh (qopxainix n
neqopxainix) oxasinan1 nnnnne opnn n 1e e qax1opi, na-
hpnxep: pasxep ipyhhi, e coc1an, nopxi honepennn, chouen-
noc1i, xonqopxnsx, ipyhhonoe epnnoxicne, xonqnx1noc1i,
c1a1yc n pon uenon ipyhhi.
Ioccnn n 2000 i. 6i cospan hepnin In1epne1-nnxy6a1op
xax nonan qopxa opiannsann. Honnenne n qynxnonnponanne
In1epne1-nnxy6a1opa nahpnxyn cnnsani, hpepe nceio, co che-
nqnxon pinxa nicoxnx 1exnooinn.

Oqnpmncnnc nn c1anpap1y

3apannn ho 1exe 2 nxnuan1:
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 2 10 m1.
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci ho 1exe 2 9 m1.
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 2 4 m1.

Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 2

Hnc1annna aapannn
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 2 pasxemeni n CjO Kaxhyc n
qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 2.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 xpa1xnn o1ne1 (ne 6oee 200 cnxnoon) na
xapin nohpoc n qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 2 po nauaa
aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 2 (cx. Kaenpapnin han xypca).
Mcucdcun

104
O1ne1i na nohpoci n qopyxe cepye1 pasxema1i, xnxnyn na
cnxno O1ne1n1i . am o1ne1 poen honnn1icn n pepene coo6me-
nnn hop coo1ne1c1nynmnx nohpocox. HL ICHOHI3\ITL KHOH-
K\ (cospa1i) jH2 OTLTA HA OHIOCI.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
O1ne1i na nohpoci pasxeman1e ncen ipyhhon n qopyxe
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 2.

Tac:ua 1

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na nn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 2

Kpn1cpnn Hapamc1pm n 6annm

O6naa1cnnnmc
napamc1pm
B
a
n
n

Pcnmcnpycmmc
napamc1pm
B
a
n
n

1. Konuec1no hpanninix
o1ne1on
7 ns 10 4 8 n 6oee ns 10 6
2. O1ne1i pasxemeni hop
nohpocaxn (n pepene co-
o6mennn)
pa 1

ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 2

Hnc1annna aapannn
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci 6ypy1 yc1no o6cypa1icn na cexnnape ho
1exe 2. ax neo6xopnxo hopio1onn1icn x 6ecepe ho pannix nohpocax.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 o6ocnonannan hosnnn ho xapoxy
nohpocy, osnyuennan no npexn aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 2 (cx.
Kaenpapnin han xypca); n xope cexnnapa i 6ype1e o1neua1i na
nohpoci n cyuannox hopnpxe; xapin c1ypen1 poen yche1i o1ne-
1n1i na 1 nn 2 nohpoca.
ama hosnnn pona 6i1i ocnonana na n1a1ax ns yue6nix
xa1epnaon ho 1exe 2.
Opeauu-aun xax cucnca qnpa:cuun

105
Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
ax neo6xopnxo yc1no nson1i n o6ocnona1i cnon hosnnn n
xope aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 2.

Tac:ua 2

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na pncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 2

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn
O6naa1cnn-
nmc napa-
mc1pm
B
a
n
n

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
B
a
n
n

1. Konuec1no hpanninix
o1ne1on
1 10 2 n 6oee 13
2. O6ocnonannoc1i o1ne1on
(nchoisonanne n1a1 ns
yue6nix xa1epnaon)
ec1i 2
3. Ichoisonanne poho-
nn1einix nc1ounnxon
1 nc1ounnx n
6oee
5

jwc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 2. Bapnan1 4 nnn 5, nnn 6, nnn 7

Hnc1annna aapannn
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 2 paccxa1pnnan1cn axn caxoc1on-
1eino.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 qan c o1ue1ox ho opnon cn1yann,
oqopxennin ho HA5HOH\ N___ (cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc),
nicannin 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn CjO Kaxhyc po nauaa
cepynmeio aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 2 (cx. Kaenpapnin han
xypca); ni xoe1e o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen-
1axn n qopyxe \ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 2.
Ha6on o1ue1a (Tn1yinan c1panna. Chncox ocnonnix paspe-
on) cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc. O6mnn o6:ex nameio 1exc1a n
o1ue1e ho 1exe 2 ne 6oee 1 c1panni (3000 snaxon).

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
Io1onin o1ue1 hepeciae1cn 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn
CjO Kaxhyc. 3aioonox coo6mennn c qanox poen copepa1i
Mcucdcun

106
nasnanne ipyhhi, uIO c1ypen1a, nasnanne pncnhnni, noxep 1exi
n noxep yue6non cn1yann, nahpnxep O1ue1_uIO_ju
102_Menepxen1_\ue6nan_cn1yann_2.3.4(7). i xoe1e o6cypa1i
yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen1axn n qopyxe \ue6nie cn-
1yann ho 1exe 2.

Tac:ua 3

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na ywc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 2

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn
O6naa1cnn-
nmc napa-
mc1pm
Bann
Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1-
pm
Bann
1. uan o1ue1a oqopxen ho
ma6ony
pa 1
2. uan o1hpanen n cpox pa 2
3. O6:ex 1exc1a ne hpe-
nimae1 1pe6onannn
pa 2
4. O1ne1 nxee1 o6ocnonanne
(xonuec1no cciox n n-
1a1)
3 2 5 4
5. O1ne1 ynnxaen (ne1 hon1o-
pon n anaoion n o1ue1ax ppy-
inx c1ypen1on)
pa 4

quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

107
Fnaaa 3.



Oyaxqaa MeaepwMea1a,
ax asaaMocassb a paaaMasM




Hsyuaa 1eMy 3, c1ypea1 ponwea
saa1b:
ocnonnie qynxnn xenepxen1a:
a) hannponanne;
6) opiannsanonnie c1pyx1ypi yhpanennn;
n) xo1nnann;
i) xon1poi.

yMe1b:
xapax1epnsona1i nsanxocnnsi n pnnaxnsx ocnonnix
qynxnn xenepxen1a.

npaopec1a aaamxa:
hpnxenennn ocnonnix qynxnn xenepxen1a hpn
yhpanennn:
pecypcaxn (1pyponixn, sahacaxn, qnnancaxn n pp.);
hpoeccaxn (xa1epnaino1exnnuecxnx cna6ennex,
hponsnopc1nox, c6i1ox, xapxe1nniox n pp.);
pesyi1a1axn (xauec1nox, hponsnopn1einoc1in, sa1pa1a-
xn n pp.).



Mcucdcun

108
Hu usuenuu me+m 3 neoxoou+o:

Hn1a1n iany 3 yue6noio hoco6nn ho xenepxen1y n exnn.
Bmnnnnn1n aapannc hpax1nxyxa n 6anxa 1ec1on ho xenep-
xen1y ho paspey 3: o1ne1n1i na xon1poinie nohpoci, hpnnn1i yua-
c1ne n o6cypennn pncxyccnonnix nohpocon, yue6nix cn1yann, 1ec-
1nponannn. Hopio1onn1i xypconyn pa6o1y, peqepa1 nn cce n hpn-
oennn ho 1exax:
1. uynxnn xenepxen1a, nx nsanxocnnsi n pnnaxnsx;
2. C1pa1einuecxoe hannponanne xax yconne ninnannn n ycn-
ennn xonxypen1nix hosnnn opiannsann na pinxe;
3. npi opiannsanonnix c1pyx1yp yhpanennn n hpnnnhi
hpoex1nponannn c1pyx1ypi yhpanennn opiannsanen;
4. jeeinponanne honoxounn n o1ne1c1nennoc1i;
5. Copepa1einie 1eopnn xo1nnann n nx o1nune o1 hpoec-
cyainix;
6. Han6oee npxne hpepc1ann1en 1eopnn xo1nnann n anans nx
1pypon; 7.Kon1poi xax qynxnn xenepxen1a.
(c1ypen1ax, xo1opie pemnn 6oee yiy6enno nsyun1i 1exy 3).

Hpnpopa ne snae1 oc1anonxn n cnoex pnnennn
n xasnn1 ncnxyn 6espen1einoc1i.
H.8. |cnc


3.1. Dnaaapoaaaae

C1pa1einuecxoe hannponanne nxee1 peo ne c 6ypymnxn
pemennnxn, a c 6ypymnx pemennn, hpnnnxaexix ceiopnn.
|uncp [paxcp.

Hnannpnnannc 1o oueni pnnaxnunin hpoecc nipa6o1xn n
hpnnn1nn pemennn, hosnonnmnn opiannsann n 6ypymex o6eche-
un1i qqex1nnnoe qynxnonnponanne, a 1axe qynxnn xenep-
xen1a, nxnuanman xoxhexc pen1einoc1n opiannsann:
anans cn1yann n qax1opon nnemnen cpepi;
oenxy n oh1nxnsann ai1epna1nnnix napnan1on poc1ne-
nnn een, cqopxnponannix na c1apnn c1pa1einuecxoio xapxe1nnia;
paspa6o1xy 6nsnechana;
peansann hana.
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

109
Ho copepannn n hepnopy hani xoiy1 6i1i:
1) c1pa1einuecxnxn, poiocpounixn (na 5 n 6oee e1);
2) 1ax1nuecxnxn, cpepnecpounixn (o1 1 iopa po 5 e1);
3) ohepa1nnnixn, xpa1xocpounixn (na 1 iop n xenee).

Hani xaccnqnnpyn1cn 1axe na: hpo6exnie, xoxhexc-
nie, oxainie.
C1pa1crnn 1o pe1ainin ncec1oponnnn xoxhexcnin han,
hpepnasnauennin pn o6echeuennn ocymec1nennn xnccnn opiann-
sann n poc1nennn ee een.
C1pa1crnwccnc nnannpnnannc 1o pnnaxnunin hpoecc oh-
pepeennn xnccnn n een opiannsann, naxopennn xonxpe1nix
c1pa1einn pn ni6opa n hpno6pe1ennn nynix xonoxnuecxnx pecyp-
con, nx pachpepeennn n nchoisonannn c ein o6echeuennn qqex-
1nnnon pen1einoc1n opiannsann n o6ospnxon hepchex1nne.
Ocnonnixn sapauaxn hannponannn pa6o1i opiannsann nn-
nn1cn:
1. i6op oh1nxainon c1pa1einn opiannsann na hepchex1nny c
yue1ox hpoinoson ai1epna1nnnix napnan1on c1pa1einuecxoio xap-
xe1nnia.
2. O6echeuenne c1a6ninoc1n qynxnonnponannn n pasnn1nn
opiannsann.
3. uopxnponanne oh1nxainoio ho noxenxa1ype n accop1nxen-
1y hop1qen nnnonann na ocnone nayunix hopxopon.
4. C1pyx1ypnsann een pen1einoc1n opiannsann.
5. Koxhexcnoe o6echeuenne nihonennn hanon.
6. Iaspa6o1xa opiannsanonno1exnnuecxnx n conaino
xonoxnuecxnx xepohpnn1nn, o6echeunnanmnx qqex1nnnoe ni-
honenne hanon.
7. Kooppnnann nihonennn hanon ho cpoxax, xauec1ny pa-
6o1, pecypcax, nchonn1enx.
8. Mopainoe n xa1epnainoe c1nxynponanne nihonennn
hanon.

C1pa1einuecxoxy hannponannn cnonc1nenna cnc1exa ohepa-
nn, hpnxennexix ho c1poio ohpepeennix hpannax, xo1opan ho-
ce hocepona1einoio nx nihonennn hpnnopn1 x poc1nennn ho-
c1anennix een (cx. 1a6. 3.1.).
Mcucdcun

110
Tac:ua 3.1.

Anrnpn1m c1pa1crnwccnrn nnannpnnannn

N
n/n
Haanannc acnc-
1a nnannpnnannn
Cnpcpxannc c1pa1crnwccnrn nnannpnnannn
1. Koneh1yinin Ohpepeenne xnccnn. 1o napo cpea1i?
2. Texnooinuecxnn Kax pea1i?
3. Iecypcnin jea1i c nchoisonannex xaxnx xonoxnuecxnx pecyp-
con?
4. Kapponin K1o xonxpe1no 6ype1 pea1i?
5. Opiannsanonno
yhpanenuecxnn
Kaxon pona 6i1i opiannsanonnan c1pyx1ypa
yhpanennn?
6. pexennon jea1i n xaxne cpoxn n n xaxon hocepona1einoc1n?

Ohpepeenne xnccnn n een ocymec1nne1cn pyxonopc1nox
nicmeio snena opiannsann, a nx peansann pyxonopn1enxn n
nchonn1enxn ncex yponnen.
sanxocnnsn exen1on c1pa1einuecxoio ni6opa nxen1
6oimoe snauenne pn ocosnannn conoc1n hpoecca c1pa1ein-
uecxoio hannponannn (cx. 1a6. 3.1.) n neo6xopnxoc1n cospannn
cnc1exi c1pa1einuecxoio yhpanennn opiannsanen, hoxoian-
men en hpeopoe1i 1n 1pypnoc1n.

Puc. 3.1. Mnpcnn nncncpnna1cnnnnc1n npnnccca c1pa1crnwccnrn
nnannpnnannn n nprannaannn n n6mcm nnpc
[Iaspa6o1ana an1opox na ocnone 16, C. 258].
Mnccnn n ncnn
nprannaannn
narnnc1na
nny1pcnncn
cpcpm
nprannaannn
(cnnnnmx n
cna6mx
c1npnn)

Ananna pcnnnnrn n
qnnnnnrn
npyxcnnn
Oncna n
nppc1npnna
c1pa1crnn
Pcannaannn
c1pa1crnn
Ananna ann1cpna1nn n
c1pa1crnwccnn nm6np
(cnapannc nnp1qcnn
c1pa1crnn)
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

111
jnnaxnunan hpnpopa opiannsann sa1pypnne1 hpnxenenne
opnon chenqnuecxon xopen hpoecca c1pa1einuecxoio hannpo-
nannn, no hpn paspa6o1xe xonxpe1non xopen xono opnen1npo-
na1icn na ee o6mnn nnp.
Ocnonnie hpnnnhi hannponannn:
1. Hpccmc1ncnnnc1n c1pa1crnwccnrn n 1a1nwccnrn nnannn.
paspeax 6nsnechana unco hanonix hoxasa1een pono 6i1i
6oime, uex n paspeax c1pa1einn opiannsann. Hoxasa1en 6nsnec
hana, xax hpanno, 6oee ec1xne n niiopnee opiannsann n pan-
nin xoxen1.
2. Cnnnannnan npncn1annn pemenne hpo6ex o6echeuennn co-
o1ne1c1nnn xepynapopnix c1anpap1ax xooinunoc1n, 6esohacno-
c1n, pionoxnunoc1n 1onapon, ycyi n qynxnonnponannn opiann-
sann, a 1axe hoxasa1een conainoio pasnn1nn xoex1nna.
3. uynnnnnnpnnannc n6c1nn nnannpnnannn nn nx nnamnx-
nnc1n n enx panonainoio pachpepeennn nxenmnxcn pecyp-
con. Hpn pasnox yponne xonxypen1ochoco6noc1n 1onapon n ycyi
hpnopn1e1i pachpepeennn pecypcon ohpepenn1cn ho chenainon
xe1opnxe.
4. Apcna1nnc1n nnannnmx nnaaa1cncn cnnenne omn6xn
ahhpoxcnxann, honimenne 1ounoc1n hpoinoson, a 1axe hocpepc1-
nox unca yu1ennix qax1opon hpn hpoinosnponannn ai1epna1nn-
nix hanonix hoxasa1een.
5. Cnrnacnnannnc1n nnana c napamc1pnm pcnnnnrn n qnnnnnrn
npyxcnnn ncceponanne pnnaxnxn qax1opon nnemnen cpepi n
anans nnnnnn 1nx qax1opon na hanonie hoxasa1en.
6. Bapnan1nnc1n nnana paspa6o1xa ne xenee 1pex ai1epna1nn-
nix napnan1on poc1nennn opnon n 1on e en n ni6opa oh1n-
xainoio napnan1a, o6echeunnanmeio poc1nenne sahannponannon
en c nanxenimnxn sa1pa1axn.
7. C6anancnpnnannnc1n nnana hpeexc1nennoc1i 6aanca hoxasa1e-
en ho nepapxnn, nahpnxep, 6aanca hoc1yhennn n pachpepeennn pe-
cypcon hpepycxa1pnnae1 cospanne pesepna ho nanenmnx hoxasa1enx.
8. nnnmnwccan n6ncnnnannnc1n nnana oxonua1einin ni-
6op napnan1a hanonix hoxasa1een 1oixo hoce hponepennn cnc-
1exnoio anansa, hpoinosnponannn, oh1nxnsann n xonoxnuecxoio
o6ocnonannn ai1epna1nnnix napnan1on.
9. An1nma1naannn cnc1cmm nnannpnnannn hpnxenenne co-
npexennix xoxhin1epnix 1exnooinn, o6echeunnanmnx xopnpona-
nne nnqopxann, ee epnnc1no n cnc1exnoc1i ho c1apnnx nsnennoio
Mcucdcun

112
nxa o6:ex1a hannponannn, ohepa1nnnyn o6pa6o1xy, hepepauy
nnqopxann n ee xpanenne.
10. O6ccncwcnnc n6pa1nnn cnnan cnc1cmm nnannpnnannn nos-
xonoc1i nchonn1en hana hepepana1i eio paspa6o1unxy hpepo-
ennn ho xoppex1nponxe hana.

ce nsoennie nime hpnnnhi hannponannn hpnxenn1i
poc1a1ouno cono. Toixo xpyhnie opiannsann, pachoaianmne
neo6xopnxixn pecypcaxn (hpepe nceio, nicoxoxnanqnnponan-
nixn xappaxn, conpexennixn xoxhin1epnixn 1exnooinnxn), xo-
iy1 hpnpepnna1icn nceio xoxhexca hpnnnhon hannponannn.
yconnnx ec1xon xonxypennn xapan opiannsann pona
yun1ina1i cepynmne 1enpennn n hannponannn:
coxpamenne cpoxon paspa6o1xn hana;
nneppenne conpexennix xe1opon oh1nxnsann n xonehnn
xapxe1nnia;
honimenne xauec1na hana sa cue1 ynenuennn unca hpn-
xennexix hpnnnhon hannponannn.

Kawcc1nn nnana 1o conoxyhnoc1i eio hapaxe1pon, o1neuan-
mnx hpnnnhax n nayunix hopxopax, o6echeunnanmnx xnnnxai-
noe o1xonenne sahannponannix snauennn o1 qax1nuecxnx, hoy-
uennix n pesyi1a1e peansann hana.
Ocnonnixn hy1nxn honimennn xauec1na hana nnne1cn hpn-
xenenne:
nayunix hopxopon x xenepxen1y;
6oee ec1xnx hpnnnhon hannponannn;
xauec1nennoio nnqopxanonnoio n xe1opnuecxoio o6echeue-
nnn hannponannn;
qqex1nnnoio c1nxynponannn paspa6o1unxon hana.

Hpn hannponannn chenanc1i pexoxenpyn1 hpnxenn1i
cepynmne hopxopi:
1. Cnc1cmnmn c1pyx1ypnsnpona1i hanonie hoxasa1en, ho-
c1pon1i pepeno een, o6ocnona1i unco yponnen nepapxnn pn ana-
nsa n cnn1esa cnc1exi hanonix hoxasa1een, nccepona1i nnnnne
na 1n hoxasa1en qax1opon peonoio n qononoio oxpyennn,
hpoanansnpona1i apah1nnnoc1i x nnemnen cpepe, yponeni c1anpap-
1nsann hanon n nx nnnonanonnoc1i.
2. C1py1ypnmn o6ocnona1i pachpepeenne xonoxnuecxnx pe-
cypcon ho:
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

113
xoxhonen1ax pepena een;
paspeax hana;
c1pyx1ypnix hoppaspeennnx;
hpo6exax;
npexenn n 1.p.

Iannixn xpn1epnnxn pachpepeennn pecypcon nnne1cn ax1y-
ainoc1i hpo6exi n qqex1nnnoc1i hpnxenennn pecypcon.
3. Mapc1nnrnnmn n pachpepeennn pecypcon o1pa1i hpnopn-
1e1 honimennn xauec1na o6:ex1a hannponannn, nn1epeci nchonn-
1en napo c1ann1i nime nn1epecon paspa6o1unxa hana.
4. uynnnnnannnmn paspa6o1unx hana poen pachoaia1i
pesyi1a1axn qynxnonaino-c1onxoc1noio anansa o6:ex1a ha-
nnponannn n eio xoxhonen1on ncxopn ns conepmenno nonon c1pyx1y-
pi, chpoex1nponannon ho 6ypymnx qynxnnx (enx) na nixope
hopcnc1exi.
5. Bncnpnnannpc1ncnnnannnmnnnnnmn hopxop naeen na
nochponsnopc1no o6:ex1on hannponannn na yponne yumnx xnpo-
nix o6pason.
6. Hnpma1nnnmn hoc1onnno o6echeunna1i pecypcoc6epeennn,
yun1inan hpoipeccnnnie nopxa1nni n nopxi pacxopa pecypcon, u1o
oco6enno nano n yconnnx yec1ouennn xonxypennn.
7. Knmnnccnmn yun1ina1i hpn hannponannn 1exnnuecxne,
xonoxnuecxne, xooinuecxne, opiannsanonnie, conainie, hcn-
xooinuecxne n ppyine achex1i paspa6o1xn n peansann hanon.
8. Hn1crpannnnnmn- xoe1 honicn1i xauec1no hana, ecn 6ypy1
yu1eni nn1eipanonnie cnnsn ho nep1nxan n iopnson1an, a 1axe
sa1pa1i n pesyi1a1i ho ncex c1apnnx nsnennoio nxa hannpyexo-
io o6:ex1a n hopcnc1exax cnc1exi xenepxen1a opiannsann.
9. nnamnwccnn o6:ex1 hannponannn paccxa1pnnae1cn n
pasnn1nn, hponopn1cn anans hpnunnnocepc1nennix cnnsen n co-
hopunnennoc1n, pe1pochex1nnnin anans pen1einoc1n anaoinu-
nix o6:ex1on n hpoinos nx pasnn1nn.
10. Hpnncccnmn nce qynxnn xenepxen1a paccxa1pnnan1cn
xax nsanxocnnsannie. Hannponannn hpepmec1nye1 c1pa1einuecxnn
xapxe1nni, ein xo1opoio nnne1cn paspa6o1xa c1pa1einn opiann-
sann na ocnone ncceponannn pinxa n paspa6o1xn nopxa1nnon xon-
xypen1ochoco6noc1n hannpyexix o6:ex1on na hanonin hepnop.
Ha c1apnn hannponannn 1n nopxa1nni hpnnnsinan1cn x pecyp-
cax, nchonn1enx, cpoxax, qqex1nnnoc1n n 1.p.
Mcucdcun

114
11. On1nmnaannnnnmn paspa6o1unx hana poen ohnpa1icn
na nnenepnie pacue1i, xa1exa1nuecxne n xonoxnxo
c1a1nc1nuecxne xe1opi, xchep1nie oenxn n 1.p. Hanonie hoxasa-
1en poni 6i1i nipaeni ne o6mnxn qpasaxn, nahpnxep, 1nha
yyumn1i, honicn1i, a xonuec1nennixn xapax1epnc1nxaxn,
nahpnxep, cnnsn1i ce6ec1onxoc1i epnnni ohpepeennon ycyin x
2010 i. na 5% ho cpannennn c 1exymnx iopox.
12. Cn1yannnnnmn nnnxanne xonen1pnpye1cn na 1ox, u1o
hpniopnoc1i pasnunix xe1opon n hanonix hoxasa1een ohpepen-
e1cn xonxpe1non c1pa1einuecxon (hpn hannponannn) nn 1ax1nue-
cxon (hpn peansann hana) cn1yanen.

Hoce sanepmennn paspa6o1xn c1pa1einuecxoio hana nac1yha-
e1 hocepynman eio peansann, no ne napo chemn1i. Heo6xopnxa
oenxa c1pa1einuecxoio hana, xo1opan hponopn1cn hy1ex cpannennn
pesyi1a1on hannponannn c enxn.
Hpoecc oenxn hpnxenne1cn xax xexannsx o6pa1non cnnsn
pn xoppex1nponxn c1pa1einn. Oenxa 6ype1 qqex1nnnon, ecn ee
hponopn1i cnc1exno n nehpepinno na ncex yponnnx opiannsann
cnepxy nnns. Chenanc1i c1pan speon pinounon xonoxnxn pexo-
xenpyn1 o1ne1n1i na cepynmne nohpoci:
1) nnne1cn n 1a c1pa1einn nny1penne conxec1nxon c nosxono-
c1nxn opiannsann?
2) hpephoaiae1 n pannan c1pa1einn pohyc1nxyn c1eheni pncxa?
3) o6apae1 n opiannsann poc1a1ounixn pecypcaxn pn pean-
sann c1pa1einn?
4) yun1inae1 n c1pa1einn nnemnne ohacnoc1n n nosxonoc1n?
5) nnne1cn n c1pa1einn yumnx choco6ox nchoisonannn pecyp-
con opiannsann?

Lc1i pnp xpn1epnen, xo1opie hpnnnxan1cn n hpoecce oenxn
c1pa1einn, nahpnxep, xonuec1nennie: pon pinxa, poc1 o6:exa hpo-
pa, yponeni sa1pa1 n qqex1nnnoc1n hponsnopc1na n c6i1a, 1exyuec1i
xappon, nenixopi na pa6o1y, unc1an hpn6ii n pp., a 1axe xauec1nen-
nie: choco6noc1i hpnneui nicoxoxnanqnnponannix xenepepon,
pacmnpenne o6:exa ycyi xnen1ax, yiy6enne snannn pinxa, cnne-
nne pncxa ohacnoc1en, nchoisonanne nosxonoc1en.
1o6i oenxa hpoecca c1pa1einuecxoio hannponannn 6ia
qqex1nnnon, cepye1 6oime nnnxannn ypen1i c1anpap1nsnpo-
nannix xpn1epnnx.
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

115
jn oenxn c1pa1einuecxoio coc1onnnn opiannsann chenanc1i
pexoxenpyn1 hpnxenn1i pasnunie xe1opi, nahpnxep:
1. SWOTanans (cna, ca6oc1i, nosxonoc1n, yiposi);
2. Me1op SPASE (oenxa c1pa1einuecxoio hooennn n penc1nnn);
3. Mopei Hop1epa (xopei hn1n cn yipos co c1oponi nonix
xonxypen1on, hoc1anmnxon, hoxyha1een; honnenne 1onapon cy6c1n-
1y1on (saxenn1een), cohepnnuec1no xepy xonxypen1axn);
4. Me1op xnuenix nohpocon anans nny1pennnx qax1opon
(xapxe1nni, qnnanci, hepcona, xyi1ypa, nxnp opiannsann)
n nnemnnx (hpoecc oenxn nsxenennn no nnemnen cpepe n nsy-
uenne nnemnnx nosxonoc1en n ohacnoc1en, xo1opie xoiy1 ho-
xoui nn sa1pypnn1i poc1nenne een opiannsann) qax1opon:
hon1nuecxnx, xonoxnuecxnx, pinounix, 1exnnuecxnx, con-
ainoio honepennn o6mec1na, xonxypennn, xepynapopnix);
5. Me1op cenapnen (oh1nxnc1nuecxnn, heccnxnc1nuecxnn n
cpepnnn xepy nnxn);
6. Ma1pna 5oc1oncxon xoncyi1a1nnnon ipyhhi 6ia paspa6o-
1ana pn oenxn hooennn opiannsann n ee nspenn ho o1nome-
nnn x nosxonoc1nx o1pacn.

Hpn ananse hop1qen nnnec1nnn hponopn1cn cpannenne po-
n opiannsann nn ee nspenn na pinxe c 1exhaxn poc1a ncen hpo-
nsnopc1nennoxoxxepuecxon pen1einoc1n. Hahpnxep, ecn nspene
nn ycyia sannxan1 6oimyn pon pinxa n nxen1 nicoxne 1exhi
poc1a 3nespa nn 3nespnin uac, 1o opiannsann 6ype1 hpnpep-
nna1icn c1pa1einn poc1a. jonnan xopona c1pa1einn oipannuen-
noio poc1a. jnxan xomxa coue1anne c1pa1einn (ohacnoe coc1on-
nne). Co6axa c1pa1einn coxpamennn, o1ceuennn nmneio, ecn
nspene nn ycyia sannxan1 xayn pon pinxa n nxen1 nnsxne
1exhi poc1a [16, C. 279 c nexo1opixn nsxenennnxn an1opa].
Toixo hoce o6:ex1nnnon oenxn xono hpnc1yha1i x pea-
nsann c1pa1einn (cx. pnc 3.2.).
Hpn peansann nn nsxenennn c1pa1einn pyxonopc1no pono
yun1ina1i ee nsanxocnnsi co c1pyx1ypon opiannsann n o6:epnnn1i
qopxnponanne c1pyx1ypi yhpanennn n hannponanne. C1pyx1ypa nce-
ipa pona ocnonina1icn na c1pa1einn n o6echeunna1i ee qqex1nn-
noc1i nac1oixo, nacxoixo 1o nosxono n xonxpe1non cn1yann.
j.Ie6pen1 n eio xoein n 1977 i. oxapax1epnsonan nnnnne
c1pa1einn na nnpi opiannsanonnix c1pyx1yp yhpanennn n hpnn-
nhi hpoex1nponannn c1pyx1ypi yhpanennn opiannsanen.
Mcucdcun

116


Puc. 3.2. Cxcma npnnccca pcannaannn c1pa1crnn
[16, c. 302 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]


Hecxoixo panime (n 1962 i.) A.anpep cqopxynpona
hpnnnh, coiacno xo1opoxy hpoex1nponanne opiannsann pono
coo1ne1c1nona1i ns6pannon en c1pa1einn.
C nsxenennex c1pa1einn hepep opiannsanen nc1an1 nonie
hpo6exi, pemenne xo1opix nahpnxyn cnnsano c hpoex1nponannex
nonoio pn opiannsann nnpa c1pyx1ypi yhpanennn.
Ohpepeenne c1pa1einn n coo6menne
nsxepnxix xonuec1nenno een
opiannsann n eox
Oenxa pesyi1a1on, ohpepeenne
nepoc1a1xon n o6echeuenne o6pa1non
cnnsn
Oenxa n, hpn neo6xopnxoc1n,
nsxenenne opiannsanonnon
c1pyx1ypi
ochn1anne n o6pasonanne pyxonopn-
1een n coo1ne1c1nnn c ennoc1nxn n
c1nex pa6o1i opiannsann
uopxnponanne cnc1exi
nosnaipapennn, o6echeunnanmen
1pe6yexoe honepenne
Ohpepeenne xnuenix
yhpanenuecxnx sapau
Cospanne nnqopxanonnon cnc1exi
pn o6echeuennn apexna1non
n cnoenpexennon oenxn
pen1einoc1n opiannsann
Hoc1anonxa sapau pn o1peinix
uac1en opiannsann, peeinponanne
honoxounn, yc1anonenne xe1opon
xooppnnann nn nnecenne
nsxenennn n c1pyx1ypy
Ohpepeenne xpn1epnen n xe1opon
nsxepennn pesyi1a1on pen1einoc1n
Ohpepeenne hon1nxn n xauec1ne
opnen1npa pn penc1nnn
\1ounenne een o1peinix pyxonopn1een
Iachpepeenne pecypcon ho o1peax
n hoppaspeennnx
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

117
3.2. Bapm opraaasaqaoaamx c1pyx1yp ynpaaneaas a
npaaqanm npoex1apoaaaas c1pyx1ypm
ynpaaneaas opraaasaqae

C1pyx1ypa yhpanennn opiannsanen nn nprannaannnnnan
c1py1ypa ynpanncnnn (OCj) opno ns xnuenix honn1nn xe-
nepxen1a, 1ecno cnnsannoe c xnccnen, enxn, ppyinxn qynxnn-
xn, hpoeccox yhpanennn, pa6o1on xenepepon n pachpepeennex
xepy nnxn honoxounn. paxxax ohpepeennoio nnpa OC\ ocy-
mec1nne1cn xenepxen1 (o1 pnnennn nnqopxanonnix ho1oxon
po hpnnn1nn yhpanenuecxnx pemennn), n xo1opox yuac1nyn1 xe-
nepepi ncex yponnen. OC\ cpannnnan1 c xapxacox spannn cnc1exi
xenepxen1a, hoc1poennix pn 1oio, u1o6i nce hpo1exanmne n op-
iannsann hpoecci ocymec1nnnci xauec1nenno n cnoenpexenno.
Lcn ne 6ypy1 ue1xo ohpepeeni n cxooppnnnponani o1nomennn
xepy pa6o1nnxaxn n opiannsanonnixn hoppaspeennnxn, che-
nansann 6ype1 neqqex1nnna. jeeinponanne honoxounn oc-
nonnon hpoecc, hocpepc1nox xo1opoio pyxonopn1en yc1anannnan1
qopxainie nsanxoo1nomennn hepconaa n opiannsann.
cncrnpnnannc hepepaua nnpon pen1einoc1n n honoxounn nc-
honn1en, xo1opin 6epe1 na ce6n o1ne1c1nennoc1i sa nx nihonenne.
O1nc1c1ncnnnc1n 1o o6nsa1eic1no pema1i xonxpe1nie sapaun
n o1neua1i sa nx, xax xnnnxyx, ypone1nopn1einoe nihonenne. O6:-
ex o1ne1c1nennoc1n opna ns hpnunn nicoxnx ponoc1nix oxapon y
xenepepon, oco6enno pyxonopnmnx xpyhnixn opiannsannxn.
jeeinponanne peansye1cn 1oixo n cyuae ocosnannoio hpn-
nn1nn honoxounn, a co6c1nenno o1ne1c1nennoc1i ne xoe1 6i1i pe-
einponana.
Hnnnnmnwnn oipannuennoe hpano nchoisona1i pecypci op-
iannsann n nahpann1i ycnnn ee co1pypnnxon na pemenne ohpepe-
ennix sapau.
Honoxounn peeinpyn1cn ponoc1n, a ne hepconaino ny,
xo1opoe sannxae1 1y ponoc1i n pannin xoxen1. Lcn pa6o1nnx xe-
nne1 pa6o1y, on 1epne1 honoxounn c1apon ponoc1n n hoyuae1 ho-
noxounn nonon. Honoxounn nceipa oipannueni (cx. pnc. 3.3.).
5oiman uac1i honoxounn xenepepa ohpepene1cn 1papn-
nnxn, npanaxn, xyi1ypnixn c1epeo1nhaxn, o6iuanxn xoex1nna,
pa6o1anmeio n opiannsann.
Honoxounn, hepepannie nchonn1enx, nxenmnx hpano
pachopna1icn, nasinan1 nnncnnmmn nnnnnmnwnnmn.

Mcucdcun

118

1 hopunnennin coiamae1cn c 1pe6onannex
2 hopunnennin o1xonne1 1pe6onanne

Puc. 3.3. Knnncnnnn npnnn1nn nprannaannnnnmx nnnnnmnwnn
[16, C 311 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]

uopxainie honoxounn uac1o napyman1cn ncepc1nne na-
c1n n pen1einoc1n neqopxainix ipyhh. Han6oee qqex1nnnix
pesyi1a1ox peeinponannn nnennix honoxounn nnne1cn ehi
xoxanp ho hpnnnhy epnnonauann nchonn1ei poen hoyua1i
nehocpepc1nennie pachopnennn 1oixo o1 opnoio pyxonopn1en n
o1neua1i 1oixo hepep nnx.
Chenanc1i n an1opi sapy6enoio xonoxnuecxoio yue6nnxa
ho ocnonax xenepxen1a cun1an1, u1o opiannsann pa6o1 1o
qynxnn, xo1opyn poni ocymec1nn1i nce pyxonopn1en nesann-
cnxo o1 nx pania, a pemenne o ni6ope OC\ opiannsann n eox
hou1n nceipa poni hpnnnxa1i pyxonopn1en nicmeio snena.
1ahi hpoex1nponannn OC\ n nx hocepona1einoc1i ce-
pynmne:
1. Ocymcc1nn1n pcncnnc nprannaannn nn rnpnann1ann na
mnpnnc 6nnn, coo1ne1c1nynmne nanenmnx nahpanennnx
pen1einoc1n ho peansann c1pa1einn. Iemn1i, xaxne nnpi pen-
1einoc1n poni nihonn1icn nnennixn hoppaspeennnxn, a
xaxne m1a6nixn.
2. jc1annnn1n cnn1nnmcnnn nnnnnmnwnn paannwnmx pnnxnnc1cn.
Iyxonopn1en cpepneio n nnsonoio snenien hpepc1annn1 neo6xopnxyn
nnqopxann, yc1anannnan1 ehi xoxanp, pyxonopn1 6oee xexnxn
hoppaspeennnxn, u1o6i 6oee qqex1nnno hpnxenn1i chenansann
n ns6eia1i hepeipysxn nicmeio pyxonopc1na.
Mcncpxcp 1pc6yc1 nmnnnnc-
nnn nnpcpcncnnnn pa6n1m
Mcncpxcp nmcc1
nnnnnmnwnn
Mcncpxcp
nc nmcc1
nnnnnmnwnn
1
2
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

119
3. Onpcpcnn1n pnnxnnc1nmc n6naannnc1n xax conoxyhnoc1i sapau
n qynxnn n hopyun1i nx nihonenne xonxpe1nix nchonn1enx.

Honnnnmancn n pesyi1a1e paspa6o1xn OC\ ne sac1inman
qopxa, hopo6nan xapxacy spannn, a 6ecxoneunin hpoecc nsxene-
nnn n c1pyx1ype n ee conepmenc1nonannn. Opiannsanonnie nsxe-
nennn nc1peuan1 nan6oimee cohpo1nnenne co c1oponi co1pypnn-
xon ncepc1nne ne nepnon hocepona1einoc1n penc1nnn. 1o6i
yuec1i n o1pasn1i hponcxopnmne nsxenennn n c1pa1einuecxnx n ohe-
pa1nnnix hanax opiannsann, pyxonopn1en nchoisyn1 pasnu-
nie cnc1exi pehap1axen1ansann, nahpnxep, qynxnonainyn.
uynnnnnannnan pcnap1amcn1annaannn 1o hpoecc peennn
opiannsann na o1peinie exen1i, xapin ns xo1opix nxee1 cnon
ue1xo ohpepeennyn, xonxpe1nyn sapauy n o6nsannoc1n. Tpapnnonnie
qynxnonainie 6oxn, nahpnxep, hponsnopc1nennon opiannsann
1o hoppaspeennn hponsnopc1na, o1pei xapxe1nnia, qnnancon n pp.
nac1onmee npexn cymec1nye1 xnoec1no ai1epna1nnnix nnpon
OC\, ychemno sapexoxenponanmnx ce6n. Hepnin nnp OC\, cnc1exa1n-
uecxn paspa6o1annin, oc1anmnncn hoxa ee poxnnnpynmen qopxon,
hoyun nasnanne 6mpnpa1nwccnn OCj. On xapax1epnsye1cn:
1. e1xnx n nicmen c1ehenn paspeennex 1pypa n honnennex n
xapon ponoc1n nicoxoxnanqnnponannix chenanc1on;
2. Iasnn1on nepapxnen yponnen yhpanennn, hpn xo1opon xapin
nnec1onmnn yponeni hopunnne1cn n xon1ponpye1cn nimec1onmnx;
3. Cnc1exon nsanxocnnsannix o6o6mennix qopxainix hpann,
c1anpap1on, nopx n nopxa1nnon, o6echeunnanmen opnopopnoc1i nc-
honennn co1pypnnxaxn cnonx ponoc1nix o6nsannoc1en n cxoop-
pnnnponannoc1i pasnunix nnpon pen1einoc1n;
4. uopxainon o6esnuennoc1in nihonennn oqnnainixn
naxn cnonx ponoc1nix o6nsannoc1en;
5. 3amnmennoc1in hepconaa o1 hponsnoinix ynoinennn n
nanxox na pa6o1y n c1poiox coo1ne1c1nnn c xnanqnxanonnixn
1pe6onannnxn.

\ 6npoxpa1nuecxon OC\ ec1i nepoc1a1xn:
1. Hpeynenuenne snaunxoc1n nnc1pyxnn, hpann, nopx, c1an-
pap1on, u1o nepe1 x saxepennn 1exhon pa6o1i;
2. \1pa1a in6xoc1n honepennn;
3. Hechoco6noc1i 6ic1po peainpona1i na nsxennnmnecn yconnn
peonoio n qononoio oxpyennn, a 1axe nny1pennen cpepi;
Mcucdcun

120
4. Henosxonoc1i paspa6a1ina1i n cpouno nneppn1i nnnona-
nn n hpoecc cnoen pen1einoc1n.

K 6npoxpa1nuecxnx, xax hpanno, o1nocn1cn qynxnonai-
nie, pnnnsnonainie n pp. OC\.
jn pacmnpennn nosxonoc1en opiannsann 6ic1pee peain-
pona1i na hponcxopnmne nsxenennn n nnopn1i nnnonann 6in cos-
pani apan1nnnmc (nprannwccnc) OCj, x xo1opix o1nocn1 hpoex1-
nie, xa1pnunie n pp.
Cymec1nyn1 n ppyine xaccnqnxann nnpon OC\. Iaccxo1pnx ne-
xo1opie nnpi OC\.
Hnncnnan OCj o6pasye1cn n pesyi1a1e hoc1poennn ahhapa1a
yhpanennn 1oixo ns nsanxohopunnennix opianon n nnpe nepapxn-
uecxon ec1nni.
o iane xapoio hoppaspeennn naxopn1cn pyxonopn1ei, na-
peennin ncexn honoxounnxn n ocymec1nnnmnn pyxonopc1no
hopunnennixn exy pa6o1nnxaxn, cocpepo1ounnanmnn n cnonx py-
xax nce qynxnn yhpanennn. Cax pyxonopn1ei naxopn1cn n neho-
cpepc1nennox hopunnennn pyxonopn1en nicmeio yponnn.
nnennon c1pyx1ype paspeenne cnc1exi yhpanennn na co-
c1annnmne uac1n ocymec1nne1cn ho npcu-cdcncuucq npu-uaxq c
yue1ox c1ehenn xonen1pann hponsnopc1na, 1exnooinuecxnx oco-
6ennoc1en, mnpo1i noxenxa1ypi hpopyxnn n 1.p. Hpn 1axox ho-
c1poennn n nan6oimen c1ehenn co6npae1cn nunuun eounonaua-
:un: opno no cocpepo1ounnae1 n cnonx pyxax yhpanenne ncen cono-
xyhnoc1in ohepann; hopunnennie nihonnn1 pachopnennn 1oi-
xo opnoio pyxonopn1en. imec1onmnn opian yhpanennn ne nxee1
hpano o1pana1i pachopnennn xaxnxn6o nchonn1enx, xnnyn nx
nehocpepc1nennoio pyxonopn1en.
Hnnennan OC\ nchoisye1cn xexnxn n cpepnnxn opiannsa-
nnxn, ocymec1nnnmnxn neconoe hponsnopc1no, hpn o1cy1c1nnn
mnpoxnx xoohepanonnix cnnsen.
Hosn1nn nnennon c1pyx1ypi yhpanennn:
epnnc1no n ue1xoc1i pachopnpn1eic1na;
coiaconannoc1i penc1nnn nchonn1een;
ue1xan cnc1exa nsanxnix cnnsen xepy pyxonopn1eex n hop-
unnennixn;
6ic1po1a peaxnn n o1ne1 na hpnxie yxasannn;
hoyuenne nchonn1eex cnnsannix xepy co6on pachopne-
nnn n sapannn, o6echeuennix pecypcaxn;
nunan o1ne1c1nennoc1i pyxonopn1en sa xoneunie pesyi1a1i
pen1einoc1n cnoeio hoppaspeennn.
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

121
Heia1nn nnennon c1pyx1ypi yhpanennn:
nicoxne 1pe6onannn x pyxonopn1en, xo1opin poen nxe1i
o6mnpnie pasnoc1oponnne snannn n ohi1 no ncex qynxnnx yhpane-
nnn n cqepax pen1einoc1n, ocymec1nnexix hopunnennixn, u1o oipa-
nnunnae1 nosxonoc1n pyxonopn1en ho qqex1nnnoxy yhpanennn;
hepeipysxa xenepepon nicmeio yponnn, oipoxnoe xonuec1no
nnqopxann, ho1ox 6yxai, xnoec1nennoc1i xon1ax1on c hopunnen-
nixn n nimec1onmnxn;
1enpennn x nooxn1e hpn pemennn hpo6ex, xacanmnxcn
necxoixnx hoppaspeennn;
o1cy1c1nne snenien ho hannponannn n hopio1onxe yhpanen-
uecxnx pemennn.

Hnncnnnm1a6nan OCj nxnuae1 n ce6n chenaino cospan-
nie hpn nnennix pyxonopn1enx hoppaspeennn, xo1opie ne o6a-
pan1 hpanox hpnnn1nn pemennn n pyxonopc1na xaxnxn6o nne-
c1onmnx hoppaspeennex (cx. pnc. 3.4.):



Puc. 3.4. Cxcma nnncnnnm1a6nnn OCj

Iannan sapaua m1a6nix hoppaspeennn coc1on1 n oxasannn
hoxomn nnennoxy xenepepy n nihonennn o1peinix qynxnn
yhpanennn. H1a6nan c1pyx1ypa nxnuae1 m1a6nix chenanc1on
hpn 1ohxenepepax.
K m1a6nix hoppaspeennnx o1nocn1 cy6y xooppnnann,
o1pei xooppnnann n anansa, ipyhhy ce1enoio hannponannn, co-
Pynnnpn1cnn H1a6
Mcucdcun

122
nooinuecxyn n npnpnuecxyn cy6i. Cospanne m1a6nix c1pyx-
1yp mai n c1opony paspeennn 1pypa xenepepon. ac1o xenepe-
pi m1a6nix hoppaspeennn napenn1cn hpanaxn qynxnonainoio
pyxonopc1na. K nnx o1nocn1 hanonoxonoxnuecxnn o1pe, 6yxia-
1epnn, o1pe xapxe1nnia, o1pe yhpanennn hepconaox.
joc1onnc1na c1pyx1ypi coc1on1 n cepynmex:
6oee iy6oxan n ocxicennan hopio1onxa yhpanenuecxnx
pemennn;
ocno6openne nnennix xenepepon o1 upesxepnon naipysxn;
nosxonoc1i hpnneuennn chenanc1on n ohpepeennix o6ac1nx.

Cymec1nyn1 nexo1opie nepoc1a1xn:
nepoc1a1ouno ue1xan o1ne1c1nennoc1i, 1ax xax io1onnmnn pe-
menne ne yuac1nye1 n eio peansann;
1enpennn x upesxepnon en1pansann;
coxpanenne nicoxnx 1pe6onannn x nicmexy pyxonopc1ny, hpnnn-
xanmexy pemennn.

uynnnnnannnan OCj hpephoaiae1, u1o xapin opian
yhpanennn chenansnponan na nihonennn o1peinix qynxnn
na ncex yponnnx yhpanennn (cx. pnc. 3.5.):



j pnpex1op; uI qynxnonainie pyxonopn1en; I nchonn1en

Puc 3.5. Cxcma qynnnnnannnnn OCj

ihonenne yxasannn xapoio qynxnonainoio opiana n hpe-
peax eio xoxhe1ennn o6nsa1eino pn hponsnopc1nennix hoppaspe-
ennn. Iemennn ho o6mnx nohpocax hpnnnxan1cn xoeinaino.

mP
Kapm
mP
Hponsnoc1no
mP
Aornc1n-
xa
mP
Mapxe1nnr
mP
mnnancm
H1 H2 H3 H4 H5
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

123
uynxnonainan chenansann ahhapa1a yhpanennn snaun1eino
honimae1 eio qqex1nnnoc1i, 1ax xax nxec1o ynnnepcainix xenepe-
pon, xo1opie poni pas6npa1icn n nihonennn ncex qynxnn, honn-
ne1cn m1a6 nicoxoxnanqnnponannix chenanc1on.
C1pyx1ypa naeena na nihonenne hoc1onnno hon1opnnmnx-
cn py1nnnix sapau, ne 1pe6ynmnx ohepa1nnnoio hpnnn1nn peme-
nnn. Ona nchoisye1cn n yhpanennn opiannsannxn c xacconix nn
xpyhnocepnnnix 1nhox hponsnopc1na, a 1axe hpn xosnnc1nennox
xexannsxe sa1pa1noio 1nha, xoipa hponsnopc1no nanxenee nochpn-
nxunno x HTH.
Ocnonnie neu+uecma c1pyx1ypi:
nicoxan xoxhe1en1noc1i chenanc1on, o1neuanmnx sa ocyme-
c1nenne xonxpe1nix qynxnn;
ocno6openne nnennix xenepepon o1 pemennn xnoinx che-
nainix nohpocon n pacmnpenne nx nosxonoc1en ho ohepa1nnno-
xy yhpanennn hponsnopc1nox;
cospanne ocnoni pn nchoisonannn n pa6o1e xoncyi1ann
ohi1nix chenanc1on, yxenimenne ho1pe6noc1n n chenanc1ax
mnpoxoio hpoqnn.

Cymec1nyn1 ohpepeennie nepoc1a1xn:
1pypnoc1n hoppepannn hoc1onnnix nsanxocnnsen xepy pas-
nunixn qynxnonainixn cy6axn;
pn1einan hpoepypa hpnnn1nn pemennn;
o1cy1c1nne nsanxohonnxannn n epnnc1na penc1nnn xepy
qynxnonainixn cy6axn;
cnnenne o1ne1c1nennoc1n nchonn1een sa pa6o1y n pesyi-
1a1e 1oio, u1o xapin nchonn1ei hoyuae1 yxasannn o1 necxoixnx
pyxonopn1een;
py6nponanne n necoiaconannoc1i yxasannn n pachopnennn,
hoyuaexix pa6o1nnxaxn, hocxoixy xapin qynxnonainin py-
xonopn1ei n chenansnponannoe hoppaspeenne c1ann1 cnon no-
hpoci na hepnoe xec1o.

Hnnennoqynxnonainan OC\ o6echeunnae1 1axoe paspee-
nne yhpanenuecxoio 1pypa, hpn xo1opox nnennie snenin yhpane-
nnn hpnsnani xoxanpona1i, a qynxnonainie xoncyi1npona1i,
hoxoia1i n paspa6o1xe xonxpe1nix nohpocon n hopio1onxe coo1ne1c1-
nynmnx pemennn, hpoipaxx, hanon. Iyxonopn1en qynxnonai-
nix hoppaspeennn (ho xapxe1nniy, qnnancax, HIOKI, hepconay)
Mcucdcun

124
ocymec1nnn1 nnnnne na hponsnopc1nennie hoppaspeennn qop-
xaino. Kax hpanno, onn ne nxen1 hpana caxoc1on1eino o1pana1i
nx pachopnennn, poi qynxnonainix cy6 sanncn1 o1 xacm1a-
6on xosnnc1nennon pen1einoc1n n c1pyx1ypi yhpanennn opiannsa-
nen n eox. uynxnonainie cy6i ocymec1nnn1 ncn 1exnnue-
cxyn hopio1onxy hponsnopc1na; hopio1annnan1 napnan1i pemennn
nohpocon, cnnsannix c pyxonopc1nox hpoeccon hponsnopc1na.
joc1onnc1na c1pyx1ypi:
ocno6openne nnennix pyxonopn1een o1 pemennn xnoinx
nohpocon, cnnsannix c hannponannex qnnanconix pacue1on, xa1e-
pnaino 1exnnuecxnx o6echeuennex n pp.;
hoc1poenne cnnsen pyxonopn1ei hopunnennin ho nepap-
xnuecxon ec1nne, hpn xo1opix xapin pa6o1nnx hopunnen 1oixo
opnoxy pyxonopn1en.

Hepoc1a1xn c1pyx1ypi:
xapoe sneno sann1epeconano n poc1nennn cnoen ysxon
en, a ne o6men en opiannsann;
o1cy1c1nne 1ecnix nsanxocnnsen n nsanxopenc1nnn na iopnson-
1ainox yponne xepy hponsnopc1nennixn hoppaspeennnxn;
upesxepno pasnn1an cnc1exa nsanxopenc1nnn ho nep1nxan;
axxyxynponanne na nepxnex yponne honoxounn ho peme-
nnn napnpy co c1pa1einuecxnxn xnoec1na ohepa1nnnix sapau.

Ma1pnunan OC\ (cx. pnc. 3.6) hpepc1anne1 co6on conpexen-
nin qqex1nnnin 1nh opiannsanonnon c1pyx1ypi yhpanennn,
hoc1poennin na hpnnnhe pnonnoio hopunnennn nchonn1een, c
opnon c1oponi, nehocpepc1nennoxy pyxonopn1en qynxnonai-
non cy6i, xo1opan hpepoc1anne1 hepcona n 1exnnuecxyn ho-
xomi, c ppyion, pyxonopn1en hpoex1a (eenon hpoipaxxi), xo1o-
pin napen neo6xopnxixn honoxounnxn pn ocymec1nennn
hpoecca yhpanennn n coo1ne1c1nnn c sahannponannixn cpoxaxn,
pecypcaxn n xauec1nox.

Iyxonopn1ei hpoex1a nsanxopenc1nye1 c pnyxn ipyhhaxn
hopunnennix: c hoc1onnnixn uenaxn hpoex1non ipyhhi n c ppy-
inxn pa6o1nnxaxn qynxnonainix o1peon, xo1opie hopunnnn1cn
exy npexenno n ho oipannuennoxy xpyiy nohpocon.
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

125


Puc 3.6. Ma1pnwnan OCj, npncn1npnnannan na npnpy1

Hpenxymec1na coc1on1 n cepynmex:
yuman opnen1ann na hpoex1nie en n chpoc;
6oee qqex1nnnoe 1exymee yhpanenne;
noneuenne pyxonopn1een ncex yponnen n chenanc1on n
cqepy ax1nnnon 1nopuecxon pen1einoc1n;
in6xoc1i n ohepa1nnnoc1i xanenpnponannn pecypcaxn hpn
nihonennn necxoixnx hpoipaxx;
ycnennan nunan o1ne1c1nennoc1i pyxonopn1en sa hpo-
ipaxxy n eox n sa ee exen1i;
nosxonoc1i hpnxenennn qqex1nnnix xe1opon yhpanennn;
pasnn1ne n pa6o1nnxax nanixon n o6ac1n hpnnn1nn pemennn;
npexn peaxnn na nypi hpoex1a n eannn saxasunxon co-
xpamae1cn.

Hepoc1a1xn c1pyx1ypi:
hpo6exi, nosnnxanmne hpn yc1anonennn hpnopn1e1on sa-
pannn n pachpepeennn npexenn pa6o1i chenanc1on nap hpoex1a-
xn, xoiy1 napyma1i c1a6ninoc1i qynxnonnponannn opiannsann;
1pypnoc1n yc1anonennn ue1xon o1ne1c1nennoc1n sa pa6o1y
hoppaspeennn;
jnpanncnnc nprannaanncn
Mcncpxcpm nn
napcnnnm
Hapcnnc A
Hapcnnc B
Hapcnnc C
Hapcnnc D
HHOKP
Hapcnnc A

Hapcnnc B

Hapcnnc C

Hapcnnc D
Hpnnannpc1nn

Hapcnnc A

Hapcnnc B

Hapcnnc C

Hapcnnc D
Mapc1nnr

Hapcnnc A

Hapcnnc B

Hapcnnc C

Hapcnnc D
Mcucdcun

126
nosxonoc1i napymennn yc1anonennix hpann n c1anpap-
1on, hpnnn1ix n qynxnonainix hoppaspeennnx nssa pn-
1einoio o1pina co1pypnnxon, yuac1nynmnx n hpoex1e;
1pypnoc1i hpno6pe1ennn nanixon, neo6xopnxix pn qqex-
1nnnon pa6o1i n xoex1nne;
nosnnxnonenne xonqnx1on xepy xenepepaxn qynxno-
nainix hoppaspeennn n pyxonopn1enxn hpoex1on.

jnnnsnonainan OC\ nosnnxa n cnnsn c pesxnx ynenuennex
pasxepon opiannsann, pnnepcnqnxanen nx pen1einoc1n, yco-
nennex 1exnooinuecxnx hpoeccon. Knuenixn qniypaxn n yhpan-
ennn opiannsannxn c pannon c1pyx1ypon c1anonn1cn ne pyxonopn-
1en qynxnonainix hoppaspeennn, a xenepepi, nosiannn-
mne hponsnopc1nennie hoppaspeennn.
C1pyx1ypnsann opiannsann ho o1peennnx hponsnopn1cn,
xax hpanno, ho opnoxy ns xpn1epnen: ho nihycxaexon hpopyx-
nn (hpopyx1onan chenansann cx. pnc. 3.7.), ho opnen1ann na
ho1pe6n1een, ho o6cynnaexix peinonax. Iyxonopn1en n1o-
pnunix qynxnonainix cy6 o1un1inan1cn hepep yhpannn-
mnx hponsnopc1nennoio hoppaspeennn. Hoxomnnxn pyxonopn-
1en hponsnopc1nennoio hoppaspeennn xon1ponpyn1 pen1ei-
noc1i qynxnonainix cy6 ho ncex qnnaax o1peennn, xo-
oppnnnpyn nx pen1einoc1i ho iopnson1an.



Iyx. pyxonopn1ei
un. qnna
I nchonn1ei

Pnc 3.7. Cxcma pnnnannnannnnn-m1a6nnn OCj
nn pcrnnnannnnmy npnnnnny
H1a6
Py.
nprannaannn
Py.
unn.1
Mncna
H1a6
Py.
unn.2
Ta1apc1an
Kaaann
H1a6
Py.
unn.3
jpan
Hcpmn
H1a6
H H H H H H H H H H H H
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

127
nc1nnnc1na:
6oee 1ecnan cnnsi hponsnopc1na c ho1pe6n1enxn, ycxopennan
peaxnn na nsxenennn n peonox n qononox oxpyennn;
yyumenne xooppnnann pa6o1 n hoppaspeennnx ncepc1nne
hopunnennn opnoxy ny;
nosnnxnonenne y hoppaspeennn xonxypen1nix hpenxymec1n
xaix opiannsann.

Hcpnc1a1n:
poc1 nepapxnunoc1n, nep1nxan yhpanennn;
py6nponanne qynxnn yhpanennn na pasnix yponnnx hpn-
nopn1 x poc1y sa1pa1 na copepanne yhpanenuecxoio ahhapa1a;
py6nponanne pa6o1 n pasnix hoppaspeennnx.

Mnoioxepnan OC\ c opnen1anen em n na 1eppn1opnn, pi-
nox n ho1pe6n1en.
jn opiannsann, penc1nynmnx na xepynapopnox pinxe,
xoe1 hpnxenn1icn xnoioxepnan (npcxcpuan, ncu-cpuan) OC\.
Hpo6exi:
xonqnx1 nssa nac1n xepy hpepc1ann1enxn necxoixnx
nnc1annn;
hpeo6apanman pa6o1a n ipyhhax n, cepona1eino, nosxonan
sapepxa n hpnnn1nn pemennn n xoex1nnnan o1ne1c1nennoc1i
(6eso1ne1c1nennoc1i).

Ho1oxy 1pe6ye1cn opnosnaunoe peiynponanne xoxhe1en1no-
c1n n nopxainie pa6oune o1nomennn xepy hap1nepaxn.

Cnn1nnmcnnc ncn1pannaannn n pcncn1pannaannn n c1py-
1ypc nprannn ynpanncnnn nprannaanncn.
Opiannsann, n xo1opix pyxonopc1no nicmeio snena oc1anne1
sa co6on 6oimyn uac1i honoxounn, neo6xopnxix pn hpnnn1nn
nanenmnx pemennn, nasinan1cn uenma:usoannm+u.

euenma:usoannme opiannsann 1axne opiannsann, n xo-
1opix honoxounn pachpepeeni ho nnec1onmnx yponnnx yhpan-
ennn. Ha hpax1nxe ne nc1peuan1cn honoc1in en1pansonannie
nn peen1pansonannie opiannsann.


Mcucdcun

128














Puc. 3.8. Cxcma mnnrnmcpnnrn ynpanncnnn nprannaanncn

jn 1oio, u1o6i ohpepen1i, nacxoixo pannan opiannsann
en1pansonana ho cpannennn c ppyinxn, ninnnn1 cepynmne xa-
pax1epnc1nxn:
xc:unccnc pcucuuu, hpnnnxaexix na nnec1onmnx yponnnx
yhpanennn. ex 6oime unco pemennn, xo1opie hpnnnxan1 nn-
ec1onmne pyxonopn1en, 1ex xenime c1eheni en1pansann;
auccnt pcucuuu, hpnnnxaexix na nnec1onmnx yponnnx;
ncc:cdcnun pcucuuu, hpnnnxaexix na nnec1onmnx yponnnx.
Lcn pyxonopn1en cpepneio snena xoiy1 hpnnnxa1i pemennn, sa-
1painnanmne 6oee uex opny qynxnn, 1o opiannsann ca6o en-
1pansonana;
xcunpc:t -a paccncu ncdnuucuuux. ca6o en1pansonannon
opiannsann nicmee pyxonopc1no pepxo hponepne1 honcepnennie
pemennn hopunnnnix pyxonopn1een. Oenxa penc1nnn peae1cn
na ocnonannn cyxxapno poc1niny1ix pesyi1a1on.

ocmouncma uenma:usoannmx c1pyx1yp coc1on1 n ce-
pynmex:
en1pansann yyumae1 xon1poi n xooppnnann chenan-
snponannix qynxnn, yxenimae1 xonuec1no n xacm1a6i omn6ou-
nix pemennn, hpnnnxaexix xenee ohi1nixn xenepepaxn;
cninoe en1pansonannoe yhpanenne hosnone1 ns6ea1i
cn1yann, hpn xo1opix opnn o1pei pac1y1 n pasnnnan1cn sa cue1
ppyinx nn opiannsann n eox;
Hahpanenne
pen1eino-
c1n
opiannsann
(pecypcnie
hoppaspee-
nnn)
Hponsnop-
c1nennie
cone1i ho
nahpane-
nnnx
(hponsno-
pnmne
hoppaspe-
ennn)
uynxnonainie ipyhhi
(pachpepennmne hoppaspeennn)
Hen1pi hpn6in
ho ieoipaqnuecxnx
peinonax
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

129
en1pansonannoe yhpanenne hosnone1 6oee xonoxno n
eixo nchoisona1i ohi1 n snannn hepconaa en1pansonannoio
apxnnnc1pa1nnnoio opiana.

Cymec1nye1 pnp neu+uecm oeuenma:usoannmx c1pyx1yp:
yhpann1i xpyhnixn opiannsannxn en1pansonanno nenos-
xono nssa oipoxnoio xonuec1na 1pe6yexon nnqopxann n, ce-
pona1eino, conoc1n hpoecca hpnnn1nn pemennn;
peen1pansann pa1 nosxonoc1i hpnnnxa1i pemennn 1oxy
pyxonopn1en, xo1opin 6ne nceio c1on1 x nosnnxmen hpo6exe n
yume ncex e snae1;

Ouennpnix nnne1cn 1o, u1o xapan opiannsann hpepc1anne1
co6on poc1a1ouno conyn 1exnnxoxonoxnuecxyn n conainyn
cnc1exy, o1paanmyn cnon nnpnnnpyainoc1i n chenqnxy. Ohn-
ca1i 1y cnc1exy nosxono, ecn ohpepen1i xapax1ep nsanxopenc1-
nnn hoppaspeennn.
Choco6i nsanxopenc1nnn c1opon xapax1epnsyn1 paccxa1pnnae-
xyn cnc1exy ohpepeennix o6pasox n hosnonn1 cypn1i, nacxoixo
qqex1nnno ona chpanne1cn co cnoen iannon sapauen opiannsan-
en iapxonnuecxoio nsanxopenc1nnn xepy nnpnnnpox n nnemnen
cpepon. Hexaonanoe xec1o n 1ox sannxae1 OC\, hocpepc1nox xo1o-
pon nn uepes xo1opyn 1o nsanxopenc1nne ocymec1nne1cn.
Coiacno cymec1nynmen 1eopnn n hpax1nxe, nsanxopenc1nne
na yponne hoppaspeenne hoppaspeenne nn ipyhha ipyhha
peansye1cn c hoxomin xox6nnann pasnunix 1nhon pehap1axen-
1nsann n nic1yhae1 n paxxax OC\.
xchepnxen1nponanne c paspa6o1xon n nnepennex nonix
c1pyx1yp yhpanennn c1ao xapax1epnon uep1on nauaa XXI n. xope
1nx xchepnxen1on nepepxo nchoisyn1cn caxie pasnoo6pasnie
xox6nnann nsnec1nix nnpon n 1nhon c1pyx1yp, hpnchoca6nnaexix
opiannsannxn x xonxpe1nix yconnnx nx qynxnonnponannn. Ho
iannan 1enpennn coc1on1 n 1ox, u1o xapan hocepynman c1pyx1y-
pa c1anonn1cn 6oee hpoc1on u in6xon ho cpannennn c panee penc1-
nonanmnxn.
Chenanc1i pexoxenpyn1 cepynmne hpnnnhi hpoex1n-
ponannn OC\:
coxpamenne pasxepon hoppaspeennn n yxoxhex1onanne nx
6oee xnanqnnponannix hepconaox;
yxenimenne unca yponnen yhpanennn;
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130
ipyhhonan opiannsann 1pypa xax ocnona nonon c1pyx1ypi
yhpanennn;
opnen1ann 1exymen pa6o1i, n 1ox unce ipaqnxon n hpoe-
pyp, na sahpoci ho1pe6n1een;
cospanne yconnn pn in6xon xoxhex1ann hpopyxnn;
xnnnxnsann sahacon;
6ic1pan peaxnn na nsxenennn;
in6xo hepenaannaexoe o6opyponanne;
nicoxan hponsnopn1einoc1i n nnsxne sa1pa1i;
6esyhpeunoe xauec1no hpopyxnn n opnen1ann na hpounie
cnnsn c ho1pe6n1eex.

6nanmex 6ypymex onpae1cn 6oimee pasnoo6pasne
c1pyx1yp, xapan ns xo1opix 6ype1 o1neua1i ho1pe6noc1nx xonxpe1-
non opiannsann n naxopn1icn n 6oee 1ecnon nsanxocnnsn c ppyin-
xn qynxnnxn xenepxen1a, nahpnxep, c xo1nnanen.


3.3. Mo1aaaqas

Ic1nnnie ho6ypennn, sac1annnmne o1pana1i pa6o1e xaxcn-
xyx ycnnn, oueni 1pypno ohpepen1i, onn upesniuanno coni.
Opnaxo, onapen conpexennixn 1eopnnxn n 1enpennnxn xo1nna-
nn, xono snaun1eino hpeyche1i n hannponannn, cospannn OC\
n xon1poe, hpnnexan o6pasonannix, nicoxoxnanqnnponannix
co1pypnnxon, choco6nix pema1i sapaun, nahpanennie na poc1ne-
nne een opiannsann, 1.x. nce qynxnn xenepxen1a oueni 1ecno
nsanxocnnsani n pnnaxnuni.
Mn1nnannn 1o conoxyhnoc1i nny1pennnx n nnemnnx pnn-
ymnx cn, ho6ypanmnx ueonexa penc1nona1i chenqnuecxnx,
eenahpanennix o6pasox; hpoecc ho6ypennn ce6n n ppyinx x
pen1einoc1n pn poc1nennn een opiannsann n (nn) nunix
een.
Jadanu cucdcuna hpn peansann qynxnn cnuauu:
1. uopxnpona1i y xapoio xenepepa pexoxpa1nuecxne hopxopi x
yhpanennn hepconaox, hpnxennn conpexennie 1eopnn xo1nnann.
2. Choco6c1nona1i cospannn y xapoio co1pypnnxa honnxannn
cymnoc1n n snauennn xo1nnann n hpoecce 1pypa.
3. O6yua1i pyxonopn1een pasnoio yponnn n pa6o1nnxon hcnxo-
oinuecxnx ocnonax o6mennn n opiannsann.
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

131
Hpepe, uex hpnc1yhn1i x pemennn 1nx sapau, cepye1 hpo-
anansnpona1i:
hpoecc xo1nnann n opiannsann;
nnpnnnpyainyn n ipyhhonyn xo1nnann n sanncnxoc1i xe-
py nnxn;
pnnaxnxy xo1nnann pen1einoc1n xapoio pa6o1nnxa;
xax xo1nnann coo1nocn1cn c pesyi1a1axn pen1einoc1n co-
1pypnnxa.

Hoce hponepennn ncec1oponneio anansa neo6xopnxo nsxe-
nn1i nn ycnn1i xo1nnnponanne.
Mn1nnnpnnannc 1o hpoecc nnnnnn na ueonexa c ein
ho6ypennn eio x ohpepeennix penc1nnnx hocpepc1nox ax1nnnsa-
nn n nex ohpepeennix xo1nnon.
Mo1nnnponanne cun1an1 ceppennnon, ocnonon xenepxen1a,
qqex1nnnoc1i xo1opoio no xnoiox sanncn1 o1 nepnoc1n hpo6ype-
nnn nynix xo1nnon.
ipenn1 pna ocnonnix 1nha xo1nnnponannn:
1. nemneio nospenc1nnn na ueonexa c ein ho6ypennn eio hpo-
nsnopn1i ohpepeennie penc1nnn, hpnnopnmne x ea1einoxy pn
xo1nnnpynmeio pesyi1a1y. 1o1 1nh nahoxnnae1 1opionyn cpexy:
ax pan, u1o i eae1e, a i ypone1nopne1e Moe eanne.
2. uopxnponanne ohpepeennon xo1nnanonnon c1pyx1ypi ue-
onexa. 1o1 1nh xo1nnnponannn nocn1 nochn1a1einin n o6pasona-
1einin xapax1ep. Lio ocymec1nenne 1pe6ye1 iopaspo 6oimnx sna-
nnn, ycnnn, choco6noc1en, no n pesyi1a1i hpenocxopn1 pesyi1a1i
hepnoio 1nha xo1nnnponannn.

Opiannsann, ocnonnmne n nchoisynmne n cnoen hpax1nxe o6a
1nha xo1nnnponannn, iopaspo ychemnee ocymec1nnn1 xenepxen1.
Mo1nnann oxasinae1 nospenc1nne na cepynmne xapax1epn-
c1nxn pen1einoc1n:
c1apanne;
ycnne;
nac1onunnoc1i;
po6poconec1noc1i;
eeyc1pexennoc1i.
Mo1nnann, paccxa1pnnaexan xax pnnaxnunin hpoecc, 1eo-
pe1nuecxn c nexo1opon poen yconnoc1n, hpepc1anne1cn cepyn-
mnxn opna sa ppyion c1apnnxn:
1. osnnxnonenne ho1pe6noc1n.
2. Honcx hy1en ypone1nopennn ho1pe6noc1n.
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132
3. Ohpepeenne een n nahpanennn penc1nnn.
4. Ocymec1nenne penc1nnn.
5. Hoyuenne nosnaipapennn sa ocymec1nenne penc1nnn.
6. \pone1nopenne nn yc1panenne ho1pe6noc1n.

\hpanenne opiannsanen cepye1 paccxa1pnna1i n 1ecnon cnnsn
ne 1oixo c opiannsanonno1exnnuecxnxn n conainoxonoxnuec-
xnxn saxonoxepnoc1nxn, no n conaino hcnxooinuecxnxn, ni1e-
xanmnxn, xax ns o6mec1nennon, 1ax n ns 6nooinuecxon chenqnxn
honepennn pa6o1nnxon n o1nomennn xepy nnxn. xonoxnuecxne sa-
xoni y1paunnan1 penc1nennoc1i, ecn n yhpanennn opiannsanen he-
pec1an1 yun1ina1icn nn1epeci, ho1pe6noc1n n hcnxooinn ueonexa.
uynxnn xo1nnann c1anonn1cn pemanmen ho1oxy, u1o xo-
noxnuecxnn ychex opiannsann nce xenime sanncn1 o1 yponnn ha-
nnponannn, opiannsann, a nce 6oime o1 a1xocqepi n 1pyponix
xoex1nnax, pasnn1nn caxoyhpanennn, iacnoc1n, yue1a n ypone-
1nopennn ho1pe6noc1en pa6o1nnxon.
cnnsn c oipoxnon nanoc1in qynxnn xo1nnann, pac-
cxo1pnx nexo1opie 1eopnn xo1nnann, a 1axe hcnxooinuecxnn
hopxop x xo1nnann qqex1nnnon pen1einoc1n yhpanennn op-
iannsanen.
Caxix pannnx hpnexox xo1nnann 6i xe1op xny1a n hpn-
nnxa, 1.e. nosnaipapennn n naxasannn, xo1opin n nexo1opix opia-
nnsannx hpnxennn1 po cnx hop.
Mnoiouncennie ncceponannn poxasinan1, u1o ocnonnon xo-
1nnanonnon pen1einoc1in n nac1onmee npexn nnne1cn xo1nnann
pnc1nxcnnn ncnn, 1.x. saxoni pinxa hpephoaian1 ue1xo ohpepe-
ennin 1nh xopeen c ohpepeennixn xo1nnaxn n ennoc1nxn.
Isnec1nin o1euec1nennin hcnxooi H. M. 2xo6con cun1ae1,
u1o xo1nnann cxapinae1cn ns conoxyhnoc1n cepynmnx xo1nnan-
onnix 1enpennn:
1. Hon1nuecxnx;
2. Hpanc1nennix npeaon;
3. Hpepc1anennn o hepchex1nne n pa6o1e n nsnn;
4. joc1a1ouno cninix nn1epecon x hoyuennn nheua1ennn o1
pa6o1i, ncxycc1na, chop1a n 1.p.;
5. C1pexennn x yhopnpouennn nsnn n 6i1a, neuennn x 1pypy,
1nopuecxon pen1einoc1n n 1.h.;
6. Ohpepeennon ho1pe6noc1n n hnme, opepe, o6ynn, peniiax,
xnniax, pasnunix hpepxe1ax;
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

133
7. joc1a1ouno cninix uync1nax n6nn, hpnsna1einoc1n, c1paxa,
inena, npoc1n, aoc1n n 1.p.;
8. C1poinx xopainix y6epennn n neo6xopnxoc1n coo1ne1c1-
nynmnx o6pasox peainpona1i n ohpepeennix cn1yannx;
9. Hpnniuex, 1papnnn, hpeppaccypxon n o1nomennn x 1pypy,
ppyinx pa6o1nnxax;
10. Hoppaannn ohpepeennix xanepax honepennn, nxycax, xope
na opepy, o6yni n 1.p.

1euenne xnoinx e1 pean1cn hohi1xn cnec1n xo1nnanon-
nie 1enpennn n ohpepeennie cnc1exi n na 1on ocnone paspa6a-
1ina1i coo1ne1c1nynmne 1eopnn. Han6oimee hpnsnanne hoyunn
cepynmne xo1nnanonnie 1eopnn:
I. Ieponnuecxan;
II. Hcnxoanan1nuecxan;
III. jpannon (neuennn);
IV. \connix peqexcon;
V. Iepapxnn ho1pe6noc1en Macoy n 1eopnn ERG Aipepqepa;
VI. Ho1pe6noc1en MaxKeanpa;
VII. jnyxqax1opnan Iep6epia;
VIII. X n \ MaxIpeiopa;
IX. Onpannn;
X. Chpanepnnoc1n;
XI. Mopei Hop1epa Hoyepa;
XII. ex1ponnie xo1nnann.

Kpa1xo paccxo1pnx nexo1opie 1eopnn xo1nnann.
I. Ieponnuecxan xo1nnanonnan 1eopnn nosnnxa n paexon ppen-
noc1n n Ipenn, coiacno 1on 1eopnn ueonex c1pexn1cn x xax-
cnxnsann yponoic1nnn, nacapennn n x xnnnxnsann neyponoi-
c1nnn, pncxoxqop1a, 6on, c1papannn. Opnnx ns paspa6o1unxon 1on
1eopnn nnne1cn axepnxancxnn hcnxooi H. Bni. On poxasinae1, u1o
yponoic1nne cyn1 iannix qax1opox, xo1opin ohpepene1 ax-
1nnnoc1i, nahpanennoc1i n opiannsann honepennn pa6o1nnxon. Ho
xonehnn H. Bnia pe1epxnnan1on honepennn nic1yhae1 cepyn-
man sa honepennex xonn. Lcn 1a xonn 6ype1 hosn1nnnon, pen-
c1nne hon1opn1cn, ecn neia1nnnon sac1ohopn1cn. jpyine c1opon-
nnxn ieponnuecxon 1eopnn cun1an1, u1o xononainie omymennn
nochpnnnxan1cn xax yponoic1nne nmi po ohpepeennoio yponnn.
3a1ex nac1yhae1 hepenacimenne n 1o e omymenne nochpnnnxae1-
cn xax neyponoic1nne.
Mcucdcun

134
hocepnee npexn ieponnuecxan 1eopnn hoyuna nasnanne
pnyxpasxepnon n cnnsn c nipeennex pnyx cymec1nennix qax1opon:
1. \ponnn c1nxynnn:
2. Ieponnuecxoio 1ona, xo1opin nxee1 o1nomenne x cy6:ex1nn-
noxy yponoic1nnn.

Isyuenne n honnxanne xo1nnanonnon pen1einoc1n nipae1 oi-
poxnyn poi n ncceponannnx yhpanennn opiannsanen. Heo6xopnxo
o6napyn1i cxpi1ie honepenuecxne c1pyx1ypi, hosna1i, xaxnx o6pa-
sox pasnnnan1cn hcnxooinuecxne qax1opi, o6yconennie nunoc1-
nixn hpo6exaxn. Opno peo nsyun1i qax1nuecxoe honepenne pa-
6o1nnxon n iopaspo 1pypnee honn1i, houexy nnoipa nepy1 ce6n 1ax:
ueonex ne nceipa xoe1 n xoue1 o6:ncnn1i cno honepenne.
II. Hcnxoanan1nuecxan xo1nnanonnan 1eopnn cospana n paspa-
6o1ana anc1pnncxnx hcnxna1pox 3nixynpox upenpox.
Ona hpepc1anne1 co6on hpnxep hcnxopnnaxnuecxoio hopxopa x
nsyuennn honepennn ueonexa. Lio 1eopnn ocnonana na hpnsnannn cy-
mec1nonannn ohpepeennix hcnxooinuecxnx cn, xo1opie qopxnpyn1
honepenne ueonexa n ne nceipa nx ocosnan1cn. 1o xono nn1ephpe-
1npona1i xax o1ne1nyn peaxnn na penc1nnn pasnunix c1nxyon.
On y1neppa, u1o pnnymnxn cnaxn ueoneuecxoio honepe-
nnn nnnn1cn nnc1nnx1i:
1. poca nnc1nnx1a nsnn;
2. Tona1oca nnc1nnx1a aipeccnn, paspymennn, cxep1n.

upenp cun1a, u1o ueoneuec1no em ne poc1nio napennn n ho-
non xepe 1annaxn poca n 1ona1oca n sapaua ipnpymnx hoxoennn
hosnanne n yhpanenne 1nxn nnc1nnx1axn. Inc1nnx1 ho upenpy nxe-
e1 4 ocnonnix hapaxe1pa: nc1ounnx, ei, o6:ex1 n c1nxy.
Hcnxoanan1nuecxan 1eopnn paccxa1pnnae1 ueonexa, xax
epnnc1no 1pex c1pyx1ypnix xoxhonen1on:
1. io (2) cosnanne ce6n, nunan ohpepennoc1i;
2. Ip (Ono) pesepnyap nnc1nnx1on n nxhyicon
3. Cyhepio xopainie achex1i honepennn ueonexa, oxpy-
anmne nunoc1i 6eccosna1eino.
Cxexa1nuno c1pyx1ypa nunoc1n ho upenpy niinpn1 n nnpe
anc6epia, nap nopnon honepxnoc1in naxopn1cn nmi io 1o
hpnxepno opna mec1an uac1i.
hcnxoanan1nuecxon 1eopnn namn nipaenne:
cninan hpnnepennoc1i hooennnx n hpnnnhax pe1epxn-
nnsxa, nppanonainoc1n, nensxennexoc1n, ioxeoc1asa n hosnanae-
xoc1n;
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

135
yxepenno nipaennan hpnnepennoc1i hooennnx xonsxa;
nesnaun1einan hpnnepennoc1i hpnnnhy cy6:ex1nnnoc1n.

Ocnonon ocnon hcnxoanansa nnne1cn 6eccosna1einoe cpep-
nnanmee n ce6e xnoine ho6ypn1einie cni honepenne ueonexa,
panmne nosxonoc1i honn1i cxpi1ie honepenuecxne yc1pexennn
pa6o1nnxon n nahpann1i nx na hoisy opiannsann. Hahpnxep,
cxoixo 6i xenepep nn ionopn o neo6xopnxoc1n honimennn hpo-
nsnopn1einoc1n 1pypa, paime pasionopon peo ne honpe1. Ho ecn
on honxe1 ho6ypn1einie cni xopainoio n xa1epnainoio c1n-
xynponannn pa6o1nnxon, n ocnone xo1opix ea1 ocosnanaexie n
neocosnanaexie nxhyici, 1o on cxoe1 hpephpnnn1i xonxpe1nie
xepi n po6n1icn ychexa.
III. Mo1nnanonnan 1eopnn ppannon (neuennn) cun1ae1cn pasno-
nnpnoc1in 6nxennopnc1cxon xopen SR, ipe S c1nxy, R peax-
nn. Cospa1eex xo1nnanonnon 1eopnn ppannon cun1ae1cn axepn-
xancxnn hcnxooi Kap Xa.
Ocnoninanci na hpnnnhax ioxeoc1asa, saxnuanmnxcn n 1ox,
u1o nunoc1i nxee1 1enpennn caxoc1on1eino hoppepnna1i cnoe
nny1pennee coc1onnne, on cun1ae1, u1o n6oe nsxenenne no nny1pen-
nex xnpe nunoc1n nep1 x ohpepeennon peaxnn. eonex cnauaa
hi1ae1cn nen1pansona1i n6ie nsxenennn. Ax1nnnixn exen1a-
xn nen1pansann nnnn1cn ppanni (neuennn).
coo1ne1c1nnn c xopein SR, hponcxopnmne ncep sa peaxn-
en n ycnnnanmne cni 1on peaxnn nonie hohi1xn nasinan1cn
hopxpehennex. Honepenne, hopxpehnnoe uexn6o, poc1a1ouno
hpouno saxpehne1cn n hcnxnxe pa6o1nnxa n penc1nye1 ho c1anpap1y.
ipa6a1inae1cn xonxpe1nan cnc1exa na1acxnnannn pa6o1nnxon na
ohpepeennin c1nxy. opiannsannx c1pan c pasnn1on pinounon
xonoxnxon 1y cnc1exy nchoisyn1 n hpoecce c1nxynponannn
pa6o1nnxon na 1pyponyn ax1nnnoc1i hocpepc1nox penei n pasnoio
popa hoompennn. Cepye1 o1xe1n1i, u1o pannan cnc1exa ho6ype-
nnn pa6o1ae1 6eso1xasno xax hosn1nnno, 1ax n neia1nnno. hocep-
nex cyuae n hcnxnxe pa6o1nnxa cospa1cn nac1pon na onpanne
nosnaipapennn n c1on1 1oixo necxoixo pas hopxpehn1i nx ne
cnmxox hponsnopn1einin 1pyp, xax pa6o1nnx hpnnixae1 x 1oxy
n 6oee ne xicn1 ce6n 6es pohonn1einoio nosnaipapennn.
IV. Mo1nnanonnan 1eopnn yconnix peqexcon. Cospana n pas-
pa6o1ana pyccxnx yuenix I.H. Hanonix. Kpaeyioinix xaxnex
eio 1eopnn nnne1cn peaxnn opiannsxa na nnemnne pasppaennn
Mcucdcun

136
yconnie n 6esyconnie peqexci, hpnsnannie qynpaxen1ox xo-
1nnann. Oco6oe nnnxanne on ypen yconnix peqexcax. \con-
nin peqexc, 1ounee cqopxnponanmencn na eio ocnone c1epeo1nh
ximennn n honepennn, cyn1 hcnxoqnsnooinuecxon 6ason yc1a-
nonxn, hpepc1annnmen co6on en1painin xoxhonen1 xo1nnan-
onnon cnc1exi nnpnnnpyyxa.
3nanne paccxo1pennix xo1nnanonnix 1eopnn, hosnon1 py-
xonopn1en opiannsann ocosna1i o6mnn hopxop x ocymec1nennn
opnon ns iannix qynxnn yhpanennn hponsnopc1nox xo1nna-
nn. Opnaxo, eecoo6pasno em osnaxoxn1icn c 6oee pachpoc1pa-
nnnixn n c1panax c pasnn1on pinounon xonoxnxon xo1nnanon-
nixn 1eopnnxn, nchoisyexixn hpn yhpanennn opiannsanen.

V. Iepapxnn ho1pe6noc1en ho A. Macoy pae1 hpepc1anenne o
1ox, xaxoe ypone1nopenne npn nmy1 n pa6o1e. Isnec1nin axepn-
xancxnn conooi A6paxax Macoy (popn1en xo1opoio xnipnpo-
nan ns Ioccnncxon Ixhepnn) ohy6nxona 1pyp Iepapxnn ho-
1pe6noc1en, n xo1opox nson na6op ho1pe6noc1en ho c1ehenn nx
nospac1annn. Hoxa xonxpe1nan ho1pe6noc1i neypone1nopnna, ona
nic1yhae1 xax xo1nnnpynmnn 1pyp qax1op. Hoce ypone1nopennn
6oee hpoc1on ho1pe6noc1n n penc1nne nc1yhae1 6oee nicoxan ho-
1pe6noc1i. Ho1pe6noc1n, cqopxynponannie A. Macoy, xono cne-
c1n n cepynmne ipyhhi:
1. O6echeunnanmne napenoc1i ninnannn n hoppepanne spo-
ponin (qnsnooinuecxne ho1pe6noc1n) hnma, opepa, nie n 1.h.;
2. O6echeunnanmne 6esohacnoc1i qnsnuecxyn, xonoxnue-
cxyn, xononainyn n pp.;
3. Hpnnapenoc1n x ohpepeennon conainon ipyhhe n cnx-
ha1nn eio uenon (conainie ho1pe6noc1n n xon1ax1ax)
4. Ho1pe6noc1n hpnsnannn (nahpnxep, hpano hpnnn1nn peme-
nnn), nac1n, ho6epi, pncxa, nesanncnxoc1n, ynaennn;
5. Ho1pe6noc1n n caxonipaennn (peansann saoennix cho-
co6noc1en).

Iepapxnn ho1pe6noc1en A. Macoy, y1ounennan sa1ex hcnxo-
oiox I. Myppeex, pachooena n nnpe c1pyx1ypi, ipaqnuecxn nso-
6paaexon hnpaxnpon, 1ax xax uex 6oee nicoxoe xec1o sannxan1
ho1pe6noc1n n nepapxnn, 1ex pn xenimoio unca npen onn c1ano-
nn1cn xo1nna1opaxn (Inc. 3.9.)

quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

137




















Puc. 3.9. Cxcma ncpapxnn ncnnnnmx nn1pc6nnc1cn nn A. Macnny

Iccepyn 1eopnn A. Macoy, . I. npxon nipen cepynmne
e oco6ennoc1n:
1. An1nioxeoc1a1nunoc1i ax1nnnoe nauao 1nopuec1na, cosnpannn.
eonexy hpncymn hoc1anonxa een n nsnn n c1pexenne nx poc1nui.
2. Iyxannc1nunoc1i xoex1nnnsx. eonex nypae1cn n o6mennn,
n6nn, cnxha1nnx.
3. Heoc1noc1i ueonex hpepc1anne1 co6on epnnyn, nepen-
xyn, eoc1nyn n opninnainyn nunoc1i, 6oia1yn n cnonx hponn-
ennnx n c1pexennnx.
4. Inc1nnx1onpnin n nepapxnuecxnn xapax1ep ocnonnix ho-
1pe6noc1en ueonexa. \xasannie na cxexe ho1pe6noc1n hpncymne
hpnpope n6oio ueonexa, xo1n ncepc1nne nepasnn1oc1n o1peinie
ho1pe6noc1n xoiy1 nnno ne hponnn1icn. He ypone1nopnnmnci c1a-
1nunoc1in xopen, A. Macoy n 1955i. o1xasacn o1 hpnnnha qnx-
cnponannon nepapxnn ho1pe6noc1en n nne hpnnnh pnnaxnunoc1n.
5. jnnaxnsx ho1pe6noc1en o6yconen xo1nnanen pasnn1nn
na hpo1nennn ncen nsnn ueonexa. A. Macoy ye ne xonc1a1npye1
ec1xyn cnnsi xepy xo1nnanen 1pypa n ypone1nopennex nnsmnx
ho1pe6noc1en. Isyuan xaccnqnxann ho1pe6noc1en ho A. Macoy,
Camnnmpaxcnnc
(peansann choco6noc1en)
jnaxcnnc (hpnsnanne, nac1i n
pp.)
Cnnnannnmc (xon1ax1i, n6oni n
pp.)
Bcannacnnc1n (samnmennoc1i,
ynepennoc1i n 6ypymex n pp.)
unannnnrnwccnc (hnma, opepa, nie,
o6yni n pp.)
5
4
3
2
1
1opnunie
(hpno6pe1ennie)
ho1pe6noc1n
Hepnnunie
(npopennie)
ho1pe6noc1n
Mcucdcun

138
X. Xexxaysen ue1xo hpocennae1 nospac1anne yponnn pasnn1nn ueo-
nexa ho xepe hponnennn nimec1onmnx ho1pe6noc1en. On c1pon1
pnnaxnuecxyn xopei xaccnqnxann ho1pe6noc1en n ipaqnuecxn
nnc1pnpye1 1ecnyn cnnsi xepy xo1nnanen n pen1einoc1in.

Taxnx o6pasox, 1eopnn A. Macoy nneca oueni nanin nxap
n honnxanne ocnonohoaianmnx c1pexennn npen x 1pypy.
Tax e, xax Macoy, Ken1on Aipepqep o6:epnnne1 ho1pe6no-
c1n n ipyhhi. Ho n o1nune o1 Macoy, on cun1ae1, u1o 1axnx ipyhh 1pn.
Teopnn Aipepqepa, nnnnci o1nocn1eino xoopon, nxee1 ne6oimoe
unco xhnpnuecxnx hop1neppennn e hpano1i. Ho snanne 1on 1eo-
pnn hoesno pn hpax1nxn yhpanennn, 1ax xax ona o1xpinae1 pn xe-
nepepon hepchex1nni honcxa qqex1nnnix qopx xo1nnnponannn.
VI. jpyion xopein xo1nnann, peanmen ocnonnon axen1 na
ho1pe6noc1n nicmnx yponnen, 6ia 1eopnn jnnpa MaxKeanpa,
xo1opin cun1a, u1o npnx hpncymn 1pn iannie ho1pe6noc1n:
1. ac1i;
2. \chex;
3. Hpnuac1noc1i.
VII. 3acynnae1 nnnxanne pnyxqax1opnan 1eopnn xo1nnann
upepepnxa Iep6epia, xo1opan 6ia paspa6o1ana nx na ocnone oh-
poca 200 nnenepon n xon1opcxnx cyamnx axoxpacounon qnpxi.
Hoyuennie o1ne1i on cipyhhnpona n nasna:
1 ipyhha ininennuecxne qax1opi:
sapa6o1nan ha1a;
conainie 6aia;
yconnn pa6o1i qnsnuecxne, nnemnne;
c1a1yc;
xnxa1 opiannsann, pa6ouan a1xocqepa, o6c1anonxa;
o1nomenne x pyxonopc1ny n xoeiax.

2 ipyhha xo1nnnpynmne qax1opi :
nn1epecnan pa6o1a ynexa1einan hoc1anonxa nohpocon, xno-
ioc1oponnoc1i, nosxonoc1i pacmnpn1i cnon snannn;
caxoc1on1einoc1i n honoxounn, cnon yuac1ox pa6o1i;
nosxonoc1i po6n1icn omy1nxix pesyi1a1on;
hpnsnanne poc1nennn, nipaaexoe uepes poc1 poxopa, ho-
noxounn, c1ehenn 1pypnoc1n sapau;
hpoqo6yuenne n honimenne xnanqnxann xax nehpepinnin
hpoecc.

Hapnpy c ipyhhnponxon ho1pe6noc1en u. Iep6epi nicxasa
hpephooenne o nanunn 1ecnon xoppennonnon cnnsn xepy
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

139
ypone1nopennex o1 pa6o1i n poc1ox hponsnopn1einoc1n 1pypa, a
1axe yc1anonn coo1nomenne xepy xo1nnanen n xapax1epox pa-
6o1i. ( Cx. pnc. 3. 10).

TLOII2 TLOII2 ERG TLOII2 TLOII2
A5IAXAMA KHLITOHA uILjLIIKA jIjA
MACHOj AHBEPuEPA IEPHBEPIA MAKKHEHHAHA
(nc:txc cuu-q
cpx)

(cpx npcccc qdc:c-
ncpcuun ncnpccuccncu;
uu- npcccc
qpqcnpauu, n.c. ucc--
cuccnt qdc:cncpc-
uun ncnpccuccncu)
(dqx qaxncpc:
qdc:cncpunc:u
u:u cnuupqr-
uc;
ucuuuc u:u
-dcpctc
(npcx
ncnpccuccncu)


























Puc. 3.10. Cnn1nnmcnnc n naanmncnnan rpynn nn1pc6nnc1cn
n mn1nnannnnnmx 1cnpnnx wc1mpcx an1npnn
Ho1pe6noc1i
caxonipae-
nnn
Ho1pe6noc1i
hpnsnannn n
caxoy1nep-
pennn
Ho1pe6noc1i
hpnnape-
noc1n n
hpnuac1noc1n
Ho1pe6noc1i
6esohacnoc1n
unsnooinue-
cxne ho1pe6-
noc1n
Ho1pe6-
noc1i
poc1a
Ho1pe6noc1i
cnnsn
Ho1pe6-
noc1i
cymec1no-
nannn
MOTIII\B-
HIL
uAKTOII
poc1nenne
hpnsnanne
hpoecc pa6o1i
o1ne1c1nennoc1i
hpopnnenne
nosxonoc1i
poc1a
uAKTOII
3jOIOI2
hon1nxa n
yhpanenne
1exnnuecxoe
pyxonopc1no
oha1a 1pypa
nsanxoo1nomennn
c pyxonopc1nox,
xoeiaxn n
hopunnennixn
yconnn pa6o1i

Ho1pe6noc1i
poc1nennn
en
Ho1pe6noc1i
nac1nonannn
Ho1pe6noc1i
coyuac1nn
Mcucdcun

140
Iaccxo1pennie 1eopnn A. Macoy, K. Aipepqepa, j. Max
Keanpa, u. Iep6epia n xenepxen1e nasinan1 copepa1eini-
xn 1eopnnxn xo1nnann, xo1opie ocnonani na npen1nqnxann
nny1pennnx ho6ypennn, nasinaexix ho1pe6noc1nxn, sac1annn-
mne npen penc1nona1i ohpepeennix o6pasox.

Hpoeccyainie 1eopnn xo1nnann ocnonani na honepennn n-
pen c yue1ox nx nochpnn1nn n hosnannn. K ocnonnix hpoeccyainix
1eopnnx xo1nnann xono o1nec1n:
1. Hoc1anonxn een;
2. Onpannn;
3. Chpanepnnoc1n;
4. Hap1ncnha1nnnoio yhpanennn
5. Mopei Hanxana Hop1epa pnappa Hoyepa ocnonana na 1eo-
pnnx onpannn n chpanepnnoc1n.
6. Ianenc1na C1encn Apaxca.

XII. nc1pnnnmc mn1nnannn. Internet hosnone1 pyxonopc1ny opia-
nnsann hpepoc1ann1i hepconay n cno6opnoe npexn poc1yh x pasnu-
non ex1ponnon nnqopxann. 1o 6ype1 nipa6a1ina1i y npen
omymenne cnoen nanoc1n, hpnuac1noc1n x pen1einoc1n opiannsann.
Caxo cymec1nonanne xoxhin1epon n In1epne1a n opiannsann xo1n-
nnpye1 xoex1nn x qqex1nnnoxy 1pypy n o6eiuae1 eio.
Cymec1nye1 xnoio n ppyinx 1eopnn xo1nnann, nahpnxep, oh1n-
xainoc1n ax1nnnsann n c1nxynnn, nunoc1non hpnuac1noc1n, caxo-
pe1epxnnann, opnaxo ca1ie cpoxn n oipannuennin o6:ex yue6noio
hoco6nn ne hosnonn1 ypen1i nx ponoio nnnxannn.
Taxnx o6pasox, xo1nnann xax qynxnn yhpanennn 1o ho-
6ypenne pa6o1nnxon penc1nona1i chenqnuecxnx eenahpanen-
nix choco6ox n enx pasnn1nn opiannsann, conoxyhnoc1i ponopon
pn o6ocnonannn en hepconaa penc1nona1i n nn1epecax opiannsa-
nn. Chenanc1i cun1an1, u1o hpn xo1nnann neo6xopnxo cxon-
en1pnpona1i nnnxanne na qax1opax, ho6ypanmnx x ax1nnnix
penc1nnnx nn ycnnnanmnx nx, o6paman oco6oe nnnxanne na ho-
1pe6noc1n, xo1nni n ho6ypennn. Mo1nnann pona 6i1i opnen-
1nponana, hpepe nceio, na cospanne po6poea1einon 6ecxon-
qnx1non a1xocqepi n opiannsann. Hpoecc hponsnopc1nennon
pen1einoc1n nxee1 nehocpepc1nennoe o1nomenne x ni6opy n oen-
xe honepennn, sanncnmeio o1 nosxonoc1n poc1nennn en, o1 nos-
naipapennn, na xo1opoe paccun1inan1 sa hponsnepnnyn pa6o1y.
\ncnnn ocnonnie xo1nnanonnie 1eopnn xono hpnc1yhn1i x
nsyuennn cepynmen nanenmen qynxnn xenepxen1a xon1pon.
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

141
3.4. Koa1ponb

Kon1poi qynxnn hpecca yhpanennn, ein xo1opon nnne1-
cn xonuec1nennan n xauec1nennan hponepxa pesyi1a1on pen1einoc1n,
nihonnexon hocpepc1nox oc1ainix qynxnn, o6echeuenne poc1ne-
nnn een opiannsanen.

Kon1poi ocymec1nne1cn hy1ex na6npennn, yu1a n anansa
ncex c1opon pen1einoc1n opiannsann. Ho pannix xon1pon:
1. \c1pannn1cn ninnennie omn6xn;
2. Hponopn1cn xoppex1nponxa panee hpnnn1ix pemennn, nopx,
nopxa1nnon, hoxasa1een 6nsnechana.

Hpannino hoc1anennin xon1poi nep1cn cnoenpexenno, hpo-
c1o, honn1no, xonoxnuno, opnen1npye1cn na xoneunie pesyi1a1i.
Hpn cohoc1anennn qax1nuecxnx pannix o hponsnopc1nenno
xoxxepuecxnx pesyi1a1ax pen1einoc1n ncex hoppaspeennn n op-
iannsann n eox c hpepycxo1pennix 6nsnechanox, ninnnn1
o1xonennn, anansnpyn1 hpnunni 1nx o1xonennn n paspa6a1i-
nan1 xonxpe1nie xepohpnn1nn, c hoxomin xo1opix xono yc1pa-
nn1i neia1nnnie o1xonennn.
Kon1poi neo6xopnx hpn sahonennn qopx hepnnunoio yu1a
n coc1anennn c1a1nc1nuecxon o1u1noc1n opiannsann. Kon1poi
pannix nanan 1exnooinuecxan ohepann, coc1onman n cpannennn
snauennn nnqopxann, hpepc1anennon n qopxansonannox nnpe,
hosnonnmex hepepana1i n (nn) o6pa6a1ina1i ee na xoxhin1epe,
cohoc1annn c 1aonnixn snauennnxn. Hpn 1ox hponsnopn1cn
hponepxa hpanninoc1n sahonennn pexnnsn1on poxyxen1a n copep-
amnxcn n nx cnepennn c ein ninnennn n yc1panennn nosxo-
nix omn6ox. jannie o6iuno hpepc1annn1cn na ohpepeennix no-
cn1enx, xo1opie xoiy1 6i1i 6yxanixn (6anxn, 1a6ni n 1.h.) n
xamnnnixn, n 1ox unce c nchoisonannex xoxhin1epon, asep-
nie pncxn, xainn1nie pncxe1i n pncxn, xainn1nie en1i n 1.h., xo-
1opie poc1a1ouno popoin. Ho1oxy 6esomn6ounie pannie xonoxn1
opiannsann cymec1nennie penenie cpepc1na. xauec1ne qynxnn
yhpanennn pasnuan1 1pn nnpa xon1pon:
1. Hpepnapn1einin;
2. Texymnn;
3. 3axnun1einin (n1oionin).
Iaccxo1pnx copepanne hepeuncennix nnpon xon1pon.

I. Hpcpnapn1cnnnmn nn1pnnn ocymec1nnn1 po nauaa pen-
1einoc1n opiannsann c ein hponepxn eio io1onnoc1n x hpep-
Mcucdcun

142
c1onmen pa6o1e iannix o6pasox ho cepynmnx ocnonnix nahpan-
ennnx:
1. \hpanenuecxne pemennn xon1ponpyn1 coo1ne1c1nne nx ho
qopxe n ho copepannn saxonopa1einix ax1ax, 1ax xax u1xoc1i
yc1anonox, poxopunnoc1i nnc1pyxnn, nepnoc1i hpanonoio n nopxa-
1nnnoio o6echeuennn hpepohpepenn1 nepon1noc1i ychexa n pa6o1e
opiannsann.
2. Kon1poi hepconaa n yxennn yhpann1i nnqopxanonnixn
pecypcaxn. Heo6xopnxo pepa1i hop hoc1onnnix xon1poex xappo-
nie cy6i, hpoqeccnonainyn hopio1onxy co1pypnnxon, o16npan
hpn 1ox caxix xnanqnnponannix chenanc1on, yxenmnx pa6o-
1a1i c xoxhin1epaxn. cqepy xon1pon hepconaa nxopn1 1axe no-
hpoci, cnnsannie c honnxannex nchonn1enxn en cnoen pen-
1einoc1n. Co snannex nxn hpan, pon xoex1nnon ncex snenien op-
iannsann n pemennn xapopnennix sapau, o6nsannoc1en, chenqn-
xn pa6o1i. A 1axe nopx nipa6o1xn, nepapxnn hopunnnnoc1n, o1-
ne1c1nennoc1n n yconnn xa1epnainix n xopainix nosna-
ipapennn, 1.x. xappi peman1, ecn ne nce, 1o oueni xnoioe.
3. Kon1poi coc1onnnn xa1epnainix pecypcon. Hpepe nceio,
y1ounnn1cn nc1ounnxn hoc1anxn xa1epnainix pecypcon, ocymec1n-
ne1cn hponepxa cnoenpexennoc1n n poc1a1ounoc1n nx nanunn, pe-
iynpnoc1i n napenoc1i hoc1yhennn, xauec1no n coo1ne1c1nne
c1anpap1ax, hponsnopn1cn cpannenne qax1nuecxoio hooennn c
hpepycxo1pennix panee.
4. Kon1poi o6pasonannn n pachpepeennn qnnanconix pecypcon.

II. Tcymnn nn1pnnn ocymec1nne1cn nehocpepc1nenno n xo-
pe hponsnopc1nenno xoxxepuecxon pen1einoc1n n nxnuae1:
1. Ohepa1nnnin xon1poi eepnennin xon1poi sa hponsnop-
c1nenno xoxxepuecxon pen1einoc1in, sa 1exnooinen, xauec1nox
hpopyxnn, pa6o1, ycyi n 1.p.
2. C1pa1einuecxnn xon1poi ohpepene1 qqex1nnnoc1i pa6o-
1i opiannsann, c yu1ox nchoisonannn ncex pecypcon, pacu1on
hponsnopn1einoc1n 1pypa, xa1epnaoxxoc1n n xonoxnuecxon
pen1a6einoc1n hponsnopc1na.
Kax hpanno, 1exymnn xon1poi nepe1cn ho hpoxey1ounix
enx, u1o6i yche1i cxoppex1npona1i painenmyn pen1einoc1i
opiannsann. 1n hpoxey1ounie en nasinan1cn 1ouxaxn xon-
1pon. ex hpopon1einee hepnop npexenn nihonennn 6nsnec
hana, 1ex 6oime pono 6i1i 1axnx 1ouex. 1o hosnone1 panime
saxe1n1i omn6xn n cnoenpexenno nnec1n xoppex1nni.

quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

143
III. 3anmwn1cnnnmn (n1nrnnmn) nn1pnnn cnnsan c oenxon
nihonennn opiannsanen ncex paspeon 6nsnec hana, n ho1oxy
1pe6ye1 ncec1oponneio anansa cninix n ca6ix achex1on pen-
1einoc1n opiannsann sa nc1exmnn hepnop c ein hoyuennn
neo6xopnxon nnqopxann pn hocepynmnx 1ahon hannponannn.
Kon1poi hponsnopn1cn ne papn caxoio xon1pon, a pn yc-
hemnoio poc1nennn opiannsanen hoon1einix pesyi1a1on
ncex nnpon pen1einoc1n. Ho1oxy yume ne co6npa1i nmnen nn-
qopxann, a 1oixo - peenan1nyn, 1ax xax xon1poi caxin popo-
ion nnp yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n, n xon1ponpona1i neo6xopn-
xo 1oixo 1o, u1o penc1nn1eino nano n neo6xopnxo.
hpoepype yhpanenuecxoio xon1pon xono nipen1i 1pn u1-
xo pasnunxix 1aha:
1. Iaspa6o1xa 1aonon, c1anpap1on n xpn1epnen ho hoxasa1enx
hponsnopc1nenno xoxxepuecxon pen1einoc1n opiannsann;
2. Cohoc1anenne c 1aonaxn, c1anpap1axn n xpn1epnnxn qax-
1nuecxnx pesyi1a1on pen1einoc1n opiannsann;
3. ihonenne neo6xopnxix xoppex1npynmnx penc1nnn.

sanxocnnsi pasnunix 1ahon yhpanenuecxoio xon1pon
hpepc1anena na pnc.3.11.
Kon1poi xax qynxnn yhpanennn 6ype1 qqex1nnnix , ecn
on nocn1 c1pa1einuecxnn xapax1ep, naeen na poc1nenne xonxpe1-
nix peainix pesyi1a1on, honn1 , hpnnn1 n ocnoen o1ne1c1nennixn
nchonn1enxn.
Kax pasnonnpnoc1i xon1pon n xapxe1nnie hponopn1cn xon-
1ponni cnc1exa xon1pon nihonennn hana n hpoipaxxi xap-
xe1nnionix xepohpnn1nn, hoc1onnnoe 1ec1nponanne ocnonnix ha-
paxe1pon pinxa, nnecenne neo6xopnxix xoppex1nn n xapxe1nnionie
penc1nnn n coo1ne1c1nnn c nsxenennnxn pinounon cn1yann n oen-
xn qqex1nnnoc1n xapxe1nnia. hpoecce xon1ponnia eecoo6-
pasno cohoc1ann1i hanonie (hpoinosnie pannie nsnennoio nx-
a 1onapa c qax1nuecxnxn pannixn). Menepxen1 ne xnnnaen1en
ncen pa6o1e opiannsann ho poc1nennn xoneunix een, a ocyme-
c1nne1 1oixo 1y pen1einoc1i n ocnonnie qynxnn (nsoennie
panee), xo1opie cnnsani, hpepe nceio, c xooppnnanen.
Knnppnnannn o6echeunnae1 nehpepinnoc1i, caennoc1i,
6echepe6onnoc1i yhpanennn. Kooppnnann neo6xopnxa pn poc1n-
ennn coiaconannoc1n n pa6o1e opiannsann hocpepc1nox naan-
nannn cnnsn xepy ncexn yuac1nnxaxn hponsnopc1nennoio hpoecca.
ac1o c 1on ein nchoisyn1 co6pannn, nn1epnin, o1u1i, peo-
nie poxyxen1i, xoxhin1epi.
Mcucdcun

144










1ah 2










1ah 1











Puc. 3.11. Cxcma naanmncnnan paannwnmx a1annn npnnccca nn1pnnn a
qynnnn ynpanncnnn n npnnannpc1ncnnnn nprannaannn. Hnnnan mnpcnn
npnnccca nn1pnnn. [16, c. 406 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]

Lcn n opiannsann ne1 xexannsxon xooppnnann, 1o pa6o1-
nnxn ne cxoiy1 hponsnopn1eino 1pypn1icn nxec1e, 1ax xax hpons-
nopc1nennie hoppaspeennn n o1peinie nchonn1en cxoiy1 co-
cpepo1oun1icn na peansann cnonx co6c1nennix nn1epecon, a ne na
Hpoinosn-
ponanne
en n
c1pa1ein-
uecxne
hani
Ohpepeenne
pasxepa
pohyc1nxix
o1xonennn
Oenxa
poc1onepno-
c1n n sna-
unxoc1n
nnqopxa-
nn
Ohpepee-
nne
poc1nennn
een
Hpn poc1n-
ennn een
nnueio ne
hpephpnnn-
xan1e
Cohoc1ani1e qax1n-
uecxne pesyi1a1i
hponsnopc1nenno
xoxxepuecxon pen-
1einoc1n opiannsa-
nn c 1aonaxn,
c1anpap1axn, xpn1e-
pnnxn
jonepn1e
hoyuen-
nie cnepe-
nnn po
hepconaa
opiannsa-
nn
Lcn en ne
poc1niny1i,
pemn1e, pea-
nc1nuni n
1aoni,
c1anpap1i,
xpn1epnn
\c1anonn1e
hpnunni
o1xonennn
Iaspa6o1xa 1ao-
non,
c1anpap1on, xpn1e-
pnen
ho hoxasa1enx
hponsnopc1nenno
xoxxepuecxon pen-
1einoc1n opiann-
sann.
\1ounn1e nn hepe
cxo1pn1e 1aoni,
c1anpap1i, xpn1e-
pnn
\c1pann1e
neia1nnnie
o1xonennn.

Her
a
Her
3ran 3
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

145
qqex1nnnon hponsnopc1nenno xoxxepuecxon pen1einoc1n opia-
nnsann.
Kapan qynxnn yhpanennn nipae1 ohpepeennyn poi n xo-
oppnnann o6oco6ennoio 1pypa. 1nx yconnnx 6oimoe snauenne
nxee1 yponeni pasnn1nn xoxxynnxann pn hoppepannn hoc1onn-
noio nnqopxanonnoio o6xena.
Lm I. Ieiei y1neppa: jenc1nnn nnnn1cn caxix ncnix n
nipasn1einix pacxpi1nex ueonexa. Menepxen1 n opiannsann
ocymec1nne1cn uepes ueonexa (xenepepa), n hepnyn ouepepi, ho-
cpepc1nox xoxxynnxann.
Mecxon M., Ai6ep1 M., Xepoypn u. ohpepenn1 xoxxynnxa-
nn xax o6xen nnqopxanen, na ocnone xo1opoio pyxonopn1ei ho-
yuae1 nnqopxann, neo6xopnxyn pn hpnnn1nn qqex1nnnix
yhpanenuecxnx pemennn n ponopn1 hpnnn1ie nx pemennn po pa-
6o1nnxon; hopuepxnnan1, u1o xoxxynnxann 1o conin hpoecc,
coc1onmnn ns nsanxosanncnxix maion
hpoecce o6xena nnqopxanen chenanc1i nipenn1 ue1ipe
6asonix exen1a:
1. O1hpann1ei no, ienepnpynmee npen nn co6npanmee
nnqopxann n hepepanmee e;
2. Coo6menne co6c1nenno nnqopxann, saxopnponannan ho-
cpepc1nox cnxnoon;
3. Kana cpepc1no hepepaun nnqopxann;
4. Hoyua1ei no, xo1opoxy hpepnasnauena nnqopxann n
xo1opoe nn1ephpe1npye1 e.

Hpn o6xene nnqopxanen o1hpann1ei n hoyua1ei hpoxo-
pn1 necxoixo nsanxocnnsannix 1ahon:
3apopenne npen;
Kopnponanne n ni6op xanaa;
Hepepaua;
jexopnponanne.

Ix sapaua coc1ann1i coo6menne n nchoisona1i xana pn eio
hepepaun 1axnx o6pasox, u1o6i o6e c1oponi honnn n coiacnnci c
ncxopnon npeen, u1o poc1a1ouno 1pypno. Conoc1i saxnuae1cn n
1ox, u1o xapin 1ah nnne1cn opnonpexenno 1ouxon, n xo1opon
cxic xoe1 6i1i ncxaen nn honoc1in ho1epnn ns sa myxa.
Hyx na nsixe 1eopnn hepepaun nnqopxann 1o ncxaenne
cxica. Ic1ounnxaxn myxa xoiy1 6i1i nsixonie pasnunn, axen-
1i, nssa xo1opix nosxono nsxenenne cxica n hpoecce xopnpo-
nannn n pexopnponannn, a 1axe pasnunn n c1a1yce xepy py-
Mcucdcun

146
Hehi o6pa1non cnnsn
Hnqnpmannn, nannncnnmn nnm1
Hno
ienepn-
pynmee
npen
ep6ainie
nn
nenep6ainie
cnxnoi
Ieui, hncixo,
ex1ponnie
cpepc1na
cnnsn
H\M
O16npae1
Ienepa1op npen
pexopnpye1
o1xnx
jexopnpye1 n
hpannino nn
nehpannino
honnxae1
Hnnywa1cnn
Hepepae1
coo6menne
O1xnx
n appec
o1hpann1en
Kopnpye1
O16npae1
Hepepae1
coo6menne
Kanan
Kopnpye1
xonopn1enxn n hopunnennixn, u1o nnoipa sa1pypnne1 1ounyn he-
pepauy nnqopxann. Kax hpanno, na xapox 1ahe hpoecca xox-
xynnxann hponcxopn1 ohpepeennoe ncxaenne nnqopxann.
C1eheni ncxaennn nnqopxann ynenunnae1cn c poc1ox unca n-
pen n 1ahon, uepes xo1opie nnqopxann hpoxopn1. jae, ecn hpe-
opoenan1cn hoxexn n nnqopxann hepepae1cn 1ouno, 1o nicoxnn
yponeni myxa uac1o hpnnopn1 x saxe1non ho1epe cxica n xoe1
honoc1in 6oxnpona1i nnqopxanonnin o6xen, u1o neia1nnno
cxasinae1cn na xooppnnann.
Ha pnc. 3.12. hoxasano, u1o hpoecc o6xena nnqopxanen nn-
ne1cn cnc1exon c o6pa1non cnnsin n myxox.




O1npann1cnn Cnn6mcnnc Kanan















Cnn6mcnnc







Puc.3.12. Cxcma npnnccca n6mcna nnqnpmanncn
[16, C. 175 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

147


















Puc. 3.13. Baanmncnnan qynnnn ynpanncnnn

Conpexennie opiannsann nnnn1cn o1xpi1ixn cnc1exaxn,
hpephoaianmnxn hoc1onnnoe nsanxopenc1nne nx hoppaspeennn n
opiannsann n eox c nnemnen cpepon. Ho1oxy yxenne pa6o1a1i
conxec1no, po6nna1icn xooppnnnponannix penc1nnn pn peansann
een opiannsann neo6xopnxo. Opiannsann xoe1 pa6o1a1i yc-
hemno 1oixo n 1ox cyuae, ecn o6xen nnqopxanen n xooppn-
nann n nen 6ypy1 qqex1nnni.
Cepye1 o1xe1n1i, u1o pasnunie an1opi hpepaian1 pasnie
hepeunn qynxnn xenepxen1a. Hahpnxep, n yue6nnxe hop pep.
A.I. Hopmnena, 3.H. Iyxnnenon, n.A. Cooxa1nna [20; 7075 c.] ni-
peeni hn1i nsanxocnnsannix qynxnn yhpanennn:
Hoaian, u1o nan6oee apiyxen1nponana xaccnqnxann qynx-
nn xenepxen1a Mecxona M.X., Ai6ep1a M., Xepoypn u. [16; 253 432
c.]. Onn cun1an1, u1o hpoecc yhpanennn coc1on1 ns ue1ipex qynxnn:
hannponanne, opiannsann, xo1nnann, xon1poi, xo1opie o6:epnne-
ni cnnsinanmnxn hpoeccaxn xooppnnann n xoxxynnxann.
Hyno hopuepxny1i, u1o xepy qynxnnxn xenepxen1a ne1
ec1xnx ipann, onn 1ecno nsanxohepehe1eni, nsanxocnnsani, pn-
naxnuni n nce poni 6i1i qqex1nnni.
Lme qqex1nnnee 6ypy1 qynxnn xenepxen1a, ecn pano-
naino nchoisona1i xe1opi xenepxen1a, xo1opie hosnonn1 cnn-
sn1i nn1yn1nnnin xapax1ep yhpanennn, nnec1n yhopnpouennoc1i,
Hannpo-
nanne
Opiannso-
ninanne
Kooppn
nann
Kon1poi Mo1nnann
Mcucdcun

148
o6ocnonannoc1i hannponannn, opiannsann, xo1nnann, xon1pon
n nx nsanxocnnsi n pnnaxnsx, a 1axe n hoc1poenne n qynxnonnpo-
nanne ncex cnc1ex xenepxen1a n opiannsann.


Tec1

1. }na:enuecxu+ oc:eooanue+ oeanusauuu nasmaemcn:
a) c1pa1einuecxoe hannponanne;
6) hpoecc pnainoc1nxn nny1pennnx hpo6ex;
n) hpoecc pnainoc1nxn nnemnnx hpo6ex;
i) o6ceponanne hepconaa opiannsann.

2. Memoo ouenxu cmameeuuecxoeo no:oenun u oeucmuu o-
eanusauuu nasmaemcn:
a) SWOTanans;
6) xe1op cenapnen;
n) xe1op xnuenix nohpocon;
i) xe1op SPASE.

3. Cmameeun ocma nasmaemcn:
a) snespnin uac;
6) ponnan xopona;
n) pnxan xomxa;
i) co6axa.

4. Peuenue o oeanusauuonnou cmxme nunu+aem:
a) xenepep;
6) iannin 6yxia1ep;
n) iannin nnenep;
i) pyxonopn1ei nicmeio snena.

5. Houecc oe:enun oeanusauuu na omoe:tnme :oxu 5mo:
a) en1pansann;
6) pehap1axen1ansann;
n) peen1pansann;
i) xoxxepnansann.

6. K moxamuuecxu+ cmxma+ omuno omnocnm:
a) qynxnonainie;
6) hpoex1nie;
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

149
n) pnnnsnonainie;
i) xa1pnunie.

7. K aoanmunm+ cmxma+ omnocnm:
a) qynxnonainie n nnennie;
6) pnnnsnonainie;
n) xa1pnunie n hpoex1nie;
i) hpoex1nie n qynxnonainie.

8. He cuecmem oeanusauuonnmx cmxm:
a) opiannuecxnx;
6) neopiannuecxnx;
n) hoc1poennix ho hpopyx1onoxy hpnnnhy;
i) hoc1poennix ho peinonainoxy hpnnnhy.

9. Oeanusauuonnme us+enenun cmeuamm nauo:tuee co-
nomu:enue c:eocmue:
a) xoncepna1nnnoc1n hepconaa opiannsann;
6) nehpanninon hocepona1einoc1n penc1nnn;
n) anpaon hepec1ponxn;
i) nepoc1a1xa pecypcon pn hponepennn nsxenennn.

10. Houecc osoeucmun na necona: c ue:tm nooenun eeo x
oneoe:ennm+ oeucmun+ nasmaemcn:
a) xo1nnanen;
6) xo1nnnponannex;
n) xo1nnanonnon 1enpennen;
i) xo1nnanonnon c1pyx1ypon.

11. K cooeame:tnou omnocumcn meoun:
a) onpannn pyxa;
6) chpanepnnoc1n Apaxca;
n) MaxKeanpa;
i) xopei Hop1epaHoyepa.

12. Konuenuun oxqaxmonou meouu +omuauuu asaomana:
a) A. Macoy;
6) . pyxox;
n) M. Mecxonox;
i) u. Iep6epiox.
Mcucdcun

150
13. Mooe:t Hau+ana Homea3oaoa Ho:ea ocnoana na
meounx:
a) Macoy n Iep6epia;
6) hoc1anonxn en n onpannn;
n) ueoneuecxnx ho1pe6noc1en;
i) onpannn n chpanepnnoc1n.

14. He cuecmem c:eomueu meouu +omuauuu:
a) oh1nxainoc1n ax1nnnsann n c1nxynnn;
6) hon1nuecxoio nospenc1nnn;
n) nunoc1non hpnuac1noc1n;
i) caxope1epxnnann.

15. Hcx:muumt omx:onenun om na+euennmx n:ano u uncmx-
uuu noso:nem xonmo:t:
a) hpepnapn1einin;
6) 1exymnn;
n) saxnun1einin;
i) n1oionin.

16. Cmameeun 5mo oema:tnmu xo+n:excnmu n:an, oecneuu-
amuuu ocuecm:enue +uccuu oeanusauuu u oocmuenue ee ue:eu:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

17. Hnmeecm asaomuuxa n:ana naoo cmaumt mue unme-
eco ucno:nume:n n:ana:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

18. :n oeanusauuu, oeucmmuux na +eonaoono+ mnxe,
+oem nu+ennmtcn mensonan OC}:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

19. Momuauun ne oxasmaem osoeucmue na cmaanue, cu:ue
ucno:nume:eu:
a) pa;
6) ne1.
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

151
20. 3:exmonnme +omuauuu ne cuecmmm::
a) pa;
6) ne1.

Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuue (21-26) onocm:

21. mo neocma:nem coou nouecc cmameeuuecxoeo n:anu-
oanun?
22. Kaxue +emoom nu+ennmm oeanusauuu o:n ouenxu ux
cmameeuuecxoeo cocmonnun?
23. Ha umo nana:ena oeanusauun xax qnxuun +eneo+enma?
24. Kaxue Bm snaeme uom oeanusauuonnmx cmxm na-
:enun oeanusauueu?
25. Kaxue nunuunm o:n xooocma nouecce na:enun
exo+enomm cneuua:ucmm, ocnomanct na meouu +omuauuu?
26. mo neocma:nem coou cqea xonmo:n?

27. B nouecce o+ena unqo+auueu omnaume:t - 5mo:
a) no, xo1opoe ienepnpye1 n hepepa1 nnqopxann;
6) co6c1nenno nnqopxann, saxopnponannan hocpepc1nox cnx-
noon;
n) cpepc1no hepepaun nnqopxann;
i) no, xo1opoxy hpepnasnauena nnqopxann n xo1opoe nn-
1ephpe1npye1 e.

28. Pacxoouoanue ne x:muaem:
a) nochpnn1ne;
6) nn1ephpe1ann;
n) hpnnn1ne;
i) oenxy.

29. Hu+ea+u na:uuun u+a ne +oem mmt na:uuue:
a) nsixonon omn6xn;
6) ncxaennn n nnnnx cnnsn;
n) o6pa1non cnnsn;
i) 6oee cninoio hapaeinoio cninaa.

30. K ocnonm+ muna+ neea:tnou xo++nuxauuu ne omno-
cnmcn:
a) npexn;
6) pnnennn 1ea;
n) cxex;
i) samn1a (saxixanne n ce6e).
Mcucdcun

152
Dpax1axyM

1. Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm

3.1.1. Hepeuncn1e ocnonnie qynxnn xenepxen1a n xpa1xo oxa-
pax1epnsyn1e xapyn.
3.1.2. 1o hpepc1anne1 co6on hpoecc c1pa1einuecxoio hannpo-
nannn?
3.1.3. Kax xaccnqnnpyn1cn hani opiannsann ho copepannn
n hepnopy?
3.1.4. jan1e ohpepeenne c1pa1einuecxoxy hannponannn.
3.1.5. Kaxoni ocnonnie sapaun hannponannn pa6o1i opiannsann?
3.1.6. Hepeuncn1e pecn1i ocnonnix hpnnnhon hannponannn.
3.1.7. Kaxne hopxopi pexoxenpyn1 hpnxenn1i chenanc1i hpn
hannponannn? Hasonn1e 10 hopxopon.
3.1.8. Oxapax1epnsyn1e xapxe1nnionin n qynxnonainin hopxopi
hpn hannponannn.
3.1.9. 1o 1axoe nochponsnopc1nennononnonnin hopxop hpn
hannponannn?
3.1.10. jan1e ohpepeenne opiannsanonnon c1pyx1ype yhpanennn
(OC\).

2. ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm

3.2.1. Hasonn1e 1pn 1aha hpoex1nponannn OC\ n honcnn1e nx
copepanne. Hoppo6nee oxapax1epnsyn1e caxin iannin, na
am nsinp, 1ah hpoex1nponannn OC\.
3.2.2. 1o 1axoe peeinponanne honoxounn n houexy ono neo6xo-
pnxo? Kaxne honoxounn nuno i peeinpye1e uame nceio?
3.2.3. Kaxne nnpi honoxounn i snae1e? Kax i nx nihonne1e?
Honcnn1e am o1ne1.
3.2.4. Hasonn1e hpnunni, xo1opie xoiy1, ho amexy xnennn, hpe-
hn1c1nona1i qqex1nnnoxy peeinponannn honoxounn n opiann-
sann.
3.2.5. jan1e ohpepeenne honn1nnx xo1nnann n xo1nnnpona-
nne. Kaxon 1epxnn uame nceio nchoisye1e i nuno? Houexy?
3.2.6. Kaxne pna nahpanennn nipenn1 n ncceponannn xo1nna-
nn? Kaxoe i cun1ae1e 6oee hepchex1nnnix? Houexy?
3.2.7. 1o hpepc1annn1 co6on xo1nnanonnie 1enpennn? Oxa-
pax1epnsyn1e nan6oee ax1yainie, na am nsinp.
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

153
3.2.8. uex o1nune 1eopnn Ken1ona Aipepqepa o1 1eopnn A6-
paxaxa Macoy?
3.2.9 1o o6meio xepy 1eopnnxn upepepnxa Iep6epia n jnnpa
MaxKeanpa?
3.2.10 Ocnoninanci na snannn 1eopnn xo1nnann, cqopxynpyn1e
ocnonnie, ho amexy xnennn, ninopi pn yhpanennn.
3.2.11. Hasonn1e ocnonnie nnpi xon1pon. Kaxon nnp xon1pon i
cun1ae1e caxix conix? Houexy?
3.2.12. Is xaxnx 1ahon coc1on1 hpoepypa xon1pon xax qynxnn
xenepxen1a? Kaxon ns 1ahon, na am nsinp, caxin o1ne1c1nen-
nin? Honcnn1e am o1ne1.
3.2.13. Kaxne xpn1epnn oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n xon1pon i snae-
1e? icxan1e ame xnenne ho oh1nxainoc1n xpn1epnen.
3.2.14. Kax, ho amexy xnennn, nsanxocnnsani qynxnn xenep-
xen1a n xono n cun1a1i, u1o ec1i nanenman? Houexy?
3.2.15. uex nipaae1cn pnnaxnsx qynxnn xenepxen1a? Apiyxen-
1npyn1e amy hosnnn.

3. jwc6nmc cn1yannn

(8) Hpephoon1e, u1o ax hopyunn coc1anenne c1pa1e-
inuecxoio hana, yc1anonn1e hocepona1einoc1i ocnonnix 1a-
hon hpoecca c1pa1einuecxoio hannponannn:
a) anans c1pa1einuecxnx ai1epna1nn;
6) ni6op xnccnn opiannsann;
n) pnainoc1nxa nny1pennen cpepi;
i) anans peonoio n qononoio oxpyennn;
p) ni6op c1pa1einn (qopxnponanne hop1qen c1pa1einn);
e) oenxa c1pa1einn n xoppex1nponxn;
) peansann c1pa1einn;
s) ohpepeenne een opiannsann;
n) xoppex1nponxa c1pa1einn.

Oxapax1epnsyn1e xapin 1ah.
3.3.2. (9) Hopyxan1e n nson1e, u1o neo6xopnxo ax niho-
nn1i caxoxy, a xaxne 1ahi c1pa1einuecxoio hannponannn xo-
no peeinpona1i amexy hoxomnnxy n houexy?
3.3.3. (10) Hpephoon1e, u1o i pemnn cospa1i xayn opiannsa-
nn ho pexon1y n o6cynnannn xoxhin1epon, xaxyn opiannsan-
onnyn c1pyx1ypy i ns6epe1e n houexy?
Mcucdcun

154
3.3.4. (11) Lcn ac nasnaua1 xenepepox ho hepconay, xaxon xo-
1nnanonnon 1eopnn i o1papn1e hpephou1enne n houexy?
3.3.5 (12) Hopyxan1e n nson1e, xax yume opiannsona1i 1exymnn
xon1poi n amen xaon opiannsann ho pexon1y xoxhin1epon?

Ocnnnnmc nmnnpm, nnnn1nn, nnpcpcncnnn

Ocnonnixn qynxnnxn xenepxen1a cun1an1:
hannponanne oueni pnnaxnunin hpoecc nipa6o1xn n
hpnnn1nn pemennn, hosnonnmnn opiannsann n 6ypymex
o6echeunna1i qqex1nnnoe qynxnonnponanne;
opiannsann cospanne neo6xopnxix yconnn pn poc1n-
ennn hoc1anennix een;
xo1nnann conoxyhnoc1i nny1pennnx n nnemnnx pnny-
mnx cn, ho6ypanmnx ueonexa x pen1einoc1n, hpnpanan 1on
pen1einoc1n nahpanennoc1i, opnen1nponannyn na nihonenne
xnccnn n poc1nenne hoc1anennix een;
xon1poi pnnaxnunin hpoecc, o6echeunnanmnn poc1n-
enne een opiannsann hocpepc1nox cnoenpexennoio o6napy-
ennn nosnnxanmnx n xope hponsnopc1nennoxoxxepuecxon pen-
1einoc1n opiannsann hpo6ex n hpnnn1ne neo6xopnxix xop-
pex1npynmnx penc1nnn.

Hpn hannponannn chenanc1i pexoxenpyn1 hpnxenn1i
pasnunie hopxopi. Hahpnxep, xapxe1nnionin n pachpepee-
nnn pecypcon o1pa1i hpnopn1e1 honimennn xauec1na o6:ex1a
hannponannn, nn1epeci nchonn1en hana c1ann1i nime nn-
1epecon eio paspa6o1unxa. Hpn qynxnonainox hopxope paspa-
6o1unx hana poen pachoaia1i pesyi1a1axn qynxnonai-
noc1onxoc1noio anansa o6:ex1a hannponannn n eio xoxho-
nen1on, ncxopn ns conepmenno nonon c1pyx1ypi, chpoex1npo-
nannon ho 6ypymnx qynxnnx (enx) na nixope hopcnc1exi.
Hpn nochponsnopc1nenno-nonnonnox hopxope nochponsnop-
c1no o6:ex1on hannponannn naeeno na yponeni yumnx
xnponix o6pason. Lc1i n ppyine hopxopi x hannponannn.
Chenanc1i pexoxenpyn1 cepynmyn hocepona1einoc1i oc-
nonnix 1ahon hpoecca c1pa1einuecxoio hannponannn: ohpepe-
enne xnccnn, een opiannsann, oenxa n anans nnemnen
cpepi, yhpanenuecxoe o6ceponanne cninix n ca6ix c1opon
opiannsann, anans c1pa1einuecxnx ai1epna1nn, ni6op c1pa1e-
inn, peansann c1pa1einn, oenxa c1pa1einn [16, c. 258]
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

155
jn hpe1nopennn naxeuennix hanon n nsni neo6xopnxa
opiannsann (qynxnn xenepxen1a) hpoecc cospannn c1pyx-
1ypi, panmnn nosxonoc1i hepconay qqex1nnno 1pypn1icn
pn nihonennn xnccnn n o6mnx een opiannsann.
Hpn hpoex1nponannn OC\ chenanc1i nipenn1 1pn 1aha
nihonennn 1on qynxnn opiannsanen:
1. Hoc1poenne opiannsanonnon c1pyx1ypi c nipeennex hop-
paspeennn, ohpepeenne nx coc1ana, sapau n qynxnn;
2. Ohpepeenne iopnson1ainix n nep1nxainix nsanxoo1no-
mennn n opiannsann c yc1anonennex hpan, o6nsannoc1en n o1ne1-
c1nennoc1n nchonn1een;
3. jonepenne po nchonn1een peeinponannix nx hpan, o6n-
sannoc1en n o1ne1c1nennoc1n.

jeeinponanne honoxounn 1o hepepaua hpan, o6nsanno-
c1en n o1ne1c1nennoc1n hoyua1en (nchonn1en). Ono neo6xo-
pnxo, ho1oxy u1o, xax xoipa1o nahncaa Mpn Hapxep uoe11
(axepnxanxa, cun1anmancn napnpy c ppyinxn, xaccnxox xe-
nepxen1a), u1o cymnnc1n ynpanncnnn saxnuae1cn n yxennn
pn6n1ncn nmnnnncnnn pa6n1m ppyrnmn.
Hnnnnmnwnn pcncrnpym1cn pnnxnnc1n, a nc wcnnncy, n1n-
pmn cc aannmac1 n nac1nnmcc npcmn. O1nc1c1ncnnnc1n nccc1 nc
1nnnn ncnnnnn1cnn, nn n pynnnpn1cnn.
eanne, yxenne n io1onnoc1i ueonexa nihonn1i cnon pa6o1y
nnnn1cn opnnx ns xnuenix qax1opon qqex1nnnon pen1einoc1n
opiannsann, a hy1i x 1oxy en1 uepes honnxanne eio xo1nnann.
Mo1nnann hpoecc c1nxynponannn ce6n n ppyinx na 1pyp,
nahpanennin na poc1nenne ohpepeennix een. 1o1 hpoecc
oueni coen n neopnosnauen.
ncceponannn xo1nnann nipenn1 pna nahpanennn [6,
cc. 131180]:
1. Teopnn copepannn xo1nnann. Onn xonen1pnpyn1 nnn-
xanne na ninnennn n ananse, copepannn qax1opon, oxasinan-
mnx nnnnne na xo1nnann (1eopnn nepapxnn ho1pe6noc1en A6pa-
xaxa Macoy; 1eopnn ERG Ken1ona Aipepqepa, 1eopnn hpno6pe-
1ennix ho1pe6noc1en jnnpa MaxKeanpa, 1eopnn pnyx qax1opon
upepepnxa Iep6epia).
2. Teopnn hpoecca xo1nnann. Onn axen1npyn1 nnnxanne
na pnnaxnxe nsanxopenc1nnn pasnunix xo1nnon, na 1ox, xax nnn-
nnpye1cn n nahpanne1cn honepenne pa6o1nnxa (1eopnn onpannn
Mcucdcun

156
nx1opa pyxa, Hanxana Hop1epa, pnappa Hoyepa; 1eopnn hoc1a-
nonxn een pnnna Hoxxa, Hn1epa jpaxepa n pp.; 1eopnn panenc1na
C1encn Apaxca; xonehnn hap1ncnha1nnnoio yhpanennn c1ni,
ocnonannin na yuac1nn co1pypnnxon n yhpanennn opiannsanen).
ce 1n 1eopnn, o6:ncnnn choco6i nospenc1nnn na nchonn1een,
ho6ypanmnx nx x ychemnon pen1einoc1n, pan1 xenepepax xnu x
hoc1poennn qqex1nnnon cnc1exi xo1nnnponannn co1pypnnxon.
enx honimennn qqex1nnnoc1n xenepxen1a neo6xopnx
xon1poi: hpepnapn1einin, 1exymnn, saxnun1einin (n1oionin).
uynxnn xon1pon ne nnne1cn xoneunon qynxnen xenep-
xen1a, 1ax xax na hpax1nxe ne1 xoneunoio penc1nnn. Ichoisyn pe-
syi1a1i xon1pon, opiannsann coc1anne1 hani, pasnnnae1 6oee
penc1nennie OC\ n xo1nnnponanne hepconaa. Taxnx o6pasox,
qynxnn xenepxen1a hpepc1annn1 nehpepinnin nxnuecxnn
hpoecc, onn nsanxocnnsani n pnnaxnuni.

Oqnpmncnnc nn c1anpap1y

3apannn ho 1exe 3 nxnuan1:
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 3 10 m1.
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci ho 1exe 3 15 m1.
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 3 5 m1.

Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 3

Hnc1annna aapannn
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 3 pasxemeni n CjO Kaxhyc n
qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 3.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 xpa1xnn o1ne1 (ne 6oee 200 cnxnoon) na
xapin nohpoc n qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 3 po nauaa
aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 3 (cx. Kaenpapnin han xypca).
O1ne1i na nohpoci n qopyxe cepye1 pasxema1i, xnxnyn na
cnxno O1ne1n1i. am o1ne1 poen honnn1icn n pepene coo6me-
nnn hop coo1ne1c1nynmnx nohpocox. HL ICHOHI3\ITL KHOH-
K\ (cospa1i) jH2 OTLTA HA OHIOCI.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
O1ne1i na nohpoci pasxeman1e ncen ipyhhon n qopyxe
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 3.
quxuu cucdcuna, ux -auccn-t u duuau-

157
Tac:ua 1

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na nn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 3

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn
O6naa-
1cnnnmc
napamc1pm
B
a
n
n

Pcnmcnpyc-
mmc
napamc1pm
B
a
n
n

1. Konuec1no hpanninix o1ne1on 7 ns 10 4 8 n 6oee ns 10 6
2. O1ne1i pasxemeni hop nohpo-
caxn (n pepene coo6mennn)
pa 1

ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 3

Hnc1annna aapannn
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci 6ypy1 yc1no o6cypa1icn na cexnnape ho
1exe 3. ax neo6xopnxo hopio1onn1icn x 6ecepe ho pannix nohpocax.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 o6ocnonannan hosnnn ho xapoxy
nohpocy, osnyuennan no npexn aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 3 (cx.
Kaenpapnin han xypca); n xope cexnnapa i 6ype1e o1neua1i na
nohpoci n cyuannox hopnpxe; xapin c1ypen1 poen yche1i o1ne-
1n1i na 1 nn 2 nohpoca.
ama hosnnn pona 6i1i ocnonana na n1a1ax ns yue6nix
xa1epnaon ho 1exe 3.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
ax neo6xopnxo yc1no nson1i n o6ocnona1i cnon hosnnn n
xope aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 3.

Tac:ua 2

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na pncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 3

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn
O6naa-
1cnnnmc
napamc1pm
B
a
n
n

Pcnmcnpyc-
mmc napamc1-
pm
B
a
n
n

1. Konuec1no hpanninix o1ne1on 1 10 2 n 6oee 13
2. O6ocnonannoc1i o1ne1on (nchoi-
sonanne n1a1 ns yue6nix xa1epna-
on)
ec1i 2
3. Ichoisonanne pohonn1einix
nc1ounnxon
1 nc1ounnx n
6oee
5
Mcucdcun

158
jwc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 3. Bapnan1 8 nnn 9, nnn 10, nnn
11, nnn 12

Hnc1annna aapannn
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 3 paccxa1pnnan1cn axn caxoc1on-
1eino.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 qan c o1ue1ox ho opnon cn1yann,
oqopxennin ho HA5HOH\ N___ (cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc),
nicannin 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn CjO Kaxhyc po nauaa
cepynmeio aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 3 (cx. Kaenpapnin han
xypca); i xoe1e o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen-
1axn n qopyxe \ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 3.
Ha6on o1ue1a (Tn1yinan c1panna. Chncox ocnonnix paspe-
on) cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc. O6mnn o6:ex nameio 1exc1a n
o1ue1e ho 1exe 3 ne 6oee 1 c1panni (3000 snaxon).

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
Io1onin o1ue1 hepeciae1cn 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn
CjO Kaxhyc. 3aioonox coo6mennn c qanox poen copepa1i na-
snanne ipyhhi, noxep 1exi n noxep yue6non cn1yann, nahpnxep
O1ue1_uIO_ju102_\ue6nan_cn1yann_3.3.2(9). i xoe1e o6-
cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen1axn n qopyxe \ue6-
nie cn1yann ho 1exe 3.
Tac:ua 3

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na ywc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 3

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn
O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm
B
a
n
n

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
B
a
n
n

1. uan o1ue1a oqopxen ho ma6ony pa 1
2. uan o1hpanen n cpox pa 2
3. O6:ex 1exc1a ne hpenimae1 1pe-
6onannn
pa 2
4. O1ne1 nxee1 o6ocnonanne (xonue-
c1no cciox n n1a1)
3 2 5 4
5. O1ne1 ynnxaen (ne1 hon1opon n
anaoion n o1ue1ax ppyinx c1ypen1on)
pa 4

Mcncdu cucdcuna

159
Fnaaa 4.



Me1opm MeaepwMea1a




Hsyuaa 1eMy 4, c1ypea1 ponwea
saa1b:
a)ocnonnie xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne xe1opi xenep-
xen1a;
6) opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einie xe1opi xenep-
xen1a;
n) conainohcnxooinuecxne xe1opi xenepxen1a.
yMe1b:
nchoisona1i ocnonnie xe1opi xenepxen1a pn peme-
nnn pasnunix hpo6ex opiannsann.

npaopec1a aaamxa:
o6yuennn co1pypnnxon hpnxenn1i pasnunie xe1opi
xenepxen1a.




Mcucdcun

160
Hu usuenuu me+m 4 neoxoou+o:

Hn1a1n iany 4 yue6noio hoco6nn ho xenepxen1y n exnn.
Bmnnnnn1n aapannc hpax1nxyxa n 6anxa 1ec1on ho xenep-
xen1y ho paspey 4: o1ne1n1i na xon1poinie nohpoci, hpnnn1i yua-
c1ne n o6cypennn pncxyccnonnix nohpocon, yue6nix cn1yann, 1ec-
1nponannn. Hopio1onn1i xypconyn pa6o1y, peqepa1 nn cce n hpn-
oennn ho 1exax:

1. Tenpennn hpnxenennn pasnunix xe1opon xenepxen1a;
2. xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne xe1opi n xapxe1nnie n xenep-
xen1e 1opionix opiannsann;
3. Conepmenc1nonanne opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einix xe-
1opon xenepxen1a;
4. Hpo6exi hpnxenennn conainohcnxooinuecxnx xe1opon
xenepxen1a (c1ypen1ax, xo1opie pemnn 6oee yiy6enno nsy-
un1i 1exy 4).


Hoyuenin snaua1 xnoio, no hoompenin nce!
Hoompenne hoce hopnannn hopo6no cony hoce popn.
H.8. |cnc


4.1. 3xoaoMaxo-c1a1ac1auecxae Me1opm

Me1op 1o choco6 ncceponannn nn poc1nennn ohpepeen-
non en, pemennn xonxpe1non sapaun.
nnnmnn-c1a1nc1nwccnc mc1npm 1o conoxyhnoc1i
hpnexon, hpann ncceponannn conainoxonoxnuecxnx nnennn
hocpepc1nox c6opa nnqopxann, ee o6pa6o1xn, xapax1epnc1nxn
o6o6manmnx hoxasa1een n nx anansa na ocnone nchoisonannn
xonoxnuecxnx saxonon n xa1eiopnn.
anenmnxn oco6ennoc1nxn xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxnx xe-
1opon xenepxen1a nnnn1cn:
xonxpe1noc1i;
hpnxa1 xauec1nennoio anansa nincnenne hpepe nceio cym-
noc1n nnennn c yue1ox xec1a n npexenn eio pasnn1nn;
nipeenne opnopopnix conoxyhnoc1en, hpepe nceio conai-
nix n xonoxnuecxnx 1nhon nsyuaexoio nnennn;
Mcncdu cucdcuna

161
pnnaxnsx hpnexon ncceponannn n cnnsn c nsxenennex cymno-
c1n n qopx nsyuaexix nnennn n hpoeccon, hponcxopnmnx n opia-
nnsann;
hpnxenenne cnc1exi hoxasa1een, hosnonnmnx pa1i ncec1o-
ponnnn xapax1epnc1nxy nsyuaexix nnennn n hpoeccon, saxono-
xepnoc1en nsxenennn nx pasxepon n xonuec1nennix coo1nomennn.

Iaccxo1pnx xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne xe1opi xenep-
xen1a n xapxe1nnie 1opionix opiannsann.
Mapc1nnr pen1einoc1i ho nsyuennn pinxa, yhpanennn
n peiynponannn hponsnopc1na n c6i1a hpopyxnn n ycyi, na-
hpanennan na ponepenne 1onapa o1 hponsnopn1en po ho1pe6n1e-
n, opnen1nponannan na ypone1nopenne ho1pe6noc1en, ocymec1n-
nexan na ocnone nnqopxann o xon:nnx1ype pinxa, nxnuan-
man cnepennn o hooennn 1onapa na pinxe n nnemnnx qax1opax:
penc1nnnx hpann1eic1na n saxonopa1einix ax1ax;
cpepc1nax xacconon nnqopxann;
honepennn ho1pe6n1een;
xonxypennn;
poc1nennnx n 1exnooinuecxnx nononnepennnx;
yponne nnqnnn;
coc1onnnn n hpoinosax pasnn1nn xonoxnxn;
ppyine.

Mapc1nnr 1nprnnnn nprannaannn 1o xenepxen1 n peiy-
nponanne hpephpnnnxa1eicxon pinounon pen1einoc1n, opnen-
1nponannon na ypone1nopenne ho1pe6n1eicxoio chpoca hocpepc1-
nox xyhnhpopan hpopyx1a n (nn) ycyin.
Mapxe1nni 1opionon opiannsann hpepc1anne1 co6on cnc1exy
xenepxen1a, nahpanennyn na oh1nxainyn xyhnhpopay hpo-
pyx1a n (nn) ycyin c ein ypone1nopennn hoxyha1en n hoyue-
nnn hpn6in 1opionon opiannsanen (hpopanox).
Inc1pyxen1axn xapxe1nnionoio xenepxen1a nnnn1cn xo-
noxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne xe1opi. Hn6an 1opionan opiannsann hpep-
c1anne1cn poc1a1ouno conix xonioxepa1ox, o6:epnnnnmnx
nnqopxann o pasnunon hpopyxnn n (nn) ycyie, o pasnoo6pas-
nix conaino-xonoxnuecxnx hpoeccax n nnennnx, o xnoiounc-
ennix cnnsnx n o1nomennnx c hoc1anmnxaxn, hoxyha1enxn, opia-
naxn nac1n n 1.p.
Mcucdcun

162
Hpn hosn1nnnox nchoisonannn xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxnx
xe1opon xoneunin pesyi1a1 pen1einoc1n opiannsann hponnne1-
cn n xauec1nennox o6cynnannn n nicoxon hpn6in. Hahpo1nn,
hpn nehpanninox hpnxenennn, nahpnxep, xonoxnuecxnx saxonon,
nx ninopnponannn nn hpene6peennn nxn xono onpa1i nnsxnx
nn neia1nnnix pesyi1a1on (sa1onapnnanne, neha1en, y6i1xn,
sa6ac1onxn n 1.h.).
Iaccxo1pnx xaccnqnxann o1peinix exen1on, peiyn-
pyexix xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxnxn xe1opaxn xenepxen1a:
1. uopxi co6c1nennoc1n: iocypapc1nennan (qepepainan), xynn-
nhainan, uac1nan, o6mec1nennan, nn1eex1yainan.
2. uasi nochponsnopc1na 1onapa: hponsnopc1no, o6xen, pachpepe-
enne, ho1pe6enne.
3. Iinounoe enoo6pasonanne: ce6ec1onxoc1i, ena, c1onxoc1i,
poxop, hpn6ii.
4. Ia6ouan cna: pinox 1pypa, chpoc (ho1pe6noc1i), nanune
(uncennoc1i), c1onxoc1i pa6ouen cni, yponeni nsnn.
5. Oha1a 1pypa: ponoc1non oxap pn cyamnx, 1apnqnan c1anxa
pn pa6ounx, hpexnn, iio1i, ppyine nosnaipapennn (nahpnxep, epnno-
npexennie hoompennn).

Opnon ns nanenmnx c1apnn xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxoio nc-
ceponannn cun1ae1cn na6nmpcnnc nayuno opiannsonannin c6op
nnqopxann hy1ex peinc1pann pannix ho sapanee paspa6o1annon
hpoipaxxe sa cymec1nennixn hpnsnaxaxn o6:ex1a na6npennn.
Han6oee pachpoc1panennix 1nhox c1a1nc1nuecxoio na6npennn
nnne1cn c1a1nc1nwccan n1wc1nnc1n (cx. pnc. 4.1).
Maxe1 qopxi c1a1nc1nuecxon o1ue1noc1n:
Mcncdu cucdcuna

163

Puc. 4.1. O6paacn qnpmynnpa rncypapc1ncnnnrn c1a1nc1nwccnrn na6nmpcnnn,
y1ncpxpcnnmn nnc1annnncnncm Pncc1a1a N __
3ona 1
uepepainoe iocypapc1nennoe c1a1nc1nuecxoe na6npenne
Konqnpennainoc1i iapan1npye1cn hoyua1eex nnqopxann
Hapymenne hopnpxa hpepc1anennn c1a1nc1nuecxon nnqopxann, a panno hpepoc1anenne
nepoc1onepnon c1a1nc1nuecxon nnqopxann neue1 o1ne1c1nennoc1i, yc1anonennyn c1a1ien
13.19 Kopexca o6 apxnnnc1pa1nnnix hpanonapymennnx o1 30.12.2001 N195-u3, a 1ax e c1a1ien
3 3axona Iu o1 13.05.92 N2761-1 O6 o1ne1c1nennoc1n sa napymenne hopnpxa hpepoc1anennn
iocypapc1nennon c1a1nc1nuecxon o1ue1noc1n Ioccnncxon uepepann
3ona 2



Hpepc1annn1 Cpoxn
hpep-
c1an-
ennn
Hpepc1annn1 Cpoxn
hpep-
c1ane-
nnn
uopxa
N
\1neppena
hoc1anon
ennex Iocc1a1a
o1 _ N _

Opiany Iocypapc1nen-
non c1a1nc1nxn ho
xec1y, yc1anonennoxy
1eppn1opnainix
opianox Iocxoxc1a1a
Ioccnn n pechy6nxe,
xpae, o6ac1n, iopope
qepepainoio
snauennn
Opiany, ocyme-
c1nnnmexy
iocypapc1nennoe
peiynponanne
n coo1ne1c1nyn-
men o1pacn
xonoxnxn

Hepnopnu
noc1i
Cnepennn o .sa 20__ i.
3ona 3


Ho~toau dac
Kop (hpoc1anne1 o1un1inanmancn opiannsann) Kop
qopxi
ho OK\j
O1un-
1inan-
mencn
opia-
nnsa-
nn ho
OKHO
np xo
noxnue-
cxon pen-
1einoc1n
ho OKj
Teppn
1opnn ho
OKATO
Mnnnc1epc1na
(nepoxc1na)
opiana yhpan-
ennn ho
OKOI\
Opiann-
sa
nonno
hpanonie
qopxi
ho
OKOHu
uopxi
co6c1nen
noc1n ho
OKuC
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hanxenonanne o1un1inanmencn opiannsann
3ona 4
Copepa1einan uac1i
3ona 5
l,|oaoutant o|d~usduuu: HC: Houct________ 20__ i.
___________________________________________________________________________________
(ponoc1i, qaxnnn n hophnci o1ne1c1nennoio sa coc1anenne qopxi na) (noxep 1eeqona)
ja1a coc1anennn poxyxen1a 20__ i.
Mcucdcun

164
Hpepe nceio c1a1nc1nuecxan o1ue1noc1i o1paae1 coc1onnne
pinxa, xapax1epnsye1 eio c1pyx1ypy n pnnaxnxy, eio xoe6annn, ho-
snone1 ninnn1i nnnnne pinounix qax1opon n c1pon1i hpoinosi
painenmeio pasnn1nn pinxa. Mapxe1nni, hpephoaianmnn cyme-
c1nonanne conix n c1pyx1ypnponannix, 1opiono-xonoxnuecxnx,
opiannsanonnix cnnsen n nsanxopenc1nnn, o6yconnnae1 mnpoxne
nosxonoc1n hpnxenennn xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxnx xe1opon n xe-
nepxen1e.
Hapnpy c nchoisonannex pannix c1a1nc1nuecxoio na6npe-
nnn n xenepxen1e eecoo6pasno hpnxenn1i n ppyine xonoxnxo-
c1a1nc1nuecxne, a 1axe xa1exa1nuecxne xe1opi: xonoxe1pnuecxne,
xopen sa1pa1inihycx, n1epann, xchep1nie oenxn, opnen1n-
ponounie hpoinosi, cenapnn pasnn1nn, hoxasa1en napnann, xop-
pennonnopeipeccnonnin anans, nnpexcnin xe1op qax1opnoio
anansa. ac1o pn poxasa1eic1na hoisyn1cn a6con1nixn, o1no-
cn1einixn n cpepnnxn nenunnaxn, hoxasa1enxn 1eopnn nip (xe-
1op, nchoisyexin pn oenxn nnnnnn xaxoion6o penc1nnn na
xonxypen1on).
peinonainix ncceponannnx pn nexo1opix xapxe1nnionix
een nchoisyn1cn xonoxe1pnuecxne pacue1i, nahpnxep, xac1ep-
nin anans.
xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne xe1opi hoxoian1 o1paa1i pe-
syi1a1 1opiono-c6i1onon pen1einoc1n opiannsann, oenn1i eio
qqex1nnnoc1i, ninnn1i nex1op n cxopoc1i pasnn1nn 1onapoo6opo1a
n hpn6in, ocymec1nn1i hpoinos 1enpennn, nx pnnaxnxn n c1pyx-
1ypi.
hpoecce xenepxen1a xapxe1nnia neo6xopnxo nincnn1i,
xax n c xaxon nn1encnnnoc1in pasnnnae1cn 1opionan opiannsann, n
xaxnx yconnnx ona cymec1nye1, n xaxne hpnunnnocepc1nennie
qax1opi ohpepenn1 ee pen1einoc1i.
jn xapax1epnc1nxn o6opo1a posnnunon 1opionn nchoisye1-
cn cnc1exa hoxasa1een (cx. pnc. 4.2).
xenepxen1e 1opionix opiannsann neo6xopnxo yun1ina1i
o6o6mennie xapax1epnc1nxn pinounon cn1yann, nnpexci peonon
ax1nnnoc1n, yponeni xoe6exoc1n (xoqqnnen1 napnann) o6:exa
hpopa n en, hpephpnnnxa1eicxne oenxn co6c1nennoio xono-
xnuecxoio hooennn, nxnuanmne oenxn saxason na hoc1anxy 1o-
napon, pnnaxnxn qnsnuecxnx hpopa, nnpexci hpephpnnnxa1ei-
cxon ynepennoc1n, xonxypen1ochoco6noc1i 1onapa (cx. pnc. 4.3).

Mcncdu cucdcuna

165


Puc. 4.2. Cxcma cnc1cmm nnaaa1cncn, xapa1cpnaymmnx 1nnapnn6npn1
pnannwnnn 1nprnnnn, nx naanmncnnan


Tonapoo6opo1
posnnunon
1opionn

Tonapoo6opo1 na pymy
naceennn
Hoxasa-
1en
1onap-
nix sa-
hacon n
1onapo-
o6opa-
unnaex-
xoc1n
\peinin
nec 1onapa
(1onapnon
xacci)
Inpexc
1onapoo6o-
po1a n qax-
1nuecxnx
enax

O6:ex
1onapnix
sahacon

Cpepnne
1onapnie
sahaci

3ahacoex-
xoc1i

Tonapo
o6opaun-
naexoc1i
O6echeuen-
noc1i 1onapo-
o6opo1a
1onapnixn
sahacaxn
Hoxasa1en c1pyx1ypi
1onapoo6opo1a
Hoxasa1en pnnaxnxn
1onapoo6opo1a
Koqqn-
nen1 coo1-
nomennn
1onapon
Inpexc
qnsnuecxo-
io o6:exa
1onapoo6o-
po1a
Mcucdcun

166

Pnc. 4.3. Cxcma nnaaa1cncn nncnn nnypcn1ncnncn6nnc1n 1nnapa
n nx naanmncnnan
Isyuenne pinxa
C6op nnqopxann o xon-
xypen1ax 3ahpoci hoxyha1een
Tpe6onannn x nspenn Anans hpoex1a n
oenxa c1onxoc1n
ocymec1nennn
Ohpepeenne ex-
xoc1n pinxa n
hepchex1nn c6i1a
uopxynponanne en anan-
sa xonxypen1ochoco6noc1n
ja
Ohpepeenne hepeunn hapa-
xe1pon, hopeamnx oenxe
He1
Anans nopxa1nnnix hapaxe1pon
Iacue1 ipyhhnponounoio hoxasa1en xonxypen1ochoco6noc1n
ho nopxa1nnnix hapaxe1pax
i6op 1aonnoio o6pasa
Ohpepeenne ipyhhnponounix hoxasa1een xonxypen1ochoco6noc1n ho
1exnnuecxnx n xonoxnuecxnx hapaxe1pax. Anans eni nspenn
Iacue1 nn1eipainoio hoxasa1en xonxypen1ochoco6noc1n n cpannenne
c 1aonnix o6pasox
He1 ja
Iaspa6o1xa xep ho honimennn xonxy-
pen1ochoco6noc1n n ee oh1nxnsann c
yue1ox sa1pa1
Iemenne o nihycxe n nixope na
pinox c hpo6nixn hpopaaxn
Mcncdu cucdcuna

167
xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne xe1opi xenepxen1a hosnonn1
o1cenna1i hpoecci, o1paanmne pasnn1ne hpopa 1onapon, a op-
iannsannx, sannxanmnxcn 1opionon pen1einoc1in o6echeunnan1
xe1opooinuecxne n anan1nuecxne ho1pe6noc1n cy6 xapxe1nnia,
xo1opie pan1 chenanc1axxapxe1ooiax, xenepepax pexoxen-
pann pn hpnnn1nn qqex1nnnix yhpanenuecxnx pemennn. Taxnx
o6pasox, xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne xe1opi xenepxen1a neo6xo-
pnxi pn oh1nxainoio yhpanennn pen1einoc1in 1opionix opia-
nnsann.
He xenimee snauenne n xenepxen1e nxen1 opiannsanonno-
pachopnpn1einie xe1opi.


4.2. Opraaasaqaoaao-pacnopspa1enbame Me1opm

Iannoe ne naxasa1i, a sac1ann1i penc1nona1i.
A.|. Hqxauuu

Opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einie xe1opi xenepxen1a,
ho y1neppennn axepnxancxnx chenanc1on [16, C. 220232] ho
ocnonax xenepxen1a, sapopnnci n Aninn no npexn n1opon xn-
ponon nonni. Ipyhha yuenix hoyuna sapanne na pemenne
conix noennix hpo6ex, cnnsannix c pasxemennex coopye-
nnn ipapancxon o6oponi, oinenix hosnnn, xonnon 1panchop1-
nix xapananon. 5060e ii. xe1opooinn o6nonnn, hpeo6paso-
nan n pnp chenqnuecxnx xe1opon, c1an hpnxenn1i pn pemennn
hpo6ex n pasnix cn1yannx.
cnnsn c nimensoennix, xnoine an1opi o1xeuan1 ce-
pynmne o1nun1einie oco6ennoc1n xe1opooinn xenepxen1a:
1. Hpnxenenne nayunoio xe1opa (cx. pnc. 4.4);
2. Cnc1exnan opnen1ann;
3. Ichoisonanne xopeen.



Mcucdcun

168


Puc. 4.4. Hnaaa1cnn naywnnrn mc1npa n ynpanncnnn
n nx naanmncnnan

Kax nnpno na pnc. 4.4., nayunin hopxop coc1on1 ns 1pex 1ahon:

1. Ha6npenne c6op n anans nnqopxann ho hpo6exe n cn-
1yann. Hahpnxep, nsyuenne sanncnxoc1n xepy chpocox na nspe-
nn n yponnex nx sahacon.
2. uopxynponanne inho1esi ninnenne cymec1nennix ai-
1epna1nn. Menepep paccxa1pnnae1 napnan1i penc1nnn, nx hocep-
c1nnn pn cn1yann, peae1 hpoinos, ocnonannin na na6npennnx c
ein yc1anonennn nsanxocnnsn xepy xoxhonen1axn hpo6exi.
Lcn na6npenne cnnpe1eic1nye1, u1o sahaci 6ypy1 cnna1icn hpn
poc1e chpoca sa xecn na 10%, 1o xenepep xoe1 opnen1npona1icn
na inho1esy, coiacno xo1opon hpnpoc1 sahacon na ohpepeennyn
nenunny hpepyhpepn1 nx coxpamenne n anaoinunon cn1yann.
3. epnqnxann hop1neppenne poc1onepnoc1n inho1esi, ee
hponepxa hocpepc1nox na6npennn sa pesyi1a1ox hpnxenennn
opiannsnonno-pachopnpn1einix xe1opon xenepxen1a.

Ichoisyn nayunin xe1op pn pemennn hpo6ex xenepxen-
1a, napo hoxnn1i, u1o n6an, n 1ox unce 1opionan opiannsann
o1xpi1an cnc1exa, coc1onman ns nsanxocnnsannix hopcnc1ex, ho1o-
Lcn
inho1esa
nenepna
Lcn inho1esa nepna
Inqopxann o pee-
nan1nix qax1opax
1. Ha6npenne c6op
n anans nnqopxann
2. uopxynponanne inho1esi yc1anonenne sanncnxoc1n
xepy xoxhonen1axn hpo6exi ho pannix na6npennn
3. Hponepxa inho1esi ohpepeenne ee hpanninoc1n
Ieansann pemennn nn xopen
Mcncdu cucdcuna

169
xy n1opon oco6ennoc1in nayunoio hopxopa x yhpanennn nnne1cn
cnc1exa1nsnponannan nahpanennoc1i, a 1pe1ien xopenponanne
nchoisonanne xopeen.
Mopei hpepc1anenne cnc1exi, npen nn hpepxe1a n qopxe,
o1nunon o1 qopxi eoio. \hpoman peainoc1i, ona pae1 nosxo-
noc1i ynnpe1i n honn1i nny1pennne o1nomennn, nsnennie cn1ya-
nn, x xo1opix hpnxenne1cn.
Hoc1poenne xopen nnne1cn hpoeccox. Ocnonnie 1ahi 1o-
io hpoecca:
1. Hoc1anonxa sapaun 1ounoe pnainoc1nponanne hpo6exi,
yxenne o1nua1i cnxh1oxi o1 hpnunn.
2. Hoc1poenne xopen ohpepeenne iannon en xopen, ne-
o6xopnxon nnqopxann, pacxopi, peaxnn nchonn1een n xoneu-
nix hoisona1een.
3. Hponepxa xopen na poc1onepnoc1i ohpepeenne c1ehenn co-
o1ne1c1nnn xopen peainon cn1yann, nce n cymec1nennie xoxho-
nen1i nc1poeni n xopei. ex honee xopei o1paae1 peainoc1i,
1ex nime ee ho1enna xax cpepc1na oxasannn hoxomn xenepepy n
hpnnn1nn oh1nxainoio pemennn, ecn xopei ne cnmxox cona
n nchoisonannn.
4. Hpnxenenne xopen nayun1i hoisona1en ee hpnxenn1i,
o6:ncnnn, xax xopei qynxnonnpye1, xaxoni ee ho1ennainie
nosxonoc1n n oipannuennn.
5. O6nonenne xopen neo6xopnxoc1i coo1ne1c1nynmnx
o6pasox ee xopnqnnpona1i.

Hpn xopenponannn nepepxo nosnnxan1 o6mne hpo6exi: ne-
poc1onepnie ncxopnie pohymennn, nnqopxanonnie oipannuennn,
c1pax hoisona1een, ca6oe hpnxenenne na hpax1nxe, upesxepnan
c1onxoc1i.
Opnaxo unco pasnoo6pasnix xonxpe1nix xopeen hou1n 1ax e
nenxo, xax n unco hpo6ex, pn pemennn xo1opix onn 6in paspa6o-
1ani. Iaccxo1pnx nexo1opie xopen.
Mnpcnn Hnp1cpa n mapc1nnrc nxee1 nnp Uo6pasnon xpn-
non. Ona poxasinae1, u1o nohpexn xpnnon o6yuennn (xopei, ohn-
cinanman o6pa1nyn sanncnxoc1i o1nocn1einoio yponnn nspep-
ex o1 pon, xo1opyn opiannsann sannxae1 na pinxe, ohncina-
e1cn inhep6onuecxon qynxnen. 2nne1cn o6ocnonannex xapxe-
1nnionon c1pa1einn sanoenannn pinxa), xaan opiannsann xo-
e1 o6echeun1i 1axon e nicoxnn yponeni qqex1nnnoc1n, u1o n
Mcucdcun

170
opiannsann, sannxanman 6oimyn pon pinxa. Hponcxopn1
1o 6aiopapn cxonen1pnponannon xapxe1nnionon c1pa1einn:
cocpepo1ouennn ncex pecypcon n xaon pinounon nnme, paspa-
6o1xe ynnxainoio 1onapa nn ynnxainoio choco6a peansann
1onapa, nicoxoxy yponnn cepnnca, an1nsa1pa1noxy penxy, xon-
xypen1ochoco6nix enax.
Anannrnnan mnpcnn hpepc1anne1 nccepyexoe nnenne nn
hpoecc anaoiox, xo1opin nepe1 ce6n xax peainin. Hahpnxep, op-
iannsanonnan cxexa, nic1pannan xo1opyn xenepep nainpno nn-
pn1 ehn hpoxopennn xoxanp n qopxainyn sanncnxoc1i xepy
co1pypnnxaxn n nx pen1einoc1in. 1o 6oee hpoc1on n qqex1nn-
nin choco6 nochpnn1nn n hponnennn conix nsanxocnnsen c1pyx-
1ypi opiannsann (oco6enno xpyhnon), uex coc1anenne hepeunn
nsanxocnnsen ncex co1pypnnxon.
Hmn1annnnnnc mnpcnnpnnannc xonxpe1noe o6osnauenne
hpoecca cospannn xopen n ee xchepnxen1ainoe hpnxenenne pn
ohpepeennn peainon cn1yann. Hahpnxep, chenanc1 ho xapxe-
1nniy xoe1 cospa1i xopen pn nxn1ann onpaexoio o6:exa c6i-
1a n cnnsn c nsxenennex en nn pexaxi hpopyxnn (ycyin). Ixn-
1ann nchoisye1cn n cn1yannx, cnmxox conix pn xa1exa1nue-
cxnx xe1opon 1nha nnennoio hpoipaxxnponannn nssa cnmxox
6oimoio unca hepexennix, 1pypnoc1en xa1exa1nuecxoio anansa
ohpepeennix sanncnxoc1en xepy hepexennixn, nicoxoio yponnn
neohpepeennoc1n, sa1pypnennn 1pancnnn c nsixa hpoipaxxnpo-
nannn na xoxhin1epnin nsix.
Hpnrnnanpnnannc xe1op, n xo1opox nchoisyn1cn xax naxo-
hennin ohi1 n hpomox, 1ax n 1exymne pohymennn nacue1 6ypy-
meio c ein eio ohpepeennn. Hahpnxep, hpoinosnponanne en,
anans 1exymen cn1yann n ohpepeenne hepchex1nn pasnn1nn opia-
nnsann nenosxono ocymec1nn1i n o1pine o1 hponepennn hpo-
inosnix pacue1on, ohpepennmnx o6myn enonyn pnnaxnxy. Hpn
oenxe pnnaxnxn en na hepchex1nny neo6xopnxo nsyua1i cepyn-
mne coc1annnmne onpaexoio nsxenennn en:
qononin yponeni en;
cesonnie nsxenennn en;
napnan1i pasnn1nn hon1nuecxon cn1yann;
xypc nnoc1pannix nan1 o1nocn1eino py6n;
cpepnepymenie poxopi naceennn;
yponeni 6espa6o1ni n Ioccnn n pp.
Mcncdu cucdcuna

171
Cymec1nyn1 pasnonnpnoc1n hpoinoson, nahpnxep:
npceuc-u pa-unun ncxuc:ceuu hosnonn1 hpepcxasa1i, paspa-
6o1xn xaxnx nonix 1exnooinn xono onpa1i, xoipa 1o xoe1
hponson1n, nacxoixo hpnxennxi onn xoiy1 6i1i xonoxnuecxn;
npceuc-u pa-unun xcuxqpcuuu hosnonn1 hpepcxasa1i
c1pa1einn n 1ax1nxy xonxypen1on;
npceuc-u ua ccucc cnpccc u ucc:cdcauuu pan1 nosxonoc1i
hpepcxasa1i, u1o hponsonpe1 n conix cn1yannx, nchoisyn pan-
nie xnoinx o6ac1en snannn. Hahpnxep, 6ypymnn pinox an1oxo-
6ninix 1eennsopon n xoxhin1epon xono oenn1i 1oixo c yue-
1ox nsxenennn coc1onnnn xonoxnxn, o6mec1nennix ennoc1en,
c1anpap1on ho samn1e oxpyanmen cpepi o1 saipnsnennn, hon1n-
uecxon cn1yann n xnoioio ppyioio;
ccua:tucc npceuc-upcauuc nchoisye1cn pn hpoinosa nsxene-
nnn n conainix yc1anonxax co1pypnnxon. Opiannsann, cyxenman
nepno hpepcxasa1i o1nomenne pa6o1nnxon x xepnnncxoxy o6cy-
nnannn, xoxqop1y n 1.p., xoe1 nxe1i hpenxymec1no hepep xon-
xypen1axn, c1pexnci ypone1nopn1i 1e nn nnie ho1pe6noc1n. Hpo-
inos 1axoio popa xoe1 6i1i hoesnix n xenepxen1e, oco6enno
hpnxenn1eino x xo1nnnponannn hepconaa.

Ioccnn opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einie xe1opi nno-
ipa nasinan1 apxnnnc1pa1nnnixn xe1opaxn, nxnuanmnxn
hn1i ocnonnix choco6on apxnnnc1pa1nnnoio nospenc1nnn:
1. Opiannsanonnie penc1nnn ocnonani na hopio1onxe n y1-
neppennn nny1pennnx nopxa1nnnix poxyxen1on, peiaxen1n-
pynmnx pen1einoc1i hepconaa xonxpe1non opiannsann: yc1an,
poionop, opiannsanonnan c1pyx1ypa yhpanennn, hooennn o
c1pyx1ypnix hoppaspeennnx, opiannsann pa6ounx xec1, m1a1-
noe pachncanne, ponoc1nie nnc1pyxnn, hpanna nny1penneio
1pyponoio pachopnpxa. 1n poxyxen1i (xpoxe yc1ana) nnopn1cn n
penc1nne hpnxasox pyxonopn1en opiannsann, o6nsa1eini pn
ncex co1pypnnxon, a nx neco6npenne neue1 sa co6on hpnxenenne
pncnhnnapnix nsicxannn.
2. Iachopnpn1einie nospenc1nnn nahpaneni na poc1nenne
hoc1anennix een xenepxen1a, co6npenne nny1pnopiannsan-
onnix nopxa1nnnix poxyxen1on, hoppepanne cnc1exi yhpanennn
n sapannix hapaxe1pax hocpepc1nox hpnxoio apxnnnc1pa1nnnoio
peiynponannn: hpnxasi, pachopnennn, yxasannn, eenoe hann-
Mcucdcun

172
ponanne, opiannsann n xooppnnann pa6o1, xo1nnnponanne 1pypa,
xon1poi nchonennn.
3. Inc1pyx1nponanne xe1op pyxonopc1na, ocnonannin na hepe-
paue hopunnennoxy hpann nihonennn ponoc1nix ohepann.
Hpn nnc1pyx1nponannn opiannuecxn coue1ae1cn apxnnnc1pa1nnnoe
hpephncanne n o6ocnonannin cone1 pyxonopn1en ho nihonennn
hopyuennoio sapannn. uopxainoe nnc1pyx1nponanne n cxexe o1-
nomennn pyxonopn1eihopunnennin uac1o ne poc1niae1 en
nssa paspina xepy conox n peox.
4. Hac1anenne xe1op opnoxpa1noio hpnxenennn co c1oponi
pyxonopn1en: ecn on hi1ae1cn hon1opno nac1ann1i, 1o 1epne1 an-
1opn1e1.
5. jncnhnnapnan o1ne1c1nennoc1i n canxnn n cyuae napy-
mennn 1pyponoio saxonopa1eic1na.

Opnaxo ne oueni ue1xan c1pa1einn pasnn1nn opiannsann, ne-
conepmenc1no conpexennoio qqex1nnnoio xapxe1nnia, nepoc1a1ox
xophopa1nnnon xyi1ypi hpnnen x honnennn neia1nnnix hponn-
ennn apxnnnc1pa1nnnoio nospenc1nnn na xoex1nn n yxenimennn
o6meio qqex1a o1 hpnxenennn apxnnnc1pa1nnnix xe1opon. Opno-
npexenno honicnaci qqex1nnnoc1i conainohcnxooinuecxnx
xe1opon xenepxen1a.


4.3. Coqaanbaoncaxonorauecxae Me1opm

ac1o y6epennex xono cpea1i 6oime, uex nacnnex.
-cn.

Cnnnannnnncnxnnnrnwccnc mc1npm 1o choco6i nccepo-
nannn, ein xo1opix nnne1cn nsyuenne conainoio pasnn1nn,
hpepe nceio cnnsen npen, o1nomennn xepy nnxn n conainixn
o6mnoc1nxn n nx conainon pen1einoc1n, chenqnuecxnx hcnxo-
oinuecxnx oco6ennoc1en ueoneuecxoio xapax1epa, conoxyi1yp-
nix yconnn, cnoeo6pasnn o6pasa nsnn, oxpani spoponin nacee-
nnn, oxpyanmen cpepi n xnoioio ppyioio.

Kaccnqnxann conainohcnxooinuecxnx xe1opon (cx.
pnc. 4.5.):

Mcncdu cucdcuna

173


Puc. 4.5. Cxcma naccnqnannn cnnnannnn-ncnxnnnrnwccnx
mc1npnn mcncpxmcn1a

Cymec1nye1 xnoio n ppyinx conainohcnxooinuecxnx
xe1opon xenepxen1a, nahpnxep:
1. Anxe1nponanne 1o c6op cnepennn hocpepc1nox ohpocnix
nc1on, nnc1pyxen1a hoyuennn hepnnunon nnqopxann, choco6a
hpoc1panc1nennon opiannsann 1exc1a, hpn xo1opox hoc1onnnan
nnqopxann pana n nnpe hepeunn nohpocon x 1oxy, x1o sahonne1
ohpocnie nc1i.
2. 5ecepa o6xen xnennnxn.
3. Ioxeoc1a1nuecxne xopen xopen ueonexa, nxn1npynmne
eio choco6noc1i hoppepnna1i ohpepeennie xapax1epnc1nxn, na-
hpnxep, panenne, 1exhepa1ypy, copepanne caxapa n xponn n qn-
snooinuecxn pohyc1nxix hpepeax, 1o ec1i choco6noc1i hpnchoca6-
nna1icn x yconnnx oxpyanmen cpepi.
4. Hcnxooinuecxne nipi cospanne 1nhnunix pn hpoqeccnn cn-
1yann n naxopenne n nnx oh1nxainix hcnxooinuecxnx pemennn.
5. jeonie nipi xopenponanne hponsnopc1nennon cn1yann n
enx nipa6o1xn nan6oee qqex1nnnix pemennn.
6. Ioenie nipi penc1nnn n ohpepeennon pon c ein peme-
nnn xonxpe1nix sapau. Hahpnxep, Ienpn Mnn6epi ohncinae1 pe-
cn1i yhpanenuecxnx poen, o6:epnnnn nx n 1pn 6oxa: xenunoc1-
nie, nnqopxanonnie n cnnsannie c hpnnn1nex pemennn.
Ha6nmpcnnc Ananna
pnymcn1nn
Onpnc Hnwnnc1nmc
1cc1m
Cnnnnmc1-
pnn
Cnc1cmnn
cn1yannnnnmn
ananna
Ma1cma1nwc-
cnc mnpcnnpn-
nannc
Hcn-
xnana-
nna
Cnnnannnn-ncnxnnnrnwccnc
mc1npm mcncpxmcn1a
Mcucdcun

174
7. Mopyinan xe1opnxa oenxn nsanxoo1nomennn xepa, panae-
xan xaxoxyn6o nanoxy xoqqnnen1y nn nenunne.
8. Hpoc1panc1nennan conoxe1pnn conoxyhnoc1i hpnexon,
nahpanennix na hoyuenne n anans xonuec1nennon nnqop-
xann o c1pyx1ype, 1eppn1opnainox pachooennn n qynx-
nonnponannn ne6oimnx qopxainix n neqopxainix ipyhh
opiannsann.
9. Ie1pochex1nnnin anans xoxhexc xe1opon o6pa6o1xn xno-
ioxepnon cnc1exi pannix na6npennn hpomoio, xapax1epnsyn-
mnncn xnoinxn hpnsnaxaxn; hoxoiae1 n qopxnponannn pemennn o
nanunn 1ex nn nnix saxonoxepnoc1en n nsyuaexon cnc1exe. Ana-
ns napnpy c cnn1esox nxee1 6oimoe snauenne n nayunox hosnannn
pasnunix achex1on xenepxen1a.
10. Conainohcnxooinuecxne xchepnxen1i, nahpnxep, xo-
1opncxne conooia 1ona Mno na sanope ec1epn ex1pnx.
pesyi1a1e 1nx xchepnxen1on hepecxo1pen poi ueoneuecxoio
qax1opa n hponsnopc1ne, hpnopn1e1 c1an o1pana1i hcnxooinuecxnx
n conainohcnxooinuecxnx achex1ax honepennn 1pypnmnxcn.
Hapnpy c 1nx 6io o1xpi1o nnenne neqopxainon ipyhhi n opia-
nnsann, xo1opoe o6:ncnno xnoine c1oponi conon conainon
nsnn hepconaa opiannsann; 1n xchepnxen1i ciipan cymec1-
nennyn poi n pasnn1nn xenepxen1a.
11. Ohpoc opnn ns choco6on hoyuennn nnqopxann n hpo-
ecce 6ecepi. Hpn ohpoce cnepennn o xapox ueonexe sahnci-
nan1cn co con ohpamnnaexoio. Hahpnxep, na ocnone ohpoca
sahonnn1cn, n uac1noc1n, 6anxn hepehncen n o6ceponannn
naceennn.
12. Tec1 sapannn c1anpap1non qopxi, ho xo1opix hponopn1cn
nchi1annn pn ohpepeennn choco6noc1en, noenix xauec1n n ppyinx
hcnxooinuecxnx xapax1epnc1nx ueonexa; nohpocnnx, pachpoc1pa-
nnexin xax xa1epna, nchoisyexin pn xonxpe1nix conooinue-
cxnx ncceponannn. Hahpnxep, 1ec1 Tenopa, 1ec1 Chn6epia
Xannna, 1ec1 Ansenxa, 1ec1 Accnniepa, 1ec1 Heoniappa.
13. xhnpnuecxne xe1opi ncceponannn hpo6exi o6mec1nenno-
io xnennn, hcnxooinn 1ohi, xexannsxon hcnxooinuecxoio sapn-
ennn n nnymennn hocpepc1nox anansa nc1opnuecxnx poxyxen1on
n c1a1nc1nuecxnx pannix, nahpnxep, hpnxennexie qpanyscxnx
ocnonohoonnxox conainon hcnxooinn I. Tappox. On o6:ncnn
o6mec1nennie hpoecci penc1nnex hcnxooinuecxoio xexannsxa
hoppaannn, na xo1opox c1pon1cn ueoneuecxne nsanxoo1nomennn,
Mcncdu cucdcuna

175
nnec 6oimon nxap n pasnn1ne nayxn o xenunoc1nix o1nomennnx
n nx xexannsxax, mnpoxo nchoisyexix n xenepxen1e.
14. Hcnxoanans hpnsnanne snauennn n nsnn ueonexa 6eccosna-
1einoio, 1.e. 1oio, u1o naxopn1cn sa hpepeaxn panonainoio xime-
nnn n non ueonexa paspa6o1annin anc1pnncxnx hcnxna1opox
15. 3nixynpox upenpox. hocepynmnx paspa6o1xax hcnxoana-
n1nuecxon mxoi npen upenpa hpnxennn1cn pn xapax1epnc1nxn
xononainix o1nomennn n opiannsann.

Ocnonohoonnxn conpexennoio xenepxen1a, conooinn n
hcnxooinn, a 1axe chenanc1i yhpanenuecxon hpax1nxn xnoio
nnnxannn ypenn1 conaino-hcnxooinuecxnx xe1opax xenep-
xen1a. Ixn paspa6o1ani pasnunie cxexi, 1a6ni, xapax1epnc1n-
xn. Iaccxo1pnx nexo1opie ns nnx (pnc. 4.6., 1a6. 4.1.).
Tnnm nnwnnc1n xapax1epnsyn1 nny1pennnn ho1enna ueo-
nexa n eio o6myn nahpanennoc1i x nihonennn ohpepeennix nn-
pon pa6o1 n cqepax pen1einoc1n. Isnec1no necxoixo hopxopon x 1n-
hnsann nunoc1n ueonexa: 16qax1opnan xapax1epnc1nxa nunoc1n
ho xauec1ny Ke11ea, 1eopnn cnonnpennn n neuennn 3. upenpa, na
ocnone xaccnqnxann poen honepennn n pp.
cqepe xenepxen1a 1nhnsann nunoc1en nipae1 nanyn poi n
conxec1nox ananse c xo1nnanen n honepennex n conainon ipyhhe.
Iaccxo1pnx xaccnqnxann 1nhon nunoc1n n ppyinx exen1on:
opiannsa1opcxnn 1nh c npxo nipaennix c1pexennex x py-
xonopnmen pa6o1e n npepc1ny n xoex1nne;
anan1nuecxnn 1nh, opnen1nponannin na nihonenne pa6o1 c
6oimon poen oinxn n anansa, xapax1epnin pn yuenix;
nnenepnin 1nh, xapax1epnsynmnn naxonnoc1n npen x ni-
honennn pacue1on, uepuennn, xonc1pynponannn, hpoipaxxnponannn;
1nopuecxnn 1nh, n xo1opox hpeo6apae1 o6pasno
xypoec1nennoe nochpnn1ne xnpa c xnnnxainixn oinuecxnxn
o6o6mennnxn, xapax1epnin pn pen1een n1epa1ypi, ncxycc1na,
hosnn, xysixn n pp.;
nn1yn1nnnin 1nh, pn xo1opoio nnemnne o6c1on1eic1na (con,
hoiopa, cn1yann, neuennn) nxen1 poxnnnpynmee nospenc1nne,
6oee cnonc1nennin nchonn1enx, cyamnx, nihonnnmnx pa-
6o1y c xnnnxainix o6:exox conoc1n n o1ne1c1nennoc1n.

Puc. 4.6. Cxcma naccnqnannn nmnnncn1nn, pcrynnpycmmx cnnnannnn
ncnxnnnrnwccnmn mc1npamn mcncpxmcn1a
Mcucdcun

176
Ocnnnnmc nmnnncn1m, pcrynnpycmmc
cnnnannnnncnxnnnrnwccnmn mc1npamn mcncpxmcn1a
Opiannsa
1opcxnn
Anan1n
uecxnn
Inenepnin Tnopuecxnn In1yn
1nnnin
Tcmncpamcn1
Caninnnnuecxnn Xoepn
uecxnn
ueixa1nuecxnn Meanxo
nuecxnn
Xapax1ep ueonexa
ep1i
xapax1epa
O1nomennn ueonexa xc1panep1
In1ponep1
K oxpyanmen
penc1nn1einoc1n
K ppyinx
npnx
K ce6e
K pa6o1e
Hahpanennoc1i
nunoc1n
Ho1pe6noc1n In1epeci Mo1nni \6epennn
Mnponosspenne
In1eex1yai-
nie choco6noc1n \poneni
nn1eex1a
Mimenne Cosnanne
Haxn1i Hoinxa
Tnopuec1no
Me1opi hosnannn
Anans Cnn1es Inpyxnn jepyxnn Omymennn
ochpnn1ne
Hcnxooinuecxne
o6pasi
Ic1opnuecxne Xyponie Ipaqnuecxne
nsyainie
Choco6i hcnxoo-
inuecxoio nospenc1-
nnn
nymenne
3naxonie
\6epenne Hoppaa- Hpoci6a
Hoxnaa Cone1
Hpnnypenne
Ocypenne Tpe6onanne
3ahpemenne Hae6o
Hopnanne
Me1op Coxpa1a
Koxhnxen1
Haxex O6xany1oe onpanne
spin
Honepenne
Anieicxoe icoxo
xopainoe
Hopxainoe
Axopainoe
jinnoicxoe ync1na n
xonn
\xnpo1nopnnie Hpanc1nennie
c1e1nuecxne
Ha1pno1nuecxne Hpnuac1noc1n Hepennannn \iposi
\aci
Tnn
nnwnnc1n
In1eex1yainie
Mcncdu cucdcuna

177
Tcmncpamcn1 nnne1cn oueni nanon hcnxooinuecxon xapax-
1epnc1nxon nunoc1n pn ohpepeennn nasnauennn n xec1a xapoio
pa6o1nnxa n xoex1nne, pachpepeennn yhpanenuecxnx sapau n
hcnxooinuecxnx hpnexon pa6o1i c xonxpe1nix ueonexox. Isnec1-
ni ue1ipe ocnonnix 1nha 1exhepaxen1a.
Caueuuux choxonnin, ypannonemennin, hopnnnin n hone-
pennn, caxooenxa coo1ne1c1nye1 oenxe oxpyanmnx, yponeni hpn-
1nsannn coo1ne1c1nye1 peainix nosxonoc1nx. O1nuae1cn 1pypo-
n6nex n nicoxon pa6o1ochoco6noc1in. Ca6an uep1a neyxenne
hepec1panna1icn n pesxo xennnmnxcn cn1yannx. Tnh ximennn
hpepxe1nopenc1nennin. (Caninnnnxox 6i M. B. Hepxon1on).
:ceanux xononaino yc1onunn, 1nh ximennn hpe-
nxymec1nenno xonxpe1noo6pasnin, 1exh ximennn saxepen,
yponeni hpn1nsannn nne peainix nosxonoc1en, upesniuanno
yc1onunn x pa6o1e n yconnnx xono1onnn, pn nxopennn n nonyn
cpepy 1pe6ye1cn hepnop apah1ann 67 xecnen, hpenxymec1nennin
qon nac1poennn 6aiopymnin, nipaenne na sac1inmee. (I.
A. Kpion).
Xc:cpux xononaino neyc1onunn, nchiiunn, xnxnxa upes-
niuanno hopnnnan, 1exh ximennn ycxopen, 1nh ximennn a6c1-
pax1nooinuecxnn, oueni nicoxan xoxxynnxa6einoc1i, cnepxnop-
xa1nnnan ax1nnnoc1i n xopo1xnn hepnop uepepye1cn c haysaxn. Ho-
snana1einie hcnxooinuecxne hpoecci (nnnxanne, nochpnn1ne, ha-
xn1i, noo6paenne) upesniuanno hopnnni. \poneni hpn1nsannn
nime peainix nosxonoc1en. (A. C. Hymxnn, I. C. 5ax).
Mc:auxc:ux xononaino uync1nn1een, cxonen x nonenn-
nx, xapax1epna nicoxan nny1pennnn 1penonoc1i, c1peccoyc1onunn
hpn pa6o1e n pasxepennox pn1xe. Xopomo apah1npye1cn x 6ic1po
xennnmnxcn conainix cn1yannx, xopomo uync1nye1 hap1nepon
ho o6mennn n cospae1 pn nnx o6c1anonxy honimennoio xono-
nainoio xoxqop1a. \poneni hpn1nsannn, xax hpanno, nne peai-
nix nosxonoc1en, sa ncxnuennex n c pexonc1pa1nnnon axen-
1yanen xapax1epa. (H. . Ioioi, C. Iaxxannnon, Hohen)
Hcp1m xapa1cpa ohpepenn1 nahpanennoc1i xnpa ueonexa,
yponeni ho1pe6noc1n n o6mennn. Ho hpeo6apannn 1ex nn nnix
uep1 xapax1epa npen paspenn1 na xc1panep1on n nn1ponep1on.
xcnpacpn upesniuanno o6mn1een, o1xnxae1cn na nce
nonoe, hpepinae1 nnp pen1einoc1n, nnoipa ne saxonunn pa6o1y,
ecn nosnnxae1 nonin co6ecepnnx, c1nxy. Mo1nnann pen1ei-
noc1n nehoc1onnna n naxopn1cn n hpnxon sanncnxoc1n o1
Mcucdcun

178
xnennn oxpyanmnx, nipaennie ai1pync1nuecxne naxonno-
c1n nnoipa papn ppyinx npen sa6inae1 ce6n. Tnhnunixn xc-
1panep1axn n nc1opnn 6in He1p I, e1unx . H. xaon, n ncxyc-
c1ne xnnoiepon . ahnna.
Hunpccpn saxxny1, n honepennn ncxopn1 1oixo ns nny1-
pennnx coo6paennn, ho1oxy nnoipa oxpyanmnx eio penc1nnn
xay1cn niuypnixn n uypaxona1ixn. Xopomo pasnn1a nn1ynnn,
oueni 1ouno hpocun1inae1 cn1yann, eio pemennn uac1o hepchex-
1nnni n ohpanpinan1cn n 6ypymex. In1ponep1 xononaino xo-
open, 6epnan xnxnxa n ec1i nac1opannan1 co6ecepnnxon n
hpehn1c1nyn1 o1xponennoc1n n pasionope. Tnhnunin nn1ponep1
uexoncxnn ueonex n qy1npe.
Xapax1epi c 1ouxn spennn o1nomennn ueonexa x nnemnexy n
nny1pennexy xnpy paccxa1pnnan1 ho o1nomennn x oxpyanmen
penc1nn1einoc1n n x ppyinx npnx (hosn1nnnoe, nen1painoe, ne-
ia1nnnoe), ho o1nomennn x ce6e (sanimennoe, nopxainoe, sann-
ennoe) n x pa6o1e nn yue6e.
Hahpanennoc1i nunoc1n nnne1cn nanon hcnxooinue-
cxon xapax1epnc1nxon ueonexa n paccxa1pnnae1cn c 1ouxn spe-
nnn ho1pe6noc1en, nn1epecon, xo1nnon, y6epennn n xnponos-
spennn.
Hn1cnnc1yannnmc cnncn6nnc1n xapax1epnsyn1 nosxonoc1n
honnxannn, ximennn, cosnannn ueonexa n nani pn hpoqeccno-
nainon opnen1ann, oenxn npen, hannponannn xapiepi n op-
iannsann pnnennn ho cye6non ec1nne. Iannoe nnnxanne
cepye1 o6pa1n1i na yponeni nn1eex1a pa6o1nnxa, xo1opin nxee1
1pn ipapann (nicoxnn, cpepnnn, nnsxnn). Choco6noc1n panonai-
noio ximennn neo1:exexoe 1pe6onanne x pyxonopnmexy hepco-
nay n chenanc1ax. \poneni cosnannn ohpepene1 coo1ne1c1nne
co1pypnnxa xopainoxy xopexcy opiannsann. Hoinuecxne choco6-
noc1n nesaxennxi n nnenepnon n nayunon pen1einoc1n. In1e-
ex1yainie choco6noc1n ninnnn1cn c hoxomin hcnxooinuecxnx
xe1opon. Haxn1i ueonexa nnne1cn nanix xoxhonen1ox nn1eex-
1yainix choco6noc1en. Cymec1nyn1 snaun1einie pasnunn n o6:-
exe poionpexennon n ohepa1nnnon haxn1n pasnix npen.
Mc1npm nnanannn hpepc1annn1 co6on nnc1pyxen1i, hocpep-
c1nox xo1opix ueonex nsyuae1 penc1nn1einoc1i, o6pa6a1inae1 nn-
qopxann n io1onn1 hpoex1i pemennn. Han6oee nsnec1nixn xe-
1opaxn hosnannn nnnn1cn anans n cnn1es, nnpyxnn n pepyxnn.
Aua:u- hpephoaiae1 nsyuenne nnennn na ocnone xaccnqnxann,
Mcncdu cucdcuna

179
paspeennn na exen1i, ohpepeennn ai1epna1nn, ncceponannn
nny1pennnx saxonoxepnoc1en. Cuunc-, nao6opo1, ocnonan na nsyue-
nnn xeexen1nix cnnsen, hoc1poennn cnc1exi ns o1peinix e-
xen1on, ncceponannn nnemnnx saxonoxepnoc1en n cnnsen. hpoec-
ce hosnannn anans n cnn1es nchoisyn1cn conxec1no, nahpnxep,
hpn hoc1poennn cxexi opiannsanonnon c1pyx1ypi yhpanennn
opiannsanen.
Hudqxun hpepc1anne1 co6on yxosaxnuenne o1 uac1noio x
o6mexy na ocnone ncceponannn pasnoo6pasnix qax1on n co6i1nn,
ho pesyi1a1ax xo1opoio paspa6a1inae1cn inho1esa o6 ohpepeennon
saxonoxepnoc1n. [cdqxun, 1o yxosaxnuenne o1 o6meio x uac1-
noxy, xoipa nipnnian1cn inho1esi (hpanna, hpnnnhi) n qopxe
a6con1non nc1nni, ns xo1opix peae1cn ninop o uac1nix saxono-
xepnoc1nx. Hpnxepox hpnxenennn xe1opon nnpyxnn n pepyxnn
nnne1cn paspa6o1xa qnocoqnn opiannsann.
Hosnanne penc1nn1einoc1n ocymec1nne1cn hy1ex omymennn
n nochpnn1nn nnemneio xnpa n nnqopxann. Onn nnnn1cn hpep-
xe1ox hcnxooinn, n cymec1nyn1 chenainie xe1opi nx pasnn1nn.
unocoqnn paccxa1pnnae1 hosnanne xax hpoecc o1 nnoio cosepa-
nnn po a6c1pax1noio ximennn.
Hcnxnnnrnwccnc n6paam hosnonn1 hponopn1i o6yuenne
hepconaa na ocnone 1nhonix o6pason honepennn nc1opnuecxnx
nunoc1en, xpyhnix pyxonopn1een n nona1opon hponsnopc1na.
Xypoec1nennie o6pasi nchoisyn1cn pn c1e1nuecxoio n xyi-
1ypnoio nochn1annn co1pypnnxon opiannsann, hpepe nceio xo-
open. Ipaqnuecxne o6pasi coc1annn1 neo1:exexyn uac1i
nnenepnon pen1einoc1n, oco6enno c hpnxenennex conpexen-
nix xyi1nxepnnnix 1exnnuecxnx cpepc1n, xoipa hpoex1npona-
nne nonix 1exnooinn ocymec1nne1cn na xoxhin1epe. nsyai-
nie o6pasi necixa hoesni n xapponon pa6o1e, 1.x. hosnonn1
o6echeun1i ysnanaexoc1i xonxpe1non nunoc1n n 1pyponox xo-
ex1nne.
Hcnxooinuecxne o6pasi nnnn1cn npeainon qopxon o1-
paennn hpepxe1on n nnennn xa1epnainoio xnpa n cosnannn
ueonexa. Ha uync1nennon c1yhenn hosnannn qopxnpyn1cn hy-
1ex omymennn, nochpnn1nn n hpepc1anennn. hpoecce xim-
ennn o6pasi qopxnpyn1cn na ocnone honn1nn, cypennn n
yxosaxnuennn. Ma1epnainon qopxon nohomennn o6pason
nic1yhan1 hpax1nuecxne penc1nnn, pasionopnin nsix, hncixen-
noc1i, pasnunie snaxonie xopen.
Mcucdcun

180
hpoecce xenepxen1a uame nceio nchoisyn1cn nc1opnue-
cxne, xypoec1nennie, ipaqnuecxne, aypnonnsyainie n snaxonie
o6pasi. Ic1opnuecxne o6pasi mnpoxo nchoisyn1cn hy1ex ohnca-
nnn nsnn nenxnx npen pn nochn1annn xoopix pa6o1nnxon n
o6ocnonannn hpnnnxaexix pemennn.
Xypoec1nennie o6pasi nnnn1cn nanix xoxhonen1ox pn-
sanna hoxemennn oqncon, qopxnponannn xyi1ypi yhpanennn n
conpexennon 1exnnxn. Ipaqnuecxne o6pasi mnpoxo nchoisyn1cn n
peiaxen1ann yhpanennn (cxexi, ipaqnxn, xopen, ienhani) n
pn o6ocnonannn hpnnn1nn pemennn. Aypnonnsyainie o6pasi nn-
nn1cn neo1penxon uac1in conpexennon xoxhin1epnon n 1eenn-
snonnon 1exnnxn, o6echeunnanmen pa6o1nnxon cnoenpexennon nn-
qopxanen n penxe pnaoia ueonex xamnna. 3naxonie o6pasi
hosnonn1 nchoisona1i xa1exa1nuecxne xe1opi pn hpnnn1nn
yhpanenuecxnx pemennn (xa1pni, xopen yhpanennn n pp.).
Cnncn6m ncnxnnnrnwccnrn nnapcnc1nnn o1nocn1 x uncy na-
nenmnx exen1on conainohcnxooinuecxnx xe1opon yhpanennn.
Onn xonen1pnpyn1 nce neo6xopnxie n paspemennie saxonox hpnexi
nospenc1nnn na npen pn xooppnnann n hpoecce conxec1non 1pyponon
pen1einoc1n. K hcnxooinuecxoxy nospenc1nnn o1nocn1cn xnoio choco-
6on. Hahpnxep, nnymenne, y6epenne, hoppaanne, noneuenne, ho6y-
penne, hpnnypenne, ocypenne, 1pe6onanne, sahpemenne, hae6o,
hopnanne, xoxanponanne, o6xany1oe onpanne, nspin, xe1op Coxpa-
1a, naxex, xoxhnxen1, hoxnaa, hpoci6a, cone1. Iaccxo1pnx nx 6oee
hoppo6no.
8uqucuuc hpepc1anne1 co6on hcnxooinuecxoe eenahpan-
ennoe nospenc1nne na nunoc1i hopunnennoio co c1oponi pyxo-
nopn1en hpn hoxomn eio ahennn x ipyhhonix onpannnx n
xo1nnax ho6ypennn x 1pypy. nymenne xoe1 nisna1i y ueone-
xa, nnoipa hoxnxo eio non n cosnannn, ohpepeennoe coc1onnne
uync1n n hpnnec1n x conepmennn nx ohpepeennoio hoc1yhxa.
Kpanne neia1nnnon qopxon nnymennn nnne1cn sox6nponanne
nunoc1n, xoipa ueonexy hpnnnnan1cn c1poio ohpepeennie
qopxi honepennn, nixopnmne sa hpepei xopainix nopx (xa-
qnosnie ipyhhi, 6anpqopxnponannn n pp.).
}ccdcuuc 6asnpye1cn na apiyxen1nponannox n oinuecxox
nospenc1nnn na hcnxnxy ueonexa pn poc1nennn hoc1anennix e-
en, cnn1nn hcnxooinuecxnx 6apiepon, yc1panennn xonqnx1on n
xoex1nne.
Mcncdu cucdcuna

181
|cdpaauuc nnne1cn choco6ox nospenc1nnn na o1peinoio pa-
6o1nnxa nn conainyn ipyhhy hy1ex nunoio hpnxepa pyxonopn-
1en nn nona1opa hponsnopc1na, honepenne xo1opoio nnnn1cn hpn-
xepox pn ppyinx.
8c:cncuuc nnne1cn hcnxooinuecxnx hpnexox, hpn hoxomn
xo1opoio pa6o1nnxn c1anonn1cn coyuac1nnxaxn 1pyponoio nn o6-
mec1nennoio hpoecca, nahpnxep ni6opon pyxonopn1en, hpnnn1nn
coiaconannix pemennn, copennonannn n xoex1nne n pp.
|ccqdcuuc hosn1nnnan qopxa xopainoio nospenc1nnn na
ueonexa, xoipa hopuepxnnan1cn hoon1einie xauec1na pa6o1nn-
xa, eio xnanqnxann n ohi1, ynepennoc1i n ychemnox nihonennn
hopyuennon pa6o1i, u1o hosnone1 honicn1i xopainyn snaunxoc1i
co1pypnnxa na hpephpnn1nn. cone1cxnn hepnop pn ho6ypennn x
1pypy mnpoxo nchoisonanci 1axne qopxi, xax sanecenne na jocxy
houe1a, npyuenne houe1non ipaxo1i, hpncnoenne snannn Ho6epn-
1ei copennonannn, \papnnx 1pypa n pp.
|puuqdcuuc xpannnn qopxa xopainoio nospenc1nnn, xoipa
ppyine hpnexi nospenc1nnn na nunoc1i ne pan pesyi1a1on n pa-
6o1nnxa sac1annn1, nosxono, pae hpo1nn eio non n eannn, ni-
honn1i ohpepeennyn pa6o1y. ea1eino hpnxenn1i hpnnype-
nne 1oixo n upesniuannix (qopcxaopnix) o6c1on1eic1nax, xo-
ipa 6espenc1nne xoe1 hpnnec1n x ep1nax, ymep6y, necuac1nix
cyuanx, in6en npen.
Ocqdcuuc hpnex hcnxooinuecxoio nospenc1nnn na ueo-
nexa, xo1opin pohycxae1 6oimne o1xonennn o1 xopainix
nopx n xoex1nne nn pesyi1a1i 1pypa n xauec1no pa6o1i xo-
1opoio xpanne neypone1nopn1eini. Taxon hpnex ne xoe1
hpnxenn1icn pn nospenc1nnn na npen co ca6on hcnxnxon. On
hpax1nuecxn 6echoesen pn nospenc1nnn na o1c1ayn uac1i xo-
ex1nna. Hahpnxep, 1onapnmecxnn cyp n xnnoqnixe Aqonn
hpenpa1ncn ns ocypennn n qapc.
Tpcccauuc nxee1 cny pachopnennn. cnnsn c 1nx ono xo-
e1 6i1i qqex1nnnix 1oixo n 1ox cyuae, xoipa pyxonopn1ei
o6apae1 6oimon nac1in nn hoisye1cn nehpepexaexix an1o-
pn1e1ox. ppyinx cyuanx 1o1 hpnex xoe1 oxasa1icn 6echoes-
nix nn pae npepnix. o xnoinx o1nomennnx xa1eiopnuecxoe
1pe6onanne 1opec1nenno sahpemennn, nic1yhanmexy n nnpe
eixon qopxi hpnnypennn.
Janpccuuc hpephoaiae1 1opxosnmee nospenc1nne na nunoc1i.
K nexy xi o1nocnx sahpemenne nxhyicnnnix penc1nnn neyc1on-
Mcucdcun

182
unnoio xapax1epa, u1o, n cymnoc1n, nnne1cn napnan1ox nnymennn, a
1axe sahpemenne neposnoennoio honepennn (nihnnxa, 6espen1ei-
noc1i, hohi1xa xnmennn).
Mcncd n:accc c1on1 na ipann pnyx iannix xe1opon nospen-
c1nnn hpnnypennn n y6epennn. Hae6o panno nchoisye1cn n
xepnnne xax hpnex nnymennn. Cy1i eio saxnuae1cn n 1ox, u1o
npau, hpohncinan 6oinoxy xaxoen6o nnpnqqepen1noe cpepc1no,
y1neppae1, u1o nxenno ono pac1 nynin qqex1. Hcnxooinuecxnn
nac1pon 6oinoio na 6aiohpnn1noe nospenc1nne hpohncannoio e-
xapc1na uac1o hpnnopn1 x hoon1einoxy pesyi1a1y. Ha hponsnop-
c1ne hae6o 1o hpnxep honepennn an1opn1e1noio na, xoipa pa-
6o1nnxax c eixoc1in pexonc1pnpyn1 xaxnen6o penc1nnn, hpe-
nosxoian 6oi, upesxepnyn yc1aoc1i, c1pax nico1i n 1.h. npn 1o,
pa6o1nnxn xoiy1 c 1axon e eixoc1in hon1opn1i hoxasannie penc1-
nnn, ne nchi1inan hpn 1ox nehpnn1nix omymennn. Lcn e na-
6npa1en saxe1n1, u1o pexonc1pann ocymec1nne1cn uepes cny, 1o
qqex1a ne 6ype1. oo6me, qqex1 hae6o ypepnnae1cn nmi po
hepnon neypaun, hoxa pa6o1nnxn ne honxy1, u1o pn1yainie penc1-
nnn, xo1opie onn 1ax cxpyhyesno nihonnn, ne nxen1 hop co6on
peainon houni.
|cpuauuc o6apae1 y6epanmen cnon 1oixo n yconnnx, xo-
ipa co6ecepnnx npen1nqnnpye1 ce6n c pyxonopn1eex: on opnn ns
nac. ppyinx cyuanx hopnanne nochpnnnxae1cn xax xen1opcxoe
nasnpanne, xo1opoe xono nicyma1i, no xo1opoxy ne nyno cepo-
na1i. cny 1oio, u1o ueonex ponoino ax1nnno samnmae1 cnoe 2,
on uac1o paccxa1pnnae1 1o1 hpnex xax hoxymenne na cnon caxo-
c1on1einoc1i.
Kcaudcauuc hpnxenne1cn 1oipa, xoipa 1pe6ye1cn 6ic1poe n
1ounoe nchonenne 6es xaxnx 6i 1o nn 6io xpn1nuecxnx peaxnn.
Hpn nihonennn xoxanp ne paccypan1. nsnn nc1peuan1cn sa-
hpe1n1einie n ho6ypn1einie pasnonnpnoc1n xoxanp. Hepnie:
Hpexpa1n1e!, Hepec1ani1e nepnnnua1i!, 3axoun1e! n 1.p. na-
hpaneni na nexepennoe 1opxoenne neea1einix ax1on hone-
pennn. Onn hopan1cn 1neppix choxonnix ioocox nn ioocox c
xononaino oxpamennix o11enxox. 1opie: Ipn1e!, Hpnnecn-
1e!, ihonnn1e! n 1.p. nahpaneni na nxnuenne honepenue-
cxnx xexannsxon npen.
Ocauqncc cudauuc qqex1nnno n cn1yann nahpnennoio
onpannn. Hpepmec1nynmne co6i1nn poni cqopxnpona1i y co-
6ecepnnxa c1poio nahpanennin xop xicen. Lcn nppyi o6napyn-
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nae1cn necoc1on1einoc1i 1on nahpanennoc1n, 1o co6ecepnnx oxa-
sinae1cn n pac1epnnnoc1n n 6es nospaennn nochpnnnxae1 hpepa-
iaexyn exy npen.
8-pu hpnex, nsnec1nin xax xinonennan hepec1ponxa nu-
noc1n hop nnnnnex cninix xononainix hepennannn. Ona
hoppo6no ohncana n xypoec1nennon n1epa1ype (iepon poxanon .
Inio O1nepennie, A. jnxa Ipaq Mon1eKpnc1o n pp.). Hpnxe-
nenne nspina 1pe6ye1 cospannn chenainon o6c1anonxn, n xo1opon
nosnnxn 6i uync1na, choco6nie hopasn1i ueonexa cnoen neonpan-
noc1in n neo6iunoc1in. 1axon o6c1anonxe y ueonexa hponcxopn1
c6on nepnnix hpoeccon. Heonpannin pasppan1ei nisinae1 y ne-
io cninin c1pecc. 1o hpnnopn1 x xopennoxy nsxenennn nsinpon na
nemn, co6i1nn, o1peinix npen n pae xnp n eox.
Mcncd Ccxpana ocnonan na c1pexennn oipapn1i co6ecepnnxa
o1 o1pna1einoio o1ne1a. Kax 1oixo co6ecepnnx cxae1 ne1, eio
oueni 1pypno honepny1i n o6pa1nyn c1opony. jpenneipeuecxnn qn-
ocoq Coxpa1 uac1o hoisonacn 1nx xe1opox, c1apanci nec1n 6ece-
py 1ax, u1o6i co6ecepnnxy 6io eiue cxasa1i pa. Coxpa1 nehpe-
xenno poxasina cnon 1ouxy spennn, ne nisinan co c1oponi ohho-
nen1on ne 1oixo nnnoio neioponannn, no pae caxix nesnaun1ei-
nix neia1nnnix peaxnn.
Hacx hpnex xocnennoio y6epennn hocpepc1nox my1xn,
nponnn n anaoinn. nexo1opox cxice qopxon naxexa xoe1
6i1i cone1. Cymnoc1i naxexa coc1on1 n 1ox, u1o on ahenpye1 ne
x cosnannn, ne x oinxe paccypennn, a x xonnx. Hocxoixy
naxex 1an1 n ce6e ho1ennainyn nosxonoc1i ocxop6ennn nu-
noc1n co6ecepnnxa, 1o hoisona1icn nx yume nceio n cn1yann
xonxpe1noio nac1poennn. Kpn1epnex xepi speci xoe1 nic1yhn1i
hpoinosnponanne caxohepennannn: Kax 6i n cax uync1nona ce-
6n, ecn 6i xne hopanan 1axne naxexn?
Kcn:ucun nepepxo cxemnnan1 c ec1in. Lcn cxasa1i ueo-
nexy: Kax cxapno ni ionopn1e!, 1o 1o hoic1n1 exy. Hec1i hpnn1-
na paexo ne xapoxy, xo1n npn ne uac1o o1xaxnnan1cn o1 nee.
upanyscxan hoconna iacn1: Hec1i 1o yxenne cxasa1i ueone-
xy 1o, u1o on cax o ce6e pyxae1. Koxhnxen1 nnxoio ne o6nae1, on
ncex nosnimae1. Hec1i hpoc1a n honn1na. Koxhnxen1 e na1axnna-
e1 ueonexa na pasximennn, na poiapxy. Hpepxe1ox ec1n nnnn1cn
npn n nx xauec1na, a hpepxe1ox xoxhnxen1a nemn, pea, npen n
1.p., xocnenno o1nocnmnecn x npnx. Lcn cxasa1i ye nexoopon
enmnne: Kax ni xoopo niinpn1e, 1o xoe1 ee o6npe1i. Lcn
Mcucdcun

184
cxasa1i 1ax: Mi ne nnpenci necxoixo e1, a i hpexpacno niin-
pn1e, 1o 6ype1 xoxhnxen1.
|cxa:a nnne1cn hosn1nnnix hcnxooinuecxnx hpnexox nospen-
c1nnn na ueonexa n oxasinae1 6oee cninoe penc1nne, uex ocypenne.
Inoipa poc1a1ouno cxasa1i xoopoxy co1pypnnxy: Ceiopnn i pa6o-
1ae1e snaun1eino yume n ecn eme uy1iuy1i yyumn1e xauec1no, 1o
i poc1nine1e hpenocxopnix pesyi1a1on. Opnaxo 1axan hoxnaa
ohi1noxy pa6o1nnxy xoe1 6i1i nochpnnn1a xax o6npa, n eio ychexn
yume o1xe1n1i n 1opec1nennon o6c1anonxe hepep ncex xoex1nnox.
|pcctca nnne1cn necixa pachpoc1panennon qopxon o6mennn
xepy xoeiaxn, xoopixn n ohi1nixn pa6o1nnxaxn n pee
hpnxenne1cn no nsanxoo1nomennnx pyxonopn1en c hopunnennixn.
Hpocn1ei o6pamae1cn sa cone1ox, hoxomin, nnc1pyxnen x ppyio-
xy co1pypnnxy, xoipa coxnenae1cn n qopxax n xe1opax nihonennn
pa6o1i nn ne n cnax ee cpea1i caxoc1on1eino. Hpoci6a pyxono-
pn1en nnne1cn qqex1nnnix xe1opox pyxonopc1na, 1.x. nochpnnn-
xae1cn hopunnennix xax po6poea1einoe pachopnenne n pexon-
c1pnpye1 ynaenne x eio nunoc1n.
Cccn hcnxooinuecxnn xe1op, ocnonannin na coue1annn
hpoci6i n y6epennn, uac1o hpnxennexin no nsanxoo1nomenn-
nx xoei, nac1annnxon xoopix co1pypnnxon n ohi1nix pyxo-
nopn1een.
Hnncpcnnc conoxyhnoc1i nsanxocnnsannix peaxnn, ocyme-
c1nnexix ueonexox pn hpnchoco6ennn x nnemnen cpepe. Hone-
penne ueonexa xono hpepc1ann1i n nnpe cnnyconpi xoe6annn
nn 6poynoncxoio pnnennn nny1pn poc1a1ouno mnpoxoio hon, o6-
pasonannoio xopainixn nopxaxn, hpnnn1ixn n 1on conainon
ipyhhe (xoex1nne, cexie), x xo1opon hpnnapen1 ueonex. O6me-
c1nennan xopai sanncn1 o1 xonoxnuecxoio c1pon o6mec1na, nano-
nainon hpnnapenoc1n, conainoio xacca, yponnn nsnn, o6pa-
sonannn n pnpa ppyinx hpnsnaxon. uopxnponanne o6mec1nennon
xopan nc1opnuecxn na hpo1nennn xnoinx 1icnuee1nn ocymec1n-
ne1 peninn, qnxcnpyn nopxi honepennn n cnnmennix hncannnx
(5n6nn, Kopan n pp.) n nnpe o6pason honepennn 5oia, Aaxa, anie-
on n pp. 1o hosnone1 xaccnqnnpona1i ocnonnie qopxi hone-
pennn ueonexa n conainon ipyhhe:
anieicxoe nac1poennoe na o6pasi cnepx:ec1ec1nennoio
honepennn, o1pnanne sa n nacnnn, qe1nmnsann hpnnnha
ueonex ueonexy ppyi, 1onapnm n 6pa1. Oueni xao npen n o6-
mec1ne xoiy1 6i1i o1neceni x pannon qopxe honepennn;
Mcncdu cucdcuna

185
nicoxoxopainoe hponosiamanmee ueoneuecxyn po6pope-
1ei, co6npenne 1oixo nicoxnx hpnnnhon honepennn (uec1noc1i,
hopnpounoc1i, 6ecxopic1ne, meppoc1i, xyppoc1i, ncxpennoc1i n pp.).
o ncex iocypapc1nax nocn1enxn nicoxon xopan cun1an1cn cnn-
mennocyn1en, nn1eniennn, apnc1oxpa1nn;
nopxainoe hoc1poennoe na nihonennn hpnnnhon o6me-
c1nennon xopan, pohycxanmee o1xonennn n nepoc1a1xn (ca6 ue-
onex), hpnsnanmee pnaex1nuecxoe epnnc1no po6pa n sa, nac1n n
penei. sone nopxainoio honepennn naxopn1cn 6oiman uac1i o6-
mec1na n 1pyponoio xoex1nna;
axopainoe honepenne cnonc1nenno npnx, hoc1onnno napy-
manmnx xopainin xopexc o6mec1na. Hnunie nn1epeci, xo1nni n
ho1pe6noc1n npn pannoio 1nha c1ann1 nime connmnxcn nopx n
conainon ipyhhe, onn ne uync1nyn1 yipisennn conec1n hpn napy-
mennn saxona n peninosnix sahonepen. Axopainoe honepenne
cnonc1nenno o1c1aon uac1n 1pyponoio xoex1nna (hinnnax, 6es-
peinnxax, hpoiyimnxax), xo1opie co npexenex hepexopn1 n hpe-
c1yhnyn cpepy nn hohonnn1 pnpi 6oxen;
pinnoicxoe 1.e. a6con1no axopainoe, hpo1nnohpannoe n
hpo1nnopeuamee saxony. Ono ncxnuae1 co6npenne o6mec1nennon xo-
pan, hpo1nnoc1on1 anieicxoxy honepennn. peninn xopomo ohn-
cani o6pasi pinnoa (ca1ani n uep1a). Taxoe honepenne pexonc1pnpyn1
nexo1opie hpepc1ann1en hpec1yhnoio xnpa (y6nni, nacninnxn).

Hync1na oco6in nnp xononainix hepennannn, nocnmnx o1-
ue1nno nipaennin hpepxe1nin xapax1ep n o1nuanmnxcn cpannn-
1einon yc1onunnoc1in. ync1na cnnsani c hpepc1anennex o xonxpe1-
nox nn o6o6mennox o6:ex1e. Onn o1paan1 npanc1nennie hepenna-
nnn ueonexox eio peainix o1nomennn c oxpyanmen cpepon n nnpe
xonn. Iasnuan1 1axne nnpi uync1n, xax:
npanc1nennie, nosnnxanmne n pesyi1a1e o1paennn ueone-
xox eio nsanxoo1nomennn c ppyinxn npixn n co6npennn xo-
painix nopx;
c1e1nuecxne, nosnnxanmne hpn cosepannn hpexpacnoio,
nochpnn1nn hponsnepennn ncxycc1na;
ha1pno1nuecxne, o1paanmne hpnnapenoc1i x nanonai-
noc1n, xonxpe1noxy iocypapc1ny, n6oni x Iopnne n 1.h.;
nn1eex1yainie, o1paanmne c1eheni hosnannn nc1nni,
xicn1einie choco6noc1n, apy nonix o1xpi1nn.
Mcucdcun

186
Ho c1ehenn hponnennn uync1n nipenn1 xononainie co-
c1onnnn:
yxnpo1nopenne coc1onnne honoio xononainoio ho-
xon, ypone1nopennn n ychoxoennn;
hpnuac1noc1i coc1onnne nehocpepc1nennoio o1nomennn x
xonxpe1noxy nny1pennexy coc1onnnn ppyioio ueonexa nn x pe-
syi1a1ax conxec1noio 1pypa;
hepennanne coc1onnne 6echoxonc1na, c1papanne nssa ueio
1o, nonenne n cnnsn c onpannex nc1peun, 1pypnon 6ecepi, coc1nsa-
nnn, ppaxn n pp.;
yiposa sahyinnanne, eanne hpnunnn1i xoxy1o so, npep,
yunnn1i pachpany. ceipa hpnnopn1 x naxohennn neia1nnnix xonn;
yac uync1no cninoio c1paxa, poxopnmee po hopanennoc1n
n oehenennn.

mnnnn xonxpe1nie hepennannn 1ex nn nnix co6i1nn n
nsnn ueonexa, sanncnmne o1 eio cxonnoc1en, hpnniuex n hcnxo-
oinuecxoio coc1onnnn. Hcnxooin pasnuan1 necxoixo 1icnu pas-
nunix hponnennn xonn. sanncnxoc1n o1 peaxnn xonn xo-
iy1 6i1i:
hoon1einie papoc1i, ypnnenne, yponoic1nne, hoxnaa,
6aiopapnoc1i n pp.;
o1pna1einie inen, soc1i, pasppaenne, sannc1i, o6npa, he-
uai, pocapa n pp.;
ax6nnaen1nie hpo1nnopeunnie xonn, xax c hoon1ei-
non, 1ax n c o1pna1einon oxpacxon: pennoc1i, cohepnnuec1no n pp.

Conaino-hcnxooinuecxne xe1opi hpepc1annn1 co6on nan-
6oee 1onxnn nnc1pyxen1 nospenc1nnn na conainie ipyhhi n o1-
peinie nunoc1n. Icxycc1no xenepxen1a saxnuae1cn n posnpo-
nannox n pnqqepennponannox hpnxenennn hosn1nnnoio nospen-
c1nnn n nen1pansann neia1nnnoio (cx. 1a6. 4.1.).

Mcncdu cucdcuna

187
Tac:ua 4.1.

Hnan1nnnnc n ncra1nnnnc nnapcnc1nnc
cnnnannnnncnxnnnrnwccnx mc1npnn
mcncpxmcn1a na c1pa1crnm n 1a1ny paann1nn nprannaannn

Hnan1nnnnc nnapcnc1nnc Hcra1nnnnc nnapcnc1nnc
1. uopxnponanne xopainoio xo-
pexca (hpann) nsanxoo1nomennn
co1pypnnxon
1.1. Iaspa6o1xa qnocoqnn opia-
nnsann, peiaxen1npynmen
nny1pnqnpxennie hpanna nsan-
xoo1nomennn
1.2. e1xoe ceponanne qnocoqnn
opiannsann na ncex yponnnx yhpan-
ennn n no ncex hoppaspeennnx
1.3. O6echeuenne coo1ne1c1nnn iocy-
papc1nennon n nny1pnxophopa1nn-
non xapponon hon1nxn
1.4. Iasnn1ne xophopa1nnnon xyi-
1ypi n hap1nepcxnx nsanxoo1no-
mennn co1pypnnxon
1.5. Ieansann hpnnnhon ha-
1epnansxa: co1pypnnxn opiann-
sann o6pasyn1 opny 6oimyn
cexin (opnn sa ncex n nce sa op-
noio)
1. Hpnxenenne pasxi1oio xopai-
noio xopexca, ocnonannoio na pnon-
non xopan
1.1. O1cy1c1nne qnocoqnn opiannsa-
nn, opnen1ann 1oixo na qopxai-
nie nsanxoo1nomennn co1pypnnxon
1.2. Hapymenne o6mec1nennix n
nny1pnqnpxennix nopx honepennn
n yiopy nunix nn1epecax npepon
n pyxonopn1een
1.3. joxnnnponanne nny1pnopiann-
sanonnon xapponon hon1nxn nap
iocypapc1nennon, peninosnixn
nopxaxn honepennn n o6mec1nennon
xopain
1.4. Iinopnponanne xophopa1nnnon
xyi1ypi n hoppepxa ipyhhonix
nn1epecon hoppaspeennn
1.5. Ieansann hpnnnhon nnpnnnpya-
nsxa, nunix nn1epecon n hoompenne
1oixo yumnx uenon xoex1nna
2. qqex1nnnie conainie xe-
1opi nospenc1nnn
2.1. Hoc1onnnoe hponepenne co-
nooinuecxoio anxe1nponannn n
xoex1nne o coc1onnnn xnxa1a n
pon pyxonopn1een
2.2. Hponepenne nn1epninnpona-
nnn n nunoio na6npennn n xo-
ex1nne, opnen1ann na pexoxpa-
1nuecxnn c1ni pyxonopc1na
2.3. Ichoisonanne conainix
xchepnxen1on, hpepmec1nynmnx
xappnnainix nsxenennnx n xo-
ex1nne (hepec1ponxe c1pyx1ypi,
oha1i 1pypa, cxene npepon)
2. Heqqex1nnnie conainie xe-
1opi nospenc1nnn
2.1. Iinopnponanne conooinue-
cxoio anxe1nponannn n hoppepxa
neqopxainix xe1opon c6opa nn-
qopxann (cyxn, che1nn n pp.)
2.2. Hoppepxa qopxainix hpann
nsanxoo1nomennn n cospanne 6api-
epon n snene pyxonopn1ei hopun-
nennin
2.3. Iinopnponanne conainix
xchepnxen1on, hponepenne papn-
xainix nsxenennn 6es hopio1onxn
n nnqopxnponannn xoex1nna

Mcucdcun

188
Tac:ua 4.1.(cxcunauuc)

Hnan1nnnnc nnapcnc1nnc Hcra1nnnnc nnapcnc1nnc
2.4. Hannponanne conainoio pas-
nn1nn xoex1nna na ocnone o6eche-
uennn poc1a nsnennoio yponnn n
conainix nopxa1nnon
2.5. Hoppepxa copennona1eino-
c1n n nnnna1nnnoc1n co1pypnn-
xon, naxohennix 1papnnn


2.4. C6pacinanne hpo6ex con-
ainoio pasnn1nn xoex1nna na
iopopcxne nac1n n nnqpac1pyx1y-
py cepnnca
2.5. Opnen1ann 1oixo ncxnun-
1eino na pinounyn xonxypennn,
ninopnponanne copennona1einoc1n
n nnnna1nnnoc1n co1pypnnxon
3. Ianonainie hcnxooinuecxne
xe1opi nospenc1nnn na hepcona
3.1. uopxnponanne xopomeio hcn-
xooinuecxoio xnxa1a n xoex-
1nne na ocnone ue1xoio co6npennn
hpan ueonexa n hcnxooinuecxnx
xe1opon ncceponannn
3.2. qqex1nnnoe nchoisonanne
hcnxooinuecxnx xe1opon xo1nna-
nn: nnymenne, y6epenne, hoppa-
anne, noneuenne, ho6ypenne
(1eopnn \)
3.3. Hponepenne hcnxooinuecxoio
1ec1nponannn co1pypnnxon n opia-
nnsann nnpnnnpyainon pa6o1i c
nnxn c yue1ox 1nha nunoc1n, 1ex-
hepaxen1a
3.4. Opiannsann hcnxooinuecxon
cy6i na hpephpnn1nn n hcnxo-
oinuecxnx xoncyi1ann pn co-
1pypnnxon
3.5. Hponepenne hcnxooinuecxnx
1pennnion n cexnnapon pn pyxono-
pn1een ncex yponnen yhpanennn
3. Heqqex1nnnie hcnxooinuecxne
xe1opi nospenc1nnn
3.1. Cospanne nepnosnoc1n n hcnxo-
oinuecxoio pncxoxqop1a n xoex-
1nne, ninopnponanne hpan ueonexa
n hcnxooinuecxnx xe1opon
3.2. Heqqex1nnnoe nchoisonanne
hcnxooinuecxnx xe1opon xo1nna-
nn n opnen1ann na xoxanpona-
nne, hpnnypenne n naxasanne
(1eopnn X)
3.3. O1cy1c1nne nn hnsopnuecxoe
1ec1nponanne co1pypnnxon n pa6o1a
c nnxn 6es yue1a cnonc1n nunoc1n
(pa6ouan omapi)
3.4. \noinenne conainix hcnxo-
oion nn ninopnponanne nx pon n
xoex1nne
3.5. Iinopnponanne hcnxooinuecxnx
1pennnion nn hponepenne nx 1oixo
pn nicmeio pyxonopc1na


Cymec1nyn1 pasnunie 1ouxn spennn na xaccnqnxann
xe1opon xenepxen1a. coo1ne1c1nnn c opnon ns xaccnqnxa-
nn nce xe1opi xenepxen1a pachpepeeni na cepynmne 1pn
ipyhhi:
1. In1yn1nnnie xe1opi, hpnxenenne xo1opix c1anonn1cn nos-
xonix 6aiopapn naxohennoxy xenepepox ohi1y n snannnx n
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189
xonxpe1non o6ac1n pen1einoc1n opiannsann, u1o hosnone1 hpn-
nnxa1i pemennn 6es apiyxen1nponannix poxasa1eic1n, na ocnone
nny1pennen nn1ynnn.
2. Me1opi sppanoio cxica, hoc1poennie na oinuecxnx cy-
pennnx, hocepona1einix poxasa1eic1nax, xo1opie ohnpan1cn na
hpax1nuecxnn ohi1.
3. Me1opi nayuno1exnnuecxoio hopxopa, xo1opie hpephoaian1
ni6op oh1nxainoio pemennn ns napnan1on, paccun1annix hocpep-
c1nox nchoisonannn snaun1einix nnqopxanonnix xaccnnon, u1o
nens6eno cnnsano c hpnxenennex conpexennix xoxhin1epnix
1exnooinn.

Iaccxo1pnx pemennn n xenepxen1e.

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Tec1

1. Memoom 5mo:
a) choco6i ncceponannn;
6) cnc1exa penc1nnn poc1nennn ohpepeennon en;
n) nepno (choco6i pemennn xonxpe1nix sapau);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

2. 3xono+uxocmamucmuuecxue +emoom 5mo cooxnnocmt nue-
+o, nau: ucc:eooanun:
a) xonoxnuecxnx nnennn;
6) conainix hpoeccon;
n) conaino-xonoxnuecxnx nnennn n hpoeccon;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

3. 3xono+uxocmamucmuuecxue +emoom ne ocuecm:nmmcn
noceocmo+:
a) c6opa nnqopxann;
6) o6pa6o1xn nnqopxann;
n) xapax1epnc1nxn o6o6manmnx hoxasa1een n nx anansa;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

4. Oona us aneuuux cmaouu 5xono+uxocmamucmuuecxoeo
ucc:eooanun nasmaemcn:
a) na6npenne;
6) nayuno opiannsonannin c6op nnqopxann;
n) peinc1pann pannix ho sapanee paspa6o1annon hpoipaxxe;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

5. Hauo:ee acnocmanennm+ muno+ cmamucmuuecxoeo na-
:moenun n:nemcn:
a) poxap;
6) o1ue1;
n) o1ue1noc1i;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

6. Ho meoenum a+euxancxux cneuua:ucmo oeanusauuon-
noacnonoume:tnme +emoom +eneo+enma saoou:uct o e+n:
a) penonnn no upannn;
6) hepnon xnponon nonni;
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191
n) n1opon xnponon nonni;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

7. Oeanusauuonnoacnonoume:tnme +emoom +eneo+enma
no meoenum a+euxanue neme asaoma:u:
a) axepnxani;
6) aninuane;
n) nexi;
i) nhoni.

8. Om:uuume:tnme ocoennocmu +emooo:oeuu +eneo+enma:
a) hpnxenenne nayunoio xe1opa n yhpanennn;
6) cnc1exnan opnen1ann;
n) nchoisonanne xopeen;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

9. Beuquxauun 5mo:
a) hop1neppenne poc1onepnoc1n inho1esi;
6) hponepxa inho1esi hocpepc1nox na6npennn sa pesyi1a1a-
xn hpnxenennn opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einix xe1opon;
n) yponeni nepon1noc1n nac1yhennn co6i1nn;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

10. Buo Uoasnou xuou u+eem +ooe:t:
a) anaoionan;
6) nxn1anonnan;
n) Hoyepa n xenepxen1e;
i) Hop1epa n xapxe1nnie.

11. Couua:tnoncuxo:oeuuecxue +emoom 5mo cnocom ucc:e-
ooanun, ue:tm xomomx n:nemcn usuenue:
a) conainoio pasnn1nn npen;
6) oco6ennoc1en ueoneuecxoio xapax1epa;
n) conoxyi1ypnix yconnn;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.
p) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

12. K couua:tnoncuxo:oeuuecxu+ +emooa+ +eneo+enma ne
omnocumcn:
a) anxe1nponanne;
6) 6ecepa;
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192
n) ohpoc;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

13. |o+eocmamuuecxue +emoouxu 5mo +ooe:u ue:oexa, u+u-
mumuue eeo cnoconocmt noooeuamt oneoe:ennme xaaxme-
ucmuxu, nanu+e:
a) panenne;
6) 1exhepa1ypy;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

14. Hcuxo:oeuuecxue uem 5mo:
a) cospanne 1nhnunix pn hpoqeccnn cn1yann;
6) naxopenne oh1nxainix hcnxooinuecxnx pemennn;
n) caxap n xponn;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

15. B xomoncxux 5xcneu+enmax ucno:tsoa:uct neu+uecm-
enno +emoom:
a) xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne;
6) opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einie;
n) conaino-hcnxooinuecxne;
i) ppyine.

16. Amoo+ mcxasmanun: Houenun snauam +noeo, no no-
ouenun ce! Hoouenue noc:e nouuanun nooono co:nu noc:e
ooon n:nemcn:
a) M.X. Mecxon;
6) H. jpaxep;
n) A.I. Hayxon;
i) I..I1e.

17. Beuquxauun 5mo noomeoenue neoocmoenocmu eu-
nomesm:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

18. Toeoan oeanusauun n:nemcn saxmmou cucme+ou:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

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19 Hocmoenue +ooe:u n:nemcn nouecco+:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

20. Hacma:enue oo:no mmt osueno as:
a) opnn;
6) hn1i;
n) mec1i;
i) xnoio.

Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuue (21-25) onocm:

21. Kaxue ocnonme 5xono+uxocmamucmuuecxue +emoom Bm
snaeme?
22. Houe+ nu +ooe:uoanuu neeoxo osnuxamm no:e+m?
23. mo neocma:nmm coou 5ucmuuecxue +emoom?
24. 3aue+ neoxoou+o snamt +emoom +eneo+enma?
25. Kaxue +emoom +eneo+enma nauunammcn c na:moenun?

26. B Poccuu oeanusauuonno-acnonoume:tnme +emoom na-
smamm:
a) apxnnnc1pa1nnnixn;
6) hanonixn;
n) oenxn n hepecxo1pi hanon;
i) xchep1nix oenox.

27. Mooe:t B+a-Hemmona 5mo +ooe:t:
a) ho1pe6n1eicxnx onpannn;
6) hpnnn1nn pemennn;
n) nnennoio hpoipaxxnponannn;
i) xacconoio o6cynnannn.

28. Tun :uunocmu c nxo maennm+ cme+:enue+ x xoo-
onueu aome u :uoecm nasmaemcn:
a) anan1nuecxnn;
6) nnenepnin;
n) 1nopuecxnn;
i) opiannsa1opcxnn.
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194
29. Memoo, ocnoannmu na cme+:enuu oeaoumt coeceonuxa
om omuuame:tnoeo omema, nasmaemcn:
a) xe1op hae6o;
6) xe1op Coxpa1a;
n) xe1op nspin;
i) xe1op cone1.

30. Penocmt, conenuuecmo 5mo 5+ouuu:
a) hoon1einie;
6) o1pna1einie;
n) ax6nnaen1nie;
i) apah1nnnie.


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Dpax1axyM

1. Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm

4.1.1. 1o 1axoe xonoxnxoc1a1nc1nuecxne xe1opi?
4.1.2. Iaccxan1e o nanenmnx oco6ennoc1nx xonoxnxo
c1a1nc1nuecxnx xe1opon xenepxen1a.
4.1.3. jan1e ohpepeenne xapxe1nnia 1opionon opiannsann.
4.1.4. C ueio naunnae1cn xonoxnxoc1a1nc1nuecxoe nccepona-
nne?
4.1.5. Oxapax1epnsyn1e 5 son o6pasa qopxynpa iocypapc1nen-
noio c1a1nc1nuecxoio na6npennn, y1neppennoio hoc1anonennex
Iocc1a1a.
4.1.6. Kaxne ocnonnie hoxasa1en xapax1epnsyn1 1onapoo6opo1
posnnunon 1opionn?
4.1.7. Iaccxan1e o6 oenxe xonxypen1ochoco6noc1n 1onapa xo1n
6i n o6mnx uep1ax.
4.1.8. Koipa n ipe sapopnnci opiannsanonnopachopnpn1ei-
nie xe1opi xenepxen1a?
4.1.9. Hasonn1e 1pn 1aha nayunoio xe1opa n xenepxen1e, honc-
nn1e nx cymnoc1i.

2. ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm

4.2.1. Kaxne o6mne hpo6exi nepepxo nosnnxan1 hpn xopenpo-
nannn? Honcnn1e amy hosnnn.
4.2.2. 1o i snae1e o xopen Hop1epa n xapxe1nnie? Ison1e
cymnoc1i.
4.2.3.1o hpepc1anne1 co6on anaoionan xopei? Iaccxan1e
iannoe.
4.2.4. uex cymnoc1i nxn1anonnoio xopenponannn? Honcnn1e
ame xnenne.
4.2.5. 1o 1axoe, na am nsinp, conainohcnxooinuecxne xe-
1opi? Kpa1xo oxapax1epnsyn1e caxin nn1epecnin.
4.2.6. Iaccxan1e o xaccnqnxann ocnonnix conaino
hcnxooinuecxnx xe1opon xenepxen1a. Axen1npyn1e nnnxa-
nne na nan6oee nn1epecnox, c amen 1ouxn spennn.
4.2.7. ex, ho amexy xnennn, hcnxoanans o1nuae1cn o1 xhn-
pnuecxnx xe1opon ncceponannn hpo6exi?
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196
4.2.8. Kaxon ns xe1opon xenepxen1a i snae1e yume ppyinx n
6ype1e uac1o nchoisona1i? Houexy?
4.2.9. 1o o6meio, na am nsinp, n pasnunix xe1opax xenep-
xen1a? ex chenqnuni conainohcnxooinuecxne xe1opi?

jwc6nmc cn1yannn

(13) Ichoisyn xe1opi xenepxen1a c ein honimennn q-
qex1nnnoc1n, hponepn1e caxoxon1poi ameio pa6oueio npexenn (sa
nepen n n cpepnex sa opnn peni), sa1pauennoio na hoyuenne sna-
nnn n MCI ho pecn1n nnpax pen1einoc1n, oqopxnn pesyi1a1i n
1a6ne.
(14) Hpnxennn xe1opi xenepxen1a, ho pannix 1a6ni
hpoanansnpyn1e nchoisonanne ameio pa6oueio npexenn, ne sa6in
o hpnnnhax Hape1o n nsenxaypa. Cpean1e ninopi.
(15) Is hepeuncennix nne xe1opon nipen1e xonoxnxo
c1a1nc1nuecxne, opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einie n conaino
hcnxooinuecxne:
a) xe1op xchep1nix oenox;
6) xonoxe1pnuecxne xopen sa1pa1inihycx;
n) anxe1nponanne;
i) hcnxoanans;
p) cenapnn pasnn1nn;
e) nnpexcnin xe1op;
) na6npenne;
s) qopxynponanne inho1esi;
n) nepnqnxann;
x) hoxasa1en napnann;
) xoppennonnopeipeccnonnin anans;
x) xopei Hop1epa n xapxe1nnie;
n) anaoionan xopei;
o) nxn1anonnoe xopenponanne;
h) hpoinosnponanne;

Hexo1opie xe1opi xenepxen1a xono o1nec1n n x xono-
xnxoc1a1nc1nuecxnx, n x opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einix, n
x conainohcnxooinuecxnx. ipen1e nx oco6o.

Ocnnnnmc nmnnpm, nnnn1nn, nnpcpcncnnn

xonoxnxoc1a1nc1nuecxne xe1opi 1o cnc1exa hpnexon,
choco6on, hpann ncceponannn conainoxonoxnuecxnx nnennn,
Mcncdu cucdcuna

197
nx xonuec1nennix saxonoxepnoc1en, hponnnnmnxcn n c1pyx1ype,
nsanxocnnsnx, pnnaxnxe. 1o ncceponanne ocymec1nne1cn hocpep-
c1nox c6opa nnqopxann, ee o6pa6o1xn, xapax1epnc1nxn o6o6man-
mnx hoxasa1een n nx anansa na ocnone nchoisonannn xonoxnue-
cxnx saxonon n xa1eiopnn.
anenmnxn oco6ennoc1nxn xonoxnxoc1a1nc1nuecxnx xe-
1opon nnnn1cn: xonxpe1noc1i, hpnxa1 xauec1nennoio anansa, nipe-
enne opnopopnix conoxyhnoc1en, pnnaxnsx hpnexon nccepona-
nnn, hpnxenenne cnc1exi hoxasa1een.
xonoxnxoc1a1nc1nuecxoe ncceponanne, xax hpanno, naun-
nae1cn co c1a1nc1nuecxoio na6npennn xacconon hanoxepnon, na-
yunoopiannsonannon peinc1pann o1o6pannix hpnsnaxon y xa-
pon epnnni conoxyhnoc1n. Hopio1onxa n hponepenne na6npennn
upesniuanno o1ne1c1nennan, nanan n conan pa6o1a. Ona nxnuae1
hpoipaxxnoxe1opooinuecxne nohpoci, ohpepeenne en, o6:ex-
1i na6npennn, coc1an hpnsnaxon, hopeamnx peinc1pann n xno-
ioe ppyioe.
nac1onmee npexn n Ioccnn nan6oee pachpoc1paneni 1pn oc-
nonnie qopxi na6npennn: o1ue1noc1i, chenaino opiannsonan-
noe na6npenne n peinc1pi. Hahpnxep, o6pase qopxynpa iocy-
papc1nennoio c1a1nc1nuecxoio na6npennn, y1neppennoio hoc1a-
nonennex Iocc1a1a , copepn1 5 son:
sone 1 iapan1npye1cn xonqnpennainoc1i hoyua1eex
nnqopxann n o1xeuae1cn, u1o nehpepc1anenne nn napymenne
cpoxon hpepc1anennn nnqopxann, a 1axe ee ncxaenne neue1
o1ne1c1nennoc1i, yc1anonennyn 3axonox Iu.
sone 2 o1xeuae1cn, xaxne cnepennn napo hpepoc1ann1i, xo-
xy (xaxoxy opiany c1a1nc1nxn nn o1pacn xonoxnxn), n xaxne
cpoxn, c xaxon hepnopnunoc1in n ho xaxon qopxe.
sone 3 yxasinae1cn nanxenonanne o1un1inanmencn opiann-
sann, ee hou1onin appec n pasnunie xopi.
sone 4 copepa1einan uac1i.
sone 5 pa1a, ponoc1i, uIO n hophnci o1ne1c1nennoio sa
coc1anenne qopxi na, noxep 1eeqona.
jn xapax1epnc1nxn, nahpnxep, 1onapoo6opo1a posnnunon
1opionn nchoisyn1 cnc1exy hoxasa1een: c1pyx1ypi, pnnaxnxn
(nnpexc qnsnuecxoio o6:exa, nnpexc 1onapoo6opo1a n qax1nuecxnx
enax); 1onapnie sahaci (o6:ex, cpepnnn sahacoexxoc1i, o6echeuen-
noc1i 1onapoo6opo1a 1onapnixn sahacaxn); 1onapoo6opo1 na pymy
naceennn.
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198
Oprannaannnnnnpacnnpnpn1cnnnmc mc1npm mcncpxmcn1a
ho y1neppennn axepnxancxnx chenanc1on sapopnnci n enxo-
6pn1annn no npexn n1opon xnponon nonni. Onn hpnxennn nayu-
nin xe1op n xenepxen1e. Xo1n nam nenxnn hoxonope A.. Cyno-
pon eme n XVIII n. y1neppa, u1o nce ho6epi hop nayunoio hopxo-
pa, snannn, yuennn, a ne c1euennn o6c1on1eic1n. Ix 6ia paspa6o-
1ana xe1opnxa Hayxn ho6epa1i. Ona honoc1in hpnxennaci na
hpax1nxe.
Hayunin xe1op n conpexennox xenepxen1e coc1on1 ns 1pex
1ahon:
1. Ha6npenne c6op n anans nnqopxann ho hpo6exe n cn-
1yann.
2. uopxynponanne inho1esi ninnenne cymec1nennix ai-
1epna1nn.
3. epnqnxann hop1neppenne poc1onepnoc1n inho1esi, ee
hponepxa hocpepc1nox na6npennn sa pesyi1a1ox hpnxenennn op-
iannsanonnopachopnpn1einix xe1opon xenepxen1a.

Hpn xopenponannn nepepxo nosnnxan1 o6mne hpo6exi: ne-
poc1onepnie ncxopnie pohymennn, nnqopxanonnie oipannuennn,
c1pax hoisona1een, ca6oe hpnxenenne na hpax1nxe, upesxepnan
c1onxoc1i.
Mopei Hop1epa n xapxe1nnie nxee1 nnp Uo6pasnon xpnnon
(hoppo6nee cx. \ue6noe hoco6ne 4.2).
Anaoionan xopei hpepc1anne1 nccepyexoe nnenne nn
hpoecc anaoiox, xo1opin nepe1 ce6n xax peainin (hoppo6nee cx.
\ue6noe hoco6ne 4.2).
Ixn1anonnoe xopenponanne 1o xonxpe1noe o6osnauenne
hpoecca cospannn xopen n ee xchepnxen1ainoe hpnxenenne pn
ohpepeennn peainon cn1yann (hoppo6nee cx. \ue6noe hoco6ne 4.2).
Cnnnannnnncnxnnnrnwccnc mc1npm 1o choco6i nccepo-
nannn, ein xo1opix nnne1cn nsyuenne conainoio pasnn1nn,
hpepe nceio cnnsen npen, o1nomennn xepy nnxn n conainixn
o6mnoc1nxn n nx conainon pen1einoc1n, chenqnuecxnx hcnxo-
oinuecxnx oco6ennoc1en ueoneuecxoio xapax1epa, conoxyi1yp-
nix yconnn, cnoeo6pasnn o6pasa nsnn, oxpani spoponin nacee-
nnn, oxpyanmen cpepi n xnoioio ppyioio.
Iaccxo1pnx hpnxep hpnxenennn xe1opon xenepxen1a hpn
caxoxon1poe cnoeio pa6oueio npexenn, sa1pauennoio na o6yuenne n
ynnnepcn1e1e (MCI).
Mcncdu cucdcuna

199
Hei: ninnn1i pesepni pa6oueio npexenn pn yumeio eio
hannponannn n nchoisonannn, hpnxennn 1a6nunin xe1op n ppy-
ine xe1opi xenepxen1a.

Tac:ua 11

Camnnn1pnnn pa6nwcrn npcmcnn, aa1pawcnnnrn na nnnywcnnc
anannn n MCH
3a1pawcnn pa6nwcrn
npcmcnn n wacax
N
n/n
Oncna nnpa
pcn1cnnnn-
c1n nn npnn-
nnny nacn-
xayapa
Bnp pcn1cnnnnc1n
(npnmcpnmn
ncpcwcnn)
aa ncpcnm
(5, 6 nnn 7
pncn
nyxnnc
nnpwcp-
ny1n)
n cpcp-
ncm aa
1 pcnn
B %
n1nry
1 A
Cymanne n sahnci
exnn n MCI

2 A
\uac1ne n pa6o1e ce-
xnnapon n MCI

3 A Ia6o1a n qopyxe
4 I
Hocemenne chop1nn-
noio saa, xpoxe o6n-
sa1einix sann1nn

5 A Ce1enoe 1ec1nponanne
6 A
ihonenne nnpnnn-
pyainon pa6o1i

7 5
Hepecixa io1onoio
o1ue1a ho yue6non
cn1yann 1in1opy
uepes O6xen qana-
xn CjO Kaxhyc

8 5
Hopio1onxa x 6ecepe
na cexnnape ho yc1no-
xy o6cypennn pnc-
xyccnonnix nohpocon

9 5
Ia6o1a n 6n6no1exe
CjO Kaxhyc

10
Honcx yue6noio xa1e-
pnaa n In1epne1e n n
xnnnix xaiasnnax

I1oio:
Mcucdcun

200
npi pen1einoc1n, nce nqpi (n n1oin) y xapoio c1ypen1a
poni 6i1i cnon.
Hpnnnnn Hapc1n:
Hpnnnh Hape1o 6i cqopxynponan n1ainncxnx xonoxn-
c1ox niqpepo Hape1o (18481923) n neopnoxpa1no hoyua hop-
1neppenne na hpax1nxe n caxix pasnunix cqepax.
Hpnnnh Hape1o (coo1nomenne 80:20) hpnxenn1eino x pa-
nonainoxy nchoisonannn npexenn iacn1 Lcn nce pa6oune
qynxnn paccxa1pnna1i c 1ouxn spennn xpn1epnn nx qqex1nnno-
c1n, 1o oxae1cn, u1o 80% xoneunix pesyi1a1on poc1nian1cn 1oixo
sa cue1 20% sa1pauennoio npexenn, 1oipa xax oc1ainie 20% n1oia
hoioman1 80% pa6oueio npexenn. hpoecce pa6o1i sa hepnie
20% pacxopyexoio npexenn poc1niae1cn 80% pesyi1a1on.
He cepye1 6pa1icn cnauaa sa caxie eixne, nn1epecnie, 1pe-
6ynmne xnnnxainix sa1pa1 npexenn, pea. Heo6xopnxo hpnc1y-
ha1i x nohpocax, coo6pasynci c nx snaunxoc1in n nanoc1in: cnaua-
a nexnoine nsnenno nanie hpo6exi, a y ho1ox xnoio-
uncennie n1opoc1ehennie.
Lme opnn hpnex hpnnn1nn pemennn ho hpnopn1e1noc1n sapau
1o npnnnnn nacnxayapa.
Iepxo cyuae1cn, u1o nanyn sapauy napo nihonn1i ceiopnn
nn na 1on nepee, 1oipa xax cpounyn sapauy, xax hpanno c1pexn1-
cn nihonn1i nexepenno.
Hpepoennoe axepnxancxnx ienepaox jyan1ox nsenxay-
pox hpanno nnne1cn hpoc1ix nchoxoia1einix cpepc1nox, oco-
6enno pn 1ex cyuaen, xoipa napo 6ic1po hpnnn1i pemenne o1nocn-
1eino 1oio, xaxon sapaue o1pa1i hpephou1enne. Coiacno 1oxy hpa-
nny hpnopn1e1i yc1anannnan1cn ho 1axnx xpn1epnnx, xax cpou-
noc1i n nanoc1i nnpa pen1einoc1n.

Ma1pnna npnnnnna nacnxaypa
3apaun B.
\c1anonn1i cpox nihonennn
(nn, ecn nosxono, hepehopy-
un1i)
3apaun A.
ihonn1i 6es hpoxep-
ennn nuno
3apaun I.
i6pocn1i n xopsnny pn 6y-
xai, 1.e. xono ninopnpona1i
3apaun B.
jeeinpona1i
Cpounoc1i

n
o
c
1
i

Mcncdu cucdcuna

201
sanncnxoc1n o1 c1ehenn cpounoc1n n nanoc1n sapaun pasn-
uan1cn 4 nosxonoc1n nx oenxn (n n1oie) nihonennn:
1. Cpounie n nanie:
sa nnx cepye1 hpnnnxa1icn nexepenno n nuno caxoc1on-
1eino nx nihonn1i.
2. Cpounie, no xenee nanie:
speci cymec1nye1 ohacnoc1i hohac1i hop 1npannn chemnoc1n
n n pesyi1a1e enxox o1pa1icn pemennn xonxpe1non sapaun, ho-
1oxy u1o ona cpounan. Ho 1.x. ona ne c1oi nanan, ee neo6xopnxo
peeinpona1i.
3. Menee cpounie, no nanie:
nx ne napo nihonn1i cpouno, onn, xax hpanno, xoiy1 hopo-
pa1i. Conoc1n speci pano nn hospno hpenpaman1cn n cpounoc1i n
poni 6i1i nuno axn pemeni n xpa1uanmne cpoxn. Heo6xopnxo
hepehponepn1i nanoc1i, yc1anonn1i cpoxn n uac1nuno ho xepe nos-
xonoc1n hopyun1i xoxy1o.
4. Menee cpounie n xenee nanie sapaun:
o1 nihonennn 1nx sapau cepye1 nospepa1icn: nnaue hepe-
ipysxn ne ns6ea1i. Ha6epn1eci xyec1na n uame hpn6eian1e x xop-
snne pn xycopa, 1.e. nexo1opie nn1epecnie pn ac nnpi pen1ei-
noc1n ninopnpyn1e.

Lcn i 6ype1e hocepona1eino pachpepen1i cnon nnpi pen-
1einoc1n ho xa1eiopnnx n coo1ne1c1nnn c hpnnnhox nsenxaypa,
i snaun1eino honicn1e qqex1nnnoc1i cnoen pen1einoc1n.
inopi: (xapin c1ypen1(xa) peae1 caxoc1on1eino).

Oqnpmncnnc nn c1anpap1y

3apannn ho 1exe 4 nxnuan1:
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 4 9 m1.
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci ho 1exe 4 9 m1.
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 4 3 m1.

Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 4

Hnc1annna aapannn
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 4 pasxemeni n CjO Kaxhyc n
qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 4.
Mcucdcun

202
Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 xpa1xnn o1ne1 (ne 6oee 200 cnxnoon)
na xapin nohpoc n qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 4 po na-
uaa aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 4 (cx. Kaenpapnin han xypca).
O1ne1i na nohpoci n qopyxe cepye1 pasxema1i, xnxnyn na
cnxno O1ne1n1i am o1ne1 poen honnn1icn n pepene coo6me-
nnn hop coo1ne1c1nynmnx nohpocox. HL ICHOHI3\ITL KHOH-
K\ (cospa1i) jH2 OTLTA HA OHIOCI.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
O1ne1i na nohpoci pasxeman1e ncen ipyhhon n qopyxe
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 4.

Tac:ua 1

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na nn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 4

Hapamc1pm n 6annm Kpn1cpnn
O6naa1cnn-
nmc napa-
mc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc na-
pamc1pm
Bann
1. Konuec1no
hpanninix o1ne1on
6 ns 9 4 7 n 6oee ns
9
6
2. O1ne1i pasxemeni hop
nohpocaxn
(n pepene coo6mennn)
pa 1

ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 4

Hnc1annna aapannn
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci 6ypy1 yc1no o6cypa1icn na ce-
xnnape ho 1exe 4. ax neo6xopnxo hopio1onn1icn x 6ecepe ho
pannix nohpocax.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 o6ocnonannan hosnnn ho xapoxy
nohpocy, osnyuennan no npexn aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 4 (cx.
Kaenpapnin han xypca); n xope cexnnapa i 6ype1e o1neua1i na
nohpoci n cyuannox hopnpxe; xapin c1ypen1 poen yche1i o1ne-
1n1i na 1 nn 2 nohpoca.
Mcncdu cucdcuna

203
ama hosnnn pona 6i1i ocnonana na n1a1ax ns yue6nix
xa1epnaon ho 1exe 4.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
ax neo6xopnxo yc1no nson1i n o6ocnona1i cnon hosnnn n
xope aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 4.

Tac:ua 2

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na pncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 4

Hapamc1pm n 6annm Kpn1cpnn
O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm

Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm

Bann
1. Konuec1no hpanninix
o1ne1on
1 10 2 n 6oee 13
2. O6ocnonannoc1i o1ne1on
(nchoisonanne n1a1 ns
yue6nix xa1epnaon)
ec1i 2
3. Ichoisonanne poho-
nn1einix nc1ounnxon
1 nc1ounnx
n 6oee
5

jwc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 4. Bapnan1 13 nnn 14, nnn 15

Hnc1annna aapannn
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 4 paccxa1pnnan1cn axn caxoc1on-
1eino.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 qan c o1ue1ox ho opnon cn1yann,
oqopxennin ho HA5HOH\ N___ (cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc),
nicannin 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn CjO Kaxhyc po nauaa
cepynmeio aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 4 (cx. Kaenpapnin han
xypca); ni xoe1e o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen-
1axn n qopyxe \ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 4.
Ha6on o1ue1a (Tn1yinan c1panna. Chncox ocnonnix paspe-
on) cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc. O6mnn o6:ex nameio 1exc1a n
o1ue1e ho 1exe 4 ne 6oee 1 c1panni (3000 snaxon).
Mcucdcun

204
Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
Io1onin o1ue1 hepeciae1cn 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn
CjO Kaxhyc. 3aioonox coo6mennn c qanox poen copepa1i na-
snanne ipyhhi, noxep 1exi n noxep yue6non cn1yann, nahpnxep
O1ue1_uIO_ju102_\ue6nan_cn1ynn_4.3.2(14). i xoe1e o6-
cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen1axn n qopyxe \ue6-
nie cn1yann ho 1exe 4.

Tac:ua 3

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na ywc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 4

Kpn1cpnn Hapamc1pm n 6annm
O6naa1cnn-
nmc napa-
mc1pm

Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm

Bann
1. uan o1ue1a oqopxen
ho ma6ony
pa 1
2. uan o1hpanen n cpox pa 2
3. O6:ex 1exc1a ne hpe-
nimae1 1pe6onannn
pa 2
4. O1ne1 nxee1 o6ocnona-
nne (xonuec1no cciox n
n1a1)
3 2 5 4
5. O1ne1 ynnxaen (ne1
hon1opon n anaoion n
o1ue1ax ppyinx
c1ypen1on)
pa

4




Pcucuun cucdcunc

205
Fnaaa 5.



Pemeaas a MeaepwMea1e






Hsyuaa 1eMy 5, c1ypea1 ponwea
saa1b:
a) 1pe6onannn x pemennnx n xenepxen1e;
6) xaccnqnxann pemennn n xenepxen1e;
n) honn1ne hpnnn1nn pemennn n nx xopen.
yMe1b:
hocepona1eino ocymec1nn1i 1ahi panonainoio
pemennn hpo6exi.
npaopec1a aaamxa:
oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n pemennn n xenepxen1e.


Mcucdcun

206
Hu usuenuu me+m 5 neoxoou+o:

Hn1a1n iany 5 yue6noio hoco6nn ho xenepxen1y n exnn.
Bmnnnnn1n aapannc hpax1nxyxa n 6anxa 1ec1on ho xenep-
xen1y ho paspey 5: o1ne1n1i na xon1poinie nohpoci, hpnnn1i yua-
c1ne n o6cypennn pncxyccnonnix nohpocon, yue6nix cn1yann, 1ec-
1nponannn. Hopio1onn1i xypconyn pa6o1y, peqepa1 nn cce n hpn-
oennn ho 1exax:

1. Hpnnn1ne pemennn xax nanenman uac1i n6on yhpanenuecxon
pen1einoc1n;
2. Tpe6onannn x pemennnx n nx cnc1exa1nxa;
3. Iaspa6o1xa yhpanenuecxoio pemennn c hpnxenennex 1eopnn
hpoex1nponannn xchepnxen1on;
4. Teopnn n xe1opi hpnnn1nn pemennn;
5. Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n pemennn;
6. Conainan n xonoxnuecxan qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanenuecxnx
pemennn (c1ypen1ax, xo1opie pemnn 6oee yiy6enno nsyun1i
1exy 5).


Cpaenne ninipinae1 1o1, x1o pcuu: eio ninipa1i
H.H.Tc:cncu


5.1. Tpeoaaaas x pemeaasM a ax xnaccaqaxaqas

Pcmcnnc n mcncpxmcn1c 1o ni6op ai1epna1nni, xonen-
1pnponannoe nipaenne hpoecca yhpanennn, pesyi1a1 nn1eex-
1yainon pen1einoc1n, hpnnopnmnn x xonxpe1noxy ninopy nn x
neo6xopnxix penc1nnnx.
xenepxen1e hpnnn1ne pemennn 1o cnc1exa1nsnponan-
nin hpoecc, yxenne, pasnnnaexoe o6yuennex n ohi1ox. \hpan-
enuecxoe pemenne xoe1 cymec1nenno nnn1i na nsni xnoinx
npen. Ho xpannen xepe, na xapoio, x1o pa6o1ae1 c hpnnnnmnx
1o nn nnoe pemenne. Mopainan n xa1epnainan o1ne1c1nen-
noc1i sa hpnnn1oe nanoe pemenne on1cn 1nxnx 6pexenex na
xenepepa. Oco6enno npxo 1o hponnne1cn na nicmnx yponnnx
yhpanennn opiannsanen.
Pcucuun cucdcunc

207
K pemennnx hpep:nnnn1cn ohpepeennie 1pe6onannn, 1.x.
cnmxox ohacno n popoio hpnnnxa1i nehpopyxannie pemennn.
Kapan qynxnn xenepxen1a cnnsana c xonxpe1nixn, ns-
nenno nanixn pemennnxn, nahpnxep:

1. Hnannpnnannc:
Iaccxo1pen xnoec1no napnan1on, ohpepen1i uccur opiann-
sann;
i6npa1i n cqopxnponina1i oh1nxainie c:u;
O1cenna1i nsxenennn n dc:cc u qcucc oxpyennn n pe-
ma1i, xax onn o1paan1cn nn xoiy1 o1pasn1icn n 6ypymex na pen-
1einoc1n opiannsann;

2. Oprannaannn:
Ianonaino cnpqxnqpupcant pen1einoc1i opiannsann n
eecoo6pasnee yxpyhnn1i 6oxn pasnunix nnpon pen1einoc1n;
qqex1nnno xccpduuupcant qynxnonnponanne 1nx 6oxon,
u1o6i pemenne ocymec1nnn 6es hpo1nnopeunn n 6oee iapxonnuno;
Oh1nxaino pema1i hpo6exi dc:ceupcauun nc:uccnuu
na xapox yponne opiannsann;

3. Mn1nnannn:
Ohpepen1i ncnpccuccnu hopunnennix;
Ho xepe nosxonoc1n qdc:cncpnnt nacymnie ho1pe6noc1n n
hpoecce pa6o1i, nahpanennon na poc1nenne een opiannsann;
Choco6c1nona1i poc1y yponnn qdc:cncpcuuccnu paccncu u npc-
u-cdunc:tuccnu npqda hopunnennix;

4. Knn1pnnn:
C1pexn1icn eepnenno u-cpnnt pc-q:tnanu 1pyponon pen-
1einoc1n;
Hepnopnuecxn ocymec1nn1i o6:ex1nnnyn ccuxq pc-q:t-
nanc pen1einoc1n xapoio pa6o1nnxa;
innn1i npunuuu neypone1nopn1einix pesyi1a1on n ohpe-
pen1i xcppcxnuu.

Ocnnnnmc 1pc6nnannn pcmcnnnm:
1. \6epn1einoc1i hop1neppenne qax1axn, cepiesnixn pono-
paxn, o6ocnonannnxn;
Mcucdcun

208
2. Hn6oe pemenne pono 6i1i nunix pemennex, xax xe-
nepepa, 1ax n xapoio nchonn1en;
3. 2cnoc1i, 1ounoc1i, npasyxn1einoc1i ue1xoc1i qopxynponox;
4. Iaccxa1pnna1i opiannsann c hosnnn cnc1exnoio hopxopa;
5. osxonoc1i peaino noho1n1i pemenne n nsni;
6. \uec1i nosxonie hocepc1nnn xapoio yhpanenuecxoio pe-
mennn pn ncex 6oxon opiannsann;
7. Cnoenpexennoc1i peansona1i n nynin xoxen1 nn sa
ohpepeennin hepnop npexenn;
8. Iemenne pono ocnonina1icn ne 1oixo na nn1ynnn, no n na
pesyi1a1ax oinunoio xicn1einoio hpoecca, xe1opax xenep-
xen1a;
9. Hpephou1n1einee pemenne, ocnonannoe na snannn n hpnxe-
nennn xe1opon xenepxen1a, naxohennox ohi1e, cypennnx;
10. Hpnnnxanmnn pemenne ne poen 6on1icn nnnonann, a
poen yxe1i apah1npona1icn x nonoxy n conoxy;
11. xonoxnunoc1i pemennsna hpnnn1nn n peansann peme-
nnn;
12. qqex1nnnoc1i c1eheni poc1nennn hoc1anennix een,
pesyi1a1a n cohoc1anennn c sa1pa1axn pecypcon.

Iemennn hpnnnxan1cn, xax hpanno, n cnnsn c nosnnxnonenn-
ex hpo6exnon cn1yann, 1.e. conoxyhnoc1n qax1opon n yconnn,
nisinanmnx honnenne hpo6exi. Iemennn nxen1 pasnunyn na-
hpanennoc1i, copepanne n ppyine xapax1epnc1nxn, ho1oxy nx
eecoo6pasno xaccnqnnpona1i (cx. pnc. 5.1.).

Tepxnn sahpoipaxxnponannie sanxc1nonan ns nsixa xox-
hin1epnix 1exnooinn n xapax1epnsye1 pemennn n nicmen c1ehenn
c1pyx1ypnponannie, nxenmne, xax hpanno, oipannuennoe unco
ai1epna1nn n ni6op pean1 n hpepeax nahpanennn, sapannix op-
iannsanen.
Hesahpoipaxxnponannin 1nh pemennn ocymec1nne1cn, xax
hpanno, n nonix hpo6exnix cn1yannx nn cohpnennix c nens-
nec1nixn qax1opaxn c 6oimnx xonuec1nox ai1epna1nnnix na-
pnan1on. Xo1n na hpax1nxe pemennn pepxo oxasinan1cn sahpoipax-
xnponannixn nn nesahpoipaxxnponannixn n unc1ox nnpe. ame
nc1peuae1cn nx xox6nnann n hpnnn1ne xoxhpoxnccnoio pemennn.


Pcucuun cucdcunc

209






































Puc. 5.1. Cxcma naccnqnannn pcmcnnn nn pn1cpnnm n 1nnam
Conainie
uynxnonai-
nan cy6a
Opno-
yponne-
nie
Mnoioypon-
nenie
Opiannsa-
nonnie
O1peinin
pa6o1nnx
Kpn1cpnn
pcmcnnn
C
o
p
e
p

a
-
n
n
e

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p
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i

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p
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n

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n
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n
1
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p

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p
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p
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xonoxnuecxne Texnoo-
inuecxne
Innona-
nonnie
jpyine
Mcucdcun

210
Ho copepannn caxixn conixn n 6oimnnc1ne cyuaen,
nnnn1cn conainie pemennn, 1.x. conainin hpoecc 1o cono-
xyhnoc1i pasnunix nny1penne cnnsannix xepy co6on conix
nnennn, cxapinanmnxcn n oinuecxyn saxonoxepnyn ehi , n oh-
pepennmnx pasnn1ne 1on nn nnon cqepi nnexonoxnuecxon, a
nxenno conainon nsnn xoex1nna opiannsann. Conainie
con oueni pasnoo6pasni, nipenn1cn ho opnoxy nn necxoixnx
6nsxnx hpnsnaxax pnqqepennann xoex1nna hpec1ny,
yponnn o6pasonannn, oha1e 1pypa, ennoc1nix opnen1annx n 1.p.
Lcn hpnnn1oe conainoe pemenne 6ype1 omn6ounix, xoe1
nosnnxny1i conainan nahpnennoc1i neia1nnnoe o6mec1nennoe
nnenne, sapopanmeecn ncepc1nne paccoiaconannn ho1pe6noc1en
n nn1epecon, ennoc1en n yc1anonox, nopx n 1papnnn xoex1nna
conainoio nsanxopenc1nnn.
Opiannsanonnie pemennn hpnnnxan1cn hoc1onnno, 1.x. xa-
pin xenepep poen cpea1i ni6op, u1o6i nihonn1i o6nsanno-
c1n, hpepycxo1pennie ponoc1non nnc1pyxnen. Hei opiannsa-
nonnoio pemennn o6echeuenne hpn6nennn x hoc1anennix
hepep opiannsanen sapauax n nx pemenne. Caxix qqex1nnnix
opiannsanonnix pemennex 6ype1 ni6op, xo1opin penc1nn1eino
nosxono peansona1i n on hosnon1 nnec1n nan6oimnn nxap n
poc1nenne xoneunon en opiannsann.
xonoxnuecxne pemennn 1ecno nsanxocnnsani, hpepe nce-
io, c opiannsanonnixn pemennnxn. Cospanne opiannsann, ee
pasnn1ne, pacmnpenne nn nxnnpann no xnoiox sanncn1 o1
hpnnn1ix xonoxnuecxnx pemennn. Hoc1onnno nosnnxan1 ysxne
ohepanonnie nohpoci n hpo6exi nny1pnhponsnopc1nennoio n
nnemnexonoxnuecxoio xapax1epa, 1pe6ynmne nexepennoio
xonoxnuecxoio pemennn. Hahpnxep, ni6op cqep 1onapoo6opo1a,
c1pyx1ypi pinxa, ocnonnix eio xoxhonen1on: eni, n6epansa-
nn pinxa, eio peqopxnponannn; yhpanennn ocnonnixn qonpa-
xn, nexa1epnainixn ax1nnaxn, o6opo1nixn cpepc1naxn, qn-
nancaxn.
Texnooinuecxne pemennn nxen1 iopaspo 6oee mnpoxoe sna-
uenne, uex 1papnnonno cun1ae1cn, 1.x. 1exnooinn 1o n6oe cpep-
c1no, c hoxomin xo1opoio nxopnmne n hponsnopc1no exen1i hpe-
o6pasyn1cn n nixopnmne, ona nxnuae1 n ce6n ne 1oixo c1anxn, xa-
mnni, xexannsxi, nnc1pyxen1i, no n nanixn pa6o1nnxon n nx sna-
nnn. opiannsann neo6xopnxo hoc1onnno hpnnnxa1i 1exnooinue-
cxne pemennn, 1.x. 1exnooinn nnne1cn opnonpexenno
Pcucuun cucdcunc

211
nny1pennen hepexennon n nnemnnx qax1opox 6oimoio snauennn.
Texnooinuecxne pemennn nnnn1 na qqex1nnnoc1i ncen pen1ei-
noc1n opiannsann, oco6enno ecn 1o xoxhin1epnan, asepnan,
xnxponononan, hoyhponopnnxonan 1exnooinn, nn1eipnponannie
nnnn cnnsn, po6o1o1exnnxa, iennan nnenepnn n xnoioe ppyioe.
Hahpnxep, nepnie 1exnooinuecxne pemennn 1oixo n o6ac1n co-
npexennon nnqopxanonnon 1exnooinn choco6c1nonan conepmen-
c1nonannn o6xena nnqopxanen n opiannsann, nchoisonannn
ex1ponnon hou1i, u1o cymec1nenno coxpamae1 1papnnonno nenc-
cnxaexin ho1ox 1eeqonnix pasionopon n 1.p.
Innonanonnie pemennn oco6enno ax1yaini na nonox conox
1ahe peqopxnponannn xonoxnxn Ioccnn, 1.x. nnnonanonnin hpoecc
hpepc1anne1 co6on hopio1onxy n ocymec1nenne nnnonanonnix nsxe-
nennn, a hpn nsxenennnx nceipa nosnnxan1 hpo6exi, 1pe6ynmne hpn-
nn1nn nnnonanonnix pemennn, oco6enno neo6xopnxix n yconnnx
xonxypennn. Oueni xnoio hpo6ex nosnnxae1 hpn nixope na pinox
1exnooinn xax pesyi1a1a nnnonanonnon pen1einoc1n opiannsann,
nahpnxep, hpn 1opione ha1en1axn n nensnnxn, ninnennn opiannsa-
nn, sann1epeconannix n hoxyhxe ha1en1on n nensnn, o6echeuennn
ha1en1non oxpani pesyi1a1on nayunix ncceponannn n 1exnnuecxnx
poc1nennn. xepynapopnon 1opione hoc1onnno hpnnnxan1 nnno-
nanonnie pemennn, nahpnxep, hpn saxnuennn nensnonnix coia-
mennn, xo1opie hpepycxa1pnnan1 xoxhexcnyn hepepauy opnoio nn
necxoixnx ha1en1on n cnnsannoio c nnxn noyxay.
Menepepi n pyxonopn1en, nic1yhanmne n pon cy6:ex1on
pemennn, eepnenno hpnnnxan1 caxie pasnie ho c1pyx1ypnponan-
noc1n, copepannn, uncy een, hpopon1einoc1n penc1nnn,
iy6nne nospenc1nnn n nahpanennoc1n pemennn. Iemennn, hpnnn-
xaexie opnnx nox, nasinan1cn nnpnnnpyainixn, pn nnx xa-
pax1epen nicoxnn yponeni 1nopuec1na, peansann nonix npen n
hpepoennn. 6oimnnc1ne cyuaen na 1axne pemennn sa1paunna-
n1 xenime npexenn, 1.x. nx ne napo coiaconina1i na hpoxey1ou-
nix 1ahax, no nepepxo onn oxasinan1cn omn6ounixn, ho1oxy u1o n
nac1onmee npexn hpo6exi opiannsann c1anonn1cn nce 6oee co-
nixn n pn nx pemennn neo6xopnxi yiy6ennie chenansnpo-
nannie -uauun, a 1axe ncec1oponnee paccxo1penne. ce 1o hpnnopn1
x poc1y unca yhpanenuecxnx pemennn, hpnnnxaexix na ocnone
o6cypennn, hocpepc1nox hpnneuennn pasnix chenanc1on nn
cospannn chenainix ipyhh.
Mcucdcun

212
Ipyhhonoe hpnnn1ne pemennn hpephou1n1einee nnpnnnpy-
ainoio n cnnsn c honix nnqopxanonnix o6echeuennex hpoecca
hpnnn1nn pemennn pasnixn chenanc1axn, o6apanmnxn xon-
xpe1nixn pasnoo6pasnixn snannnxn hpo6exi, 1pe6ynmen yhpan-
enuecxoio pemennn. Ipyhhonie pemennn, xax hpanno, yume, uex
nnpnnnpyainie, nochpnnnxan1cn xoex1nnox, u1o choco6c1nye1
cospannn oh1nxainon a1xocqepi co1pypnnuec1na, nsanxopenc1nnn,
coxpamennn omn6ox n ppyinx hosn1nnnix achex1ax.
Ho ipyhhonoe hpnnn1ne pemennn nepepxo cohponopae1cn
n neia1nnnixn nnennnxn. Hahpnxep, 6oimnxn sa1pa1axn pa-
6oueio npexenn, xenee ue1xon hepconainon o1ne1c1nennoc1in
sa oxonua1eino hpnnn1oe pemenne, ho1oxy 1pypno yc1anonn1i
an1opa nenepnoio pemennn n 1.p.
Taxnx o6pasox, pn hpnnn1nn ychemnoio pemennn hpo6ex
neo6xopnxo co6npa1i cepynmne hpanna:
1. Cnoenpexenno saxe1n1i n axen1npona1i nnnxanne na hpo-
6exe c 1ex, u1o6i nincnn1i hpnunni ee nosnnxnonennn, ncec1opon-
ne hpoanansnpona1i ee n penc1nn1eino nxe1i 6oimoe eanne x
pemennn hpo6exi;
2. He 1pa1n1i npexenn na nmnne pemennn, ne oxasinanmne
nnnnnn na honimenne qqex1nnnoc1n pen1einoc1n opiannsann;
3. He hpnnnxa1i necxoixo pemennn ho opnoxy n 1oxy e no-
hpocy;
4. Hpnnexa1i x hpoeccy hpnnn1nn pemennn xoei, nxenmnx x
nnx o1nomenne, ye na caxix pannnx 1ahax pa6o1i c yue1ox nx
xnanqnxann n coo1ne1c1nnn c1ehenn conoc1n hpo6exi, n cy-
uae neo6xopnxoc1n o6yua1i n ne sa6ina1i naipapa1i sa ychexn (ec-
n nenosxono xa1epnaino, 1o xo1n 6i xopaino);
5. Hoc1onnno c1poio co6npa1i 1ahi hpnnn1nn pemennn n oe-
nnna1i qqex1nnnoc1i peansann pemennn.


5.2. 31anm npaas1as pemeaa a oqeaxa
ax sqqex1aaaoc1a

Hpnnn1ne pemennn n xenepxen1e nnne1cn cnc1exa1nsnpo-
nannix hpoeccox n cnoeo6pasnix en1pox, noxpyi xo1opoio hpo-
ncxopn1 ncn pen1einoc1i opiannsann. Chenanc1i xenepxen1a
paccxa1pnnan1 pemennn xax hpopyx1 yhpanenuecxoio 1pypa, a nx
hpnnn1ne xax hpoecc iy6oxoio opninnainoio ximennn, hpn-
nopnxin x cospannn 1oio hpopyx1a.
Pcucuun cucdcunc

213
Hpnnn1ne pemennn n opiannsann o1nuae1cn cepynmnxn
oco6ennoc1nxn:
1. Honnxannex hponcxopnmeio, xax nny1pn opiannsann, 1ax n
peonox n qononox oxpyennn;
2. Hanunex ue1xo hoc1anennon en;
3. jenc1nnnxn, ocnonannixn na qax1ax n ennoc1nx opiannsann;
4. Hpoeccox nsanxopenc1nnn hepconaa opiannsann;
5. Opnosnaunix ni6opox ai1epna1nni n paxxax xonoxnuecxo-
io, conainoio n hon1nuecxoio coc1onnnn nny1pennen n nnemnen
cpepi;
6. anenmen uac1in o6meio hpoecca yhpanennn;
7. 3acynnanmen nnnxannn coc1annnmen eepnennon pa6o1i
xenepepa;
8. Hens6enon, nxenmen oco6oe snauenne uac1in pn nihone-
nnn ncex qynxnn xenepxen1a.

Ocymec1nne1cn hpnnn1ne pemennn xenepepaxn pasnunix
yponnen n nocn1 cyiy6o qopxansonannin xapax1ep, 1.x. xacae1cn ne
1oixo opnoio ueonexa (xo1n n 1o nano), no n hoppaspeennn nn
pae ncen opiannsann.
Hpnnn1ne pemennn, xax hpanno, sanepmae1cn ni6opox ai-
1epna1nni, nihonnexix xenepepox n paxxax cnonx honoxounn
epnnonuno nn c hpnneuennex chenanc1on.
opiannsann hpn pemennn hpo6exi nipenn1 pna yponnn
pemennn:
1. Inpnnnpyainin (pemenne na yponne nnpnnnpa);
2. Opiannsanonnin (pemenne na yponne opiannsann).

Ioccnncxne 1eope1nxn xenepxen1a paccxa1pnnan1 ue1ipe
xopen hpnnn1nn pemennn n sanncnxoc1n o1 1oio, xax nn1ephpe1n-
pye1cn n nochpnnnxae1cn hpoecc hpnnn1nn pemennn na nnpnnnpy-
ainox nn opiannsanonnox yponne:
1. Ianonainan xopei opiannsanonnan xaxcnxnsann,
hpephoaianman ni6op ai1epna1nni, xaxcnxaino niiopnon,
hpepe nceio, pn opiannsann n eox.

paxxax 1on xopen neo6xopnxa xonxpe1nan qopxynponxa
hpo6exi, cxpyhyesnin honcx ai1epna1nnnix napnan1on, 1ma1ei-
nin hop6op n ocnona1einin anans poc1onepnon nnqopxann. na-
uae hpoecca, xax hpanno, yc1anannnan1cn oenounie xpn1epnn.
Mcucdcun

214
2. Mopei opiannsanonno oipannuennon panonainoc1n -
ypone1nopennoc1i opiannsann hpn xnnnxyxe ycnnn co c1oponi
hepconaa 1on opiannsann.
3. Mopei nunoc1no-oipannuennon panonainoc1n - ypone-
1nopennoc1i nnpnnnpa, a ne xaxcnxnsann hpn poc1nennn en.
4. Hon1nuecxan xopei nnpnnnpyainan xaxcnxnsann opia-
nnsanonnix pemennn, hpecepynman, hpepe nceio, peansann
nnpnnnpyainix nn1epecon xoio-n6o ns hepconaa, a ne opiannsa-
nn n eox (nahpnxep, o6apanne nac1in).

Hpnnn1ne pemennn n xenepxen1e hpepc1anne1 co6on pas-
pemenne hpo1nnopeunn xepy ein n cn1yanen, hpax1nuecxoe
pemenne hpo6exi, hpn6nenne cn1yann x en.
jn panonainoio pemennn hpo6ex neo6xopnxo co6npa1i
ohpepeennyn hocepona1einoc1i nsanxocnnsannix 1ahon, 1.x. hou1n
nceipa hponcxopn1 conoxyhnoc1i ni6opon, a ne epnnnunie pemennn.
Konxpe1noe unco 1ahon n nx hocepona1einoc1i sanncn1 o1 ohpepe-
ennon hpo6exi, a n o6mex nnpe (onn hpepc1aneni na pnc.5.2)

Hcpnmn a1an. jnainoc1nxa conon hpo6exi naunnae1cn c
ninnennn n ocosnannn cnxh1oxon sa1pypnennn nn nxenmnxcn
nosxonoc1en, 1.x. honin pnainos ocymec1nne1cn, xax hpanno, n
pnyx pasnunix cn1yannx paccxo1pennn hpo6exi:
1. Hpo6exon cun1ae1cn cn1yann, hpn xo1opon ne poc1niny1i
hoc1anennie en. Hahpnxep, hpo6exon nnne1cn 1o, u1o pono
6io hponson1n, no ne hponsomo (onpan peansona1i ohpepe-
ennin o6:ex 1onapa, no ne peansonan nn nipyuxa o1 peansa-
nn oxasaaci snaun1eino nne hpephoaiaexon).
2. Hpo6exon cun1ae1cn 1axe ho1ennainan nosxonoc1i. Ha-
hpnxep, nepinunin honcx choco6on honimennn qqex1nnnoc1n
pen1einoc1n xonxpe1noio hoppaspeennn n 1on cn1yann, xoipa pe-
a npy1 xopomo, no ocosnae1cn hpo6exa nosxonoc1n nx yyume-
nnn. 1ox cyuae pemennex hpo6exi 6ype1 nchoisonanne ocos-
nannix nosxonoc1en. Hahpnxep, pemenne yhpannnmeio xapxe-
1nniox xoe1 honnn1i na yyumenne pa6o1i yhpannnmeio ho
c6i1y n n6oio ppyioio co1pypnnxa opiannsann.

Pcucuun cucdcunc

215

1
2 3
1



4

4

6


7











Puc. 5.2 Cxcma nncncpnna1cnnnnc1n a1annn pcmcnnn npn6ncmm
[16, C. 203 cn anawn1cnnnmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]

B1npnn a1an. \c1anonenne n ocosnanne cnxh1oxon hoxoiae1
pnainoc1npona1i hpo6exy n o6mex nnpe, choco6c1nye1 coxpamennn
xonuec1na qax1opon, xo1opie cepye1 yun1ina1i na xapox 1ahe
panonainoio pemennn hpo6ex.
Tpc1nn a1an c6op peenan1non nnqopxann n ee o1peenne
o1 neyxec1non (cx. pnc. 5.3).
Ieenan1nan nnqopxann pn hpnnn1nn pemennn 1o nn-
qopxann, o16npaexan hop xonxpe1nyn sapauy, nchonn1en, ei n
hepnop npexenn.
jn nsyuennn n anansa hpnunn honnennn hpo6exi neo6xo-
pnxa xax nny1pennnn nnqopxann, 1ax n nnqopxann o nnemnex
5
innenne n ocos-
nanne cnxh1oxon
sa1pypnennn nn
nosxonoc1en
Oenxa ai1ep-
na1nn n ni6op
oh1nxainon
Coc1anenne
chncxa ncex
ai1epna1nn
Oxonua1einoe hpnnn1ne peme-
nnn c nchoisonannex MIS n DSS
\c1anonxa oipannuennn n xpn1epnen
pn hpnnn1nn pemennn
C6op peenan1non
nnqopxann n ee
o1peenne o1
neyxec1non
jnainos
hpo6exi
innenne
ai1epna1nn
8
Mcucdcun

216
oxpyennn. Le xono co6npa1i pasnunixn choco6axn, nahpnxep,
qopxaino hponopn1i xoxhin1epnin anans pasnunix c1a1n-
c1nuecxnx o1ue1on, nn1epninnponanne, hpniama1i xoncyi1an1on
ho nohpocax xenepxen1a. A xono n ne qopxaino hocpepc1nox
nunix na6npennn n ponepn1einix 6ecep o connmencn cn1ya-
nn c pa6o1nnxaxn. qqex1nnnoc1i pemennn no xnoiox sanncn1 o1
yxennn xenepepa pa6o1a1i c nnqopxanen n ne ynexa1icn ee xo-
nuec1nox, 1.x. ynenunnae1cn ohacnoc1i nsyuennn hy1anmen nn-
qopxann (ne nxenmen o1nomennn x pannon hpo6exe) n nnqop-
xann Kaccanppi
1
.
xope c6opa n nsyuennn nnqopxann nano nnpe1i pasnunn
xepy peenan1non n neyxec1non nnqopxanen n yxe1i axen1n-
pona1i nnnxanne 1oixo na peenan1non nnqopxann.




Pnc. 5.3 Cxcma n16npa pcncnan1nnn nnqnpmannn na a1anax npnnn1nn
pcmcnnn [16, C. 204 c nc6nnnmnmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]

1
ipeuecxon xnqooinn Kaccanppa poui Hpnaxa, apn Tpon, hoyuna o1
Ahoona hpopouecxnn pap, no Ahoon, o1nepiny1in Kaccanppon, hpnpa
cnoexy hopapxy neia1nnnin o11enox n ee hpopouec1nax hepec1an nepn1i.
pesyi1a1e 1oio hoin6a Tpon, 1.x. 1ponni ne nnnn Kaccanppe, hpepoc1e-
peianmen Hapnca o1 hoxnmennn Leni, u1o hpnneo x 1ponncxon nonne.
Pcucuun cucdcunc

217
Hc1ncp1mn a1an. \c1anonxa oipannuennn n xpn1epnen pn
hpnnn1nn pemennn. hpoecce pnainoc1nponannn hpo6exi c e-
in hpnnn1nn pemennn neo6xopnxo hpepc1ann1i nynie napnan1i
n peanc1nunoc1i nx peansann c yue1ox nxenmnxcn pecypcon
nny1pn opiannsann, a 1axe oipannuennn nne ee, xo1opie xoiy1
nsxenn1cn n sanncnxoc1n o1 pypnnn n an1opn1e1a xonxpe1noio xe-
nepepa nn cn1yann.
Cymec1nyn1 n o6mne oipannuennn, nahpnxep:
saxoni, xopexci, hpnxasi, hoc1anonennn n 1.p.;
hpanna peonon 1nxn;
peqnn1 qnnancon;
o1cy1c1nne chenanc1on nynon xnanqnxann;
nepoc1a1ox 1exnooinuecxoio o6opyponannn n nenosxonoc1i
eio hpno6pe1ennn ho poc1yhnon ene;
ne6aiohpnn1nan n o6oc1pnnmancn xonxypennn;
nehpepnnpennie 1pypnoc1n c pexaxon.

Hapnpy c oipannuennnxn 6oimoe snauenne nxee1 nepnoe oh-
pepeenne xpn1epnen c1anpap1on, ho xo1opix napo 6ype1 oenn-
na1i ai1epna1nni, ni6pannie ns coc1anennoio chncxa ncex ai1ep-
na1nn.
Hn1mn a1an. Oenxa ai1epna1nn naunnae1cn c ninnennn:
poc1onnc1n n nac1onmee npexn n n o6ospnxox 6ypymex;
nepoc1a1xon cenuac n n hepchex1nne;
nosxonix hocepc1nnn, ea1eino n penenox nipaennn;
c1ehenn neohpepeennoc1n n pncxa.

Hcc1nn a1an. Coc1anenne chncxa ncex ai1epna1nn oh1nxainoio
pemennn hpo6exi.
Ccpnmnn a1an. i6op ai1epna1nni xoe1 6i1i poc1a1ouno
hpoc1ix, ecn nce hpepipymne 1ahi ocymec1neni ipaxo1no co
snannex pea. Ho hpn conix hpo6exax n pohymennix omn6xax
na hpepipymnx 1ahax ni6op ai1epna1nni xoe1 6i1i sa1pypnn-
1einix, a nnoipa n ne caxix yumnx ns cymec1nynmnx napnan1on.
Bncnmnn a1an. Oxonua1einoe hpnnn1ne pemennn ns xnoec1-
na pohyc1nxix pono ocymec1nn1icn c nchoisonannex MIS n DSS
n hpepe nceio c yue1ox nanoc1n een n conainix, opiannsan-
onnix, xonoxnuecxnx, 1exnooinuecxnx, nnnonanonnix n ppyinx
hocepc1nnn pn opiannsann.
Mcucdcun

218
yconnnx pinounon xonoxnxn opiannsann hoc1onnno hop-
nepiae1cn penc1nnn qax1opon neohpepeennoc1n n pncxa, u1o cyme-
c1nenno yconne1 oxonua1einoe hpnnn1ne pemennn n hpoinosn-
ponanne eio hocepc1nnn.
Hoce oxonua1einoio hpnnn1nn pemennn nac1yhae1 o1ne1c1-
nennin hepnop peansann, a sa1ex oenxn nx qqex1nnnoc1n (cx.
pnc. 5.4.).










Pnc. 5.4. O6n6mcnnan cxcma pcannaannn pcmcnnn n nncnn
crn aqqc1nnnnc1n n nx naanmncnnan [16, C. 207 c ncn1npmmn
namcncnnnmn n pnnnnncnnnmn an1npa]

jn ychemnon peansann n6oio pemennn an1op pemennn po-
en y6epn1eino poxasa1i nchonn1enx, u1o eio ni6op cpean n nn1epe-
cax ne 1oixo ncen opiannsann, no n xapoio pa6o1nnxa hepconaino.
ex honee exy honepn1, 1ex oh1nxainee 6ype1 ocymec1nn1icn pean-
sann pemennn, a eme yume, ecn 6ypy1 hpnnepeni n penc1nne nce
qynxnn xenepxen1a, oco6enno opiannsann, xo1nnann n xon1poi, a
1axe o6pa1nan cnnsi.
Ieansann pemennn ne 6ype1 sanepmennon, hoxa uepes cnc1e-
xy o6pa1non cnnsn ne hoyueno coo6menne o eio hpe1nopennn n
nsni nchonn1enxn. ano, u1o6i xenepep, hpnnnnmnn peme-
nne, 1ouno sna pesyi1a1 eio ni6opa. Opnaxo n yconnnx pncxa ne-
pon1noc1i eaexoio pesyi1a1a xono hpoinosnpona1i c ohpepe-
ennon c1ehenin poc1onepnoc1n, neohpepeennoc1n n nepon1noc1n.
Hn6oe nanoe pemenne cohpneno c xoxhpoxnccaxn, ho6ou-
nixn hocepc1nnnxn n neia1nnnixn qqex1axn, snaunxoc1i xo1o-
pix xenepep poen cohoc1ann1i c hpenxymec1naxn. Conoe
cypi6onocnoe pemenne nceipa cohponopae1cn xnoiouncennixn
Coo6menne o
hpnnn1ox
pemennn
nchonn1enx
Ieansa-
nn
pemennn
O1xnxn n
appec an1opa
pemennn
Oenxa
qqex1nnnoc1n
hpnnn1oio
pemennn
An1op
pemennn
Pcucuun cucdcunc

219
hocepynmnxn pemennnxn n nnne1 na nce achex1i pen1einoc1n
opiannsann. Ohi1nin xenepep poen honnxa1i nsanxosanncn-
xoc1i pemennn, ni6npa1i ai1epna1nni, nnocnmne nan6oimnn
nxap n o6mee peo poc1nennn een opiannsann n yxe1i oenn-
na1i qqex1nnnoc1i hpnnn1ix pemennn. O1 xe1opon oenxn qqex-
1nnnoc1n hpnnn1ix pemennn sanncn1 ncxop nceio pea.
Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n hpnnn1ix pemennn 1o cohoc1anenne
niiopi c sa1pa1axn.
Opnnx ns xe1opon oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n hpnnn1ix pemennn
nnne1cn ipaqnuecxnn xe1op (cx. pnc. 5.5).



















Puc. 5.5 Ipaqn naanmnaanncnmnc1n mcxpy nmrnpnn n aa1pa1amn
npn pcannaannn ynpanncnwccnrn pcmcnnn
[16, C. 213 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]

Hpn hepnox napnan1e ipaqnx hoxasinae1, u1o niiopa o1 pea-
nsann pemennn panna sa1pa1ax, hpn n1opox sa1pa1i hoce ohpe-
peennon 1ouxn hpeniman1 niiopy, hpn 1pe1iex caxox ychemnox
niiopa oueni cxopo naunnae1 hpenima1i sa1pa1i.
jn yiy6ennon oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n hpnnn1ix pemennn
xono nchoisona1i cepynmne xe1opi:

i
i
o
p
a

o
1

p
e
m
e
n
n
n

i
i
o
p
a

o
1

p
e
m
e
n
n
n

i
i
o
p
a

o
1

p
e
m
e
n
n
n

1n napnan1 2n napnan1 3n napnan1
3a1pa1i na
peansann
pemennn
Mcucdcun

220
1. Ocnonnoio xaccnna nechomnoio na6npennn, hpn xo1opox
6oee cepiesnoxy o6ceponannn hopnepian1cn caxie cymec1nennie
qax1opi;
2. Hehpepinnon nnnen1apnsann hoyuenne pnpa pohonn1ei-
nix xapax1epnc1nx, o1cy1c1nynmnx n oqnnainon nnqopxann;
3. Me1opi, paspa6o1annie K. Hnpconox, choco6 naxopennn ha-
paxe1pon pachpepeennn ho ni6opounix snauennnx. 1o1 xe1op hpn
ponoino o6mnx yconnnx pae1 poc1a1ouno coc1on1einie oenxn;
4. Hanxenimnx xnappa1on:
opnomaionin;
pnyxmaionin;
1pexmaionin;
5. Mnoine ppyine.
Opnaxo hpnxenenne 6oimnnc1na xe1opon 1pe6ye1 chen-
ainix snannn xonoxe1pnxn conoxyhnoc1n xa1exa1nxo
c1a1nc1nuecxnx n xonoxnxoxa1exa1nuecxnx xe1opon, nxenmnx
ein xonuec1nennoe ohncanne saxonoxepnoc1en n nsanxocnn-
sen nnennn n hpoeccon na ocnone 1eope1nuecxnx hpepc1anennn
o6 nx nanenmnx ohpepennmnx qax1opax.
Hahpnxep, ohpepeenne ho1pe6n1eicxoio ho1ennaa
pinxa nanoe sneno n cnc1exe nsyuennn hoxyha1eicxoio chpo-
ca. Ho1pe6n1eicxnn ho1enna xapax1epnsye1cn exxoc1in pin-
xa xonuec1nox (c1onxoc1in) 1onapon, xo1opoe xoe1 hoio1n1i
pinox hpn ohpepeennix yconnnx sa ohpepeennin hepnop
npexenn. johyc1nx, na san1pamnen nocxpecnon npxapxe n cyuae
xopomen hoiopi hpephoaiae1cn hoyun1i hpn6ii o1 hpopan
xopoennoio n pasxepe 100 enpo, ecn honpe1 popi, y6i1xn co-
c1ann1 20 enpo, ecn 6ype1 ne1peno n hacxypno hpn6ii xoe1
coc1ann1i 77 enpo. Ho pannix Inppoxe1en1pa, nepon1noc1i xo-
pomen hoiopi 0,5, popnnon 0,2, hacxypnon 0,3. Menepepy
napo hpnnn1i pemenne, cxoixo nyno nxe1i hopnn xopoen-
noio n na xaxyn hpn6ii xono paccun1ina1i. Ichoisyn opnn
ns xe1opon xa1exa1nuecxon c1a1nc1nxn, on pemae1 ypannenne:

Y = 100 * 0,5 + (20) * 0,2 + 77 * 0,3 = 69,1 (enpo).
Cepona1eino, na npxapxy napo hpnnec1n c1oixo xopoen-
noio, cxoixo neo6xopnxo pn hoyuennn oh1nxainoio pasxepa
hpn6in.
1o opnn ns caxix hpoc1ix hpnxepon nchoisonannn xopen
pn hpnnn1nn pemennn. jn anansa e 6oimnnc1na hpo6ex, oco-
Pcucuun cucdcunc

221
6enno oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n hpnnn1ix pemennn, cepye1 hpnxe-
nn1i poc1a1ouno conie xonoxnxoxa1exa1nuecxne xopen, c1a-
1nc1nuecxne xe1opi o6pa6o1xn pannix, n6npanmne n ce6n oipoxnoe
xonuec1no hepexennix, c hpnxenennex xoxhin1epnix 1exnooinn.
Iemennn n xenepxen1e xono paccxa1pnna1i xax hpopyx1
yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n, a eio hpnnn1ne xax hpoecc, ne-
pymnn x honnennn 1oio hpopyx1a. Hpnnnxa1i pemenne n 1on
nn nnon o6ac1n 1o nayxa, ona xoe1 6i1i hosnana hocpepc1-
nox o6yuennn n houephny1a ns xnni. Hpnnn1ne e hpanninix
pemennn 1o yhpanenuecxoe ncxycc1no. Choco6noc1i n yxenne
hpnnnxa1i nepnie pemennn n oennna1i nx qqex1nnnoc1i pas-
nnnan1cn c ohi1ox pa6o1i, hpno6pe1aexix xenepepox na hpo-
1nennn ncen nsnn.
Conoxyhnoc1i snannn n yxenuu cnnpe1eic1nye1 o hpoqec-
cnonainon hpniopnoc1n, xoxhe1en1noc1n n6oio pyxonopn1en.
Ho xauec1ny eio hpopyxnn yhpanenuecxnx pemennn xono
cypn1i o6 qqex1nnno nn neqqex1nnno pa6o1anmex xenepe-
pe nn chenanc1e-xapxe1ooie.
Hpn oenxe qqex1nnnoc1n hpnnn1ix pemennn chenanc1i
pexoxenpyn1:
1. Icxopn1i ns xonxpe1no peanc1nuecxnx yconnn;
2. Cxpyhyesno yun1ina1i ne 1oixo pacxopi, no n poxopi.
5oimnnc1no yhpanenuecxnx pemennn c qnnanconon 1ouxn spennn
cnnsano, xax y1neppan1 ohi1nie xenepepi, c unc1ixn pene-
nixn ho1oxaxn sa xapin hepnop npexenn;
3. Ichoisona1i 1axon o6mensnec1nin hpnex xax pncxon1npona-
nne, 1ax xax nssa nnqnnn peniin ceiopnn c1on1 popoe, uex san-
1pa, ho1oxy 6ypymne pacxopi napo yxnoa1i na xoqqnnen1i
pncxon1nponannn, o6pa1no hpohopnonainixn 1exhy nsxenennn
c1onxoc1n penei;
4. Ohpepen1i xoxxepuecxyn qqex1nnnoc1i coo1nomennex
qnnanconix sa1pa1 n pesyi1a1on, o6echeunnanmnx ohpepeennyn
nopxy poxopnoc1n;
5. Iaccxa1pnna1i conainie, xooinuecxne n ppyine pesyi1a-
1i, ne hoppanmnecn c1onxoc1non oenxe, xax pohonn1einie ho-
xasa1en qqex1nnnoc1n;
6. \un1ina1i nnnnne nan1noio xypca na qqex1nnnoc1i hpn-
nn1ix pemennn.
Mcucdcun

222
1o6i oh1nxaino nihonn1i pexoxenpann chenanc1on,
neo6xopnxo co6npa1i hpnnnhi yhpanennn hepconaox.
Taxnx o6pasox, pemennn n xenepxen1e 1o napnan1 pas-
pemennn, nxnnpann hpo6exi. Hpn hopio1onxe, hpnnn1nn n
peansann pemennn neo6xopnxo hpepnnpe1i hocepc1nnn n nos-
xonoc1i eio o1xeni. Iemenne xoe1 6i1i o1xeneno n cnnsn c
hepeopnen1anen achex1on pen1einoc1n opiannsann nn nexa-
uec1nennon hopio1onxn caxoio pemennn.
sanncnxoc1n o1 hoxasa1een peiaxen1ann cpoxon, caxoc1on-
1einoc1n penc1nnn nchonn1een pemennn xaccnqnnpyn1cn na:
peiaxen1npynmne honoc1in hpepohpepenn1 cpox n pa-
6o1y nchonn1een, o1 xo1opix 1pe6ye1cn honan hopunnennoc1i;
opnen1npynmne ue1xo qopxynpyn1 1oixo iannie, oc-
nonnie achex1i pa6o1i, nenanie nohpoci xoiy1 naxopn1icn n xox-
he1ennn nchonn1een;
pexoxenpynmne nmi nnemne ouep1ani, a nce oc1ainoe
ponepne1cn nchonn1enx.

Cepye1 nepno ni6npa1i qopxy peansann yhpanenue-
cxoio pemennn: y6epenne, pas:ncnenne, nac1anenne, coo6me-
nne, nunin hpnxep, cone1, hpephncanne, hpnnypenne n 1.p.
qqex1nnnix cun1an1 pemenne, ecn:
1. Ono ncxopn1 ns peainix een;
2. jn eio ocymec1nennn ec1i neo6xopnxoe npexn n nynie pe-
cypci;
3. Ono xoe1 6i1i ocymec1neno n xonxpe1nix yconnnx opiann-
sann;
4. Hpepycxo1peni nem1a1nie, anapnnnie cn1yann;
5. Ono ne hpononpye1 xonqnx1nie cn1yann n c1pecci;
6. Hpepnnpeni nsxenennn n peonox n qononox oxpyennn;
7. Ono pae1 nosxonoc1i ocymec1nn1i nepnqnxann n xon1poi
nchonennn.
jn oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n pemennn n xenepxen1e cohoc-
1annn1 pesyi1a1i (qqex1) n sa1pa1i, neo6xopnxie pn poc1ne-
nnn 1nx pesyi1a1on.
cnnsn c 6oimnx snauennex qqex1nnnoc1n pemennn n xe-
nepxen1e nano xopomo sna1i n honnxa1i hpnnnhi yhpanennn
hepconaox.
Pcucuun cucdcunc

223
Tec1

1. Peuenue +eneo+enme 5mo:
a) ni6op ai1epna1nni;
6) xonen1pnponannoe nipaenne hpoecca yhpanennn;
n) coiamenne o xoohepann;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

2. B +eneo+enme nunnmue euenun 5mo:
a) cnc1exa1nsnponannin hpoecc;
6) yxenne, pasnnnaexoe o6yuennex n ohi1ox;
n) o1nomennn xepy xenepepaxn;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

3. Pacc+ome +noecmo auanmo, oneoe:umt +uccum o-
eanusauuu 5mo anoe euenue cnsano c qnxuueu +eneo+enma,
no:uuueu nasanue:
a) hannponanne;
6) opiannsann;
n) xo1nnann;
i) xon1poi.

4. Te+un sanoea++uoannme euenun sau+cmoan us
nsmxa:
a) xocxonan1on;
6) hpoinosnc1on;
n) hpoipaxxnc1on;
i) xoxhin1epnix 1exnooinn.

5. 3anoea++uoannme euenun n:nmmcn xumeue+:
a) copepannn;
6) hpopon1einoc1n penc1nnn;
n) c1pyx1ypnponannoc1n;
i) nahpanennoc1n.

6. Ho cooeanum ca+m+u c:onm+u o:tuuncme c:uae
n:nmmcn euenun:
a) xonoxnuecxne;
6) conainie;
n) opiannsanonnie;
i) nnnonanonnie.
Mcucdcun

224
7. 3xono+uuecxue euenun mecno sau+ocnsanm, neoe ceeo,
c euenun+u:
a) nnnonanonnixn;
6) 1exnooinuecxnxn;
n) opiannsanonnixn;
i) conainixn.

8. K:accuquxauun euenuu na oono u +noeooneme omno-
cumcn x:
a) uncy een;
6) hpopon1einoc1n penc1nnn;
n) yponnn hpnnn1nn pemennn;
i) iy6nne nospenc1nnn.

9. Hem+ 5mano+ euenun c:onou no:e+m cuumaemcn:
a) c6op peenan1non nnqopxann;
6) pnainoc1nxa hpo6exi;
n) coc1anenne chncxa ncex ai1epna1nn;
i) ninnenne ai1epna1nn.

10. Pe:eanmnan unqo+auun o:n nunnmun euenun 5mo
unqo+auun:
a) neyxec1nan;
6) Kaccanppi;
n) o16npaexan hop xonxpe1nyn sapauy;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

11. }cmanoxa oeanuuenuu u xumeue o:n nunnmun eue-
nun 5mo 5man:
a) hepnin;
6) n1opon;
n) 1pe1nn;
i) ue1nep1in.

12. Peuenun, ucx:muamuue ca+ocmonme:tnocmt u no:nocmtm
nana:nmuue oenme:tnocmt noouunennmx, nasmammcn:
a) peiaxen1npynmne;
6) opnen1npynmne;
n) pexoxenpynmne;
i) nepno (a+6).
Pcucuun cucdcunc

225
13. K xauecmennm+ noxasame:n+ 5qqexmunocmu asaom-
xu na:enuecxux euenuu omnocnm:
a) cnoenpexennoc1i hpepc1anennn hpoex1a pemennn;
6) c1eheni nayunon o6ocnonannoc1n pemennn;
n) o6mnn na6op c1anpap1on n hpoepyp;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

14. Memoom, nocmoennme na :oeuuecxux coenunx, noc:eoo-
ame:tnmx ooxasame:tcmax, onuamuuxcn na naxmuuecxuu onmm,
occuucxou naunou :umeame no:uu:u nasanue:
a) nn1yn1nnnix xe1opon;
6) xe1opon sppanoio cxica;
n) xe1opon nayuno1exnnuecxoio hopxopa;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

15. :n e::ennou ouenxu 5qqexmunocmu nunnmmx eue-
nuu +ono ucno:tsoamt +emoom ocnonoeo +accua, +o+enmo,
nau+entuux xaoamo, xomome nasmammcn:
a) xonoxnxoc1a1nc1nuecxne;
6) opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einie;
n) conainohcnxooinuecxne;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

16. He xaoan qnxuun +eneo+enma cnsana c xonxem-
nm+u, usnenno anm+u euenun+u:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

17. Peuenun +eneo+enme ue:ecooasno x:accuquuuoamt:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

18. Peuenun ne om ea:usoanm, ec:u ne cooueno o nunnmmx
euenunx ucno:nume:n+:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

19. Pea:usauun euenun ne oem saeuennou, noxa uees cuc-
me+ oamnou cnsu ne no:ueno coouenue o eeo nemoenuu
usnt ucno:nume:n+u:
a) pa;
6) ne1.
Mcucdcun

226
20. Cooxnnocmt snanuu u +enuu ne cuoeme:tcmem o xo+ne-
menmnocmu xoooume:n:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuue (21-30) o-
nocm:
21. mo maxoe euenue +eneo+enme?
22. Kaxom ocnonme meoanun x euenun+ +eneo+enme?
23. Kax x:accuquuummcn euenun +eneo+enme, nanu-
+e, no xumeun+?
24. Kaxue +emoom asaomxu na:enuecxoeo euenun Bm
snaeme?
25. Kaxm unqo+auum o:n nunnmun euenuu cuumamm e:e-
anmnou?
26. mo neocma:nem coou na:enuecxoe euenue?
27. Kaxoe euenue cuumamm cneonmu+a:tnm+?
28. Houe+ neoxoou+m oneoe:ennme qo+m ea:usauuu
na:enuecxoeo euenun?
29. Kax oneoe:nmm 5qqexmunocmt na:enuecxoeo eue-
nun?
30. mo maxoe DSS ( Decision Support System)?


Pcucuun cucdcunc

227
Dpax1axyM

1. Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm

5.1.1. 1o 1axoe hpnnn1ne pemennn n xenepxen1e?
5.1.2. Hpnnepn1e hpnxepi xonxpe1nix pemennn n hannponannn.
5.1.3. Kaxne nsnenno nanie pemennn xoiy1 6i1i hpn ni-
honennn qynxnn opiannsann?
5.1.4. Hpnnepn1e xo1n 6i 1pn hpnxepa hpnnn1nn pemennn hpn
nihonennn qynxnn xo1nnann.
5.1.5. 1o i snae1e o nosxonix pemennnx hpn nihonennn
qynxnn xon1poi?
5.1.6. Ison1e ocnonnie 1pe6onannn x pemennnx (xo1n 6i hn1i).

2. ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm

5.2.1. Iaccxan1e o xaccnqnxann pemennn ho xpn1epnnx
n 1nhax. Kax, na am nsinp, nnnn1 npanc1nennie xpn1epnn na
o1nomennn xoei x pemennnx n xenepxen1e?
5.2.2. ex, ho amexy xnennn, conainie pemennn o1nuan1-
cn o1 xonoxnuecxnx? Apiyxen1npyn1e am o1ne1.
5.2.3. 1o 1axoe peenan1nan nnqopxann? Houexy ee cun1an1
oh1nxainon? Coiacni n i c 1ex, u1o ona oh1nxaina? Honcnn1e
am o1ne1.
5.2.4. Kaxona o6o6mennan cxexa peansann pemennn n oenxn
eio qqex1nnnoc1n? ex ona nn1epecna pn ac?
5.2.5. Hoc1pon1e ipaqnx sanncnxoc1n xepy niiopon n sa1pa1axn
hpn peansann yhpanenuecxoio pemennn. In1ephpe1npyn1e eio.
5.2.6. Kaxne xe1opi xono nchoisona1i hpn yiy6ennon
oenxe qqex1nnnoc1n hpnnn1ix pemennn? Honcnn1e amy 1ouxy
spennn.
5.2.7. Mono n paccxa1pnna1i pemennn n xenepxen1e xax
hpopyx1 yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n? O6ocnyn1e am o1ne1.
5.2.8. Kaxoni pexoxenpann chenanc1on hpn oenxe qqex-
1nnnoc1n hpnnn1ix pemennn? Coiacni n i c nnxn? Honcnn1e
amy hosnnn.
5.2.9. Kaxon 1ah panonainoio pemennn hpo6exi, ho ame-
xy xnennn, 1pe6ye1 hpnxenennn conainohcnxooinuecxnx xe1o-
pon, xaxon opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einix, a xaxon xonoxn-
xoc1a1nc1nuecxnx? Apiyxen1npyn1e ame xnenne.
Mcucdcun

228
5.2.10. Kaxne pexoxenpann chenanc1on hpn oenxe qqex-
1nnnoc1n hpnnn1ix pemennn i cun1ae1e eixo nihonnxixn, a
xaxne nsnmne conixn? Apiyxen1npyn1e am o1ne1.

3. jwc6nmc cn1yannn

(16) Opiannsann D c1aa 1epn1i cnon xonxypen1nie hpe-
nxymec1na na pinxe, u1o hpnneo x cnnennn yponnn xonxypen1o-
choco6noc1n nihycxaexix en xoxhin1epon, ee c1aa ni1ecnn1i c
pinxa opiannsann E. 1o6i cnona ychemno sanoena1i uac1i pin-
xa, opiannsann D neo6xopnxo hpannino paspa6o1a1i yhpanen-
uecxoe pemenne o na6ope ho1pe6n1eicxnx cnonc1n nihycxaexix
xoxhin1epon, nahpnxep, nsxenn1i xonqniypann xonn1opa. Kaxne
yhpanenuecxne pemennn paspa6o1an 6i i n pannon cn1yann,
ecn 6i 6in xenepepox opiannsann D?Kax honnne1 ame
pemenne na xauec1no xoxhin1epon?
(17) ax neo6xopnxo oenn1i qqex1nnnoc1i hpnnnxaexo-
io yhpanenuecxoio pemennn. i paspa6o1an 1pn ai1epna1nni:
1) niiopa o1 peansann pemennn panna sa1pa1ax;
2) sa1pa1i uepes nexo1opoe npexn naunnan1 hpenima1i niiopy;
3) niiopa uepes nexo1opoe npexn naunnae1 hpenima1i sa1pa1i.

Konxpe1nsnpyn1e pannyn cn1yann, hoc1pon1e ipaqnx n ap-
iyxen1npyn1e qqex1nnnoc1i hpnnn1oio axn yhpanenuecxoio
pemennn.
5.3.3. (18) Hpephoon1e, u1o i cospan xaoe hpephpnn1ne ho
hponsnopc1ny xonpn1epcxnx nspenn n xo1n1e hopapona1i 1ex, x1o
no npexn pa6o1i n6n1 hoaxoxn1icn xpexepox, no on xpomn1cn
n sa6nnae1 xpomxaxn xanna1ypy xoxhin1epa. Kaxoe pemenne i
hpnxn1e o6 accop1nxen1e nihycxaexon amen opiannsanen hpo-
pyxnn? Honcnn1e am ni6op, paccxo1pen 1pn ai1epna1nnnix
napnan1a.

Ocnnnnmc nmnnpm, nnnn1nn, nnpcpcncnnn

Hpnnn1ne pemennn n xenepxen1e 1o ocosnannin ni6op ns
nxenmnxcn ai1epna1nnnix napnan1on. Hahpnxep, n ocnone hann-
ponannn pen1einoc1n opiannsann en1 na6op pemennn ho hpn-
xenennn pasnunix xonoxnuecxnx pecypcon pn oh1nxainoio
poc1nennn ee een.
Pcucuun cucdcunc

229
Hpn nihonennn qynxnn opiannsann neo6xopnxo pema1i
hpo6exi peeinponannn honoxounn na xapox yponne; pema1i
hpo6exi nan6oee panonainon c1pyx1ypnponannoc1n pen1ei-
noc1n n yxpyhnennn nn, nao6opo1, pasyxpyhnennn 6oxon pasnu-
nix nnpon pen1einoc1n.
Hpn nihonennn qynxnn xo1nnann neo6xopnxo, nahpn-
xep, pema1i:
1. Kaxne ho1pe6noc1n hopunnennix nnnn1cn hpnopn1e1nixn?
2. Kax xono ypone1nopn1i 1n ho1pe6noc1n c xaxcnxainon
niiopon pn opiannsann? (Ianonainan xopei, 1ax nasinaexan,
opiannsanonnan xaxcnxnsann).
3. Kax xono choco6c1nona1i poc1y yponnn ypone1nopennoc1n
pa6o1on hopunnennixn?

Kapan qynxnn xenepxen1a cnnsana c xonxpe1nixn, ns-
nenno nanixn pemennnxn, nahpnxep, hpn nihonennn qynxnn
xon1pon neo6xopnxo pema1i, xax yume nsxepn1i pesyi1a1i 1py-
ponon pen1einoc1n co1pypnnxon, xax ocymec1nn1i oenxy pesyi-
1a1on pen1einoc1n xapoio pa6o1nnxa, xax nnocn1i xoppex1nni hpn
o6napyennn o1xonennn o1 c1anpap1on.
K pemennnx hpep:nnnn1cn ohpepeennie 1pe6onannn, na-
hpnxep:
1. \6epn1einoc1i;
2. e1xoc1i qopxynponox;
3. Ieainoc1i ocymec1nennn;
4. Cnoenpexennoc1i;
5. xonoxnunoc1i;

Hpoecc hpnnn1nn pemennn xoe1 coc1on1i ns 1pex c1apnn:
1. Hpnsnanne neo6xopnxoc1n pemennn (ocosnanne n hpnsnanne
hpo6exi, xo1opyn napo pemn1i);
2. ipa6o1xa pemennn (paspa6o1xa ai1epna1nn, nx oenxa n ee
ni6op);
3. ihonenne pemennn (opiannsann nihonennn pemennn, ee ana-
ns n xon1poi, o6pa1nan cnnsi n hpn neo6xopnxoc1n xoppex1nponxa).

Oqnpmncnnc nn c1anpap1y

3apannn ho 1exe 5 nxnuan1:
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 5 6 m1.
Mcucdcun

230
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci ho 1exe 5 10 m1.
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 5 3 m1.

Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 5

Hnc1annna aapannn
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 5 pasxemeni n CjO Kaxhyc n
qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 5.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 xpa1xnn o1ne1 (ne 6oee 200 cnxnoon)
na xapin nohpoc n qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 5 po na-
uaa aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 5 (cx. Kaenpapnin han xypca).
O1ne1i na nohpoci n qopyxe cepye1 pasxema1i, xnxnyn na
cnxno O1ne1n1i. am o1ne1 poen honnn1icn n pepene coo6me-
nnn hop coo1ne1c1nynmnx nohpocox. HL ICHOHI3\ITL KHOH-
K\ (cospa1i) jH2 OTLTA HA OHIOCI.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
O1ne1i na nohpoci pasxeman1e ncen ipyhhon n qopyxe
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 5.

Tac:ua 1

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na nn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 5

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. Konuec1no hpanninix
o1ne1on
4 ns 6 4 5 n 6oee ns
6
6
2. O1ne1i pasxemeni hop
nohpocaxn (n pepene
coo6mennn)
pa 1

ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 5

Hnc1annna aapannn
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci 6ypy1 yc1no o6cypa1icn na cexnnape ho
1exe 5. ax neo6xopnxo hopio1onn1icn x 6ecepe ho pannix nohpocax.
Pcucuun cucdcunc

231
Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 o6ocnonannan hosnnn ho xapoxy
nohpocy, osnyuennan no npexn aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 5 (cx.
Kaenpapnin han xypca); n xope cexnnapa i 6ype1e o1neua1i na
nohpoci n cyuannox hopnpxe; xapin c1ypen1 poen yche1i o1ne-
1n1i na 1 nn 2 nohpoca.
ama hosnnn pona 6i1i ocnonana na n1a1ax ns yue6nix
xa1epnaon ho 1exe 5.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
ax neo6xopnxo yc1no nson1i n o6ocnona1i cnon hosnnn n
xope aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 5.

Tac:ua 2

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na pncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 5

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. Konuec1no hpanninix
o1ne1on
1 10 2 n 6oee 13
2. O6ocnonannoc1i o1ne1on
(nchoisonanne n1a1 ns
yue6nix xa1epnaon)
ec1i 2
3. Ichoisonanne poho-
nn1einix nc1ounnxon
1 nc1ounnx
n 6oee
5

jwc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 5. Bapnan1 16 nnn 17, nnn 18

Hnc1annna aapannn
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 5 paccxa1pnnan1cn axn caxoc1on-
1eino.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 qan c o1ue1ox ho opnon cn1yann,
oqopxennin ho HA5HOH\ N___ (cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc),
nicannin 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn CjO Kaxhyc po nauaa
cepynmeio aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 5 (cx. Kaenpapnin han
xypca); ni xoe1e o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen-
1axn n qopyxe \ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 5.
Mcucdcun

232
Ha6on o1ue1a (Tn1yinan c1panna. Chncox ocnonnix paspe-
on) cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc. O6mnn o6:ex nameio 1exc1a n
o1ue1e ho 1exe 5 ne 6oee 1 c1panni (3000 snaxon).

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
Io1onin o1ue1 hepeciae1cn 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn
CjO Kaxhyc. 3aioonox coo6mennn c qanox poen copepa1i na-
snanne ipyhhi, noxep 1exi n noxep yue6non cn1yann, nahpnxep
O1ue1_uIO_ju102_\ue6nan_cn1yann_5.3.2(17). i xoe1e
o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen1axn n qopyxe
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 5.

Tac:ua 3

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na ywc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 5

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. uan o1ue1a oqopxen ho
ma6ony
pa 1
2. uan o1hpanen n cpox pa 2
3. O6:ex 1exc1a ne hpeni-
mae1
1pe6onannn
pa 2
4. O1ne1 nxee1 o6ocnona-
nne (xonuec1no cciox n
n1a1)
3 2 5 4
5. O1ne1 ynnxaen (ne1 ho-
n1opon n anaoion n o1ue1ax
ppyinx c1ypen1on)
pa 4



|puuunu qnpa:cuun ncpccua:c

233
Fnaaa 6.



Dpaaqanm ynpaaneaas nepcoaanoM







Hsyuaa 1eMy 6, c1ypea1 ponwea
saa1b:
ocnonnie oco6ennoc1n hop6opa chenanc1on
xapxe1ooion.

yMe1b:
oennna1i hpoqeccnonainyn hpniopnoc1i chenan-
c1on-xapxe1ooion.

npaopec1a aaamxa:
hpoex1nponannn cnc1exi oh1nxainon xo1nnann 1pypa.



Mcucdcun

234
Hu usuenuu me+m 6 neoxoou+o:

Hn1a1n iany 6 yue6noio hoco6nn ho xenepxen1y n exnn.
Bmnnnnn1n aapannc hpax1nxyxa n 6anxa 1ec1on ho xenep-
xen1y ho paspey 6: o1ne1n1i na xon1poinie nohpoci, hpnnn1i yua-
c1ne n o6cypennn pncxyccnonnix nohpocon, yue6nix cn1yann, 1ec-
1nponannn. Hopio1onn1i xypconyn pa6o1y, peqepa1 nn cce n hpn-
oennn ho 1exax:

1. Hpnnnhi yhpanennn hepconaox opiannsann;
2. Oco6ennoc1n hop6opa n oenxn hpoqeccnonainon hpniopno-
c1n chenanc1onxapxe1ooion;
3. Mopei xenepepa 1opionon opiannsann;
4. Kpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne conpexennoio xapxe1ooia (c1ypen-
1ax, xo1opie pemnn 6oee yiy6enno nsyun1i 1exy 6).


Iacne1 iocypapc1na n npnx, n yhapox iocypapc1na n npnx.
Hapcduan qdpccnt


6.1. Ocoeaaoc1a nopopa a oqeaxa npoqeccaoaanbao
nparopaoc1a cneqaanac1oaMapxe1onoroa

Opnn ns caxix ychemnix nhoncxnx xenepepon Axno Mopn1a
y1neppa: Hnxaxne 1eopnn, hpoipaxxa nn hpann1eic1nennan
hon1nxa ne xoiy1 cpea1i opiannsann ychemnon. 1o xoiy1 cpe-
a1i 1oixo npn.
\hpanenne npixn nxee1 hepnoc1ehennoe snauenne pn ncex
opiannsann.
nac1onmee npexn nayxon n hpax1nxon paspa6o1ani hpnnn-
hi yhpanennn hepconaox (1) n hpnnnhi hoc1poennn cnc1exi
yhpanennn hepconaox (2).
Hepnoe 1o hpanna, ocnonnie hooennn n nopxi, xo1opix
poni cepona1i pyxonopn1en n chenanc1i n hpoecce yhpan-
ennn hepconaox.
1opoe 1o hpanna, ocnonnie hooennn n nopxi, xo1opix
poni cepona1i pyxonopn1en n chenanc1i hoppaspeennn
yhpanennn hepconaox hpn qopxnponannn cnc1exi yhpanennn
hepconaox opiannsann.
|puuunu qnpa:cuun ncpccua:c

235
K ocnonnix hpnnnhax, xapax1epnsynmnx 1pe6onannn x
qopxnponannn cnc1exi yhpanennn hepconaox, chenanc1i o1-
nocn1:
coo1ne1c1nne sapaun yhpanennn hepconaox enx hpons-
nopc1na: xoxhexcnoc1i; ohepa1nnnoc1i;
oh1nxainoe coo1nomenne yhpanenuecxnx opnen1ann:
hpoc1o1a; nayunoc1i; nepapxnunoc1i;
ho1ennainie nxn1ann, 1.e. nsanxosaxennexoc1i;
xonoxnunoc1i; coiaconannoc1i; yc1onunnoc1i;
hpoipeccnnnoc1i; an1onoxnoc1i; xnoioachex1noc1i;
hepchex1nnnoc1i; hpospaunoc1i; xoxqop1noc1i.

Hpnnnhi, ohpepennmne nahpanennn pasnn1nn cnc1exi
yhpanennn hepconaox, 1o ec1i xonen1pann, chenansann, ha-
paeinoc1n, apah1nnnoc1n (in6xoc1n), hpeexc1nennoc1n, nehpe-
pinnoc1n, pn1xnunoc1n, hpnxo1ounoc1n (yhopnpouennoc1n n ee-
nahpanennoc1n neo6xopnxon nnqopxann ho nipa6o1xe ohpepe-
ennoio pemennn).
ce hpnnnhi hoc1poennn cnc1exi yhpanennn hepconaox
peansyn1cn no nsanxopenc1nnn, a nx coue1anne sanncn1 o1 xnoinx
qax1opon.
Hpepe nceio, napo pachoaia1i hepconaox, xo1opin neo6xo-
pnx pn pemennn hponsnopc1nennix sapau. 1o6i pachoaia1i coo1-
ne1c1nynmnxn pa6o1nnxaxn, opiannsann pona n pe1anx sna1i,
xaxne sapaun onn 6ypy1 pema1i no npexn pa6o1i n xaxoni nunie n
o6mec1nennie xapax1epnc1nxn 1nx pa6o1.
jn 1oio hponopn1cn anans copepannn pa6o1, cun1anmnncn
xpaeyioinix xaxnex yhpanennn hepconaox. cec1oponnnn oen-
xa chenainoc1en cospa1 ocnonanne pn hpnnn1nn pemennn o6 o1-
6ope, hpnxe, hop6ope hepconaa; eio peonon oenxn, hpoqopnen-
1ann, 1pyponon apah1ann; opiannsann cnc1exi o6yuennn hepco-
naa, yhpanennn xonqnx1axn, c1peccaxn, nsxenennnxn, peonon
xapiepon, hpoqeccnonainix hpopnnennex, 6esohacnoc1in hep-
conaa n n cyuae neo6xopnxoc1n nicno6opennn.
jo hpnnn1nn pemennn o nanxe hepconaa cepye1 o6pa1n1i
nnnxanne na 1o, u1o eio hpnneuenne na naxan1nyn ponoc1i nny1-
pn opiannsann n eox hosn1nnno: coxpamae1 1exyuec1i, choco6c1-
nye1 honimennn xnanqnxann, peae1 xapponyn hon1nxy 6oee
hpospaunon n 1.p. Ho ec1i n neia1nn, nahpnxep, cohepnnuec1no n na-
Mcucdcun

236
hpnennoc1i n xoex1nne, xenime nosxonoc1n pn ni6opa n 1.p.
Hpnneuenne hepconaa nne xoex1nna opiannsann nxee1 xenime
hpenxymec1n n ne cno6opno o1 nepoc1a1xon, cpepn xo1opix, nahpn-
xep, nicoxan c1eheni pncxa nchi1a1einoio cpoxa.
Kyi1ypa hepconaa ocnonana na paspenexix 6oimnnc1nox
uenon opiannsann y6epennnx n ennoc1nx. A hpnnnhi ho-
c1poennn cnc1exi yhpanennn hepconaox ne sanncn1 o1 nanonai-
non xyi1ypi. Hop6op hepconaa, 1pyponan xo1nnann, c1ni n-
pepc1na no xnoiox sanncn1 o1 nanonainon xyi1ypi.
Chenanc1i nipenn1 pasnunie yponnn opiannsanonnon
xyi1ypi, nahpnxep:
1. Honepxnoc1nin - (cy6:ex1nnnan xyi1ypa ocnona qopxnpo-
nannn yhpanenuecxon xyi1ypi nn c1nn pyxonopc1na);
2. Hophonepxnoc1nin - (xyi1ypa, nmennan o6:ex1nnnoc1n);
3. Iy6nnnin - (xyi1ypa hpephoaiae1 ee qopxnponanne, hop-
pepanne, nsxenenne c pemennex nnemnen apah1ann n nny1pennen
nn1eipann).

Hpoqeccop \ninx Oyun, an1op 6ec1ceepa Teopnn 3e1, pe-
ae1 hohi1xy o1ne1a na nohpoc o cnnepinn pasnix xyi1yp. On nc-
hoisye1 cpannn1einin anans 7-xn opiannsanonnix hepexennix
apah1ann x nanonainix oco6ennoc1nx (o6nsa1eic1na opiannsa-
nn ho o1nomennn x cnonx uenax, oenxa nihonennn pa6o1i,
hannponanne xapiepi, cnc1exa xon1pon, hpnnn1ne pemennn, ypo-
neni o1ne1c1nennoc1n, nn1epec x ueonexy), n ho eio pesyi1a1ax cos-
pa1cn xyi1ypa 1nha Z.
1o1 hopxop oco6enno hpnnexa1een n conpexennix yconnnx
xepynapopnon io6ansann pen1einoc1n opiannsann.
Hpepe uex nson1i ncn6cnnnc1n nnp6npa n nncnn npnq-
npnrnpnnc1n cncnnannc1nnmapc1nnnrnn, xopo1xo paccxo1pnx xec1o
xapxe1nnia n xenepxen1a opiannsann (cx. pnc. 6.1.).







|puuunu qnpa:cuun ncpccua:c

237

































Puc. 6.1. Cxcma naanmncnnan mapc1nnra n mcncpxmcn1a nprannaannn
nncpcpc1nnm cnc1cmnnncncnnrn nnpxnpa
[1, C.161 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]

Inc. 6.1. nainpno hoxasinae1, u1o hpn paccxo1pennn opiann-
sann xax eoc1non cnc1exi xapxe1nni n xenepxen1 nnnn1cn
uac1nxn eoio.
cnnnnc n qnnnnnc
npyxcnnc
Mnccnn
nprannaa-
nnn
ypone1no-
penne ho-
1pe6noc1en
hocpepc1-
nox o6xena
Hcnn map-
c1nnra
qopxnpo-
nanne chpo-
ca, o6:exa
hpopa,
pon pinxa
n pacmnpe-
nne c6i1a
Oprannaa-
nnn xax
o6:ex1
yhpanennn
n conoxyh-
noc1i e-
xen1on
nny1pennen
cpepi
Mcncpxmcn1
xax cnc1exa
yhpanennn
opiannsanen,
o6echeunnan-
man nsanxopen-
c1nne exen1on
cnc1exi xepy
co6on, a 1axe
peonix n qo-
nonix oxpye-
nnex
Mapc1nnr
xax cnc1exa
yhpanennn
pinxox pn
peansann
xnccnn n
een opia-
nnsann
Hcnn mc-
ncpxmcn1a
o6echeue-
nne xonxy-
pen1ocho-
co6noc1n,
yc1onunnoio
n qqex-
1nnnoio
pasnn1nn
opiannsa-
nn
Mcucdcun

238
Tehepi paccxo1pnx nnpi pen1einoc1n chenanc1onxapxe1o-
oion:
1. Isyuenne xapxe1nnionix nosxonoc1en opiannsann, pas-
pa6o1xa n peansann xapxe1nnionix hpoipaxx, uac1nuno 6ns-
nechana, c1pa1einuecxnx, 1ax1nuecxnx, ohepa1nnnix hanon.
2. Anans n oenxa pinounix yconnn opiannsann, nxnuanmne:
oenxy n pannponanne qax1opon xapxe1nnionon cpepi, 1op-
xosnmnx pen1einoc1i opiannsann, nx yc1panenne;
ohpepeenne c1ehenn pncxa pa6o1i na xonxpe1nix pinxax,
yconnn neohpepeennoc1n n ipann pncxa;
xchep1nyn oenxy nosxonix hpenxymec1n opiannsann n
pen1einoc1n na xonxpe1nix pinxax;
3. Hop6op eenix pinxon c oenxon:
chpoca n nepon1noc1n ocnoennn pinxa;
hoon1einix n o1pna1einix qax1opon, nnnnmnx na
qopxnponanne eenix ceixen1on n yconnn nx ocnoennn;
ho1pe6noc1n n 1onape na nonix ceixen1ax pinxa n qopxn-
ponanne 1nx ho1pe6noc1en;
4. Iaspa6o1xa xoxhexca c1pa1einn xapxe1nnia c ni6opox xe1opon:
oenxn yponnn en;
yhpanennn hpoeccox ninepennn 1onapon na pinxn n nx
hpopnnenne x ho1pe6n1en;
yhpanennn c6i1ox hpopyxnn n ycyi;
hpepoc1anennn cepnnca (chenainix ycyi);
oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n xoxxynnxann, cpepc1n pexaxi n
nchoisonannn pecypcon.

Oco6ennoc1in hop6opa chenanc1axapxe1ooia nnne1cn,
hpepe nceio, opnen1ann na eio nunoc1i, 1.x. ponoc1i 1pe6ye1 ne
1oixo conoxyhnoc1n snannn, hoyuennix n nyse, no n ohpepeenno-
io 1nha ximennn. Chenanc1xapxe1ooi poen o6apa1i opia-
nnsa1opcxnxn choco6noc1nxn, yxe1i ncno nipaa1i cnon xicn,
po6poea1eino o6ma1icn c npixn, nec1n hepeionopi, ohpepenn
nx snauenne n 1pypnoc1i. 3nan ocnoni peohponsnopc1na, on poen
ohepa1nnno n ipaxo1no pa6o1a1i c poxyxen1axn: yxe1i coc1ann1i
xe1opnuecxne pexoxenpann, pa1i o1ne1 na pasnunie sahpoci, ca-
xoc1on1eino coc1ann1i hncixennoe saxnuenne ho nohpocax, nxo-
pnmnx n eio xoxhe1ennn. ani nnnna1nnnoc1i, o1ne1c1nen-
noc1i, yxenne pa6o1a1i n xoxanpe, a 1axe xopomee snanne nno-
c1pannoio nsixa, nanixn pa6o1i na xoxhin1epe.
|puuunu qnpa:cuun ncpccua:c

239
Iachpoc1panennix choco6ox oenxn hpoqhpniopnoc1n xan-
pnpa1on, coo1ne1c1nynmnx ncex 1pe6onannnx hpn hop6ope nan6oee
hopxopnmnx, nnne1cn 1ec1nponanne hpe1enpen1on n yconnnx, xax-
cnxaino hpn6nennix x pen1einoc1n chenanc1axapxe1ooia.
Tec1 poen ne 1oixo pa1i nosxonoc1i nsxepn1i 1y nn nnyn uep-
1y xapax1epa pn poxasa1eic1na coo1ne1c1nnn hop6npaexoio pa6o1-
nnxa yconnnx pa6o1i, no n ynepenno poxasa1i 1axoe coo1ne1c1nne,
u1o hopuac oueni cono.
Chenanc1i c1pan speon pinounon xonoxnxn hpnxennn1
pn poxasa1eic1na 1axoio coo1ne1c1nnn cepynmne o6nsa1einie
1pe6onannn:
1. Tec1 n anans hpoecca pen1einoc1n poni ninnn1i 1o1
c1ni pa6o1i n 1e hoxasa1en, xo1opie nan6oee neo6xopnxi pn
nicoxoio xauec1na nihonennn poc1a1ouno conon pa6o1i chena-
nc1a xapxe1ooia;
2. Tec1nponanne pono nsxepn1i xo1n 6i necxoixo xapax1ep-
nix hoxasa1een;
3. Cepye1 poxasa1i, u1o pannan uep1a xapax1epa penc1nn1eino
cnnsana c xauec1nox pa6o1i n nana pn chenanc1axapxe1ooia.

Hopxopnmnn xe1op hop6opa chenanc1a xonxpe1nix 1pe-
6onannnx nn yconnnx ohpepene1 c1eheni 1ounoc1n, c xo1opon
xe1op hop6opa ninnne1 xonxpe1nie choco6noc1n hpe1enpen1a,
coo1ne1c1nynmne o1peinix nanix exen1ax c1nn pa6o1i.
Tec1nponanne pexoxenpyn1 hponopn1i pnapi: hepep nanxox n
hoce ychemnoio sanepmennn nchi1a1einoio cpoxa (hpnxepno
uepes 6 xecnen). Iesyi1a1i 1ec1on pepa1 n cexpe1e. Iemenne ho
nanxy hpnnnxae1cn 6es nx hpocxo1pa. Onn ne oiaman1cn po 1ex
hop, hoxa hpnnn1in chenanc1xapxe1ooi ne hpno6pe1e1 xn-
nnxainin ohi1 n pa6o1e. Oenxa hpoqhpniopnoc1n chenan-
c1axapxe1ooia hponopn1cn nmi ho nc1euennn 6 xecnen, a sa-
1ex pesyi1a1i 1on oenxn cpannnnan1cn c pesyi1a1axn 1ec1on,
po 1ex hop pepanmnxcn n cexpe1e. jn ninecennn pemennn ho
hop6opy n painenmex 6ypy1 hpnxenn1i 1oixo 1e 1ec1i, xo1o-
pie n nan6oimen c1ehenn conhapan1 c hoxasa1enxn chenan-
c1axapxe1ooia, ye nxenmeio ohpepeennin ohi1. hocepc1-
nnn xo ncex eanmnx sann1i ponoc1i chenanc1a
xapxe1ooia 6ypy1 nchoisona1icn 1oixo 1n ahpo6nponannie
1ec1i.
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240
Hpn hop6ope chenanc1onxapxe1ooion, xax hpanno, pexo-
xenpyn1 cepynmne hpoepypi hpoecca hop6opa (cx. pnc. 6.2.).





nn



nn




nn


nn









Puc. 6.2. Cxcma npnnccca nnp6npa cncnnannc1amapc1nnnra
[20, C.423 c namcncnnnmn an1npa]

Hop6op xanpnpa1on na ponoc1i chenanc1axapxe1ooia
ocymec1nne1cn, xax hpanno, ns pesepna, cospannoio n opiannsann,
no nosxono n hpniamenne co c1oponi.
jo hponepennn hpepnapn1einon 6ecepi c hpe1enpen1ox
eecoo6pasno osnaxoxn1i eio c ponoc1non nnc1pyxnen che-
nanc1axapxe1ooia, ipe 6ype1 yxasano, u1o on poen sna1i:
saxoni, hoc1anonennn, pachopnennn, hpnxasi, pyxonopnmne
poxyxen1i n nopxa1nnnie ax1i, xacanmnecn eio pa6o1i;
Kanpnpa1i na ponoc1i
chenanc1axapxe1ooia
Hpepnapn1einan 6ecepa
3ahonenne 6anxasannennn n
nahncanne xpa1xon an1o6noipaqnn
5ecepa c pyxonopn1eex
Tec1nponanne
Hpnex na po-
noc1i chenanc1a
xapxe1ooia
O
T
K
A
3
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241
pinounie xe1opi xosnnc1nonannn;
ocnoni xapxe1nnia n opiannsann pexaxi;
opiannsann 1pypa n yhpanennn;
ocnoni xnxpoxonoxnxn, c1a1nc1nxn, xonoxe1pnxn;
opiannsann hanonon pa6o1i n hopnpox paspa6o1xn:
c1pa1einuecxnx, 1ax1nuecxnx n ohepa1nnnix hanon;
6nsnechanon;
nopxa1nnon 1pyponix, xa1epnainix n qnnanconix sa1pa1;
hopnpox coc1anennn o1ue1noc1n;
xe1opi yue1a n anansa hoxasa1een pen1einoc1n opiannsann;
xe1opi ohpepeennn xonoxnuecxon qqex1nnnoc1n nneppe-
nnn panonansa1opcxnx hpepoennn, nso6pe1ennn, nonon 1exnn-
xn n 1exnooinn;
hpanna:
nny1penneio 1pyponoio pachopnpxa;
oxpani 1pypa;
1exnnxn 6esohacnoc1n, hponsnopc1nennon cann1apnn n inine-
ni, hpo1nnohoapnon 6esohacnoc1n, ipapancxon o6oponi.

Chenanc1xapxe1ooi poen o6apa1i xoxxynnxa6ei-
noc1in, 6i1i nepinuen, hosn1nnno nac1poen, nenn, o6xopn1e-
en, 1pe6ona1een n nhncina1icn n nep1nxainyn xapxe1nnio-
nyn cnc1exy.
ponoc1non nnc1pyxnn neo6xopnxo hoppo6no hpohnca1i
qynxnonainie o6nsannoc1n, hpana, o1ne1c1nennoc1i n yconnn
pa6o1i chenanc1axapxe1ooia, [cx www.kadrovik.ru].
Caxa hpepnapn1einan 6ecepa xoe1 6i1i opiannsonana
pasnunixn choco6axn, xax n o1pee xappon, 1ax n n xa6nne1e ne-
hocpepc1nennoio pyxonopn1en chenanc1axapxe1ooia. Lcn
6ecepa hpoma ypauno, n hpe1enpen1 hponsne hosn1nnnoe nhe-
ua1enne, 1o exy pexoxenpyn1 aannnnn1n 6nanaannncnnc, na-
nnca1n pa1ym an1n6nnrpaqnm n npcpnc1ann1n ncn6xnpnmmc
pnymcn1m n cnpann. Cepye1 nnnxa1eino hponepn1i hpep-
c1anennyn poxyxen1ann n ecn ona coo1ne1c1nye1 hpep:nnne-
xix 1pe6onannnx, 1o hponopn1i 1cc1npnnannc.
Tec1i paspa6a1inan1 hcnxooin n chenanc1i ho hepconay
na hpepxe1 oenxn hpoqhpniopnoc1n: snannn, choco6noc1en, cxapa
yxa, xapax1epa, neo6xopnxix pn qqex1nnnon pen1einoc1n che-
nanc1axapxe1ooia, nahpnxep, na ohpepeenne:
1nopuecxoio ho1ennaa;
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242
coo1ne1c1nnn xepuenpansnniy;
1pypnoc1en no nsanxoo1nomennnx c pyxonopc1nox, hopun-
nennixn, ppyinxn co1pypnnxaxn;
an1opn1e1noc1n;
nanunn opiannsa1opcxnx choco6noc1en;
xonqnx1noc1n xapax1epa;
apah1ann x nsxenennnx n c1peccax;
ppyinx xpn1epnen.

Lcn o1ne1i hpe1enpen1a na nohpoci 1ec1a ypone1nopn1ei-
ni, cepona1eino, on hpoqhpniopen n o6e c1oponi hophncinan1
1pyponon poionop.
Oenxa hpoqeccnonainon hpniopnoc1n chenanc1a
xapxe1ooia hponopn1cn ho pesyi1a1ax eio pen1einoc1n. 1n pe-
syi1a1i nipaan1cn, hpepe nceio, n yc1onunnox qynxnonnpona-
nnn n pasnn1nn opiannsann n xonxypen1non cpepe na ocnone iap-
xonnsann nn1epecon ho1pe6n1een n hponsnopn1een.
Oenxa hpoqhpniopnoc1n 6ype1 hosn1nnnon, ecn chenanc1
xnanqnnponanno ocymec1nne1 anans, xooppnnann n peiyn-
ponanne pen1einoc1n ncex c1pyx1yp opiannsann c yue1ox nsxene-
nnn n peonox n qononox oxpyennn, pesyi1a1nnno nccepye1 x-
xoc1i pinxa, eio xon:nnx1ypi, ho1pe6noc1n n chpoc, nx pnnaxnxy n
n coo1ne1c1nnn c 1nx nepno ohpepene1 c1pa1einn opiannsann n
yconnnx ec1ouanmen xonxypennn. 1o6i hoyun1i o1nunyn
oenxy, chenanc1xapxe1ooi poen cnoenpexenno n xauec1nen-
no io1onn1i hpepoennn ho pasnn1nn 1onapnoio accop1nxen1a.
Hpannino ohpepen1i enonyn hon1nxy, 6esomn6ouno ni6npa1i
xanai pachpoc1panennn c yue1ox qax1opon, nnnnmnx na peansa-
nn hpopyxnn (ycyin), oh1nxaino qopxnpona1i xoxxynnxan-
onnyn hon1nxy, hpnnnxa1i ax1nnnoe yuac1ne n paspa6o1xe hpo-
ipaxx c1pa1einuecxoio, 1ax1nuecxoio n ohepa1nnnoio hannponannn,
1ouno ohpepen1i qqex1nnnoc1i xapxe1nnionon pen1einoc1n op-
iannsann.
Oenxy hpoqeccnonainon hpniopnoc1n chenanc1axapxe-
1ooia eecoo6pasno hponopn1i ho nnpax hpoqeccnonainon pen-
1einoc1n, nahpnxep, 1axnx, xax:
1. xonoxnxoyhpanenuecxan, n 1ox unce hpoex1nohanonan;
2. nnqopxanonnoanan1nuecxan;
3. 1onapnohponsnopc1nennan;
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243
4. xoxxepuecxoc6i1onan (ohepanonnin xapxe1nni);
5. hosnnonnponanne n pehosnnonnponanne (cospanne nxnpa);
6. qnnanconoxpepn1nan c yhpanennex pncxaxn (xoxhexc xap-
xe1nnionix xepohpnn1nn, nahpanennix na c1paxonanne pncxa n
(nn) na cnnenne eio yponnn);
7. ex1ponnin xapxe1nni (xapxe1nnionan pen1einoc1i hocpep-
c1nox nnqopxanonnix cnc1ex, nxnuan Internet).

1o6i ne nhac1i n cy6:ex1nnnsx hpn oenxe eecoo6pasno
nchoisona1i xonoxnxoc1a1nc1nuecxne, opiannsanonno
pachopnpn1einie n conainohcnxooinuecxne xe1opi.
Oueni nano ne 1oixo ypauno hopo6pa1i n o6:ex1nnno oe-
nn1i hpoqeccnonainyn hpniopnoc1i chenanc1axapxe1ooia, no
n ychemno hpoex1npona1i oh1nxainie cnc1exi xo1nnann 1pypa.


6.2. Dpaaqanm npoex1apoaaaas on1aManbamx
cac1eM Mo1aaaqaa 1pypa

Hoce 1oio, xax pa6o1nnx apah1nponacn n xoex1nne, hpno6-
pe neo6xopnxin ohi1 pn nihonennn cnonx hpoqeccnonainix
o6nsannoc1en, oeneni pesyi1a1i eio 1pypa, hpnxennn1 pasnunie
cnc1exi xo1nnann.
Ocnoninanci na cymec1nynmnx 1eopnnx xo1nnann, xne-
nnn chenanc1on, xono hopexoxenpona1i cepynmne hpnnn-
hi hpoex1nponannn oh1nxainix cnc1ex xo1nnann 1pypa:
1. Iyxonopnmne yxasannn, pnpex1nni poni 6i1i cqopxy-
nponani ncno, poxopunno c axen1nponannex nnnxannn ncho-
nn1een na ue1xnx enx n sapauax. Mo1nnann 1pypa 6ype1 q-
qex1nnnon, ecn nchonn1en ocosnan en opiannsann n cnon
co6c1nennie sapaun. Lme yume, ecn nchonn1en caxn hpnnn-
xan yuac1ne n paspa6o1xe een n sapau, 1oipa onn 6ypy1 yume
honnxa1i neo6xopnxoc1i nihonnexon pa6o1i. Kaxnxn 6i pa-
nonainixn nn 6in qopxi xo1nnann, onn ne hpnnecy1 e-
aexix pesyi1a1on, ecn co1pypnnx ne snae1, ueio on poen
poc1nui n xaxne sapaun pemn1i. Ho1oxy neo6xopnxo yc1anann-
na1i nchonn1enx xonxpe1nie, ncnie n nihonnxie (peainie)
en n sapannn.
2. osnaipapennn poni 6i1i ne 1oixo xoppennonno,
no n qynxnonaino sanncnxi o1 een n nihonennn sapannn.
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244
Ichonn1ei sapanee poen sna1i, xaxoe nosnaipapenne on
hoyun1 hpn 1ex nn nnix pesyi1a1ax eio pa6o1i. ea1eino
sna1i n hpnxenn1i 1eopnn onpannn.
3. Heo6xopnxa o1xpi1an n honan nnqopxann o pesyi1a1ax
pa6o1i, 1ax xax iacnoc1i caxa ho ce6e nnne1cn xomnix xo1nnn-
pynmnx qax1opox. \nepoxenne o pesyi1a1ax pa6o1i xapoio nc-
honn1en xoe1 c1nxynpona1i 1pyponyn pen1einoc1i, cospanan
6aiohpnn1nyn o6c1anonxy pn coc1nsa1einoc1n. Inqopxann e o
pesyi1a1ax pa6o1i nceio xoex1nna, xoneuno, ecn n nex spoponin
xnxpoxnxa1, cospae1 y co1pypnnxon uync1no hpnuac1noc1n n o1ne1-
c1nennoc1n. Coo6menne o nosnaipapennnx ho pesyi1a1ax pa6o1i n
o6:ncnenne o6:ex1nnnon pasnni n nx pasxepax hoxoiae1 ns6ea1i
uync1na o6npi n nechpanepnnoc1n y o1peinix co1pypnnxon.
4. Opiannsann n naannanne o6pa1non cnnsn. Iyxonopn1ei
poen ponepn1i nchonn1enx, o6yua1i nx n sna1i, u1o onn ne 6on1-
cn o1ne1c1nennoc1n, pncxa, ynepeni n ce6e, ne hepeipyeni, nxen1
neo6xopnxie pecypci pn nihonennn pa6o1i. ce 1o nosxono
ysna1i 1oixo hpn nanunn o6pa1non cnnsn.
5. Cospanne 6aiohpnn1nix pn qqex1nnnon pen1einoc1n yc-
onnn: oh1nxainoe ocnemenne, 1exhepa1ypa nospyxa, c1e1nunoc1i
nehocpepc1nennoio xec1a pa6o1i, eio ncuephinanman ocnamen-
noc1i, nn1epecnoc1i, hpnnexa1einoc1i hpoecca 1pypa. ac1o pe-
manmnxn qax1opaxn, nnnnmnxn na qqex1nnnoc1i 1pypa, c1ano-
nn1cn hpnxennexie 1exnnuecxne cpepc1na, 1exnooinn, opiannsann
hponsnopc1nennoio hpoecca, 1ax xax paexo ne nceipa hponsnopn-
1einoc1i 1pypa sanncn1 1oixo o1 ueonexa.
6. Oh1nxainoe coue1anne xopainoio n xa1epnainoio c1n-
xynponannn. Koneuno, cenuac n Ioccnn 6oimnnc1no npen o1-
pan1 hpephou1enne xa1epnainoxy c1nxynponannn, no ne c1on1
nepooennna1i snauenne xopainoio c1nxynponannn. Cymec1-
nennyn poi xoiy1 nipa1i hoompennn n nnpe hpnsnannn sacyi
nchonn1en, ponepnn nn1epecnoio, o1ne1c1nennoio sapannn. Ho-
xnaa, pae opo6pn1einan yi6xa nnoipa hpnnopn1 x 6oimnx
pesyi1a1ax, uex hpexnn.
7. Hepconainin hopxop x xapoxy nchonn1en. ano sna1i n
hpnnnxa1i no nnnxanne nunie xauec1na co1pypnnxa: choco6noc1n,
xapax1ep nochpnn1nn, xenunoc1nie xoxxynnxann (nep6ainie n
nenep6ainie, qopxainie n neqopxainie), 1exhepaxen1 (can-
innnnx, xoepnx, xeanxonx, qeixa1nx), cnc1exi ennoc1en n
ppyine xauec1na xonxpe1noio pa6o1nnxa. ce 1o ohpepene1 qax1o-
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245
pi xo1nnann, xo1opie xoiy1 oxasina1i na neio hpnopn1e1noe nos-
penc1nne.

Hpn hpoex1nponannn oh1nxainix cnc1ex xo1nnann 1py-
pa (OCMT) neo6xopnxo axen1npona1i nnnxanne na nnnnne qo-
nonoio oxpyennn, nahpnxep, nnpon qona, 1axnx xax:
1. Hon1nuecxan cn1yann: OCMT pona yun1ina1i o6mehon-
1nuecxne achex1i c1pani, peinona, panona n 1.p. (nanune sa6ac1o-
nox, c1auex n 1.h.);
2. Hpanonan cpepa: OCMT pona yun1ina1i cymec1nynmne sa-
xoni, yxasi, pachopnennn, nnc1pyxnn n ppyine npnpnuecxne ac-
hex1i;
3. xonoxnuecxoe oxpyenne: OCMT pona 6i1i opnen1n-
ponana na o6mne xonoxnuecxne yconnn n iocypapc1ne, peinone
n 1.p., yun1ina1i cn1yann na pinxe 1pypa, nnqnnn;
4. Conainin qon: OCMT pona yun1ina1i coc1onnne con-
ainon nnqpac1pyx1ypi; nicmeio n cpepneio chenainoio o6paso-
nannn, nihycx chenanc1onxapxe1ooion. Oco6oe nnnxanne cepy-
e1 ypen1i oenxe coc1onnnn 1opionn, qax1opax poc1a 1onapoo6o-
po1a. Conainin qon nxnuae1 1axe nsxennnmnecn o6mec1nen-
nie ennoc1n, yc1anonxn, onpannn, npani, o6oc1pennie n name
npexn nanonainie uync1na, pasnn1ne pnnennn n samn1y hpan ho-
1pe6n1een n pp.

Hpn hpoex1nponannn OCMT neisn sa6ina1i o6 nn1epecax
xonxpe1non opiannsann. OCMT pona nhncina1icn n o6myn c1pa-
1einn pen1einoc1n opiannsann, yun1ina1i nsnennin nx, na
xo1opox naxopn1cn opiannsann, hoompn1i 1axon 1pyp pa6o1nnxa,
xo1opin nan6oee enen pn opiannsann, hoppepnna1i y hepco-
naa eanne hpnnnxa1i yuac1ne n conepmenc1nonannn pen1eino-
c1n, pa6o1a1i na hepchex1nny opiannsann, nchoisyn nac1i, nnn-
nne, npepc1no, caxoxenepxen1 n pyxonopc1no.
Mcucdcun

246
Tec1

1. Huxaxan meoun, noea++a u:u naume:tcmennan no-
:umuxa ne +oem coe:amt oeanusauum cneunou. 3mo +oem coe-
:amt mo:txo :mou meoa::
a) Maxc e6ep;
6) Manx Mecxon;
n) Hn 2xoxxa;
i) Axno Mopn1a.

2. B nacmonuee e+n naxou u naxmuxou +eneo+enma necona-
:a asaomanm nunuunm:
a) yhpanennn hepconaox;
6) hoc1poennn cnc1exi yhpanennn hepconaox;
n) xopnqnxann hepconaa;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

3. Hunuunm nenemnocmu, um+uunocmu, euxocmu, cne-
uua:usauuu, aoanmunocmu oneoe:nmm nana:enun asumun:
a) xapponoio hannponannn;
6) cnc1exi yhpanennn hepconaox;
n) hpoecca honepennn hepconaa;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

4. Bce nunuunm nocmoenun cucme+m na:enun necona:o+:
a) peansyn1cn no nsanxopenc1nnn;
6) sanncn1 o1 xnoinx qax1opon (oco6enno coue1anne hpnnnhon);
n) hpepipymne o1ne1i nepni ;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

5. Kaeeo:tnm+ xa+ne+ na:enun necona:o+ cuumaemcn:
a) xaxcnxainan hpn6ii;
6) anans copepannn pa6o1i;
n) cnnsi c pinxox 1pypa;
i) nepno (a+n).

6. K neu+uecma+ nu:euenun necona:a na axanmnm
oo:nocmt nmu oeanusauuu omnocnmcn:
a) 6oee mnpoxne nosxonoc1n ni6opa;
6) nonie nxhyici pn hpephpnn1nn;
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247
n) coxpamenne 1exyuec1n;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

7. K neoocmamxa+ nu:euenun necona:a ne a+ox oeanusa-
uuu omnocumcn:
a) nosxonoe honnenne cohepnnuec1na nn nahpnennoc1n;
6) nicoxan c1eheni pncxa nchi1a1einoio cpoxa;
n) coxpamenne nosxonoc1en pn ni6opa;
i) hpnex na pa6o1y nehocpepc1nenno hoxpinae1 ho1pe6noc1i n
hepconae.

8. o:eoe+ennmu cnex xaoou oeanusauuu saucum om:
a) nanunn neo6xopnxon uncennoc1n hepconaa n nynoe
npexn;
6) nanunn hepconaa nynon xnanqnxann n nynox xec1e;
n) nac1poennn n uncennoc1n hepconaa;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

9. K:tma necona:a oeanusauuu ocnoana, neoe ceeo, na:
a) hpnnn1ix n opiannsann qopxax honepennn;
6) hpannax, ohpepenexix pyxonopc1nox opiannsann;
n) paspenexix 6oimnnc1nox uenon opiannsann y6epenn-
nx n ennoc1nx;
i) oco6ennoc1n hponsnopc1na n o6pasonannn hepconaa opiann-
sann.

10. B xo+nemenuum c:m necona:a oeanusauuu xooum:
a) pachpepeenne nac1nix honoxounn;
6) o6yuenne hepconaa;
n) nsxenenne opiannsanonnon c1pyx1ypi;
i) yhpanenne xonqnx1axn n opiannsann.

11. He saucum om nauuona:tnou x:tmm c:eomuan xon-
uenuun +eneo+enma:
a) 1pyponan xo1nnann;
6) hop6op hepconaa;
n) c1ni npepc1na;
i) cnc1exnin hopxop x xapponoxy hannponannn.
Mcucdcun

248
12. Ocoennocmtm noooa cneuua:ucmo+axemo:oeo ne
n:nemcn ouenmauun na eeo :uunocmt:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

13. Cneuua:ucm+axemo:oe ne oo:en coomemcmoamt
+euenoausune:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

14. Cnocoo+ ouenxu noqeccuona:tnou nueoonocmu xanou-
oamo, coomemcmmuux ce+ meoanun+ nu noooe nauo:ee
nooxoonuux, n:nemcn:
a) anxe1nponanne;
6) xsaxen;
n) saue1;
i) 1ec1nponanne.

Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuue (15-22) o-
nocm:

15. Kaxue ocnonme nunuunm na:enun necona:o+ asa-
omanm nacmonuee e+n naxou u naxmuxou +eneo+enma?
16. Houe+ xaeeo:tnm+ xa+ne+ na:enun cuumaemcn ana-
:us cooeanun aomm comonuxo?
17. Om xaxux qaxmoo (omnocnuuxcn x na:enum necona-
:o+) saucum oo:eoe+ennmu cnex xaoou oeanusauuu?
18. Koeo cuumamm +axemo:oeo+?
19. Houe+ ocoennocmtm noooa cneuua:ucma+axemo:oea
n:nemcn ouenmauun na eeo :uunocmnme xauecma?
20. mo neocma:nem coou +euenoausune?
21. Houe+ cneuua:ucm+axemo:oe oo:en coomemcmo-
amt +euenoausune?
22. mo maxoe moaoooom?

23. Ocnonm+u qnxuun+u xo++nuxamunocmu necona:a
n:nmmcn:
a) caxoopiannsann;
6) nn1eipann;
n) xooppnnann;
i) hepepaua nnqopxann;
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249
24. K ocnonm+ nunuuna+ nocmoenun no+ cucme+e omno-
uenuu +eo u:ena+u oeanusauuu +eneo+enm omnocum:
a) saxonnoc1i n nayunoc1i;
6) iyxannsx n pexoxpa1nsx;
n) pannohpanne;
i) 1papnnonnoc1i n apah1nnnoc1i;

25. K:tm necona:a oeanusauuu om:uuamm c:eomuue
coucma:
a) nepinunoc1i;
6) nceo6mnoc1i;
n) neqopxainoc1i;
i) yc1onunnoc1i;

26. ne oe:au oeu+ moeo, umo, no moe+ +nenum, onu
oo:nm oe:amt mee, ux xc +oem om:uuamtcn - amoo+ 5moeo
so:omoeo nau:a n:nemcn:
a) A.Cxn1;
6) 5.Hoy;
n) H.jpaxep;
i) u.5xon;

27. Ha 5mane xooenun nooeo aomnuxa oeanusauuonnoe
oxenue neoxoou+o euamt oonoe+enno mu saoauu:
a) apah1npona1i n xoex1nne;
6) paspyma1i c1apie honepenuecxne nopxi nxopnmeio ueonexa;
n) sann1epecona1i eio n pa6o1e opiannsann;
i) hpnnnna1i exy nonie nopxi honepennn;

28. Bnmennu+u qaxmoa+u cucme+amusauuu unqo+auuu no
omnouenum x ue:oex, :unmuu+u na neeo, n:nmmcn c:eomuue:
a) snaxoxie exy cninai;
6) nn1encnnnoc1i hepepanaexoio cninaa ;
n) hopnnnoc1i cninaa;
i) ne1 cninaa;



Mcucdcun

250
29. Bmoe:ume mu ennm xaaxmeucmux ocnunu+ae+oeo
aomnuxa :unmuue na eeo ocnunmue +eneoeo+:
a) cn1yann, n xo1opon hponcxopn1 nochpnn1ne;
6) qnsnuecxne xapax1epnc1nxn;
n) conainie xapax1epnc1nxn;
i) anxe1nie xapax1epnc1nxn;

30. Banm+u o:n 5qqexmunoeo na:enun necona:o+ n-
:nmmcn mu muna acno:oenun:
a) yneuennoc1i pa6o1on;
6) oha1a pa6o1i;
n) ypone1nopennoc1i pa6o1on;
i) hpnnepennoc1i opiannsann;
|puuunu qnpa:cuun ncpccua:c

251
Dpax1axyM

1. Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm

6.1.1. Houexy yhpanenne hepconaox nxee1 hepnoc1ehennoe
snauenne pn ncex opiannsann?
6.1.2 1o o1nocn1cn x ocnonnix hpnnnhax, xapax1epnsynmnx
1pe6onannn x qopxnponannn cnc1exi yhpanennn hepconaox?

2. ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm

6.2.1. Kaxoni, ho amexy xnennn, ocnonnie nnpi pen1einoc1n
chenanc1onxapxe1ooion?
6.2.2. uex saxnuae1cn oco6ennoc1i hop6opa chenanc1on
xapxe1ooion? Honcnn1e amy hosnnn.
6.2.3. Iaccxan1e o hpnnnhax hpoex1nponannn oh1nxainix
cnc1ex xo1nnann 1pypa. 1o ax ncno n nnx, a u1o ne1? Honcnn1e
am o1ne1.
6.2.4. Kax i o1nocn1eci x 1oxy, u1o x ocnonnix hpnnnhax, xa-
pax1epnsynmnx 1pe6onannn x qopxnponannn cnc1exi yhpanennn
hepconaox, chenanc1i o1nocn1 hepchex1nnnoc1i, hpospaunoc1i,
xoxqop1noc1i? Honcnn1e amy hosnnn.
6.2.5. Kax i oennnae1e connmyncn 1enpennn oenxn
hpoqhpniopnoc1n xanpnpa1on na naxan1nyn ponoc1i hocpepc1nox
1ec1nponannn? 1o 6i i pexoxenponan pn conepmenc1nonannn
hop6opa n oenxn hpoqeccnonainon hpniopnoc1n chenanc1on,
nahpnxep, xapxe1ooion?
6.2.6. Hohpo6yn1e ohnca1i nan6oee hepchex1nnnie, c amen
1ouxn spennn, hpnnnhi hpoex1nponannn oh1nxainix cnc1ex xo-
1nnann 1pypa.
6.2.7. Hpephoon1e, u1o xo1n1e pa6o1a1i chenanc1ox
xapxe1ooiox, napo coc1ann1i n hepepa1i pesnxe n 1pn pasnu-
nie opiannsann: a) xayn; 6) cpepnnn; n) cnepxxpyhnyn. ex
1n pesnxe 6ypy1 o1nua1icn ppyi o1 ppyia? Kax i pyxae1e, ho-
uexy?

3. jwc6nmc cn1yannn

6.3.1. (19) 1o6i ocosnannee hpnnn1i pemenne o ni6ope xec1a
pa6o1i n ns6pannon axn ponoc1n, coc1ani1e na nee ponoc1nyn
Mcucdcun

252
nnc1pyxnn, ho1ox nanpn1e n In1epne1e, nahpnxep,
http://www.sokolov.sp.ru/dolgnost/mened.htm, nsyun1e ee n paspa-
6o1an1e hpepoennn ho ee yyumennn.
6.3.2. (20) Hpephoon1e, u1o i hoyunn ponoc1i xenep-
epa ho hepconay nn chenanc1a xapxe1ooia, xaxon xo1n-
nanonnon 1eopnn i o1papn1e hpephou1enne, na xaxnx hpnn-
nhax hpoex1nponannn oh1nxainix cnc1ex xo1nnann 1pypa
i 6ype1e axen1npona1i nnnxanne? Houexy?

Ocnnnnmc nmnnpm, nnnn1nn, nnpcpcncnnn

\hpanenne hepconaox nxee1 hepnoc1ehennoe snauenne pn
ncex opiannsann, ho1oxy u1o hepcona nnne1cn opnnx ns ocnonnix
xonoxnuecxnx pecypcon, ocnonon opiannsann, ee cymnoc1in n 6o-
ia1c1nox. Hn6an opiannsann, ee pyxonopn1en poni oueni xnoio
sna1i o xapox co1pypnnxe pn 1oio, u1o6i qqex1nnno yhpann1i
hepconaox. Hpn yhpanennn hepconaox neisn paccxa1pnna1i eio
n o6mex n eox, 1.x. nce npn pasnie n hopxop x nnx poen 6i1i
hepconainix. \hpanenne ueonexox n opiannsann upesniuanno
conan, o1ne1c1nennan, nanan, pae cypi6onocnan pn opiannsa-
nn pen1einoc1i. Mnoine chenanc1i 1pypn1cn nap qopxnpona-
nnex cnc1exi yhpanennn hepconaox. K ocnonnix hpnnnhax, xa-
pax1epnsynmnx 1pe6onannn x qopxnponannn cnc1exi yhpanennn
hepconaox, onn o1nocn1: xoxhexcnoc1i, ohepa1nnnoc1i, hpoc1o1y,
nayunoc1i, xonoxnunoc1i, qqex1nnnoc1i n pp.
Menepxen1 poen paccxa1pnna1i xapoio pa6o1nnxa n pas-
nunix achex1ax, nahpnxep, 1axnx xax:
co1pypnnxa, nihonnnmeio xonxpe1nyn pa6o1y;
uena qopxainon n (nn) neqopxainon ipyhhi, nipanmeio oh-
pepeennyn (hosn1nnnyn nn neia1nnnyn) poi n ipyhhonox honepennn;
chenanc1a, xo1opin hoc1onnno honimae1 cnon xnanqnxa-
nn, hpno6pe1ae1 nonie snannn, xenne1 cnoe honepenne n coo1ne1c1-
nnn c hpnnnhaxn yhpanennn hepconaox, o1nomennex x nexy xax
x nunoc1n poc1onnon ynaennn.

Isnexan ypoxn ns cnoeio nunoio ohi1a, pa6o1nnx, xax hpa-
nno, apah1npye1cn x opiannsanonnoxy oxpyennn n xenne1 cnoe
honepenne. Menepep n npep opiannsann xoiy1 qqex1nnno nos-
penc1nona1i na xopnqnxann honepennn chenanc1a, eio o1nome-
nne x cnoen pen1einoc1n, xnccnn n enx opiannsann.
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253
1o6i xonxpe1nee osnaxoxn1icn c ocnonnixn nnpaxn pen-
1einoc1n chenanc1onxapxe1ooion, paccxo1pnx ponoc1nyn
nnc1pyxnn.

nnxnnc1nan nnc1pynnn

Mapxe1ooia (www.kadrovik.ru)

1. OBHHE HOHOEHH2
1.1. Ha ponoc1i Mapxe1ooia nasnauae1cn no, nxenmee
nicmee hpoqeccnonainoe (xonoxnuecxoe nn nnenepno
xonoxnuecxoe) o6pasonanne n c1a ho chenainoc1n n o6ac1n
xapxe1nnia.
1.2. Hasnauenne na ponoc1i Mapxe1ooia n ocno6openne o1
ne hponsnopn1cn hpnxasox Ienepainoio pnpex1opa opiannsann.
1.3. Mapxe1ooi poen o6apa1i: anan1nuecxnxn choco6no-
c1nxn, choco6noc1in x hepchex1nnnoxy hannponannn, xoxxynnxa-
nonnixn choco6noc1nxn.
1.4. Mapxe1ooi poen sna1i:
opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einie poxyxen1i nimec1onmnx
pyxonopn1een;
saxonopa1einie nopxa1nnnie ax1i, xe1opnuecxne xa1epnai
ho opiannsann xapxe1nnia n oenxe qnnanconoxonoxnuecxoio
coc1onnnn n xxoc1n pinxa;
xe1opi nsyuennn pinounon xon:nnx1ypi n paspa6o1xn hpo-
inoson ho1pe6noc1n n peansyexon hpopyxnn;
opiannsann pexaxnoio pea;
choco6i n xe1opi pa6o1i c CMI;
hopnpox paccxo1pennn n hopio1onxn pexaxnon poxyxen1a-
nn;
ocnonnie 1exnooinuecxne n xonc1pyx1nnnie oco6ennoc1n,
xapax1epnc1nxn n ho1pe6n1eicxne cnonc1na peansyexon hpopyx-
nn, e o1nune o1 o1euec1nennix n sapy6enix anaoion, hpenxy-
mec1na n nepoc1a1xn;
xoxhin1epnie 1exnooinn n ohepanonnie cnc1exi;
hpanna nny1penneio 1pyponoio pachopnpxa;
hpanna n nopxi oxpani 1pypa.
1.5. Mapxe1ooi n cnoen pen1einoc1n pyxonopc1nye1cn na-
c1onmen ponoc1non nnc1pyxnen.
Mcucdcun

254
1.6. Mapxe1ooi hopunnne1cn nehocpepc1nenno nauainnxy o1-
pea hpopa.
1.7. Ha npexn o1cy1c1nnn Mapxe1ooia (o1hycx, 6oesni, hp.)
eio o6nsannoc1n nchonne1 no, nasnauennoe n yc1anonennox ho-
pnpxe, xo1opoe hpno6pe1ae1 coo1ne1c1nynmne hpana n nec1 o1ne1c1-
nennoc1i sa nenapeamee nchonenne nosoennix na neio o6n-
sannoc1en.

2. ujHKHHOHAHBHLE OB23AHHOCTH
Mapxe1ooi:
2.1. Hponopn1 ncceponannn ocnonnix qax1opon, qopxnpyn-
mnx pnnaxnxy ho1pe6n1eicxoio chpoca na hpopyxnn, coo1nomenne
chpoca n hpepoennn na anaoinunie nnpi hpopyxnn, 1exnnuecxnx
n nnix ho1pe6n1eicxnx xauec1n xonxypnpynmen hpopyxnn.
2.2. Ocymec1nne1 xapxe1nnionie ncceponannn, cnnsannie c
nsyuennex ceixen1ann pinxa, anansox enoo6pasonannn n hpep-
hou1ennn ho1pe6n1en, hpoinosox hpopa n xanaon peansann,
o1xpi1nex nonix pinxon, oenxon qqex1nnnoc1n pexaxi, pen-
1einoc1in xonxypen1on, n 1.p.
2.3. Anansnpye1 ho1pe6noc1n xnen1on n ipanni enoo6pa-
sonannn.
2.4. Hpnnnxae1 yuac1ne n paspa6o1xe c1pa1einn hponepennn
pexaxnix xepohpnn1nn.
2.5. Kon1ponpye1 hponepenne pexaxnix xoxhannn n cpepc1nax
xacconon nnqopxann, hpnxon hou1onon paccixe, In1epne1 n 1.p.
2.6. Opiannsye1 paspa6o1xy heua1nix pexaxnix xa1epna-
on co6c1nennixn cnaxn nn cnaxn c1oponnnx opiannsann,
nx 1ec1nponanne, pae1 hpepoennn ho pnsanny heua1nix pex-
axnix xa1epnaon nn ncxopnyn nnqopxann pn nx paspa-
6o1xn, xon1ponpye1 hohonenne sahacon 1nx xa1epnaon. e-
pe1 hpepnapn1einyn oenxy paspa6o1annix c1oponnnxn opia-
nnsannxn pexaxnix xa1epnaon.
2.7. Anansnpye1 qqex1nnnoc1i pexaxnix xoxhannn.

3. HPABA

Mapxe1ooi nxee1 hpano:
3.1. 3ahpamnna1i y pyxonopn1een c1pyx1ypnix hoppaspee-
nnn opiannsann, chenanc1on n nnix pa6o1nnxon neo6xopnxyn
pn cnoen pa6o1i nnqopxann n poxyxen1i, neo6xopnxie pn ni-
honennn eio ponoc1nix o6nsannoc1en.
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255
3.2. neo6xopnxix cyuanx hpepc1ann1i opiannsann n o1-
nomennnx c ppyinxn hpephpnn1nnxn, opiannsannxn, yupepennn-
xn n enx ohepa1nnnoio pemennn nohpocon hponsnopc1nenno
xosnnc1nennon pen1einoc1n, nxopnmen n eio xoxhe1ennn.

4. OTBETCTBEHHOCTB

Mapxe1ooi nec1 o1ne1c1nennoc1i:
4.1. 3a nenapeamee nchonenne nn nenchonenne cnonx
ponoc1nix o6nsannoc1en, hpepycxo1pennix nac1onmen pono-
c1non nnc1pyxnen.
4.2. 3a hpnunnenne xa1epnainoio ymep6a n ymep6a peonon pe-
hy1ann opiannsann.
4.3. 3a pasiamenne xoxxepuecxon 1anni.
4.4. 3a nenihonenne hpnxason, pachopnennn n hopyuennn
pyxonopc1na.

5. jCHOBH2 PABOTL

5.1. Ienx pa6o1i Mapxe1ooia ohpepene1cn n coo1ne1c1nnn c
Hpannaxn nny1penneio 1pyponoio pachopnpxa, yc1anonennixn n
opiannsann.
5.2. cnnsn c hponsnopc1nennon neo6xopnxoc1in Mapxe1ooi
xoe1 niesa1i n cye6nie xoxanpnponxn (n 1.u. xec1noio snauennn).

C nnc1pyxnen nananmncn: ___________________ _________________
(nnpnncn) (u.H.O.)

_________________200__r.


Oqnpmncnnc nn c1anpap1y

3apannn ho 1exe 6 nxnuan1:
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 6 2 m1.
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci ho 1exe 6 7 m1.
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 6 2 m1.

Mcucdcun

256
Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 6

Hnc1annna aapannn
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 6 pasxemeni n CjO Kaxhyc n
qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 6.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 xpa1xnn o1ne1 (ne 6oee 200 cnxnoon) na
xapin nohpoc n qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 6 po nauaa
aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 6 (cx. Kaenpapnin han xypca).
O1ne1i na nohpoci n qopyxe cepye1 pasxema1i, xnxnyn na
cnxno O1ne1n1i. am o1ne1 poen honnn1icn n pepene coo6me-
nnn hop coo1ne1c1nynmnx nohpocox. HL ICHOHI3\ITL KHOH-
K\ (cospa1i) jH2 OTLTA HA OHIOCI.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
O1ne1i na nohpoci pasxeman1e ncen ipyhhon n qopyxe
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 6.

Tac:ua 1

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na nn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 6

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. Konuec1no hpanninix
o1ne1on
1 ns 2 4 2 ns 2 6
2. O1ne1i pasxemeni hop
nohpocaxn n pepene coo6-
mennn)
pa 1

ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 6

Hnc1annna aapannn
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci 6ypy1 yc1no o6cypa1icn na cexnnape ho
1exe 6. ax neo6xopnxo hopio1onn1icn x 6ecepe ho pannix nohpocax.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 o6ocnonannan hosnnn ho xapoxy
nohpocy, osnyuennan no npexn aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 6 (cx.
|puuunu qnpa:cuun ncpccua:c

257
Kaenpapnin han xypca); n xope cexnnapa i 6ype1e o1neua1i na
nohpoci n cyuannox hopnpxe; xapin c1ypen1 poen yche1i o1ne-
1n1i na 1 nn 2 nohpoca.
ama hosnnn pona 6i1i ocnonana na n1a1ax ns yue6nix
xa1epnaon ho 1exe 6.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
ax neo6xopnxo yc1no nson1i n o6ocnona1i cnon hosnnn n
xope aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 6.

Tac:ua 2

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na pncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 6

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. Konuec1no hpanninix
o1ne1on
1 10 2 n 6oee 13
2. O6ocnonannoc1i o1ne-
1on (nchoisonanne n-
1a1 ns yue6nix
xa1epnaon)
ec1i 2
3. Ichoisonanne poho-
nn1einix nc1ounnxon
1 nc1ounnx
n 6oee
5

jwc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 6. Bapnan1 19 nnn 20

Hnc1annna aapannn
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 6 paccxa1pnnan1cn axn caxoc1on-
1eino.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 qan c o1ue1ox ho opnon cn1yann,
oqopxennin ho HA5HOH\ N___ (cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc),
nicannin 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn CjO Kaxhyc po nauaa
cepynmeio aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 6 (cx. Kaenpapnin han
xypca); ni xoe1e o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen-
1axn n qopyxe \ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 6.
Mcucdcun

258
Ha6on o1ue1a (Tn1yinan c1panna. Chncox ocnonnix paspe-
on) cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc. O6mnn o6:ex nameio 1exc1a n
o1ue1e ho 1exe 6 ne 6oee 1 c1panni (3000 snaxon).

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
Io1onin o1ue1 hepeciae1cn 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn
CjO Kaxhyc. 3aioonox coo6mennn c qanox poen copepa1i na-
snanne ipyhhi, noxep 1exi n noxep yue6non cn1yann, nahpnxep
O1ue1_uIO_ju102_\ue6nan_cn1yann_6.3.2(20). i xoe1e
o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen1axn n qopyxe
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 6.

Tac:ua 3

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na ywc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 6

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. uan o1ue1a oqopxen
ho ma6ony
pa 1
2. uan o1hpanen n cpox pa 2
3. O6:ex 1exc1a ne hpe-
nimae1 1pe6onannn
pa 2
4. O1ne1 nxee1 o6ocnona-
nne (xonuec1no cciox n
n1a1)
3 2 5 4
5. O1ne1 ynnxaen (ne1
hon1opon n anaoion n
o1ue1ax ppyinx c1ypen-
1on)
pa 4




8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

259
Fnaaa 7.



Bnac1b, anasaae, napepc1ao,
caMoMeaepwMea1 a pyxoaopc1ao




Hsyuaa 1eMy 7, c1ypea1 ponwea
saa1b:
a) qopxi nac1n;
6) nnnnne;
n) ocnonnie 1eopnn npepc1na.
yMe1b:
ohpepen1i opiannuecxne qynxnn pyxonopn1en n
apah1ann c1nen pyxonopc1na x peonix cn1yannx.
npaopec1a aaamxa:
caxoxenepxen1a.


Mcucdcun

260
Hu usuenuu me+m 7 neoxoou+o:

Hn1a1n iany 7 yue6noio hoco6nn ho xenepxen1y n exnn.
Bmnnnnn1n aapannc hpax1nxyxa n 6anxa 1ec1on ho xenep-
xen1y ho paspey 7: o1ne1n1i na xon1poinie nohpoci, hpnnn1i yua-
c1ne n o6cypennn pncxyccnonnix nohpocon, yue6nix cn1yann, 1ec-
1nponannn. Hopio1onn1i xypconyn pa6o1y, peqepa1 nn cce n hpn-
oennn ho 1exax:

1. uopxi nac1n n nnnnne;
2. Hnunoc1nie n opiannsanonnie nc1ounnxn nac1n;
3. Ocnonnie 1eopnn npepc1na n hpax1nuecxne nanixn xenepepa;
4. Caxoxenepxen1;
5. Opiannuecxne qynxnn pyxonopn1en;
6. Apah1ann c1nen pyxonopc1na x peonix cn1yannx (c1ypen-
1ax, xo1opie pemnn 6oee yiy6enno nsyun1i 1exy 7).



ac1i nap npixn hpno6pe1ae1cn
nmi hocpepc1nox cyennn nx.
8. Kq-cu


7.1. OopMm anac1a a anasaae

ac1i neo6xopnxa pn ychemnon pen1einoc1n n6on opia-
nnsann.
Bnac1n n nprannaannn 1o oipannuennoe hpano nchoisona1i
xonoxnuecxne pecypci opiannsann n nahpann1i ycnnn xoex-
1nna opiannsann nn eio uac1n na nihonenne sapannn, xnccnn n
poc1nenne een opiannsann
j. K. I6pen1 pae1 necxoixo nnoe ohpepeenne: ac1i
1o choco6noc1i opnoio ueonexa nn eon ipyhhi npen nannsi-
na1i cnon en ppyinx. Hanune nac1n hopopae1 1pn nohpoca:
1) x1o 1on nac1in o6apae1? (n6o 1o ne nceipa 6inae1 ouennpnix);
2) pn poc1nennn xaxnx een ee nchoisyn1? 3) xaxnx o6pasox po-
6nnan1cn coiacnn nn honnnonennn oc1ainix?
8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

261
Iccepona1en nac1n, nahpnxep, I. upenu, 5. Innen, K Xenc
paspa6o1an oh1nxainyn, na xon nsinp, xaccnqnxann qopx
nac1n:
1. Bnac1n, ncnnnannan na npnnyxpcnnn, hoayn, caxan
neia1nnnan. Icceponannn, hponepennie n c1panax speon pinou-
non xonoxnxn, hoxasan, u1o opiannsann, nchoisynmne
nac1i, ocnonannyn na hpnnypennn, xapax1epnsyn1cn nnsxon
hponsnopn1einoc1in 1pypa n ne yumnx xauec1nox hpopyxnn.
Hahpnxep, upep Hy1anc y1neppae1: xo1n hpnnypenne n xo-
e1 hpnnec1n x npexennon hoxopnoc1n hopunnennoio, ono hpons-
nopn1 neea1einie ho6ounie qqex1i cxonannoc1i, c1pax,
ec1i n o1uypenne. 1o, n cnon ouepepi, xoe1 hpnnec1n x 6oee
nnsxon hponsnopn1einoc1n 1pypa, neypone1nopennoc1n pa6o1on
n 6oimon 1exyuec1n xappon.
2. Bnac1n, ncnnnannan na nnanarpaxpcnnn, opna ns caxix
qqex1nnnix qopx nac1n, no n speci ec1i nnanci. Hahpnxep, ho-
1pe6noc1n npen nxen1 ynnxainin xapax1ep: 1o, u1o opnoxy hpep-
c1anne1cn nosnaipapennex, ppyion 1ax ne oennnae1. xapon op-
iannsann oipannueni pecypci n ona ne n coc1onnnn nosnaipapa1i
xnoinx, pa n ne nceipa snae1, xaxoe nheua1enne hponsnep1 1o nn
nnoe nosnaipapenne na xoex1nn.
3. cncp1nan nnac1n (pasnonnpnoc1i hpepipymen) pa6o1-
nnx nepn1, u1o y nosnaipapanmeio ec1i chenainie snannn, xo1o-
pie hosnon1 ypone1nopn1i nacymnyn ho1pe6noc1i nn poc1ann1i
yponoic1nne. 1y qopxy nac1n eme nasinan1 nac1in xoxhe1en1-
noc1n.
4. 3annnan (1papnnnnnnan) nnac1n 1o nospenc1nne, ocno-
nannoe na 1papnnn. Hopunnennin nepn1, u1o pyxonopn1ei nxee1
saxonnoe hpano o1pana1i pachopnennn n yxasannn. Hexo1opie che-
nanc1i cun1an1, u1o neisn hoaia1icn 1oixo na 1papnnonnyn
nac1i, 1.x. 1o o6nsa1eino hopopn1 hpo6exi n nonpe1 n hpo1nno-
peune c ennoc1nxn conpexennoio 1pyennxa, cnnsannixn c eio pa-
6o1on, nahpnxep, hpnuac1noc1in x opiannsann, yuac1nex n nexo1o-
pix ee xepohpnn1nnx.
5. 1annnnan nnac1n (nnac1n npnmcpa) 1o nospenc1nne, oc-
nonannoe na nunix cnonc1nax oxasinanmeio nospenc1nne, hpnno-
pnmee x 1oxy, u1o hopunnennin 1nne1cn x pyxonopn1en, po6po-
noino 6epe1 c neio hpnxep n c1pexn1cn 6i1i 1axnx e.
O6nsa1einix exen1ox n6on nac1n, opnnx ns ohpepe-
nnmnx ee cnonc1n, nnne1cn nnnnne.
Mcucdcun

262
Bnnnnnc honepenne ueonexa, nsxennnmee o1nomenne,
honepenne n 1.h. ppyioio nn ipyhhi npen. Han6oee npxon
xapax1epnc1nxon nac1n hpnxepa nnne1cn nnnnne c hoxomin
xapnsxi.
Xapnama nnnnne, ocnonannoe na cnonc1nax nunoc1n pyxo-
nopn1en nn eio choco6noc1n hpnnexa1i c1oponnnxon. Le eme na-
sinan1 peqepen1non nac1in.
ocnone 1on qopxi nac1n en1 ne oinxa, ne 1papnnn, a
cna nunix xauec1n nn choco6noc1en nipanmencn nunoc1n.
Mono nipen1i nexo1opie xapax1epnc1nxn xapnsxa1nuecxon nu-
noc1n:
o6xen nepinen, xo1opyn 1a nunoc1i nsyuae1 n sapnae1 en
hopunnennix;
uac1o nnymn1einan nnemnoc1i, no ne o6nsa1eino xpacnnan,
hpoc1o yxenne hpexpacno pepa1icn;
nesanncnxoc1i xapax1epa, caxopoc1a1ounoc1i;
oh1nxainoe nochpnn1ne nocxnmennn cnoen nunoc1in 6es
napxennoc1n;
hoc1onnno poc1onnan n ynepennan xanepa pepa1icn, niin-
pe1i co6pannix n napenmnx cn1yanen.

Co1pypnnxn uame nchi1inan1 nnnnne 1ex, x1o o6apae1 nx-
honnpynmnxn nx uep1axn xapax1epa, na xoio xoue1cn 6i1i hoxonx.
Cepye1 o1xe1n1i, u1o pasnunie qopxi nac1n ne cymec1ny-
n1 nsonponanno n nesanncnxo ppyi o1 ppyia. n6on opiannsann
nxee1 xec1o nx nsanxopenc1nne, nsanxohponnxnonenne. Cymec1nyn1
1axe pasnunie nc1ounnxn nac1n, nahpnxep:
Hehi o1nomennn nac1n, ipe opnn nc1ounnx hepexopn1 n ppy-
ion: ho1pe6n1ei co6c1nennnx xenepep xapxe1ooi neho-
cpepc1nennin nchonn1ei.
Opnn nc1ounnx nac1n xoe1 nic1yha1i n xauec1ne hpepnapn-
1einoio yconnn nn ocnonannn pn nosnnxnonennn n penc1nnn ppy-
ioio nc1ounnxa nac1n: nac1i iocypapc1na nnnaci ocnonon pn ho-
nnennn nac1n hpan co6c1nennnxa na cpepc1na hponsnopc1na n namen
c1pane n nac1n xenepepa.
Opnn nc1ounnx nac1n hpnxo nn xocnenno ohocpepye1 nnn-
nne ppyioio: nac1i pinxa peansye1cn uepes nac1i co6c1nennnxa,
hopunnnnmeio hponsnopc1nennin hpoecc nn1epecax hoxyha1een.
Heqqex1nnnan nac1i co6c1nennnxa xoe1 hpnnec1n x oca6ennn
nac1n pinxa nap hponsnopn1eex.
8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

263
Iasnunie nc1ounnxn nac1n xoiy1 nic1yha1i n o1nomennn
ppyi ppyia xax cy6c1n1y1i, nahpnxep, nac1i iocypapc1na n
nac1i pinxa nap xonoxnuecxnx honepennex nn e xax xox-
hnxen1i, nahpnxep, nac1i co6c1nennnxa n nac1i xenepepa.
Hepepxo opnn n 1e e nc1ounnxn nac1n n opnnx cn1yannx xoiy1
6i1i cy6c1n1y1axn (nsanxosaxenn1i ppyi ppyia), a n ppyinx cn-
1yannx nic1yha1i xax xoxhnxen1i (pohonn1i ppyi ppyia).

Taxnx o6pasox, n conoxyhnoc1n 1n cnnsn o6pasyn1 cnc1exy
nac1n, n paxxax xo1opon qopxnpye1cn pen1einoc1i, xax o1-
peinon opiannsann, 1ax n ncen xonoxnuecxon cnc1exi n e-
ox. Isxenenne ipann opnoio nac1noio o1nomennn neue1 sa
co6on nsxenenne ipann ppyioio. Opiannsanonnan ocnona na-
c1n nxnuae1: hpnnn1ne pemennn, nosnaipapenne, hpnnype-
nne, pachopnenne xonoxnuecxnxn pecypcaxn, nac1i cnnsen n
nac1i o6apannn nnqopxanen.
Konxypen1ochoco6noc1i opiannsann, ee qqex1nnnan pen-
1einoc1i n ohpepeennon c1ehenn sanncn1 o1 1oio, x1o nap xex, n
xaxon xepe, n xaxnx ipannax, xaxnx choco6ox ocymec1nne1 nac1i;
o1 1oio, xaxne nnpi hponsnopc1nennoxoxxepuecxon pen1einoc1n
nac1i oipannunnae1, na u1o nac1i nahpanena, xaxne nosxonoc1n
ona cospae1. Connmancn cnc1exa nac1n xoe1 hpnnec1n x hopnpxy
n qqex1nnnoc1n nn c1a1i hpnunnon xaoca n 6anxpo1c1na opiann-
sann. A 1o, hpepe nceio, sanncn1 o1 npepa opiannsann.


7.2. Ocaoaame 1eopaa napepc1aa

Hnpcp xnuenan qniypa n yhpanennn opiannsanen, a n-
pepc1no nene xenepxen1a!
Hnpcp nprannaannn ueonex, qqex1nnno ocymec1nnnmnn
qopxainoe n/nn neqopxainoe pyxonopc1no n npepc1no, oxasi-
nanmnn nnnnne na o1peinix nchonn1een nn na ipyhhi, na-
hpannn nx ycnnn na poc1nenne een opiannsann n nihonenne
ee xnccnn.
jn peansann npepc1na neo6xopnxo nanune coo1ne1c1nnn
xepy enxn hocepona1een n npepa.
Hnpep n opiannsann hopo6no ax1epy nipae1 sapanee ohpepe-
ennyn poi n xapon xonxpe1non cn1yann, no peansye1 n nen
hepconainyn nn1ephpe1ann. Kapan poi nnne1cn nmi o1pei-
Mcucdcun

264
no nsn1ix achex1ox eoc1noio honepennn. C honn1nex poi n xe-
nepxen1e cnnsani 1eopnn xchex1ann (poenix onpannn, poe-
nix xonqnx1on, poenon nahpnennoc1n, xenunoc1nix o1nome-
nnn). xenepxen1e poi 1o xoxhexc o6pason honepennn, cnn-
sannix c ocymec1nennex ohpepeennon pen1einoc1n ee nchonn-
1eex, a 1axe c ppyinxn ponxn. Ipeainyn xopei npepa xe-
nepepa xapax1epnsye1 oh1nxainoe coue1anne pasnunix poen
(cx. pnc. 7.1.).























Puc. 7.1. Knaccnqnannn pnncn nnpcpa

\uenie 6nxennopnc1i hpnxennn 1pn hopxopa x ohpepee-
nnn snaunxix 1pax1onox qqex1nnnoio npepa, na ocnone xo1opix
6in paspa6o1ani cepynmne 1eopnn npepc1na:
1. Hopxop c hosnnn nunix xauec1n, 1ax nasinaexan, 1eopnn
nenxnx npen;
2. Honepenuecxnn hopxop xonehnn npepcxoio honepennn;
3. Cn1yanonnin hopxop.
Ho nnpax
pen1einoc1n
Ho hpopon1ei-
noc1n nchonennn
pon
Ho qopxe
nospenc1nnn
Ho xapax1epy
nchonennn
pon
Ho eenon
nahpanennoc1n
Opiannsa
nonnie
Apxnnnc1
pa1nnnie
Menunoc1-
nie (neqop-
xainie)
Tnopuecxne
Iehpopyx
1nnnie
Hpnxie Kocnennie
Hoc1o
nnnie
Lpnnonpe
xennie
Inqpac1
pyx1ypnie
Inqopxa
nonnie
xonoxn
uecxne

jpyine
8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

265
Hnpep, xax hpanno, c1axnnae1cn c oipoxnix pasnoo6pasnex
cn1yann, n xo1opix hpnxopn1cn nipa1i xonxpe1nyn poi, nnoipa
cpasy necxoixo, opnaxo, uame nceio poxnnnpye1 opna ohpepeennan
poi. Hnpep n nan6oimen c1ehenn peansye1 nn1eipann een
opiannsann.
Ocnonnie 1eopnn npepc1na nipenn1 cepynmne yconnn
ychemnon peansann poen:
nce pon poni nihonn1icn no nsanxocnnsn n pnnaxnuno;
poenan c1pyx1ypa pen1einoc1n ne pona 6i1i pncxpe1non:
pon neo1penxi ppyi o1 ppyia n o6apan1 nexo1opix epnnc1nox;
n6an ns poen pona naxopn1icn n pasnn1nn, hoc1onnno nn-
ponsxennnci, pnnaxnuno conepmenc1nynci.

C1a1yc npepa n coo1ne1c1nynmnn c1ni eio honepennn pn
o6echeuennn ychemnon pen1einoc1n opiannsann ohpepene1cn
nunoc1in, o6pasonannex, ohi1ox, an1opn1e1ox, xonxpe1nixn o6-
c1on1eic1naxn, pachoaiaexixn pecypcaxn, yxennex 6i1i nape-
nix, y6epn1einix, o1ne1c1nennix opiannsonannix (xnoine yue-
nie, nahpnxep, I. C1oipn, I. Mann, \. 5ennnc n pp. o1xeuan1 6o-
ee 40 npepcxnx xauec1n).
Hnpep pn honimennn qqex1nnnoc1n cnoen pen1einoc1n
poen nape1i caxoxenepxen1ox.


7.3. CaMoMeaepwMea1

Hnpepy, eanmexy yhpann1i ppyinxn, neo6xopnxo sna1i,
u1o c1pexenne nayun1icn caxoxenepxen1y 1o pecypc, hocpepc1-
nox xo1opoio ueonex naunnae1 yun1icn xenepxen1y.
Camnmcncpxmcn1 1o ncxycc1no yhpann1i co6on n (nn) op-
iannsanen; eenahpanennoe n hocepona1einoe nchoisonanne
ahpo6nponannix xe1opon n honcepnennon pen1einoc1n c ein oh-
1nxainoio pacxoponannn npexenn n cn.
o1nune o1 1papnnonnoio honnxannn xenepxen1a, hpn xo-
1opox pyxonopn1ei nceipa poen naxopn1icn n coc1ane cnc1exi, ca-
xoxenepxen1 nxee1 peo c, 1ax nasinaexixn caxoopiannsonannixn
nn, n 1epxnnax ec1ec1nennix nayx, xoahcnpynmnxn cnc1exaxn
(cnxanmnxncn, caxonxnnpnpynmnxncn no npexenn n hpoc1panc1-
ne). caxoxenepxen1e xenepepi xoiy1 naxopn1icn xax nny1pn, 1ax n
nne cnc1exi; hpn 1ox na6npaexan nn yhpannexan cn1yann pn
nnemneio xenepepa cxpinae1cn sa iopnson1ox co6i1nn.
Mcucdcun

266
Cymnoc1i caxoxenepxen1a coc1on1 n yue1e sapau, xe1opon,
oco6ennoc1en n 1.p. nnpnnnpyainoio caxoconepmenc1nonannn xa-
poio xenepepa (u1o xopomo nsnec1no) n n pa6o1e c cnc1exaxn cnc-
1ex xax conepmenno nonoio achex1a caxoxenepxen1a noo6me n
nesanncnxoio xenepepa n uac1noc1n.
Caxoxenepxen1 n cymnoc1n hponsome ns xnoec1na 1eopnn
n xe1opnx conainoio yhpanennn n nece1 xnoine nx poc1onnc1na n
nepoc1a1xn. jo hocepneio npexenn eio hpepxe1nan o6ac1i ncxycc1-
nenno cyaaci caxopasnn1nex nnpnnnpon, sannxanmnxcn xenep-
xen1ox n hpephooennn a6con1non npen1nunoc1n honn1nn
yhpanennn n xenepxen1a. Opnaxo pa6o1a n yconnnx pinounix
nnqpac1pyx1yp n painenmee pasnn1ne pexoxpa1nsann n xe1opon
peen1pansann, a 1axe yue1 hepxanen1non hoyhpospaunoc1n
n6ix ipann ho1pe6onan yiy6ennoio anansa hpnunn n o6c1on-
1eic1n neqqex1nnnoc1n xnoinx xe1opon xoxanpnoio yhpanennn,
ninnennn xe1opon pn pen1einoc1n n yconnnx neohpepeennoc1n
n 1.p., 1o ec1i yue1a cymnoc1n caxoxenepxen1a. Oxasaoci, u1o pa-
6o1a c pannohpannixn xnen1axn, xaix 6nsnecox, qnnaaxn,
xnponix pinxox n 1.p. cymec1nenno o1nuae1cn o1 xoxanponannn n
nnennoqynxnonainix c1pyx1ypax o1pacenoio hana.
Cymnoc1i caxoxenepxen1a 6asnpye1cn na pnpe hpnnnhon,
yconnn hponnennn, ocnonannn, xoneh1yansann:
1. Cacnpcu-c:tuccnt. Hpnnnh nnne1cn ocnonohoaianmnx n
o6echeunnanmnx honnenne 1enpennn n na6npaexix qax1on
qqex1a n yconnnx xonxpe1nix pinounix ceixen1on n coo1ne1c1-
nynmnx yhpannexix cnc1ex nesanncnxo o1 qopx co6c1nennoc1n.
\ue1 pannoio hpnnnha 1pe6ye1 ohpepeennoc1n n honepennn apxn-
nnc1pa1opon pyxonopn1een, hpephpnnnxa1een, xenepepon n
caxnx nchonn1een hpoeccon.
2. |cepqcuuccnt cucncu. jannin hpnnnh hpn peansann
caxoxenepxen1a, xax hpanno, ohepeae1 ho npexenn hpoecc
hpax1nuecxoio cnc1exoo6pasonannn, 1.e. nnno hocepona1einin.
3. Hanpa:cuuccnt caccpeauu-auu. anix nnne1cn hpnnnh
chon1annonahpanennoio caxosapopennn panee hoipyennix
npexennix iopnson1ainix cnc1ex xax xomnon peaxnn cno6opnoio
pinxa caxoopiannsynmnxcn yuac1nnxon na xonohoinin xapax1ep
iocypapc1nennix n xophopa1nnnix c1pyx1yp na ocnone ninopnpona-
nnn nn yue1a caxoopiannsann po nauaa pasnep1inannn hpephpn-
nnxa1eic1na.
8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

267
4. Hcxqccncuucc uana:c. Hpephpnnnxa1en, apxnnnc1pa1opi, xe-
nepepi poni n6o yuec1i, n6o ncxycc1nenno cospa1i 1axyn
pinounyn cn1yann, n xo1opon hoipyennie cnc1exi xoiy1 xa-
xoe1o npexn caxoo6echeunna1icn 1ex, u1o nx neo6xopnxo pn
cpepnnannn qqex1a caxonxnnpann.
5. Pccqpcuan ncddcpxa. Hpn peansann 1oio hpnnnha cepye1
yun1ina1i necxoixo xoxen1on:
a) caxoxenepxen1, cospan xonxpe1nyn iopnson1ainyn cnc-
1exy, poen pa1i en caxoohpepen1icn, 1.e. xenepep o6nsan
c1a1i na npexn nmi na6npa1eex;
6) xonxpe1nan xnixan cnc1exa pemae1 caxohponsnoino neo6xo-
pnxie sapaun caxoo6echeuennn pecypcaxn n ycyiaxn, caxonopxn-
ponannn cnoeio 1pypa, caxooh1nxnsann cnoen iopnson1ainon
c1pyx1ypi xax ho xonuec1ny yuac1nnxon, 1ax n ho nx nsanxoo1no-
mennnx n uac1n pasnn1nn npexennon nsanxosanncnxoc1n ppyi o1
ppyia n 1.p.;
n) hpn pasnn1nn caxoyhpanennn o1xpi1an cnc1exa choco6na ca-
xonxnnpnpona1icn 6es hoyuennn coo1ne1c1nynmnx pesyi1a1on
nn c hoyuennex, u1o xoe1 6i1i cepc1nnex o1cy1c1nnn pecypcnon
hoppepxn;
i) hpax1nuecxn o1xpi1an cnc1exa, peansonan caxohponsnoino
nny1pennne sapaun, choco6na xinonenno qnnnmnpona1i ho xon-
xpe1non pa6o1e n hpepeax oc1anmeiocn hoce caxonneppennn hpe-
pipymnx hpnnnhon, ne nn1epecynci xoneunixn pesyi1a1axn.

Hpenxymec1na onapennn ncxycc1nox caxoxenepxen1a co-
c1on1 n cepynmex:
ypaunoe nihonenne pa6o1i c xenimnxn sa1pa1axn npexenn;
yuman opiannsann pa6oueio xec1a n 1pypa n eox;
xenime chemxn n c1peccon;
6oime ypone1nopennn o1 pa6o1i;
ax1nnnan xo1nnann 1pypa;
poc1 hponsnopn1einoc1n 1pypa;
honimenne xnanqnxann;
coxpamenne saipyennoc1n pa6o1on;
cnnenne unca omn6ox hpn nihonennn qynxnn;
poc1nenne hpoqeccnonainix n nsnennix een xpa1uan-
mnx hy1ex.
Mcucdcun

268
Caxoxenepxen1 yun1inae1 n 6nooinuecxnn qax1op, nxn-
uanmnn ec1ec1nennin pn1x pa6o1i nnpnnnpyaino pn xapoio ueo-
nexa n hepconainin 6nopn1x, u1o oueni nano pn pyxonopn1en.
Oco6ennoc1i conpexennoio nsinpa na pyxonopn1en xax npe-
pa xoex1nna coc1on1 n 1ox, u1o on paccxa1pnnae1cn xax nocn1ei
nnnonanonnon opiannsanonnon xyi1ypi, xax ocnonnon nnnna-
1op hocepona1einix nsxenennn n opiannsann. anenmne uep1i
conpexennoio pyxonopn1en:
hpoqeccnonansx;
choco6noc1i nec1n sa co6on xoex1nn;
c1pexenne cospana1i n hoppepnna1i oh1nxainin hcnxooin-
uecxnn xnxa1 n pp.

Caxoxenepxen1 choco6c1nye1 qqex1nnnoc1n nihonennn
opiannuecxnx qynxnn pyxonopn1en n apah1ann c1nen pyxono-
pc1na x peonix cn1yannx.


7.4. Opraaauecxae qyaxqaa pyxoaopa1ens
a apan1aqas c1ane pyxoaopc1aa
x penoamM ca1yaqasM

Teope1nxn n hpax1nxn xenepxen1a pexoxenpyn1 nipen1i
cepynmne opiannuecxne qynxnn pyxonopn1en:
1. jeeinponanne honoxounn n nx pachpepeenne xepy nc-
honn1enxn;
2. \c1anonenne o1ne1c1nennoc1n sa hopyuennoe peo;
3. Hpnnn1ne yhpanenuecxnx pemennn;
4. Hpnxenenne xonoxnxoc1a1nc1nuecxnx, opiannsanonno
pachopnpn1einix n conainohcnxooinuecxnx xe1opon xenep-
xen1a hpn paspa6o1xe pemennn;
5. Kon1poi pen1einoc1n hopunnennix;
6. Hoompenne nnnna1nnnoc1n n caxoc1on1einoc1n hopunnen-
nix hpn xo1nnnponannn nx 1pypa;
7. Opiannsann hponsnopc1nennix hpoeccon n yc1anonenne
oh1nxainix coo1nomennn xepy 1pyponixn, nnqopxanonnixn
n ppyinxn pecypcaxn;
8. Hpoqnax1nxa n paspemenne xonqnx1nix cn1yann n pp.
8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

269
Isyuenne opiannuecxnx qynxnn pyxonopn1en c ein
ohpepeennn qqex1nnnoio c1nn pyxonopc1na nauanci eme n
ppennoc1n. Opnaxo, na cnc1exa1nuecxon ocnone ncceponannn
c1an hponopn1icn n 3040e i. XX n. n cqopxnponanci n ue1ipe
nayunix hopxopa:
1. Hnunoc1nin;
2. Honepenuecxnn;
3. Cn1yanonnin;
4. Koxhexcnin.

xenepxen1e cymec1nyn1 pasnoo6pasnie ohpepeennn c1nn
pyxonopc1na. Hahpnxep, axepnxancxan mxoa paccxa1pnnae1 c1ni
xax o6o6mennin nnp honepennn pyxonopn1en n o1nomennnx c co-
1pypnnxaxn n hpoecce poc1nennn hoc1anennix een. Lnpohen-
cxan mxoa, n uac1noc1n nexexan, paccxa1pnnae1 c1ni pyxonopc1na
xax ocnonnyn coc1annnmyn pen1einoc1n pyxonopn1en, hoaian,
u1o na c1ni nnnn1 cepynmne qax1opi: c1pyx1ypa nunoc1n py-
xonopn1en, xoxhe1en1noc1i co1pypnnxon, cn1yann.
Ioccnncxne chenanc1i n nac1onmee npexn ohpepenn1 c1ni
pyxonopc1na xax yc1onunnyn cnc1exy qopx, cpepc1n n xe1opon nsan-
xopenc1nnn pyxonopn1en c xoex1nnox, nahpanennoio na niho-
nenne xnccnn opiannsann n sanncnmeio o1 o6:ex1nnnix n cy6:ex-
1nnnix qax1opon ocymec1nennn hpoecca yhpanennn.

Me1opi pyxonopc1na cymec1nyn1 o6:ex1nnno n ne sanncn1 o1
hepconi n o1nune o1 c1nn, xo1opin o6yconen nnpnnnpyainixn
oco6ennoc1nxn pyxonopn1en. Hnunie xauec1na pyxonopn1en n c1n-
e eio pa6o1i hpeoxnn1cn uepes hpnsxy oxpyanmen cpepi, ho-
1pe6noc1n nosiannexoio xoex1nna, sapau yhpanennn hponsnop-
c1nox n 1.p.
O1euec1nennie n sapy6enie chenanc1i paspa6o1an pas-
nunie c1nn pyxonopc1na (yhpanennn), cpepn xo1opix xono ni-
pen1i pne 6oimne ipyhhi:
opnoxepnie o6yconeni 1oixo opnnx qax1opox;
xnoioxepnie xoxhexc nsanxopohonnnmnx hopxopon,
xapin ns xo1opix nesanncnx o1 ppyinx n xoe1 ocymec1nn1icn
napnpy c nnxn.

K npnnmcpnmm c1nnnm ynpanncnnn n1nncn1cn:
an1opn1apnin;
Mcucdcun

270
pexoxpa1nuecxnn;
n6epainin.

ocnone ancpunapucec cnu:n yhpanennn n eio xchya1a-
1opcxon n 6aioea1einon pasnonnpnoc1en en1 nsnec1nan
1eopnn X n Y jyiaca MaxIpeiopa.
xchya1a1opcxnn an1opn1apnin c1ni cnopn1cn x 1oxy, u1o
pyxonopn1ei ne ponepne1 hopunnennix, ne nn1epecye1cn nx xnenn-
ex, epnnonuno pemae1 nce n sa nce 6epe1 o1ne1c1nennoc1i na ce6n,
panan hopunnennix nmi yxasannn n c1nxynpyn nx pa6o1y naxasa-
nnnxn, u1o cospae1 hpephocixn pn pasnn1nn hponsnopc1nennoio
xonqnx1a.
Hpn 6oee xnixon 6aioea1einon pasnonnpnoc1n an1o-
pn1apnoio c1nn pyxonopn1ei o1nocn1cn x hopunnennix cnncxopn-
1eino, nn1epecye1cn hpn hpnnn1nn pemennn nx xnennex, xo1n, ne-
cxo1pn na eio o6ocnonannoc1i, xoe1 hoc1yhn1i hocnoexy (ecn 1o
peae1cn pexonc1pa1nnno, hcnxooinuecxnn xnxa1 yxypmae1cn),
hpepoc1anne1 hopunnennix ohpepeennyn caxoc1on1einoc1i,
hyc1i pae n oipannuennix hpepeax. Haxasannn hpn 1ox c1ne py-
xonopc1na hpnxennn1cn pepxo.
Opiannsann, n xo1opix poxnnnpye1 dccxpanunccxuu cnu:t
pyxonopc1na, xapax1epnsyn1cn nicoxon c1ehenin peen1pansann
honoxounn, ax1nnnix yuac1nex pa6o1anmnx n hpnnn1nn pemennn,
cospannex 1axnx yconnn, hpn xo1opix nihonenne cye6nix o6n-
sannoc1en oxasinae1cn pn nnx hpnnexa1einix, n nosnaipapenn-
ex nnne1cn uync1no hpnuac1noc1n x poc1nennn ychexa.
Ha hpax1nxe nipenn1 pasnonnpnoc1n pexoxpa1nuecxoio c1nn:
1. Koncyi1a1nnnyn;
2. Hap1ncnha1nnnyn.

yconnnx xoncyi1a1nnnoio c1nn pyxonopn1ei n snaun-
1einon xepe ponepne1 hopunnennix, xoncyi1npye1cn c nnxn,
c1pexn1cn nchoisona1i nce yumee ns 1oio, u1o onn hpepaian1.
Cpepn c1nxynpynmnx xep hpeo6apae1 hoompenne, a naxasannn
nchoisyn1cn nmi n ncxnun1einix cyuanx. Ia6o1nnxn n eox
ypone1nopeni 1axon cnc1exon pyxonopc1na, necxo1pn na 1o, u1o
6oimnnc1no pemennn hopcxasinan1 nx cnepxy, n o6iuno c1apan1-
cn oxasa1i 1axoxy pyxonopn1en hocninyn hoxomi n hoppepa1i
xopaino n neo6xopnxix cyuanx.
8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

271
Hap1ncnha1nnnan pasnonnpnoc1i pexoxpa1nuecxoio c1nn
hpephoaiae1, u1o pyxonopn1en honoc1in ponepnn1 cnonx hopun-
nennix no ncex nohpocax, nceipa nx nicymnnan1 n nchoisyn1 nce
xonc1pyx1nnnie hpepoennn, opiannsyn1 mnpoxnn o6xen ncec1o-
ponnen nnqopxanen, hpnnexan1 hopunnennix x hoc1anonxe e-
en n xon1pon sa nx nchonennex.
eox n paxxax hepeuncennix c1nen yhpanennn nosxo-
ni cepynmne napnan1i nsanxopenc1nnn pyxonopn1een n hopun-
nennix:
1. Iyxonopn1ei hpnnnxae1 pemenne n pae1 hopunnennix xo-
xanpy eio nihonn1i;
2. Iyxonopn1ei hpnnnxae1 pemenne n pas:ncnne1 eio hopun-
nennix;
3. Iyxonopn1ei hpnnnxae1 pemenne, cone1ynci c hopunnennixn;
4. Iyxonopn1ei hpepaiae1 pemenne, xo1opoe xoe1 6i1i cxop-
pex1nponano hoce xoncyi1ann c hopunnennixn;
5. Iyxonopn1ei nsaiae1 hpo6exy, hoyuae1 cone1i n pexoxen-
pann hopunnennix, na ocnone xo1opix hpnnnxae1 pemenne;
6. Iyxonopn1ei hpnnnxae1 pemenne conxec1no c hopunnennixn;
7. Iyxonopn1ei yc1anannnae1 paxxn, n xo1opix hopunnen-
nie caxn hpnnnxan1 pemenne.

jn oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n xapoio c1nn yhpanennn axe-
pnxancxnn yuenin I. Hanxep1 hpepon paccun1ina1i 1ax nasi-
naexin n6epainoan1opn1apnin xoqqnnen1 (HAK) xax o1no-
menne ohpepenexix na ocnone xchep1ns cyxx n6epainix n an-
1opn1apnix exen1on n honepennn pyxonopn1en. Ho eio xnennn, n
conpexennix yconnnx oh1nxainan nenunna 1oio xoqqnnen1a
coc1anne1 1,9. Inixn conaxn, pn hoyuennn qqex1nnnix pe-
syi1a1on pyxonopn1en poni apah1npona1i c1nn pyxonopc1na x
peonix cn1yannx, hpnxennn n pna pasa 6oime y6epennn, uex
hpnnypennn.
Iaccxo1pnx cnopnyn 1a6ny xapax1epnc1nx opnoxepnix
c1nen pyxonopc1na, hpepoennyn o1euec1nennix nccepona1eex
. C1apo6nncxnx (1a6. 7.1.).

Mcucdcun

272
Tac:ua 7.1.

Xapa1cpnc1na c1nncn ynpanncnnn (pynnnpc1na)

C1nnn
Xapa1cpnc1na An1npn1apnmn
cmnpa1nwc-
cnn
Hn6cpann-
nmn
Cnncn6 npnnn-
1nn pcmcnnn
Lpnnonunin Ha ocnone xon-
cyi1ann cnepxy
nn xnennn
ipyhhi
Ha ocnone
yxasannn
Cnncn6 pnncpc-
nnn pcmcnnn pn
ncnnnnn1cnn
Hpnxas, pacho-
pnenne, xo-
xanpa
Hpepoenne Hpoci6a,
yhpamnna-
nne
Pacnpcpcncnnc
n1nc1c1ncnnnc1n

Honoc1in n
xoxhe1ennn
pyxonopn1en
coo1ne1c1nnn c
honoxounnxn
Honoc1in n
pyxax ncho-
nn1en
O1nnmcnnc
nnnnna1nnc
nnpwnncnnmx
johycxae1cn Hoompne1cn n
nchoisye1cn
Honoc1in
hepepae1cn
hopunnen-
nix
Hpnnnnnm nnp-
6npa appnn
Is6anenne o1
cninix
xonxypen1on
Opnen1ann na
peonix, snanmnx
co1pypnnxon n
hoxomi nx n
xapiepe
He1 ue1xon
opnen1ann
O1nnmcnnc
anannnm
Cun1ae1, u1o nce
cax snae1
Hoc1onnno yun1cn
n 1pe6ye1 1oio e
o1 hopunnennix
5espasnu-
noe
O1nnmcnnc
n6mcnnm
O1pna1einoe,
co6npae1 pnc-
1annn
Hoon1einoe,
ax1nnno npe1 na
xon1ax1
Innna1nni
ne
hponnne1
O1nnmcnnc
nnpwnncnnmm
Ho nac1poennn,
neponnoe
Ionnoe, po6poe-
a1einoe, 1pe6o-
na1einoe
Mnixoe, ne
1pe6ona1ei-
noe
O1nnmcnnc
pncnnnnnnc
ec1xoe,
qopxainoe
Iasyxnoe Mnixoe,
neqopxai-
noe
O1nnmcnnc
c1nmynnpnna-
nnm
Haxasanne, c
pepxnx hoom-
pennex
Hoompenne c pep-
xnx naxasannex
He1 ue1xon
opnen1ann

8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

273
Hyno nxe1i n nnpy, u1o n xapox xonxpe1nox cyuae xepy
an1opn1apnix, pexoxpa1nuecxnx n n6epainix c1nnxn cymec1-
nye1 ohpepeennin 6aanc, n ynenuenne pon exen1on opnoio ns
nnx 6ype1 hpnnopn1i x yxenimennn ppyinx.

Mnnrnmcpnmc c1nnn pynnnpc1na

conpexennix yconnnx ychex pea ohpepene1cn ne 1oixo
xapax1epox o1nomennn xepy pyxonopn1enxn n hopunnennixn n
c1ehenin cno6opi, xo1opan nx hpepoc1anne1cn, no n pnpox ppyinx
o6c1on1eic1n. O1paennex 1oio nnnn1cn xnoioxepnie c1nn
pyxonopc1na, hpepc1annnmne co6on xoxhexc nsanxopohonnnmnx,
hepehe1anmnxcn hopxopon, xapin ns xo1opix nesanncnx o1 ppy-
inx, ho1oxy xoe1 peansonina1icn napnpy c nnxn.
Hepnonauaino conaci npen pnyxepnoio c1nn pyxono-
pc1na, ocnoninanmancn na pnyx hopxopax, opnn ns xo1opix opnen-
1npye1cn na cospanne 6aiohpnn1noio conainohcnxooinuecxoio
xnxa1a n xoex1nne, naannanne ueoneuecxnx o1nomennn, a
ppyion na cospanne napeamnx opiannsanonnix n 1exnnuecxnx
yconnn, hpn xo1opix ueonex xoe1 poc1a1ouno hono pacxpi1i
cnon choco6noc1n.
Han6oee hpoc1oe coue1anne 1nx hopxopon pexonc1pnpye1
1ax nasinaexan yhpanenuecxan peme1xa axepnxancxnx yuenix
I. 5enxa n j. My1ona, nso6paennan na pnc. 7.2.

C hoxomin yhpanenuecxon peme1xn xono ohpepen1i ne-
nunny xchep1nix oenox, hopxopon, xo1opix hpnpepnnae1cn 1o1
nn nnon xonxpe1nin pyxonopn1ei, n ohpepen1i sannxaexoe nx
hoe, xapax1epnsynmee hpnxennexin nx na hpax1nxe c1ni pyxo-
nopc1na n sanncnxoc1n o1 hpephou1ennn nnnxannn x ueonexy nn x
hponsnopc1ny.
Hahpnxep, pyxonopn1ei, opnen1ann xo1opoio n xapox na-
hpanennn oennnae1cn opnnx 6aox, hohapae1 na hoe 1.1, hpe6i-
nanne na xo1opox cnnpe1eic1nye1 o 1ox, u1o on n pannon xepe ne
ypene1 nnnxannn nn hepnoxy, nn n1opoxy hopxopax. Honn1no, u1o
hpn 1axox o1nomennn x pey on poio na cnoex hoc1y hpopepa1icn
ne cxoe1. 1o1 c1ni cun1ae1cn 1eope1nuecxnx, no on xoe1 6i1i
hpnxennx na hpax1nxe, ecn pyxonopn1ei cax pe1 ynoinennn,
nahpnxep, n cnnsn c 6anxpo1c1nox opiannsann nn nme1 ppyioe xe-
c1o pa6o1i.
Mcucdcun

274
Hpnnpn1c1 nnnmannn wcnnncy

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Hpnnpn1c1 nnnmannn npnnannpc1ny

Puc. 7.2. Pcmc1a ynpanncnnn P. Bncna n x. My1nna

Iyxonopn1ei, sannxanmnn hoe 1.9, iannoe nnnxanne ypen-
e1 npnx, cospannn n yhpounennn xoex1nna, 6aiohpnn1noio co-
nainohcnxooinuecxoio xnxa1a n 1nopuecxoio nac1pon n nex,
cun1an, u1o 1axnx choco6ox xono poc1nui nicoxnx pesyi1a1on pa-
e hpn o1cy1c1nnn nnnxannn x opiannsanonno1exnnuecxnx yco-
nnnx. 1o1 c1ni cun1an1 n6epainix, 1.x. ocnonnoe nnnxanne py-
xonopn1ei ypene1 ueoneuecxnx o1nomennnx n hpepoc1anne1 hep-
conay honyn cno6opy.
Taxon c1ni eecoo6pasen hpn o1nuno naaennox hpons-
nopc1nennox hpoecce. On 6ype1 qqex1nnen n xoex1nnax, co-
c1onmnx ns pa6o1nnxon c hpnxepno opnnaxonix yponnex o6pasona-
nnn n nicoxon xo1nnanen x 1pypy.
Iyxonopn1ei, sannxanmnn hoe 9.1, nao6opo1, ocnonnoe nnn-
xanne ypene1 opiannsanonno1exnnuecxon c1opone pea, xao
nnnxannn o6paman na o1peinix npen n xoex1nn n eox. Ho n
speci n ocnone 1axoio c1nn xoiy1 ea1i o6:ex1nnnie o6c1on1eic1-
na, nahpnxep, 1exnooinuecxne hpoecci, n xo1opix poi nsanxoo1-
nomennn pa6o1nnxon n nx xoex1nnnix penc1nnn xnnnxaina. 1o
c1ni ec1xoio apxnnnc1pnponannn c hpnopn1e1ox nnnxannn x pe-
syi1a1ax hponsnopc1na.
Iyxonopn1ei, naxopnmnncn na hoe 5.5, hpnxepno hoponny
pen1 cnon hpnnnsannoc1n xepy npixn n opiannsanonno-
1.9 9.9



5.5




1.1 9.1
8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

275
1exnnuecxnxn qax1opaxn hponsnopc1na. On 1neppo c1on1 na noiax no
ncex cqepax yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n, opnaxo ne xna1ae1 c ne6a
snesp. Taxon c1ni pyxonopc1na cospae1 a1xocqepy c1a6ninoc1n n
6ecxonqnx1noc1n. I, naxone, pyxonopn1ei, hosnnn xo1opoio
xapax1epnsyn1cn na hoe 9.9, cospae1 xoxanpy epnnoximennnxon,
choco6nix na n6ie pea. 3peci conxec1no ohpepenn1cn en pen-
1einoc1n, conxec1no cospan1cn 6aiohpnn1nie yconnn pn nx ocy-
mec1nennn n caxopeansann npen. 1o1 c1ni cun1an1 caxix
qqex1nnnix, 1.x. on pae1 nosxonoc1i hepconay houync1nona1i
cnon snaunxoc1i n honoc1in caxopeansonina1icn. Hoisynci
yhpanenuecxon peme1xon, xono sapanee ohpepen1i xox6nna-
nn oenox, coo1ne1c1nynmnx 1on nn nnon ponoc1n, hpepycxo1-
pennon m1a1nix pachncannex, n, cpannnn c nnxn xchep1nie oen-
xn xauec1n hpe1enpen1on, ohpepen1i nx hpniopnoc1i x ee saxeme-
nnn, apah1npyn c1nn pyxonopc1na x peonix cn1yannx.
conpexennix yhpanenuecxnx xonehnnx sahapnix chenan-
c1on peae1cn hohi1xa ocymec1nn1i nnie xox6nnann hopxopon, qop-
xnpynmnx c1ni pyxonopc1na. Tax, cun1ae1cn, u1o an1opn1apnie xe1o-
pi pyxonopc1na, copepamne n ce6e ohacnoc1i xyi1a nunoc1n pyxono-
pn1en, n 6oimen c1ehenn coue1an1cn c hopxopox, opnen1nponannix
na cospanne 6aiohpnn1nix opiannsanonno1exnnuecxnx yconnn
hponsnopc1na, a pexoxpa1nuecxne, pacxpehomanmne npen c hopxo-
pox, opnen1nponannix na cospanne n yxpehenne xoex1nna.
5ic1pin yxop o1 an1opn1apnoio c1nn pyxonopc1na xoe1
hpnnec1n npen n coc1onnne pac1epnnnoc1n, nnuy1i ne yyumnn cn-
1yann.
Hpanpa, 1o n 6oimen c1ehenn cnonc1nenno xoex1nnax nns-
xoio yponnn; n nepxnnx e meonax nxee1 xec1o o6pa1nan xap1nna,
xoipa pacxpehomenne npen nepe1 x poc1y hponsnopn1einoc1n n
coxpamennn 1exyuec1n xappon.
Ho xnennn u. unpepa, oco6ennoc1n yhpanennn no xno-
iox sanncn1 o1 cn1yann, n hocxoixy pyxonopn1ei, nchonepyn-
mnn ohpepeennin c1ni, nsxenn1i ce6n, xax hpanno, ne xoe1,
nyno, ncxopn ns c1onmen sapaun, cospana1i exy 1e yconnn, n xo-
1opix on cxoe1 nanyumnx o6pasox ce6n hponnn1i, apah1npyn
c1nn pyxonopc1na x peonix cn1yannx.
sanncnxoc1n o1 xacm1a6a honoxounn pyxonopn1en, xapax-
1epa nx o1nomennn c hopunnennixn, ue1xoc1n c1pyx1ypnponannn
pemaexix sapau u. unpep nipene1 8 1nhon pasnunix cn1yann,
napnan1i xo1opix hpnnepeni na pnc. 7.3.
Mcucdcun

276
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
sanxoo1-
nomennn
pyxonopn-
1en n hop-
unnennix
Xopo-
mne
Xopo-
mne
Xopo-
mne
Xopo-
mne
Ho-
xne
Ho-
xne
Hoxne Hoxne
uopxyn-
ponxa n
c1pyx1ypn-
ponannoc1i
sapau
e1-
xan
e1-
xan
Heue1
xan
Heue1
xan
e1-
xan
e1-
xan
Heue1
xan
e1-
xan
jonoc1-
nie hono-
xounn py-
xonopn1en
Maxcnxyx
Cni-
nie
Cni-
nie
Cni-
nie
Ca-
6ie
Cni
nie
Ca-
6ie
Cni-
nie
Ca-
6ie
Hpephou-
1n1eini
pyxonopn-
1en, opn-
en1nponan-
nie na cos-
panne xo-
ex1nna

Hpephou-
1n1eini
pyxonopn-
1en, opn-
en1nponan-
nie na op-
iannsan-
onno
1exnnue-
cxne hpo-
6exi

Mnnnxyx

Tpac1npnn namcncnnn 1pc6nnannn pynnnpn1cnnm

Puc. 7.3. 3anncnmnc1n aqqc1nnnnc1n c1nnn pynnnpc1na n1 cn1yannn.
Mnpcnn u. unpncpa

1, 2 1nhi sapaun ue1xo cqopxynponani, ponoc1nie
honoxounn pyxonopn1en snaun1eini, a eio o1nomennn c hop-
unnennixn 6aiohpnn1ni, 1ax u1o na hocepnnx eixo nospenc1-
nona1i. Lcn ec1i nepoc1a1xn (38 1nhi), 1o pyxonopn1en, ho
xnennn u. unpepa, yume opnen1npona1icn na pemenne opia-
nnsanonno1exnnuecxnx hpo6ex, o1opnnnyn nohpoci cospannn
8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

277
xoex1nna n naannannn ueoneuecxnx o1nomennn na n1opon
han. 1o o6echeun1 epnnc1no een, ohepa1nnnoc1i n hpnnn1nn
n peansann pemennn, napenoc1i xon1pon. pannon cn1ya-
nn ne nyno 1pa1n1i npexn na naannanne o1nomennn, a hep-
conay n yconnnx ue1xo cqopxynponannix neconix sapau
pn nihonennn pa6o1i poc1a1ouno hpoc1ix yxasannn, ho1oxy
opnonpexenno pyxonopn1ei xoe1 hpnpepnna1icn an1opn1ap-
noio c1nn, ne sa6inan, opnaxo, u1o eixoe pnx1a1opc1no n 1npa-
nnn, paexo ne npen1nuni. Hepnoe npn xoiy1 nochpnnn1i c ho-
nnxannex, a hpo1nn n1opoio na saxonnox ocnonannn nosxy1n1cn
n o1xay1cn co1pypnnua1i c pyxonopn1eex.
C1ni pyxonopc1na, opnennponannin na yxpehenne xoex-
1nna n hoppepanne ueoneuecxnx o1nomennn, nan6oee hopxopn1 n
yxepenno 6aiohpnn1nix pn pyxonopn1en cn1yannx, xoipa y neio
ne1 poc1a1ounon nac1n, u1o6i o6echeun1i neo6xopnxin yponeni
co1pypnnuec1na c hopunnennixn, no ecn nsanxoo1nomennn xopo-
mne, npn n ocnonnox cxonni pea1i 1o, u1o o1 nnx 1pe6ye1cn.
1nx yconnnx opnen1ann na opiannsannonnyn c1opony pea xo-
e1 nisna1i xonqnx1, n pesyi1a1e xo1opoio n 6es 1oio ca6oe
nnnnne pyxonopn1en na hopunnennix yhape1 eme 6oime.
Opnen1ann na ueoneuecxne o1nomennn, nao6opo1, xoe1 ho-
nicn1i eio nnnnne n yyumn1i o1nomennn c hopunnennixn.
jpyiyn xopei npepc1na hy1iei, ohncinanmyn sann-
cnxoc1i c1nn pyxonopc1na o1 cn1yann, hpeponn T. Mn1ue n
I. Xays. Ho nx xnennn, nchonn1en 6ypy1 c1pexn1icn x poc1ne-
nnn een, ecn hoyua1 o1 1oio xaxyn-nn6ypi nunyn niiopy,
ho1oxy ocnonnan sapaua pyxonopn1en coc1on1 n 1ox, u1o6i:
o6:ncnn1i, xaxne 6aia nx onpan1 n cyuae xopomen pa6o1i;
yc1pann1i hoxexn na hy1n nx ocymec1nennn;
oxasa1i neo6xopnxyn hoppepxy, pa1i cone1, nahpann1i penc1nnn
ho nepnoxy hy1n.
Iyxonopn1ei ne poen o6ema1i hpn 1ox nosnaipapenne,
xo1opoe ne n coc1onnnn 6ype1 hpepoc1ann1i.
Mopei T. Mn1uea n I. Xaysa nxnuae1 n ce6n c1nn py-
xonopc1na (yhpanennn), nchoisonanne xo1opix hpepohpepen-
e1cn cn1yanen, hpephou1ennnxn n nunixn xauec1naxn ncho-
nn1een, c1ehenin nx ynepennoc1n n cnonx cnax n nosxonoc1n
nospenc1nona1i na cn1yann.
Mcucdcun

278
1. \ hepconaa 6oiman ho1pe6noc1i n caxoynaennn n hpnnap-
enoc1n x xoex1nny. Han6oee hpephou1n1einix nnne1cn
c1ni hoppepxn, anaoinunin c1nn, opnen1nponannoxy na na-
annanne ueoneuecxnx o1nomennn.
2. Hepcona c1pexn1cn x an1onoxnn n caxoc1on1einoc1n. Hyu-
me, xax cun1an1 an1opi, nchoisona1i 1ax nasinaexin nnc1pyxen-
1ainin c1ni, cxopnin c opnen1nponannix na cospanne opiann-
sanonno1exnnuecxnx yconnn hponsnopc1na, 1.x. hopunnennie,
oco6enno xoipa o1 nnx nnueio ne sanncn1, ean cxopee nihonn1i
sapanne, hpephoun1an1, u1o6i nx yxasinan, u1o n xax nyno pe-
a1i, n cospanan neo6xopnxie yconnn pa6o1i.
3. Hepcona c1pexn1cn x nicoxnx pesyi1a1ax n ynepen, u1o
cxoe1 nx poc1nui, hpnxenne1 c1ni opnen1nponannin na poc1n-
enne, xoipa pyxonopn1ei c1ann1 hepep nnx hocninie sapaun n
onpae1, u1o hopunnennie 6es hpnnypennn 6ypy1 c1pexn1icn ho
xepe nosxonoc1n x nx caxoc1on1einoxy pemennn, a exy oc1ane1cn
o6echeun1i nmi neo6xopnxie pn 1oio yconnn.

C1ni pyxonopc1na, opnen1nponannin na yuac1ne hopunnen-
nix n hpnnn1nn pemennn, ho xnennn T. Mn1uea n I. Xaysa, 6oi-
me nceio coo1ne1c1nye1 cn1yann, xoipa 1e c1pexn1cn peansona1i ce-
6n n yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n. Iyxonopn1ei hpn 1ox poen
pen1icn c nnxn nnqopxanen, mnpoxo nchoisona1i nx npen n
hpoecce hopio1onxn n hpnnn1nn pemennn.
Kax cun1an1 an1opi, yume nchoisona1i nnc1pyxen1ai-
nin c1ni, hocxoixy pyxonopn1ei yume nnpn1 cn1yann n eox
n eio yxasannn xoiy1 cyn1i pn hopunnennix xopomnx opnen1n-
pox. Opnaxo, hpn 1ox yxasannnxn neisn soyho1pe6n1i, 1ax xax
nchonn1en xoiy1 hpnnn1i 1o sa upesxepnin xon1poi n pnx1a-
1opc1no.
Iyxonopn1een, hepnixn xyhnnmnxn nonmec1no, a 1axe
hpephpnnnxa1een, hepnixn ocnonnmnx nonmec1no, hpnnn1o
nasina1i pannnxn penhnen1axn.
coo1ne1c1nnn c cn1yanonnon 1eopnen H. Xepcen n K. 5an-
mappa hpnxenenne 1oio nn nnoio c1nn sanncn1 o1 c1ehenn speo-
c1n hopunnennix, nx choco6noc1n o1neua1i sa cnoe honepenne, o6pa-
sonanne n ohi1 pemennn xonxpe1nix sapau, nny1penneio eannn
poc1nui hoc1anennix een.
cne1e 1oio H. Xepcen n K. 5anmapp cqopxynponan
ue1ipe ocnonnix c1nn pyxonopc1na:
8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

279
1. Hpnxasanne, yxasannn nespeix, nechoco6nix n ne ean-
mnx o1neua1i sa pesyi1a1i cnoeio 1pypa pa6o1nnxaxn, u1o n xax
nyno pea1i. 3peci pyxonopn1ei poen n hepnyn ouepepi opnen-
1npona1icn na pemenne opiannsanonno 1exnnuecxnx hpo6ex, a
sa1ex ye na naannanne ueoneuecxnx o1nomennn n cospanne xo-
ex1nna. (Hepcona nechoco6en n ne eae1 pa6o1a1i, 1ax xax nexox-
he1en1en nn ne ynepen n ce6e).
2. nymenne pn hepconaa, o6apanmeio cpepnnx yponnex
speoc1n, xoipa on ye xoue1 6pa1i na ce6n o1ne1c1nennoc1i, no
ne xoe1 pea1i 1oio, hpephou1n1een c1ni pyxonopc1na, coue-
1anmnn n pannon c1ehenn opnen1ann na opiannsanonnyn
c1opony pea n na xoex1nnnoc1i. 3peci pyxonopn1ei poen
opnonpexenno n pana1i nchonn1enx yxasannn, n hoppepnna1i
nx c1pexenne 1nopuecxn n caxoc1on1eino pa6o1a1i. (Hepcona
nechoco6en, no eae1 pa6o1a1i, ec1i xo1nnann, no ne1 nanixon
n yxennn).
3. \uac1ne, ecn hopunnennie xoiy1, no ne xo1n1 o1neua1i sa pe-
menne hoc1anennix sapau, necxo1pn na nanune pn 1oio ncex yc-
onnn n poc1a1ounyn hopio1onennoc1i, caxix hopxopnmnx nnne1-
cn c1ni, hpephoaianmnn nx yuac1ne n hpnnn1nn pemennn. Onn
caxn hpexpacno snan1, u1o, xoipa n xax nyno pea1i, no pyxonopn-
1en neo6xopnxo ax1nnnsnpona1i n nnx uync1no hpnuac1noc1n, hpe-
poc1ann1i nosxonoc1i hponnn1i ce6n, a ipe nyno, hoxoui. (Hepco-
na choco6en, no ne eae1 pa6o1a1i, 1ax xax ne hpnnexan1 hpep-
oennn pyxonopn1en).
4. jeeinponanne hpn nicoxon c1ehenn speoc1n, xoipa ncho-
nn1en xo1n1 n xoiy1 nec1n o1ne1c1nennoc1i, pa6o1a1i caxoc1on1ei-
no 6es hoxomn n yxasannn, hoc1onnno hpnchoca6nna1icn x nsxe-
nnnmnxcn yconnnx. (Hepcona choco6en n eae1 pea1i 1o, u1o
hpepaiae1 pyxonopn1ei).
Opnaxo:
1. Tpapnnonnie o1nomennn n opiannsann c1anonn1cn nce
conee, ho1oxy 1pe6onannn panonainoio yhpanennn ho6ypa-
n1 pyxonopn1een x nchoisonannn pasnix qopx nospenc1nnn na
hepcona, ne hpn6eian x hpnxix hpnxasax;
2. enxn sa1pa1i n 1pypnoc1n, cnnsannie c nchoisonannex na-
xnix pa6o1nnxon, ho1oxy o1 xapoio pyxonopn1en 1pe6ye1cn 6o-
ee yxeoe hpnxenenne hepconaa, neo6xopnxo yxenne hoxoui pa-
6o1anmnx n 6ic1pox nsyuennn nonix xe1opon, n ocnoennn hpax1n-
uecxnx nanixon yhpanennn.
Mcucdcun

280
Hpnopn1e1noe snauenne hpno6pe1ae1 ni6op oh1nxainoio
c1nn pyxonopc1na xanepi honepennn pyxonopn1en ho o1nome-
nnn x hopunnennix n apah1ann c1nen pyxonopc1na x peonix
cn1yannx.
Ha n6ox yuac1xe pyxonopc1no o6nsano yun1ina1i n conai-
no hcnxooinuecxne achex1i, 6i1i uy1xnx x npnx, x nx nypax n
sahpocax, nxe1i opiannsa1opcxne choco6noc1n, iy6oxne snannn
hponsnopc1nenno 1exnnuecxnx n qnnancono xonoxnuecxnx no-
hpocon pen1einoc1n nosiannexoio nx xoex1nna.
Taxnx o6pasox, pyxonopc1no na n6on c1yhenn yhpanennn
pono 6i1i choco6nix hpnnn1i xonxpe1noe pemenne ho xonxpe1-
nix hpo6exax hponsnopc1nennoxoxxepuecxon pen1einoc1n, hpo-
nnn1i nac1onunnoc1i, 1neppyn non n pemennn hoc1anennix sapau.
Oueni nano, u1o6i hpnnnxaexie pemennn 6in nayuno o6ocno-
nannixn, o1neuanmnxn connmencn o6c1anonxe, peonix cn1ya-
nnx. Inoipa hpnxopn1cn penc1nona1i n na ipann pncxa, in6xo, ohe-
pa1nnno, 6epn na ce6n o1ne1c1nennoc1i sa xoneunie pesyi1a1i, xo-
ipa eme ne1 honon iapan1nn qqex1nnnoc1n.
Apah1ann c1nen pyxonopc1na x peonix cn1yannx oco6en-
no nana hpn yhpanennn xonqnx1axn, c1peccaxn n nsxenennnxn.
8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

281
Tec1

1. Honnmue :acmu ne +oem omnocumtcn x:
a) nnpnnnpy;
6) ipyhhe;
n) opiannsann;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

2. Oneoe:enue :acmu xax oeanusauuonnoeo nouecca ne noo-
as+eaem, umo:
a) nac1i 1o ho1enna, nxenmnncn y ee hoisona1en;
6) xepy 1ex, x1o nchoisye1 nac1i n 1ex, x xoxy ona hpnxe-
nne1cn, cymec1nye1 nsanxocnnsi;
n) 1o1, x xoxy hpnxennn1 nac1i, nxee1 ohpepeennyn cno6opy
penc1nnn;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

3. . denu, E. P5uen, K. Xeu:c moe:nmm c:eomuee uuc:o
qo+ :acmu:
a) 4;
6) 5;
n) 6;
i) 7.

4. do+a :acmu, nu xomoou aomnux mno:nnem exo-
+enoauuu naua:tnuxa nomo+, umo max nunnmo, nasmaemcn:
a) 1papnnonnon;
6) saxonnon;
n) 1aonnon;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

5. B:unnue 5mo:
a) xanepa honepennn pyxonopn1en ho o1nomennn x hopun-
nennix;
6) honepenne opnoio na, xo1opoe nnocn1 nsxenennn n hone-
penne ppyioio;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.
Mcucdcun

282
6. Huoecmo 5mo:
a) o1nomenne x ueonexy n nnnnne na neio;
6) c1anpap1nin na6op xapax1epnc1nx;
n) choco6noc1i oxasina1i nnnnne;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

7. Pannue euunuenmm 5mo:
a) npepi, cospanmne nonmec1no;
6) pyxonopn1en, hepnixn xyhnnmne nonmec1na;
n) hpephpnnnxa1en, hepnixn ocnonnmne nonmec1no;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

8. Ca+o+eneo+enm 5mo:
a) yxenne yhpann1i co6on;
6) caxoopiannsann;
n) caxoy1neppenne;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

9. Amoa+u na:enuecxou euemxu n:nmmcn:
a) Hop1ep n Hoyep;
6) 5enx n My1on;
n) Mecxon n Xepoypn;
i) Ai6ep1 n Tenop.

10. e:ac Max|eeo on:uxoa: com moux senun na uo-
no:nnocmt +nenuu o mo+, xax naoo na:nmt :mot+u, eoo:
a) 1950;
6) 1960;
n) 1970;
i) 1980.

11. Knuea, xomoou on:uxoanm Teoun X u Teoun },
nasmaemcn:
a) Hayunan opiannsann 1pypa;
6) Ion ueoneuecxoio n ipyhhonoio qax1opon;
n) eoneuecxan c1opona hpephpnn1nn;
i) C1nn pyxonopc1na.


8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

283
12. Teoun X neono:aeaem, umo:
a) pa6o1a 1ax e ec1ec1nenna, xax nipa pn pe6enxa;
6) cpepnnn ueonex c1pexn1cn x o1ne1c1nennoc1n;
n) cpepnnn ueonex hpephoun1ae1, u1o6i nx pyxonopnn, on ns6e-
iae1 o1ne1c1nennoc1n;
i) nepno (a+6).

13. Teoun } neono:aeaem, umo:
a) ueonex xoe1 ocymec1nn1i caxoyhpanenne n caxoxon-
1poi;
6) naipapapesyi1a1, cnnsannin c poc1nennex en;
n) ueonexa cepye1 hpnnypa1i, xon1ponpona1i, yipoa1i
naxasannex pn poc1nennn en opiannsann;
i) ueonex ne c1pexn1cn x o1ne1c1nennoc1n.

14. Peqeenmnan :acmt 5mo:
a) xapnsxa;
6) qopxa nac1n, ocnonannan na nunix xauec1nax pyxonopn1en;
n) choco6noc1i hpnnexa1i c1oponnnxon;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

15. Pxooocmo 5mo:
a) choco6noc1i n neo6xopnxoc1i nec1n sa co6on co1pypnnxon;
6) conainin qenoxen, cnnsannin c peiynponannex oqnn-
ainix o1nomennn n opiannsann;
n) ho6ypenne hepconaa pa6o1a1i na poc1nenne een opia-
nnsann;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.
16. Ca+o+eneo+enm 5mo ucxccmo na:nmt oeu+u:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

17. |a+onuunan, nau:tnan eut xoooume:n n:nemcn
e:anm+ qaxmoo+ sau+ononu+anun c noouunennm+u:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

Mcucdcun

284
18. B:acmt oeanusauuu 5mo neoeanuuennoe nao ucno:t-
soamt eccm u nana:nmt cu:un aomnuxo na oocmuenue
ue:eu oeanusauuu:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

19. O:aoenue ucxccmo+ ca+o+eneo+enma eoem x +ent-
uenum cmecco:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

20. Konxenmocnoconocmt oeanusauuu ne saucum om c-
neunou aoanmauuu cmu:n na:enun x oe:om+ cumauun+:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuue (21-30) onocm:

21. Kax oneoe:nemcn :acmt oeanusauuu?
22. Kaxue qo+m :acmu Bm snaeme?:
23. mo Bm nonu+aeme noo me+uno+ :unnue?
24. Kax oneoe:nemcn xaus+a?
25. Kaxue meouu :uoecma (mu) Bm snaeme?
26. mo neocma:nem coou ca+o+eneo+enm?
27. B ue+ neu+uecma o:aoenun ucxccmo+ ca+o+eneo-
+enma?
28. B ue+ cunocmt ca+o+eneo+enma xax coeuenno nooeo
acnexma ca+ooeanusauuu?
29. Kaxue oeanuuecxue qnxuuu xoooume:n Bm snaeme?
30. B ue+ non:nemcn aoanmauun cmu:eu xooocma x oe:o-
m+ cumauun+?

8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

285
Dpax1axyM

1. Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm

7.1.1. jan1e pna ohpepeennn nac1n, nahpnxep, M.Mecxona n
j.K.I6pn1a.
7.1.2. Cxoixo n xaxne qopxi nac1n i snae1e.
7.1.3. uex cy1i xapon qopxi nac1n?
7.1.4. 1o 1axoe nnnnne? 1o 1axoe xapnsxa?

2. ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm

7.2.1. Kaxyn poi, ho amexy xnennn, nipae1 xapnsxa? ce n
npn en o6apan1? Honcnn1e am o1ne1.
7.2.2. Koio xono cun1a1i npepox opiannsann? Houexy?
7.2.3. jan1e ohpepeenne honn1nn caxoxenepxen1. Hpoxoxxen-
1npyn1e am o1ne1.
7.2.4. Kaxoni, ho amexy xnennn, en n qynxnn caxoxe-
nepxen1a?
7.2.5. uex cymnoc1i caxoxenepxen1a? Honcnn1e amy hosn-
nn.
7.2.6 Oxapax1epnsyn1e ocnonnie hpnnnhi caxoxenepxen1a.
Kaxnx hpnnnhon hpnpepnnae1eci i nuno?
7.2.7. Cohoc1ani1e qopxi nac1n, ocnonannie na hpnnypennn n
nosnaipapennn. Kaxan ns nnx hpephou1n1einen n houexy? A xaxan
nan6oee pachpoc1panennan n conpexennix opiannsannx, ho amexy
xnennn (ns hn1n qopx nac1n)?
7.2.8. Coiacni n i c 1ex, u1o caxoxenepxen1 opiannsann
1o oueni 1nean pa6o1a, ho1oxy neo6xopnxo 6i1i io1onix x ca-
xoconepmenc1nonannn? Honcnn1e am o1ne1.
7.2.9. Coiacni n i c an1opox Teopnn X n Teopnn \? Honcnn1e
amy hosnnn.

3. jwc6nmc cn1yannn

7.3.1. (21) Lcn i c1ane1e pyxonopn1eex opiannsann, 1o xax
6ype1e nnn1i na co1pypnnxon? Kaxne uep1i xapnsxa1nuecxon nu-
noc1n y ac hpeo6apan1?
7.3.2. (22) xaxyn xe1ouxy yhpanenuecxon peme1xn i ho-
xec1nn 6i ce6n n xauec1ne pyxonopn1en opiannsann n houexy?
Mcucdcun

286
Ocnnnnmc nmnnpm, nnnn1nn, nnpcpcncnnn

ac1i 1o qynxnn nsanxosanncnxoc1n. M. Mecxon, M. Ai-
6ep1 n u. Xepoypn ohpepenn1 nac1i n opiannsann xax oipann-
uennoe hpano nchoisona1i xonoxnuecxne pecypci opiannsann n
nahpann1i ycnnn xoex1nna opiannsann nn eio uac1n na ni-
honenne sapannn, xnccnn n poc1nenne een opiannsann.
j. K. I6pn1 1ax ohpepene1: ac1i 1o choco6noc1i op-
noio ueonexa nn eon ipyhhi npen nannsina1i cnon en ppy-
inx. Hanune nac1n hopopae1 1pn nohpoca: x1o 1on nac1in o6a-
pae1? (n6o 1o ne nceipa 6inae1 ouennpnix); pn poc1nennn xaxnx
een ee nchoisyn1 n xaxnx o6pasox po6nnan1cn coiacnn nn ho-
nnnonennn ncex oc1ainix?
n1epa1ype ho xenepxen1y uame paccxa1pnnae1cn hn1i
qopx nac1n:
1. ac1i, ocnonannan na hpnnypennn;
2. ac1i, ocnonannan na nosnaipapennn;
3. xchep1nan nac1i (nac1i xoxhe1en1noc1n);
4. 3axonnan (1papnnonnan) nac1i;
5. 1aonnan nac1i (nac1i hpnxepa).

Cy1i xapon qopxi nac1n nsoena n yue6nox hoco6nn, 7.1.
C honn1nex ac1i 1ecno cnnsano honn1ne Xapnsxa 1o
nac1i, ocnonannan na cne nunix xauec1n n c1ne pyxonopn1en
(npepa).
Hnpep 1o xax hpanno, n1ysnac1, nnnona1op, npoxnonn1ei,
hpo1nnnnx py1nni. On pa6o1ae1 pn poc1nennn cnonx een, nc-
hoisye1 xonn, pae1 nxhyic pnnennn, hpenpamae1 pemennn n
peainoc1i, napee1 caxoxenepxen1ox.
Caxoxenepxen1 xono paccxa1pnna1i, nahpnxep, n cepyn-
mnx achex1ax:
1. Icxycc1no yhpann1i co6on;
2. Icxycc1no yhpann1i opiannsanen, 1.e. qqex1nnnoe caxo-
yhpanenne.

Caxoxenepxen1 neo6xopnx pyxonopn1en n6oio yponnn,
nipa6a1inanmexy cnon c1ni pyxonopc1na. Hop c1nex pyxonopc1na
honnxan1 yc1onunnyn cnc1exy qopx, xe1opon, cpepc1n nsanxopen-
c1nnn pyxonopn1en c hopunnennixn, nahpanennyn na nihonenne
xnccnn opiannsann, poc1nenne ee een. C1ni pyxonopc1na
8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

287
ohpepene1cn o6:ex1nnnixn n cy6:ex1nnnixn qax1opaxn, nnnn-
mnxn na hpoecc xenepxen1a. Iyxonopn1een, hepnixn xyhnnmn-
xn nonmec1na, nasinan1 pannnxn penhnen1axn.
Lnpohencxan mxoa xenepxen1a, n uac1noc1n nexexan, pac-
cxa1pnnae1 c1ni pyxonopc1na xax hpopyx1 nsanxonnnnnn cepyn-
mnx qax1opon:
C1pyx1ypi nunoc1n pyxonopn1en;
Koxhe1en1noc1n pa6o1nnxon;
Cn1yann.

Axepnxancxan mxoa xenepxen1a paccxa1pnnae1 c1ni pyxono-
pc1na xax o6o6mennin nnp honepennn pyxonopn1en n o1nomennnx c
co1pypnnxaxn n hpoecce poc1nennn een opiannsann. [17, c. 209].
jyiac MaxIpeiop n ohy6nxonannon n 1960 i. (sa 4 iopa po
xonunni) xnnie eoneuecxan c1opona hpephpnn1nn cqopxy-
npona Teopnn X n Teopnn \. 1nx 1eopnnx on axen1n-
pona nnnxanne na 1pex hpo1nnohoonix achex1ax yhpanennn
hepconaox.
Teopnn X:
1. O6iunin ueonex ho cnoen hpnpope ne n6n1 pa6o1a1i n
c1apae1cn o1 nee yxonn1icn
2. Ia6o1nnxa napo hpnnypa1i, xon1ponpona1i, yipoa1i
naxasannex pn nihonennn xnccnn opiannsann n poc1nennn
ee een;
3. Cpepnnn ueonex hpephoun1ae1, u1o6i nx pyxonopnn,
yhpannn nx, on ns6eiae1 o1ne1c1nennoc1n, ne ax6nnosen,
hpephoun1ae1 naxopn1icn n 6esohacnon cn1yann;

Teopnn \:
1. jn pa6o1nnxa 1pyp 1ax e ec1ec1nenen, xax nipa nn o1pix;
2. eonex xoe1 yhpann1i co6on n xon1ponpona1i, a naipapa
pesyi1a1 pen1einoc1n, cnnsannin c poc1nennex een opiannsa-
nen;
3. O6iunin ueonex c1pexn1cn x o1ne1c1nennoc1n.

Honie xonehnn hi1an1cn o6:epnnn1i hosn1nn 1papnnon-
nix hopxopon n cospa1i nonie.
Cun1ae1cn, u1o pyxonopn1en n cpepnex 1pa1n1 hpnxepno 20%
pa6oueio npexenn na yhpanenne xonqnx1axn [6, C. 410].
Mcucdcun

288
Oqnpmncnnc nn c1anpap1y

3apannn ho 1exe 7 nxnuan1:
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 7 4 m1.
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci ho 1exe 7 9 m1.
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 7 2 m1.

Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 7

Hnc1annna aapannn
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 7 pasxemeni n CjO Kaxhyc n
qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 7.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 xpa1xnn o1ne1 (ne 6oee 200 cnxnoon)
na xapin nohpoc n qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 7 po na-
uaa aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 7 (cx. Kaenpapnin han xypca).
O1ne1i na nohpoci n qopyxe cepye1 pasxema1i, xnxnyn na
cnxno O1ne1n1i. am o1ne1 poen honnn1icn n pepene coo6me-
nnn hop coo1ne1c1nynmnx nohpocox. HL ICHOHI3\ITL KHOH-
K\ (cospa1i) jH2 OTLTA HA OHIOCI.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
O1ne1i na nohpoci pasxeman1e ncen ipyhhon n qopyxe
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 7.

Tac:ua 1

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na nn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 7

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnnnmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcnpyc-
mmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. Konuec1no
hpanninix o1ne1on
3 ns 4 4 4 ns 4 6
2. O1ne1i pasxemeni hop
nohpocaxn
(n pepene coo6mennn)
pa 1

8:acnt, :unuuc, :udcpcnc, caccucdcun u pqxccdcnc

289
ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 7

Hnc1annna aapannn
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci 6ypy1 yc1no o6cypa1icn na cexnnape ho
1exe 7. ax neo6xopnxo hopio1onn1icn x 6ecepe ho pannix nohpocax.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 o6ocnonannan hosnnn ho xapoxy
nohpocy, osnyuennan no npexn aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 7 (cx.
Kaenpapnin han xypca); n xope cexnnapa i 6ype1e o1neua1i na
nohpoci n cyuannox hopnpxe; xapin c1ypen1 poen yche1i o1ne-
1n1i na 1 nn 2 nohpoca.
ama hosnnn pona 6i1i ocnonana na n1a1ax ns yue6nix
xa1epnaon ho 1exe 7.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
ax neo6xopnxo yc1no nson1i n o6ocnona1i cnon hosnnn n
xope aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 7.

Tac:ua 2

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na pncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 7

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnn-
nmc napa-
mc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. Konuec1no hpanni-
nix o1ne1on
1 10 2 n 6oee 13
2. O6ocnonannoc1i o1ne-
1on (nchoisonanne n1a1
ns yue6nix xa1epnaon)
ec1i 2
3. Ichoisonanne poho-
nn1einix nc1ounnxon
1 nc1ounnx
n 6oee
5

jwc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 7. Bapnan1 21 nnn 22

Hnc1annna aapannn
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 7 paccxa1pnnan1cn axn caxoc1on-
1eino.
Mcucdcun

290
Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 qan c o1ue1ox ho opnon cn1yann,
oqopxennin ho HA5HOH\ N___ (cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc),
nicannin 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn CjO Kaxhyc po nauaa
cepynmeio aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 7 (cx. Kaenpapnin han
xypca); ni xoe1e o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen-
1axn n qopyxe \ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 7.
Ha6on o1ue1a (Tn1yinan c1panna. Chncox ocnonnix paspe-
on) cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc. O6mnn o6:ex nameio 1exc1a n
o1ue1e ho 1exe 7 ne 6oee 1 c1panni (3000 snaxon).

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
Io1onin o1ue1 hepeciae1cn 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn
CjO Kaxhyc. 3aioonox coo6mennn c qanox poen copepa1i na-
snanne ipyhhi, noxep 1exi n noxep yue6non cn1yann, nahpnxep
O1ue1_uIO_ju102_\ue6nan_cn1yann_7.3.2(22). i xoe1e
o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen1axn n qopyxe
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 5.

Tac:ua 3

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na ywc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 7

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnn-
nmc napa-
mc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. uan o1ue1a oqopxen
ho ma6ony
pa 1
2. uan o1hpanen n cpox pa 2
3. O6:ex 1exc1a ne hpe-
nimae1 1pe6onannn
pa 2
4. O1ne1 nxee1 o6ocnona-
nne (xonuec1no cciox n
n1a1)
3 2 5 4
5. O1ne1 ynnxaen
(ne1 hon1opon n anaoion
n o1ue1ax ppyinx c1ypen-
1on)
pa 4

}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

291
Fnaaa 8.



Ynpaaneaae xoaqnax1aMa,
c1peccaMa a asMeaeaasMa




Hsyuaa 1eMy 8, c1ypea1 ponwea
saa1b:
a) ocnoni xonehnn xonqnx1a;
6) ocnoni xonehnn c1pecca;
n) ocnoni xonehnn nsxenennn n opiannsann.
yMe1b:
ohpepen1i ocnonnie hpnunni nosnnxnonennn xon-
qnx1non cn1yann, c1pecca, nsxenennn n opiannsann.
npaopec1a aaamxa:
yhpanennn xonqnx1axn, c1peccaxn, nsxenennnxn n opia-
nnsann.


Mcucdcun

292
Hu usuenuu me+m 8 neoxoou+o:

Hn1a1n iany 8 yue6noio hoco6nn ho xenepxen1y n exnn.
Bmnnnnn1n aapannc hpax1nxyxa n 6anxa 1ec1on ho xenep-
xen1y ho paspey 8: o1ne1n1i na xon1poinie nohpoci, hpnnn1i yua-
c1ne n o6cypennn pncxyccnonnix nohpocon, yue6nix cn1yann, 1ec-
1nponannn. Hopio1onn1i xypconyn pa6o1y, peqepa1 nn cce n hpn-
oennn ho 1exax:

1. Ocnoni xonehnn xonqnx1a n yhpanenne xonqnx1non
cn1yanen;
2. Hpnunni xonqnx1on n nx poi n yhpanennn opiannsanen;
3. Hpoeccyainie xapax1epnc1nxn xonqnx1a;
4. Hpnpopa n xaccnqnxann c1pecca;
5. \hpanenne c1peccaxn: qqex1i n hapapoxci;
6. Cymnoc1i yhpanennn nsxenennnxn n opiannsann;
7. Coxpanenne xonxypen1ochoco6noc1n yumnxn opiannsann-
xn n pesyi1a1e qqex1nnnoio yhpanennn nsxenennnxn (c1ypen-
1ax, xo1opie pemnn 6oee yiy6enno nsyun1i 1exy 8).

Ieui opnoio ueonexa em ne peui:
nyno nicyma1i o6e c1oponi.
Mapnuu Hrncp


8.1. Ocaoam xoaqenqa xoaqnax1a a ynpaaneaae
xoaqnax1ao ca1yaqae

Knnqnn1 (confliktus a1. c1oxnonenne c1opon, xnennn,
cn) an1aionnc1nuecxoe necoiacne xepy pnyxn nn 6oee naxn
(ipyhhaxn), xoipa xapan c1opona c1apae1cn cpea1i 1ax, u1o6i 6in
hpnnn1i nxenno ee nn1epeci, nsinpi, en, n hoxema1i ppyion
c1opone cpea1i 1o e caxoe.
Menepep uame nceio naxopn1cn n en1pe xonqnx1a n opia-
nnsann n o6nsan paspema1i eio ncexn poc1yhnixn cpepc1naxn. jn
qqex1nnnoio yhpanennn xonqnx1ox napo sna1i ocnoni xoneh-
nn xonqnx1a.
Konqnx1 ohncinan1 n nccepyn1 chenanc1i xnoinx nayx,
nahpnxep hcnxooinn, qnocoqnn, hon1ooinn, conooinn, xe-
nepxen1a. On nnne1cn xepncnhnnapnix hpepxe1ox nsyuennn.
Hpepe, uex nsyuenne xonqnx1a oqopxnoci n cnc1exa1nsn-
ponannyn nayunyn pncnhnny n hpoqeccnonainyn pen1einoc1i,
hponsoma nonnn hopxopon n nsinpon na xonqnx1 (cx. 1a6. 8.1.)
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

293
Tac:ua 8.1.

nnnmnnn 1cnpnn n npa1nwccnx nnpxnpnn
n narnnpnn na nnqnn1

1an
Bpcmcnnnn
ncpnnp
Cnpcpxannc nnpxnpnn n
narnnpnn
na nnqnn1
An1npm nnaapcnnn na
nnqnn1
n ynpanncnnc nm
1 jo n. .
(ppennne npe-
xena)
Konqnx1 xax opna ns
c1opon o1nomennn n
nsanxocnnsn pasnunix
conainix ipyhh n nn-
pnnnpyyxon
Iepaxnp, hnxyp,
Apnc1o1ei, Konqynn,
Ha1on, Hnepon n pp.
2 Cpepnne nexa Konqnx1 nosnnxae1 eme
n na peninosnon houne,
eio hi1an1cn ocxicn1i
uoxa Axnnncxnn, pasx
Io11eppaxcxnn n pp.
3 hoxa
ospopennn
Konqnx1 c1pexn1cn
hpeopoe1i, 6aiopapn
nepe n pasyx n iapxonnn
ueonexa
Hnxoan Kysancxnn, Hn-
xoan Kohepnnx, jop-
ano 5pyno, Hnxxoo
Maxnanen n pp.
4 hoxa
Hpocneme-
nnn
Konqnx1 nsyuan1, n eio
hosnannn honnnn1cn
hpephocixn x cnc1ex-
noxy hopxopy
upncnc 5xon, Toxac
Io66c, anax Iycco,
Toxac Mop, jon Hoxx,
Apax Cxn1, Ixxanyn
Kan1 n pp.
5 Inpyc1pnai-
nan
hoxa
Konqnx1 nochpnnnxa-
e1cn ne 1oixo xhnpn-
uecxn, no n paspa6a1ina-
e1cn xonqnx1ooinn
xax o1nocn1eino caxo-
c1on1einan 1eopnn
H. uenep6ax, . ynp1,
I.3nxxei, K. Kaysenn,
H. Copoxnn, 3. upenp,
. jnpxienx, M. e6ep,
A. Apep, I. Iinn,
H. Hanpon, M. 5axynnn,
H. Kpoho1xnn n pp.
6 Inqopxan-
onnan hoxa
(nonenmee npe-
xn)
Konqnx1 nsyuae1cn
ncec1oponne, hponcxopn1
pohonn1einan xonxpe-
1nsann xonqnx1oo-
inn, 6oee ue1xne ouep-
1annn ee hpo6exa1nxn,
yhpanenne xonqnx1ox
H. Kosep, I. japenpopq,
A. Typen, K. 5oypnni,
H.C. iio1cxnn,
.C. Mepnn, u.L. acn-
nx, H.A. He1poncxan,
A.2. Anyhon, A.I. Hn-
hnon, L.M. 5a6ocon,
C.M. Lxeinnon,
.H. Hne1xon, A.H. y-
xnxon, j. Cxo11, M. Mec-
xon, n pp.

Ta6. 8.1. coc1anena an1opox ho xa1epnaax [21, C.817,125] n [16, C.517]
Mcucdcun

294
Ioccnncxan xonqnx1ooinn pasnnnaaci oueni nepannoxepno.
Hpn hepnopnsann yconno xono nipen1i mec1i 1ahon:
1. jo 1924 i. Konqnx1ooinuecxne npen sapopan1cn n pasnn-
nan1cn xax hpax1nuecxoe snanne npixn hpnnnhon, hpann, hpne-
xon honepennn n xonxpe1nix xonqnx1ax. Hpo6exi xonqnx1on
o1paan1cn n ncxycc1ne n xyi1ype. Ha hepnix nacxainix pncynxax
saheua1eni pasnunie xonqnx1i c yuac1nex ueonexa. Hospnee
xonqnx1i o1paan1cn n n1epa1ype, xonyxen1ainox ncxycc1ne,
xysixe, nnohncn, xnno. Haunnan1 honnn1icn nayunie hy6nxa-
nn o xonqnx1ax n paxxax qnocoqnn, hpana, hcnxooinn, noen-
nix nayx, no ne nipenn1cn xax caxoc1on1einie nnennn.
2. 19251934 i. i. Honnnn1cn pa6o1i ho hpo6exax xonqnx1on n
hpanonepennn, conooinn, hcnxooinn, xa1exa1nxe, cono6nooinn.
3. 19351948 i. i. Hpax1nuecxn ne1 hy6nxann nssa O n
o6c1anonxn n c1pane n eox.
4. 19491972 i. i. Leiopno hy6nxyn1cn pa6o1i ho hpo6e-
xax xonqnx1on, samnman1cn hepnie 25 xanpnpa1cxnx pnccep-
1ann. qnocoqnn, hepaioinxe, nc1opnuecxnx n hepaioinue-
cxnx nayxax xonqnx1 nccepye1cn xax caxoc1on1einoe nnenne.
5. 19731989 i. i. 3amnman1cn hepnie pox1opcxne pnccep1a-
nn ho hpo6exax xonqnx1on n paxxax ncxycc1nonepennn, xa1e-
xa1nxn, hepaioinxn, hpanonepennn, hcnxooinn, hon1ooinn,
qnocoqnn. Leiopno hy6nxyn1cn ne xenee 35 pa6o1 ho hpo-
6exax xonqnx1on.
6. 1990 i. nac1onmee npexn. Konqnx1ooinn naunnae1
oqopxn1icn n caxoc1on1einyn nayxy, pesxo ynenunnae1cn
unco hy6nxann (o1 60 po 250 n iop), eeiopno samnmae1cn o1
13 po 25 pnccep1ann, n 1ox unce o1 1 po 4 pox1opcxnx. Cospan1-
cn en1pi, ipyhhi ho ncceponannn n yhpanennn xonqnx1a-
xn [21, C. 2033].
nauae mec1oio 1aha n namen c1pane honnne1cn hpax1nxa
xepna1opc1na. Opiannsonano o6yuenne xonqnx1ooionxepna1opon
n paxxax IoccnncxoAxepnxancxon hpoipaxxi ho xonqnx1ooinn.
Ha 1on ocnone n Canx1He1ep6ypie n 1993 i. 6i o1xpi1 hepnin n
Ioccnn Hen1p paspemennn xonqnx1on, a n 1997 i. cospan xy6 xon-
qnx1ooion, o6:epnnnnmnn hpoqeccnonainix xonqnx1ooion
xepna1opon.
jnpanncnnc nnqnn1nm n nprannaannn eenahpanen-
noe nospenc1nne na honepenne co1pypnnxon n xonqnx1nix cn1ya-
nnx; pen1einoc1i ho hpepyhpepennn, paspemennn xonqnx1nix
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

295
c1oxnonennn, pasnoiacnn xepy pa6o1nnxaxn, xepy nunoc1in
n ipyhhon, xepy pasnunixn ipyhhaxn.
nac1onmee npexn pae n opiannsannx c qqex1nnnix
yhpanennex nexo1opie xonqnx1i ne 1oixo nosxoni, no pae
ea1eini, 1.x. hoxoian1 ninnn1i pasnoo6pasne 1ouex spennn, pan1
pohonn1einyn nnqopxann, hoxoian1 ninnn1i 6oimee unco
ai1epna1nn nn hpo6ex, naxohnnmnxcn n opiannsann, u1o peae1
hpoecc hpnnn1nn pemennn 6oee oh1nxainix (cx. pnc. 8.1.).


















Puc. 8.1. Cxcma ncnnnnmx qynnnn nnqnn1a n nprannaannn
[21, C.138 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]


Kapan ns yxasannix qynxnn xonqnx1a nxee1 hosn1nnnyn
nn neia1nnnyn nahpanennoc1i n hocepc1nnn.
Konqnx1 xoe1 6i1i qynnnnnannnmm n nec1n x honi-
mennn qqex1nnnoc1n pen1einoc1n opiannsann, no on xoe1
6i1i n pncqynnnnnannnmm cnna1i nunyn ypone1nopen-
noc1i, ipyhhonoe co1pypnnuec1no n xoex1nne, xauec1no hponsno-
pnxon hpopyxnn n 1opxosn1i poc1nenne een opiannsann,
ho1oxy neo6xopnxo sna1i hopxopi x nsyuennn xonqnx1a (cx.
pnc. 8.2.).
qynnnn
nnqnn1a
In1eipanonnie Conainie Ax1nnnsanonnie
Tpancqopxan-
onnie
(hpeo6pasonanne
peonix o1no-
mennn)
Innonanonnie
(copenc1nne
1nopuecxon
nnnna1nne)
Inqopxanonnie Hpoqnax1nuecxne
Mcucdcun

296



Puc. 8.2. Cxcma nnpxnpnn naywcnnm nnqnn1a n pnccnncnm mcncpx-
mcn1c (paccmn1pcnnc nnwnnc1n a ncn1pannnnrn ancna nnqnn1nnrn
naanmnpcnc1nnn). [21, C.130 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]

1o6i yhpann1i xonqnx1ox, neo6xopnxo honnxa1i hpnun-
ni nosnnxnonennn xonqnx1non cn1yann. Kax hpanno, nx 6inae1
necxoixo. Iaccxo1pnx ocnonnie:
1. Pacnpcpcncnnc annnmnwccnx pccypcnn hou1n nens6eno
nepe1 x pasnunix nnpax xonqnx1non cn1yann, 1.x. oueni 1pypno
pachpepen1i ho chpanepnnoc1n, u1o6i nce 6in ponoini, oco6en-
no hpn peqnn1e 1ex nn nnix pecypcon;
2. Baanmnaanncnmnc1n nmnnnnncmmx qynnnn, oco6enno hpn
neue1xox pachpepeennn o6nsannoc1en 1o opna ns caxix pachpo-
c1panennix hpnunn nosnnxnonennn xonqnx1a n opiannsann;
3. Hcypnnnc1nnpcnnnc1n ycnnnnnmn 1pypa, u1o cnnsano c 6oi-
mon naipysxon n xnsepnon oha1on 1pypa;
4. Paannwnn n ncnnx, ncnnnc1nmx npncn1annnx, cpcpc1nax pnc-
1nxcnnn ncncn, u1o hpnnopn1 x 6oimoxy o11oxy nicoxoxnanqn-
nponannix xappon;
5. Hannwnc n nnnc1nnc nnqnn1nnn nnwnnc1n, xo1opan ho-
c1onnno cospae1 noxpyi ce6n xonqnx1i n xonqnx1nie cn1yann,
hoc1onnno nonexan n nnx oxpyanmnx.
nnqnn1
Konqnx1 nccepye1cn xax hpoecc, xax
cepc1nne ohpepeennix paccoiacona-
nnn n opiannsanonnon c1pyx1ype
yhpanennn, xax napymenne cnnsen,
o6echeunnanmnx c1a6ninoc1i pa6o1i
opiannsann.
Hponsnopc1nennin
uynxnonainin
Opiannsanonnin
jncqynxnonainin
Hnunoc1nin
Konqnx1 nicneunnae1
hpepxe1no peonie cnnsn,
xapax1epnie pn conxec1non
pen1einoc1n, u1o nnne1cn
hpepxe1ox nsyuennn n
yhpanennn xonqnx1ox
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

297
xope yhpanennn opiannsanen nanune opnon nn necxoi-
xnx hpnunn xonqnx1a ynenunnae1 nosxonoc1i nosnnxnonennn
xonqnx1non cn1yann, xo1opan paccxa1pnnae1cn xax hpoecc (cx.
pnc. 8.3.).



















Puc. 8.3. Cxcma mnpcnn nnqnn1a a npnnccca [16, C.523]

Hpoecc xonqnx1a naunnae1cn hoce 1oio, xax c1oponi he-
penpy1 x nsanxnix penc1nnnx, nahpanennix na oipannuenne nn-
1epecon ppyi ppyia. ny1pennnn oinxa xonqnx1a sac1anne1 xon-
qnx1ynmnx cepona1i ohpepeennoxy cenapnn. Opnaxo qnna
eme ne hpepohpepeen n hoesni n6ie hosn1nnnie ycnnn. Hn6on
xoxen1 pasnn1nn xonqnx1a nxee1 cnon 1ouxn 6nqypxann (pas-
pnoennn, paspeennn, pasne1nennn), hpepycxa1pnnanmne necxoixo
napnan1on painenmeio pasnn1nn. Ho1oxy xapin xonqnx1 nxee1
cnon oco6ennoc1n n o1nun1einie uep1i, a ni6op napnan1a nceipa
oc1ae1cn sa eio yuac1nnxaxn.
Konqnx1 hpoxopn1 pnp qas, c1apnn n 1ahon (cx. pnc. 8.4).
Opnon ns xapax1epnc1nx xonqnx1a nnne1cn eio pnnaxnxa,
xo1opan hpepc1anne1 co6on hpoecc pasnn1nn xonqnx1a hop nnn-
nnex xax eio nny1pennnx xexannsxon, 1ax n nnemnnx nospenc1nnn.
Kax hpanno, qasi xonqnx1a nxen1 nxnuecxnn xapax1ep. Hoce
\hpanen-
uecxan
cn1yann
Ic1ounnxn
xonqnx1a
osxo-
noc1i
paspac1a-
nnn
xonqnx1a
Ieaxnn
na
cn1yann
Kon-
qnx1
hponc-
xopn1
\hpane-
nne
xonqnx-
1ox
Konqnx1
ne
hponcxopn1
uynxnonainie
n pncqynxnonainie
hocepc1nnn
Mcucdcun

298
qasi chapa n hepnox nxe xoe1 naua1icn qasa hop:exa n1opoio
nxa c hpoxopennex qas hnxa n chapa, ho1ox cymec1nye1 nepon1-
noc1i pasnn1nn 1pe1ieio nxa n 1.p., a nosxonoc1n sanepmennn
xonqnx1a n xapox hocepynmex nxe cnnan1cn.





























Pnc. 8.4. Ocnnnnmc qaam, a1anm n c1apnn pnnamnn nnqnn1a
[21, C.137 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]

Konqnx1i o1nuan1cn snaun1einix pasnoo6pasnex, hpep-
c1annn1 co6on conoe, hopuac ynnxainoe, nehon1opnxoe ho hpn-
unnax nosnnxnonennn, qopxax nsanxopenc1nnn c1opon, ncxopy n
hocepc1nnnx nnennn.
Hn nnqnn1a
Honnenne
hpo6exnon
cn1yann n
ee ocosnanne
yuac1nnxaxn
Hohi1xn
paspemn1i
hpo6exy
nexon-
qnx1nix
choco6ox
osnnxnonenne
hpepxonqnx1-
non
cn1yann
Innpen1
(c1oxnone-
nne)
Konqnx1noe
nsanxopenc1-
nne
Iaspemenne
(sanepmenne
xonqnx1a)
Iasnn1ne
hocexon
qnx1non
cn1yann
1ahi: 1. jnqqepennann
2. cxaann
3. In1eipann
Hawannnan
qaaa
uaaa nnpcma
uaaa cnapa
Ha1en1nan (cxpi1an) c1apnn O1xpi1an n
sanepmanman
c1apnn
Ha1en1nan
c1apnn
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

299
Isyuenne, anans, oenxa n yhpanenne xonqnx1axn
hpephoaiae1 nx cnc1exa1nsann.
Mono ohpepen1i ipanni xonqnx1a:
hpoc1panc1nennie na xaxon 1eppn1opnn on hponcxopn1;
npexennie nauao, hpopon1einoc1i n sanepmenne xon-
qnx1a;
nny1pncnc1exnie o6iuno nny1pncnc1exnie cnnsn coni n
pasnoo6pasni.

Lme nanee xaccnqnnpona1i xonqnx1i ho cymec1nennix
hpnsnaxax (cnonc1nax, xapax1epnc1nxax, hapaxe1pax) c ein yu-
men opnen1ann n nx chenqnuecxnx hpo6exax n hpax1nuecxon
oenxn nosxonix hy1en nx paspemennn, a 1axe yhpanennn xon-
qnx1axn (cx. pnc. 8.5.)
C.M. Lxeinnon
5
pae1 o6myn xapax1epnc1nxy cymec1nennix
hpnsnaxax n nnpax xaccnqnxann xonqnx1on. Iaccxo1pnx nexo-
1opie ns nnx:
1. xapon cqepe hponnennn xonqnx1a ea1 hpo1nno-
peunn no nsinpax, o1nomennnx n 1.p.;
2. 5ypnie 6ic1po1exymne xonqnx1i nosnnxan1 na ocnone
nnpnnnpyainix hcnxooinuecxnx oco6ennoc1en nunoc1n, o1nua-
n1cn aipeccnnnoc1in n xpannen npape6noc1in xonqnx1ynmnx;
3. Ca6onipaennie n 6ic1po1exymne xonqnx1i cnnsani c
honepxnoc1nixn hpnunnaxn, nocn1 hnsopnuecxnn xapax1ep;
4. ny1pnnunoc1nie xonqnx1i cnnsani co c1oxnonennex
hpo1nnohoono nahpanennix xo1nnon nunoc1n;
5. ocnone xonc1pyx1nnnix xonqnx1on ea1, xax hpanno,
o6:ex1nnnie hpo1nnopeunn. 1n xonqnx1i choco6c1nyn1 pasnn-
1nn opiannsann, poc1nennn een, honimennn qqex1nnnoc1n
pen1einoc1n;
6. nnnna1nnnix n chpononponannix xonqnx1ax n6o x1o
1o nnne1cn o1xpi1ix opiannsa1opox xonqnx1a, n6o o6c1on1eic1na
cxpi1o hop1aconinan1cn 1axnx o6pasox, u1o hponcxopn1 xonqnx1.
7. ocnone pec1pyx1nnnix xonqnx1on ea1, xax hpanno,
cy6:ex1nnnie hpnunni. Onn cospan1 cepynmne neia1nnnie pnc-
qynxnonainie hocepc1nnn, ecn ne nan1n qqex1nnnoio choco6a
yhpanennn xonqnx1ox:
neypone1nopennoc1i, hoxoe nac1poenne, poc1 1exyuec1n xap-
pon n cnnenne hponsnopn1einoc1n 1pypa;
xeniman c1eheni co1pypnnuec1na n 6ypymex;

5
Lxeinnon C.M. Hpax1nxyx ho xonqnx1ooinn. CH6, 2001. 25 c.
Mcucdcun

300






































Puc. 8.5. Cxcma qacc1nnn naccnqnannn nnqnn1nn
[21, C.139 c namcncnnnmn an1npa]
Cqepa hponne-
nnn xonqnx1on
xonoxnuecxan
Ipeooinuecxan
Conainan
5i1onan
C1eheni pn1einoc1n
n nahpnennoc1n
5ic1po1exyman
6ypnan
jn1einan oc1pan
no1exyman ca6an
5ic1po1exyman
ca6an
Cy6:ex1i xonqnx1-
noio nsanxopenc1nnn
Ipyhhi
IpyhhaHnunoc1i
Hnunoc1n
ny1pnnunoc1nie
Conainie ho-
cepc1nnn
xonqnx1a
Konc1pyx1nnnie
jec1pyx1nnnie
Hpepxe1 xonqnx1a
Ieanc1nunie
(hpepxe1nie)
Hepeanc1nunie
(6echpepxe1nie)
Koxxynnxa1nnnan na-
hpanennoc1i
xonqnx1a
Iopnson1ainan
ep1nxainan
Cxemannan
Macm1a6 n hpopo-
n1einoc1i xon-
qnx1a
Omn
Hoxainin
Kpa1xocpounin
3a1nnon
Cxopo1eunin
joiocpounin
Choco6 ypeiynponannn
xonqnx1a
An1aionnc1nuecxnn
Koxhpoxncnin
Iaspemnxin
Coiacn1einin
uopxa n c1eheni
c1oxnonennn
O1xpi1an
Cxpi1an
Innna1nnnan
Chpononponannan
Hens6enan
inypennan
Chon1annan
Heeecoo6pasnan
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

301
cninan hpepannoc1i cnoen ipyhhe n 6oime nehpopyx1nnnon
xonxypennn c ppyinxn ipyhhaxn opiannsann;
hpepc1anenne o ppyion c1opone xax o npaie, o cnonx enx xax
o hoon1einix, o enx ppyion c1oponi xax o6 o1pna1einix;
cnopaunnanne nsanxopenc1nnn n o6mennn xepy xonqnx-
1ynmnxn c1oponaxn;
ynenuenne npape6noc1n xepy xonqnx1ynmnxn c1oponaxn
ho xepe coxpamennn nn hpexpamennn nsanxopenc1nnn n o6mennn;
cxemenne axen1a: hpnpanne 6oimeio snauennn ho6epe n
xonqnx1e, uex pemennn peainon hpo6exi [ 16, C. 524]

3nanne nonnn, hpax1nuecxnx hopxopon, nsinpon na
xonqnx1, eio qynxnn, xopen xax hpoecca, ocnonnix eio qas,
1ahon, c1apnn, pnnaxnxn pasnn1nn n qacen1non xaccnqnxann
xonqnx1on hosnone1 oh1nxaino yhpann1i xonqnx1non cn-
1yanen n opiannsann.
Ocnonnan e ei yhpanennn xonqnx1axn n opiannsann
saxnuae1cn n 1ox, u1o6i hpepo1npa1n1i pec1pyx1nnnie xonqnx1i
n choco6c1nona1i apexna1noxy pemennn hpo6ex hpn xonc1pyx1nn-
nix xonqnx1ax.
K nac1onmexy npexenn chenanc1axn paspa6o1ano nexa-
o pasnunix choco6on yhpanennn xonqnx1non cn1yanen.
Hahpnxep, M. Mecxon, M. Ai6ep1 n u. Xepoypn pexoxenpyn1:

1. e1ipe c1pyx1ypnix xe1opa paspemennn xonqnx1a:
pas:ncnenne 1pe6onannn x pa6o1e xaxne pesyi1a1i onpa-
n1cn o1 xapoio pa6o1nnxa, x1o hoyuae1 pasnunyn nnqopxann,
xaxona cnc1exa honoxounn, o1ne1c1nennoc1n, hpoepyp n hpann.
Ichonn1en poni xopomo honnxa1i ueio py1 o1 nnx n xapon
xonxpe1non cn1yann;
xooppnnanonnie n nn1eipanonnie xexannsxi ehi xo-
xanp, hpn nanunn nepapxnn honoxounn yhopnpounnae1 nsanxo-
penc1nne nchonn1een, hpnnn1ne pemennn, nnqopxanonnie ho-
1oxn nny1pn opiannsann. Hpnnnh epnnonauann o6eiuae1 nc-
hoisonanne nepapxnn pn yhpanennn xonqnx1non cn1yanen, 1.x.
hopunnennin snae1, uinx pemennnx on poen hopunnn1icn;
o6meopiannsanonnie xoxhexcnie en neo6xopnxo na-
hpann1i ycnnn ncex pa6o1nnxon na poc1nenne o6mnx een;
c1pyx1ypa cnc1exi nosnaipapennn cnc1exa1nuecxoe cxoop-
pnnnponannoe hoompenne 1ex, x1o choco6c1nye1 ocymec1nennn o6-
meopiannsanonnix een, hoxoiae1 honn1i, xax cepye1 hoc1yha1i
n xonqnx1non cn1yann, u1o6i 1o coo1ne1c1nonao nn1epecax op-
iannsann;
Mcucdcun

302
o npexn o6mennn cospa1i hosn1nnnoe o1nomenne ppyi x ppyiy, hponnnn
cnxha1nn, nicymnnan xnenne xapoio yuac1nnxa xonqnx1a, cnepn x
xnnnxyxy hponnennn inena n yipos
2. Hn1i ocnonnix xenunoc1nix c1nen paspemennn xon-
qnx1on:
yxonenne ne hohapa1i n cn1yann, xo1opie hpononpyn1
nosnnxnonenne hpo1nnopeunn, ne nc1yha1i n o6cypenne nohpocon,
upena1ix pasnoiacnnxn. Toipa ne hpnpe1cn hpnxopn1i n nos6y-
pennoe coc1onnne, hyc1i pae n sannxanci pemennex hpo6exi (Io-
6ep1 5nx n jenn My1on);
ciannanne c1apa1icn ne nihycxa1i napyy hpnsnaxn xon-
qnx1a n oec1ouennoc1n, ahenpyn x ho1pe6noc1n n conpapnoc1n.
Opnaxo hpo6exa n nepon1noc1i 1oio, u1o hponsonpe1 nspin oc1ae1cn;
hpnnypenne aipeccnnnoe nnnnne na ppyinx c nchoiso-
nannex nac1n, no 1o1 c1ni hopanne1 nnnna1nny hopunnen-
nix, ne nce nanie qax1opi yun1inan1cn, 1.x. hpepc1anena op-
na 1ouxa spennn, xoe1 nisna1i nosxymenne;
xoxhpoxncc hpnnn1ne 1ouxn spennn ppyion c1oponi, no nmi
po nexo1opon c1ehenn, u1o nicoxo enn1cn n xenepxen1e, 1.x. cnopn1
po xnnnxyxa nepo6poea1einoc1i n uac1o pae1 nosxonoc1i 6ic1po
paspemn1i xonqnx1. Ho nchoisonanne xoxhpoxnccon na pannnx c1a-
pnnx xonqnx1a, nosnnxmeio ho honopy conon n cepiesnon hpo6e-
xi, xoe1 hoxema1i pnainosy hpo6exi, yxenimn1i honcx nosxonix
ai1epna1nn, a hpnnn1ie pemennn ne 6ypy1 oh1nxainixn;
pemenne hpo6ex hpnsnanne pasnunn no xnennnx, io1on-
noc1i osnaxoxn1icn c ppyinxn 1ouxaxn spennn c ein honn1i hpn-
unni xonqnx1a n nan1n xypc penc1nnn, hpnexexix pn ncex yua-
c1nnxon xonqnx1a. 1o nanyumnn napnan1 pemennn xonqnx1-
non cn1yann n opiannsann (cx. pnc. 8.6.).






Puc. 8.6. Cxcma nncncpnna1cnnnnc1n mc1npnn ynpanncnnn
nnqnn1nm wcpca pcmcnnc npn6ncmm
Ohpepen1i
hpo6exy n
xa1eiopnnx
een, a ne
pemennn
Ohpepen1i
pemennn,
hpnexexie
pn ncex yua-
c1nnxon xon-
qnx1a
Cocpepo1oun1i
nnnxanne na
hpo6exe, a ne
na nunix xaue-
c1nax yuac1nn-
xon xonqnx1a
Cospa1i a1xo-
cqepy ponepnn,
ynenunn nsa-
nxnoe nnnnne
n o6xen nn-
qopxanen.
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

303
L. M. 5a6ocon pexoxenpye1 yncnn1i cepynmne oco6ennoc1n
yhpanennn xonqnx1axn:
1. Ha hepnin han nipnniae1cn sapaua yhpanennn npixn;
2. Ixee1 cymec1nennoe snauenne n yu1 ncex 6es ncxnuennn qax-
1opon n xo1nnon honepennn pa6o1nnxon (o6:ex1nnnie n cy6:ex1nnnie,
xa1epnainie n pyxonnie, xononainie n panonainie, hpnniu-
xn, cnxha1nn, an1nha1nn, napepi, onpannn, ohacennn, 1penoin n
1.h.). Hpn 1ox cymec1nye1 nepon1noc1i nehpepcxasyexoc1n;
3. \hpanenne xonqnx1ox 1o uame nceio yhpanenne panni-
xn npixn c 1ouxn spennn ne conainoio c1a1yca nn ponoc1nix
o6nsannoc1en, a nx nsanxnix 1pe6onannn, hpn1nsannn, hpe1ensnn.
Cpepn yuac1nnxon xonqnx1a, xax hpanno, ne 6inae1 a6con1no
nehpanon c1oponi;
4. \hpanenne xonqnx1axn 1o yhpanenne na 6ase nn1e-
pecon. Toixo hpannino honn1in nn1epec yuac1nnxon xonqnx-
1a o1xpinae1 nosxonoc1i ychemnoio paspemennn hpo1nno6op-
c1na, nehpexennoe yconne coiamennn, yc1pannanmeio ncex yua-
c1nnxon xonqnx1a;
5. osxono, ne nceipa ypae1cn yc1pann1i xonqnx1nie hpo1n-
nopeunn, no neo6xopnxo nayun1icn xnnnxnsnpona1i nspepxn n
ymep6i paspymn1einix hocepc1nnn npapi;
6. Hapo nceipa ncxa1i n c1apa1icn naxopn1i nexonqpon1anon-
nie choco6i paspemennn xonqnx1on.

j. n I. jonconi, a sa1ex L. Men6pypa cun1an1, u1o xonc1-
pyx1nnnoe paspemenne xonqnx1on sanncn1, xax xnnnxyx, o1 ue1i-
pex qax1opon:
1. Apexna1noc1i nochpnn1nn xonqnx1a;
2. O1xpi1oc1i n qqex1nnnoc1i o6mennn;
3. Cospanne a1xocqepi nsanxnoio ponepnn n co1pypnnuec1na;
4. Ohpepeenne cymec1na xonqnx1a.
1o xacae1cn apexna1noc1n nochpnn1nn xonqnx1a, 1o nxee1cn
n nnpy poc1a1ouno 1ounan, ne ncxaennan nunixn hpnc1pac1nnxn
oenxa xax co6c1nennix penc1nnn, naxepennn, hosnnn, 1ax n ho-
c1yhxon, naxepennn, hosnnn ohhonen1on. A hoyun1i 1axyn oenxy
neeixo.
uac1noc1n, 1pypno ns6ea1i nnnnnn neia1nnnon yc1anonxn n
o1nomennn hpo1nnohoonon c1oponi, o6napynnanmeiocn n
hpepnsn1oc1n oenxn ppyioio. nex, n eio honepennn nnpn1cn n uyn-
Mcucdcun

304
c1nye1cn 1oixo npape6noc1i. Ho xnennn L. Men6pypi: 1o xo-
e1 hpnnec1n x 1ax nasinaexoxy caxohop1neppanmexycn pohyme-
nnn: am hap1nep nac1poen ncxnun1eino npape6no, naunnaemi
o6oponn1icn o1 neio, hepexopn n nac1yhenne. npn 1o, hap1nep he-
pennae1 npape6noc1i x nax, n name hpepnapn1einoe pohymenne,
xo1n ono n 6io nehpanninix, nexepenno hop1neppae1cn.
Is 1oio cepye1, u1o neo6xopnxo 6i1i xaxcnxaino ne1opoh-
nnix n cnonx oenxax ppyinx npen, oco6enno ecn peui npe1 o
xonqnx1e c nnxn.
Cepynmnn qax1op xonc1pyx1nnnoio paspemennn xonqnx-
1on o1xpi1oc1i n qqex1nnnoc1i o6mennn hpo1nnopenc1nynmnx
c1opon. Chenanc1i o6paman1 nnnxanne na 1axon cymec1nennin
xoxen1, cnnsannin c paspemennex xonqnx1a, xax o1xpi1oe o6cy-
penne hpo6exi, n xope xo1opoio c1oponi, ne c1ecnnnci n ne cpep-
nnan xonn, uec1no nicxasinan1 cnoe honnxanne hponcxopnmeio.
Hopo6nan xonqpon1ann choco6c1nye1 hpexpamennn npxynnn
ncenosxonix cyxon. Hepepxo o1xpi1oe nipaenne nsinpon n
uync1n saxapinae1 ocnony pn hoc1poennn n painenmex ponepn-
1einix o1nomennn xepy ohhonen1axn.
xec1e c 1ex, xaxnx 6i oc1pix nn 6io c1oxnonenne, ono
pono pemn1eino ncxnua1i hponnennn xaxc1na, neensypnie
nicxasinannn, aipeccnn.
Hocxoixy o1xpi1oc1i o6mennn 1o ne 1oixo 6ypnoe nsnn-
nne uync1n, no n opiannsann xonc1pyx1nnnoio honcxa pemennn
hpo6exi, ea1eino, u1o6i xapin ns hpo1nnnnxon xoi coo6-
mn1i ppyioxy, u1o on xo1e 6i cpea1i, u1o6i paspemn1i xonqnx1?
Kaxnx peaxnn n py co c1oponi ppyioio? 1o n co6npanci hpep-
hpnnn1i, ecn hap1nep honepe1 ce6n ne 1ax, xax n hoean? Ha xaxne
hocepc1nnn n napenci, ecn 6ype1 poc1niny1o coiamenne?
Lcn npn io1oni x pnaoiy, ecn onn o1xpi1i ppyi pn ppy-
ia, ec1ec1nenno, cospae1cn a1xocqepa nsanxnoio ponepnn n co1pyp-
nnuec1na. uax1nuecxn, n6an xonqnx1nan cn1yann hpo6exnan, n
ionopn o ee paspemennn, xi nxeex nnnpy paspemenne hpo6exnon
cn1yann. I hocxoixy n xenunoc1nix xonqnx1ax yuac1nyn1, ho
xenimen xepe, pnoe, peui pona np1n o ipyhhonox pemennn hpo-
6exi, a ono nens6eno 1pe6ye1 co1pypnnuec1na c1opon.
jn 1oio, u1o6i ohpepen1i cymec1no xonqnx1a, yuac1nnxn
xonqnx1a poni coiacona1i cnon hpepc1anennn o connmencn
cn1yann n nipa6o1a1i ohpepeennyn c1pa1einn honepennn. Hpep-
hoaiae1cn, u1o nx penc1nnn nocn1 homaionin xapax1ep:
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

305
HAI 1. Ohpepeenne ocnonnon hpo6exi.
Ha 1ox 1ahe neo6xopnxo ue1xo yncnn1i cy1i hpo6exi, hpn-
nepmen x xonqnx1y. Hpn 1ox oueni nano, u1o6i hpo1nnnnxn
ocosnanan cnoeo6pasne nnpennn hpo6exi: xax co6c1nennoio, 1ax n
ohhonen1a, nxenmnecn speci cxopc1na n pasnunn.

HAI 2. Ohpepeenne n1opnunix hpnunn xonqnx1a.
O6iuno onn cya1 honopox pn nosnnxnonennn xonqnx1a,
uac1o sa1ennn nc1nnnyn hpnunny n sa1pypnnn anans. Ho1oxy
ncep sa yncnennex ocnonnon hpo6exi eecoo6pasno hpoanansn-
pona1i co6c1nennoe honepenne na hpepxe1 ninnennn eio xonqnx1-
nix pe1aen.

HAI 3. Honcx nosxonix hy1en paspemennn xonqnx1a.
On xoe1 6i1i nipaen, n uac1noc1n, cepynmnxn nohpoca-
xn, xo1opie cepye1 sapa1i ce6e yuac1nnxax xonqnx1a:
a) 1o n xoi 6i cpea1i, u1o6i paspemn1i xonqnx1?
6) 1o xoi 6i pn 1oio cpea1i xon ohhonen1?
n) Kaxoni namn o6mne en, no nxn xo1opix neo6xopnxo nan1n
nixop ns xonqnx1a?

HAI 4. Conxec1noe pemenne o nixope ns xonqnx1a.
Ha 1ox 1ahe peui npe1 o ni6ope nan6oee hopxopnmeio cho-
co6a paspemennn xonqnx1a, nisinanmeio o6onpnoe ypone1nope-
nne cohepnnxon.

HAI 5. Ieansann naxeuennoio conxec1noio choco6a paspe-
mennn xonqnx1a.
3peci xonqnx1ynmnx c1oponax oueni nano, hpnpepnnanci
naxeuennon c1pa1einn, ne nisna1i xaxnxn6o coxnennn ppyi y ppy-
ia o1nocn1eino ncxpennoc1n nipaennix panee naxepennn paspe-
mn1i xonqnx1.

HAI 6. Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n ycnnn, hpephpnnn1ix pn pas-
pemennn xonqnx1a.
Ha ee ocnonannn hpo6exa cun1ae1cn n6o paspemennon, n6o
peae1cn ninop o neo6xopnxoc1n pa6o1i nap nen, nnoipa nnoni ho-
n1opnn ohncannyn nime hocepona1einoc1i maion.
Cepye1 po6ann1i, u1o homaionoe pnnenne cohepnnxon n c1o-
pony paspemennn xonqnx1a nenosxono nne opnonpexennoio pen-
c1nnn 1axnx exen1on (qax1opon) pannoio hpoecca, xax apexna1-
noc1i nochpnn1nn npixn hponcxopnmeio, o1xpi1oc1i nx o1nome-
nnn n nanune a1xocqepi nsanxnoio ponepnn n co1pypnnuec1na.
Mcucdcun

306
Ananna nnncpcnnn nnqnn1ymmnx c1npnn n nncpcpnna

\cnnn ho paspemennn xonqnx1a xoiy1 hpnaia1i ne 1oixo
nehocpepc1nenno n1nny1ie n neio na, no n npn co c1oponi ho-
cpepnnxn. A nx nnoipa ypae1cn cpea1i iopaspo 6oime, uex hpep-
c1ann1enx xonqnx1ynmnx c1opon.
Hpoanansnponan pnp ncceponannn 1oio nohpoca, axepnxan-
cxne hcnxooin j. ep1xoqq n j. ccep hpnmn x n6ohi1noxy
saxnuennn. Oxasinae1cn, pn paspemennn xonqnx1non cn1yann
nanune hocpepnnxa upesniuanno nano cxopee nceio n hcnxooin-
uecxox hane, hocxoixy hosnone1 yuac1nnxax xonqnx1a, necxo1-
pn na nsanxnie yc1yhxn coxpann1i no. Is xchepnxen1ainix
pannix, hpnnopnxix 1nxn an1opaxn, xi ysnaex o cymec1nonannn
sanncnxoc1n xepy yc1yhxaxn opnoio ueonexa ppyinx npnx n eio
hpepc1anennn o ce6e xax o cninon nunoc1n.
qqex1 1axon sanncnxoc1n ypae1cn, opnaxo, nen1pansona1i,
ecn n hpoecc paspemennn xonqnx1a nxnuae1cn hocpepnnx.
1ox cyuae nosnnxae1 n6ohi1nan n hcnxooinuecxox o1nomennn
cn1yann: hpn neo6xopnxoc1n yc1yhox c1oponi npy1 na nnx, appecy-
nci ne ppyi x ppyiy, a x 1pe1ien c1opone. Ixenno en xax 6i peae1cn
opoenne n o1ne1 na coo1ne1c1nynmyn hpoci6y o6 yc1yhxe
(o6iuno n qopxe cone1a, pexoxenpann), no o1nnpi ne hpo1nnoho-
onon c1opone. Taxnx o6pasox, uac1o hcnxooinuecxne main hpo-
1nno6opc1nynmnx c1opon, yuac1nnxon xonqnx1a nanc1peuy ho-
cpepnnxy osnauan1 ne yc1yhxy exy, a cxopee pexapann io1onnoc1n
co1pypnnua1i c nnx (a cepona1eino n ppyi c ppyiox) n pemennn
o6men hpo6exi, cepyn hpn 1ox nexo1opix hpannax nipi.
i6op hocpepnnxa n ohpepeenne xpyia eio honoxounn conan
sapaua. M. Iniep hpepaiae1 cepynmne pexoxenpann, ohpepe-
ennix o6pasox peiaxen1npynmne honepenne xonqnx1ynmnx
c1opon n hocpepnnxa:
Konqnx1ynmne c1oponi poni paccxa1pnna1i ns6pannoio
nxn hocpepnnxa xax one1nopnnmeio co6on chpanepnnin ni6op;
Hocpepnnx poen nnn1icn nen1painix nox, ne none-
uennix n xonqnx1;
Konqnx1ynmnx c1oponax cepye1 coiacn1icn c hpncy1c1nn-
ex hocpepnnxa n nchoisonannex eio pexoxenpann hpn ninecennn
oxonua1einoio pemennn;
Hocpepnnx xoe1 6i1i 6oee nceio hoesen, ecn on nicymn-
nae1 coo1ne1c1nynmne nsinpi xapon ns c1opon n o1peinoc1n;
Ocnonnan sapaua hocpepnnxa c6op nnqopxann n yncnenne
hpo6exi, no ne hpnnn1ne pemennn;
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

307
Lcn n cny cnoeio cye6noio hooennn hocpepnnx hopun-
nne1cn opnon nn o6enx xonqnx1ynmnx c1oponax, neo6xopnxo
nxe1i iapan1nn, u1o 1o o6c1on1eic1no n pannin xoxen1 nn n 6y-
pymex ne o1pasn1cn na eio penc1nnnx ho paspemennn xonqnx1a;
Hocpepnnx poen c1pexn1icn hoppepnna1i xapyn c1opony
n nipaennn coo1ne1c1nynmnx nsinpon n uync1n, choco6c1nona1i
nn1eipann nicxasinaexix c1oponaxn 1ouex spennn ho o6cypae-
xon hpo6exe;
Hocpepnnxy cepye1 hoxoui xonqnx1ynmnx c1oponax pe-
mn1i, n uex onn xoiy1 yc1yhn1i ppyi ppyiy;
nn1epecax qqex1nnnoio qynxnonnponannn xoex1nna
pyxonopn1en ne cepye1 n1ninna1icn no ncenosxonie nny1pnxo-
ex1nnnie xonqnx1i, hpnnnxan 1ouxy spennn 1on nn ppyion c1o-
poni. Iasyxnee nceio exy naxopn1icn xax 6i nap cxna1xon. Opnaxo
ne n hosnnn c1oponneio na6npa1en, u1o peae1 opiannsanonnin
hpoecc neyhpannexix, a n xauec1ne na, sann1epeconannoio n
nopxansann nosnnxmnx xenunoc1nix oconennn, hi1anme-
iocn nnn1i na hponcxopnmne hpoecci.
jn 1oio necixa hopxopnmen nnne1cn poi hocpepnnxa. Kpo-
xe 1oio, ychemnan peansann hocpepnnuecxon qynxnn honicn1
eio hcnxooinuecxnn an1opn1e1, u1o nexaonano n honcepnennon
yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n n opiannsann
C. M. Lxeinnon cun1ae1, u1o hpn yhpanennn xonqnx1ox,
neo6xopnxo sna1i 1nh xonqnx1non nunoc1i n hpepaiae1 ce-
pynmyn xaccnqnxann (1a6.8.2)

Tac:ua 8.2

Knaccnqnannn 1nnnn nnqnn1nnn nnwnnc1n
n nx nnncpcnwccnc xapa1cpnc1nn [ 21, C. 8991]

Tnn nnqnn1nnn
nnwnnc1n
Hnncpcnwccnc xapa1cpnc1nn nnwnnc1n
Bccnnqnn1nmn
Heyc1onunn n oenxax n xnennnx. Hpo1nnopeunn.
Heixo nnymaex. Hehocpepc1nenen. Opnen1npye1cn na
cnnxnny1nin ychex n cn1yannx. Hepoc1a1ouno xo-
pomo nnpn1 hepchex1nny. 3anncn1 o1 xnennn oxpy-
anmnx. 5esnoen. Isnmne c1pexn1cn x xoxhpo-
xnccy. Hoxo hpepnnpn1 hocepc1nnn cnonx hoc1yh-
xon n hpnunni hoc1yhxon oxpyanmnx.
Mcucdcun

308
Tac:ua 8.2 (cxcunauuc)

Tnn nnqnn1nnn
nnwnnc1n
Hnncpcnwccnc xapa1cpnc1nn nnwnnc1n
cmnnc1pa1nnnmn
Xoue1 6i1i n en1pe nnnxannn. Hn6n1 xopomo ni-
inpe1i n iasax ppyinx. Lio o1nomenne ohpepene1cn
1ex, xax npn o1nocn1cn x nexy. Lxy eixo pan1cn
honepxnoc1nie xonqnx1i, n6ye1cn cnonxn c1pa-
pannnxn n c1onxoc1in. Xopomo hpnchoca6nnae1cn x
pasnix cn1yannx. Ca6o nipaeno panonainoe
honepenne, yume xononainoe. Hannpye1 cnon
pen1einoc1i cn1ya1nnno n pepxo nohomae1 n nsni.
Is6eiae1 xpoho1nnyn cnc1exa1nuecxyn pa6o1y.
cn1yann xonqnx1noio nsanxopenc1nnn uync1nye1
ce6n nehoxo n ne yxopn1 o1 xonqnx1on.
Hcynpannncmmn
Ixhyicnnen, nepoc1a1ouno xon1ponpye1 ce6n. Hone-
penne hou1n nehpepcxasyexo. epe1 ce6n nisinanme,
aipeccnnno. sahae uac1o ne o6pamae1 nnnxannn na
o6mehpnnn1ie nopxi o6mennn. Hecaxoxpn1nuen.
Mnoio hpn1nsannn. nehpnn1noc1nx n neypauax, xax
hpanno, o6nnnne1 ppyinx. He xoe1 ipaxo1no hann-
pona1i pa6o1y nn hocepona1eino hpe1nopn1i hani
n nsni. Hepoc1a1ouno pasnn1a choco6noc1i coo1no-
cn1i cnon hoc1yhxn c o6c1on1eic1naxn n enxn. Is
hpomoio (pae iopixoio) xao nsnexae1 ypoxon.
Pnrnpnmn
Hopospn1een. 3animae1 caxooenxy. Hoc1onnno
1pe6ye1 hop1neppennn co6c1nennon snaunxoc1n.
ac1o ne yun1inae1 nsxenenne o6c1on1eic1n n cn-
1yann. He in6ox n hpnxonneen. He cun1ae1cn c
xnennex ppyinx, c 6oimnx 1pypox hpnnnxae1 1ou-
xy spennn ohhonen1on. Kax ponoe nochpnnnxae1
hou1enne co c1oponi hepconaa. Kax o6npy nochpn-
nnxae1 nepo6poea1eic1na co c1oponi oxpyan-
mnx. Mao caxoxpn1nuen x cnonx hoc1yhxax. 5oes-
nenno o6npunn, honimeno uync1nn1een x xnnxix
nn penc1nn1einix nechpanepnnoc1nx.
Cncpx1nwnmn
Cxpyhyesen n pa6o1e. Hpep:nnne1 x ce6e, x oxpy-
anmnx honimennie 1pe6onannn. Honimenno 1pe-
noen. pesxepno uync1nn1een x pe1anx. Cxonna
hpnpana1i nsnmnee snauenne saxeuannnx oxpy-
anmnx. Inoipa paspinae1 o1nomennn c ppysinxn,
xae1cn, u1o eio o6npen. C1papae1 caxa, hepennan
cnon neypaun, nnoipa nssa nnx 6oee1 (6ecconnna,
ioonnan 6oi n 1.p.). Cpepana no nnemnnx, oco6en-
no xononainix, hponnennnx. He oueni xopomo
uync1nye1 peainie nsanxoo1nomennn n ipyhhe.
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

309
Ta6na 8.2 copepn1 nnqopxann, hosnonnmyn ocosna1i n
hpoinosnpona1i honepenne pa6o1nnxa opiannsann n xonqnx1e,
hpepnnpe1i nosxonyn c1pa1einn n 1ax1nxy ho o6oc1pennn n nixopy
ns neio. Is ncceponannn nsnec1no, u1o ychemnie opiannsann n
xonqnx1nix cn1yannx yun1inan 1nh xonqnx1non nunoc1n n
nchoisonan 1n snannn pn qqex1nnnoio pemennn hpo6ex. Hone-
penuecxne xapax1epnc1nxn nunoc1n ypauno xoppenpyn1 c nsoen-
nixn panee xenunoc1nixn c1nnxn paspemennn xonqnx1on n
xexannsxox yhpanennn xonqnx1axn n conix cn1yannx, ipe pas-
noo6pasne hopxopon n 1ounan nnqopxann nnnn1cn cymec1nennixn
pn hpnnn1nn oh1nxainoio pemennn. ano ne 6oxnpona1i pasnn-
1ne hpo1nnopeunn, a c1pexn1icn paspemn1i eio nexonqnx1nixn cho-
co6axn. ychemnix opiannsannx pyxonopn1en o1xpi1o o6cypan1
cnon pacxopennn no nsinpax, ne hopuepxnnan pasnoiacnn, no n ne
pean nnpa, u1o nx ne cymec1nye1. ceipa napo c1apa1icn hpepo1npa-
1n1i nn yxenimn1i xonqnx1, xonen1pnpyn peainie honoxounn,
hpnnnxa1i pemennn na 1ex yponnnx yhpanenuecxon nepapxnn, ipe
cocpepo1oueni nan6oimne snannn n nnqopxann o qax1opax,
nnnnmnx na pemenne.
Taxnx o6pasox, yhpanenne xonqnx1axn nnne1cn cosna-
1einon pen1einoc1in, ocymec1nnexon na ncex 1ahax nx honn-
ennn, pnqqepennann, cxaann, nn1eipann, xax na a1en1-
non, 1ax n na sanepmanmen c1apnn yuac1nnxaxn xonqnx1on n
(nn) hocpepnnxaxn. Inoipa honnenne xonqnx1ynmnx xne-
nnn napo pae hoompn1i. Heo6xopnxo yhpann1i cn1yanen, nc-
hoisyn 1exnooinn yhpanennn xonqnx1axn n opiannsann,
1ax xax nexoxhe1en1noe yhpanenne xonqnx1axn conaino
ohacno n nceipa nepe1 x c1peccax.


8.2. Cyaoc1b ynpaaneaas c1peccaMa
a asMeaeaasMa opraaasaqaa

C1pccc 1o coc1onnne xononainoio (pymennoio), honepen-
uecxoio pacc1ponc1na, cnnsannoe c nechoco6noc1in ueonexa eeco-
o6pasno n pasyxno penc1nona1i n connmencn cn1yann.
jae n nan6oee ychemnon n xopomo yhpannexon opiannsa-
nn cymec1nyn1 cn1yann n achex1i pen1einoc1n, o1pna1eino
nospenc1nynmne na pa6o1nnxon n nisinanmne n nnx uync1no c1pec-
ca. C1pecc o6iuno hponnne1cn n cyuae neychexa, neypau n neue1 sa
co6on neynepennoc1i, 6onsni, uync1no 1penoin. Cnnan hponsnopn-
Mcucdcun

310
1einoc1i 1pypa, 6aiohoyunn co1pypnnxa, upesxepnin c1pecc po-
poio o6xopn1cn opiannsannx.
Mnoine hpo6exi pa6o1nnxon, xo1opie o1paan1cn na nx
spoponie, sapa6o1xe, 6aiohoyunn, xopenn1cn n upesxepnox hcnxo-
oinuecxox nn qnsnooinuecxox nahpnennn (cx. pnc.8.7).






















Puc. 8.7. Cxcma mnpcnn c1pcccnnnn pcannn
[16, C. 547 c ncn1npmmn namcncnnnmn an1npa]

Chenanc1i y1neppan1, u1o x qnsnooinuecxnx hocepc1-
nnnx c1pecca o1nocn1cn nsni, xnipeni, inhep1onnn, ap1pn1, ac1xa,
6on n ceppe n chnne. ce uame o1xeuan1 hcnxooinuecxne pac-
c1ponc1na hoce hepenecennoio upesxepnoio c1pecca, 1axne xax pas-
ppan1einoc1i, ho1epn ahhe1n1a, pehpeccnn n ppyine.
C1pecc hpnxo nn xocnenno ynenunnae1 sa1pa1i na poc1ne-
nne een opiannsann n cnnae1 xauec1no nsnn 6oimoio unca
pa6o1nnxon. On hpepc1anne1 co6on coc1onnne upesniuanno cnino-
io n pn1einoio hcnxooinuecxoio nahpnennn, nosnnxanmeio y
ueonexa, xoipa eio nepnnan cnc1exa hoyuae1 xononainyn
Ho1pe6noc1n n
oxpyanmen
cpepe
Honepenne
(peaxnn na
ho1pe6noc1n)
Heapexna1nie
cn1yann
qqex1nnnie
peaxnn
Mnnnxainin
c1pecc
CTILCC
unsnooinuecxne
peaxnn
Hcnxooinuecxne
peaxnn
Hpoqeccnonainie
Hnunie
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

311
hepeipysxy. Opnaxo, c1pecc 1o ne 1oixo nepnnoe hepenahpnenne
n o1ne1 na nospenc1nne c1peccopon, no n hpnchoco6n1einan peaxnn,
ho1oxy oueni nano xnanqnnponanno yhpann1i c1peccox n
c1pecconon cn1yanen.
Ianc Ceie poponauainnx 1eopnn c1pecca o1xeua: C1pecc
1o ne 1o, u1o c axn cyunoci, a 1o, xax i 1o nochpnnnxae1e.
Hnpn c yc1onunnix xononainix coc1onnnex hpeopoenan1 qasy
1penoin n nxnuan1cn n ax1nnnyn 6opi6y co c1peccqax1opaxn: 6e-
py1 ce6n n pyxn, panonaino nsnemnnan1 nce sa n hpo1nn n qa-
se cohpo1nnennn. xononaino neyc1onunnie npn n qase 1peno-
in nchi1inan1 c1pax, sa1ex nac1yhae1 nc1omenne, qpyc1pann (o6-
peuennoc1i), hopa1nnoc1i cn1yann, o1uannne. Chenanc1i cpan-
nnnan1 c1pecc c 1neix nepyiox. C1pecci, ecn onn uac1i n pn-
1eini, oxasinan1 o1pna1einoe nospenc1nne ne 1oixo na qnsnue-
cxoe, no n n hocepnne iopi nce 6oime na hcnxooinuecxoe coc1on-
nne. jn1einie n uac1ie c1pecconie cn1yann pehpeccnpyn1
xononainin ahhapa1 ueonexa n y neio pasnnnan1cn chenqnue-
cxne 6oesnn, 1. n. 6oesnn conainon apah1ann. Hepenahpnenne
n opnon cqepe nepe1 x eoxy 6yxe1y sa6oenannn, pannexy c1ape-
nnn opiannsxa.
C1pecc c1anonn1cn conainix qax1opox, nxee1 1oixo nu-
noc1noe snauenne, no eio nsyuan1 conooin, xapxe1ooin, xenep-
epi, xo1opie o1xeuan1, u1o n o6mec1ne hponcxopn1 snaun1einan
nenpo1nsann naceennn, oco6enno n1een 6oimnx iopopon. Mno-
ine nnpi pen1einoc1n nacimeni c1pecc-qax1opaxn (c1peccopaxn).
nac1onmee npexn axen1npye1cn nnnxanne na nosxonoc1n
pasnn1nn c1pecca ne 1oixo hop nnnnnex ns6i1xa c1peccopon, no n
hpn nx nepoc1a1xe. xononainie c1pecconie coc1onnnn xoiy1
6i1i nisnani peqnn1ox uync1nennix hepennannn, xo1opie oco-
6enno 6oesnenno hepennan1cn npixn pen1einixn, ax1nnnoio
cxapa xapax1epa. Opiannsx ueonexa oueni in6ox, ninocnn, ho1o-
xy ne nceipa cepye1 6on1icn c1pecca xax 1pypnoc1en, ax1nnnsnpyn-
mnx ueonexa na nx hpeopoenne. Ho nceipa cepye1 ns6eia1i pnc1-
pecca nsnypennn n 1on 6opi6e, neyxeoio pachpepeennn cn; he-
pexopa c1pecca n pnc1pecc n nosnnxnonennn omymennn, u1o nce neo6-
pa1nxo.
K coaennn, hepcona opiannsann uac1o ne xoue1 honnxa1i
hpepei cnonx nosxonoc1en, cye1n1cn n n1ninnae1cn n 6opi6y nssa
xeouen, xo1opie, xax hpanno, oxasinan1 6oimee nnnnne na na-
Mcucdcun

312
c1poenne n spoponie npen, uex pepxne n cepiesnie hepennannn.
Mnoine c1apan1cn yn1icn c pasppaennex n ponopn1 ce6n po pnc1-
pecca, nxec1o 1oio, u1o6i yn1n o1 hpnunni pasppaennn nn ee nx-
nnpnpona1i.
M. Mecxon, M. Ai6ep1 n u. Xepoypn, yxasinan na hpnunni
c1pecca, nipenn1 ue1ipe opiannsanonnix qax1opa:
1. Iachpoc1panennixn hpnunnaxn c1peccon n opiannsann
nnnn1cn hepeipysxa (sapanne cepye1 nihonn1i sa cnmxox
xopo1xnn cpox) n nepoipysxa (sapanne nesnaun1eino). I n 1ox,
n n ppyiox cyuae pa6o1nnx uync1nye1 qpyc1pann, 6echoxonc1-
no o1nocn1eino cnoen ennoc1n n hooennn n conainon cnc-
1exe opiannsann, omymae1 ce6n ymexennix;
2. Konqnx1 poen hpep:nnenne pa6o1nnxy hpo1nnopeunnix
1pe6onannn, nahpnxep, hpopane poen o6cynna1i xnen1a n
cpouno sahonn1i hoxn 1onapox, sa xo1opix napo np1n na cxap.
In n pesyi1a1e napymennn hpnnnha epnnonauann opnn nauai-
nnx 1pe6ye1 ynenuennn o6:exa pa6o1, a ppyion xauec1na, ionopn,
u1o yume xenime, no 6esyhpeunee. In n pesyi1a1e pasnunn xe-
py nopxaxn neqopxainon ipyhhi n 1pe6onannnxn qopxainon
opiannsann;
3. Heohpepeennoc1i poen pa6o1nnx ne ynepen n 1ox, u1o o1
neio onpan1. o1nune o1 xonqnx1a poen, n pannox cyuae 1pe-
6onannn ne hpo1nnopeunni, a yxonunni n neohpepeenni;
4. Henn1epecnan pa6o1a oennnanmne cnon pa6o1y xax nenn-
1epecnyn hponnnn1 6oime 6echoxonc1na n uame 6oen1. Opnaxo
nsinpi na honn1ne nn1epecnan pa6o1a y nchonn1een pasnuni.

Hapnpy c 1nxn hpnunnaxn, c1pecc xoe1 nosnnxny1i ho xno-
inx ppyinx, nahpnxep, hoxoio ocnemennn, upesxepnoio myxa, nns-
xon 1exhepa1ypi n hoxemennn n 1.p.
5oimnnc1no npen xoe1 caxoc1on1eino yhpann1i
c1pecconixn cn1yannxn, honna1i nepon1noc1i c1pecca, co6n-
pan napeamnn penx pnn, hn1annn, hoppepnnan ce6n n xo-
pomen qopxe hocpepc1nox qnsnuecxnx yhpanennn, poc1ne-
nnn o6meio pannonecnn n nsnn, yneuennoc1n.
Kap A6pex1 paspa6o1a pn xenepepon xapax1epnc1nxn
c1pecconoio n nec1pecconoio c1nen nsnn, na xo1opie cepye1 opn-
en1npona1icn hpn yhpanennn c1peccaxn (cx. 1a6. 8.3).
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

313
Tac:ua 8.3.

Cnnnc1anncnnc c1pcccnnnrn n ncc1pcccnnnrn c1nncn xnann
[16, C.552 c ncn1npmmn cnpamcnnnmn n nppc1npnnamn an1npa]

N
n/n
C1pcccnnmn
c1nnn xnann
Hcc1pcccnnmn c1nnn xnann
1 Omymae1 xponnuecxnn neoc-
a6enanmnn c1pecc
johycxae1 1nopuecxnn c1pecc n oh-
pepeennie hepnopi nahpnennon
pen1einoc1n
2 Hoc1onnno hohapae1 n opny
nn necxoixo nehpexpaman-
mnxcn c1pecconix cn1yann
Haxopn1 hy1n chacennn, hosnonn-
mne xo1n 6i npexenno o1c1pann1icn n
pacca6n1icn
3 Tneo hpeopoenae1 c1pecco-
nie xenunoc1nie o1nome-
nnn, nahpnxep, c co1pypnn-
xaxn
O1c1annae1 co6c1nennie hpana n ho-
1pe6noc1n; yc1anannnae1 nnsxoc1pec-
conie o1nomennn nsanxnoio ynae-
nnn. Tma1eino ni6npae1 ppysen,
o6oppnnmnx n choxonnix
4 \uac1nye1 n nenn1epecnon,
cxyunon, pasppaanmen nn
nnix o6pasox nehpnn1non n
ne6aiopapnon pa6o1e
3annxae1cn nn1epecnon, 6aiopapnon,
c1onmen pa6o1on, xo1opan o6echeun-
nae1 hopnnnoe nosnaipapenne
5 Ichi1inae1 hoc1onnnyn ne-
xna1xy npexenn; exy cnmxox
xnoio nyno cpea1i sa pan-
nin o1pesox npexenn
Hoppepnnae1 c1nxynpynmyn pa-
6ouyn naipysxy, ipe hepnopi hepe-
ipysxn n xpnsncon ypannonemnnan1cn
hepnopaxn hepepimxn
6 5echoxon1cn ho honopy ho-
1ennaino nehpnn1nix na-
c1yhanmnx co6i1nn
\pannonemnnae1 ohacnie co6i1nn
hoesnixn enxn n hoon1eini-
xn co6i1nnxn, x xo1opix cepye1
c1pexn1icn
7 O6apae1 haiy6nixn pn
spoponin hpnniuxaxn, na-
hpnxep, xypn1, soyho1pe6-
ne1 axoioex
Coxpanne1 xopomyn qnsnuecxyn
qopxy, hpannino hn1ae1cn, oueni
pepxo yho1pe6ne1 axoioi n 1a6ax
nn concex ne yho1pe6ne1
8 Hoiomen nnpnxoc1in ns-
nennon pen1einoc1n
nepinuen n pasnunix nnpax pen-
1einoc1n, u1o n eox hpnnocn1 uyn-
c1no ypone1nopennn
9 Cun1ae1, u1o 1pypno hpoc1o
xopomo hponec1n npexn n
nacapn1icn xaxonnn6ypi
xpa1xonpexennon pa6o1on
Hoyuae1 yponoic1nne o1 hpoc1on
pen1einoc1n, ne uync1nyn neo6xopn-
xoc1n ohpanpina1i nanipannoe hone-
penne
10 ochpnnnxae1 nsni xax
cepiesnyn 1pypnyn cn1ya-
nn; o1cy1c1nye1 uync1no
nxopa
Hacapae1cn nsnin n eox; xoe1
cxen1icn nap co6on; o6apae1 xopomo
pasnn1ix uync1nox nxopa
Mcucdcun

314
Oxcunauuc nac:. 8.3.

N
n/n
C1pcccnnmn
c1nnn xnann
Hcc1pcccnnmn c1nnn xnann
11 Coiamae1cn c nihonennex
yine1anmnx ne6aiohpnn1-
nix conainix poen
Hponopn1 nsni, o1nocn1eino cno-
6opno o1 poen; choco6en nipaa1i
ec1ec1nennie ho1pe6noc1n, eannn n
uync1na 6es ohpanpannn
12 C1pecconie nn 1neie cn-
1yann nochpnnnxae1 hac-
cnnno; c1papae1 xoua
Is6eiae1 nenynix nahpnennix
cn1yann; nac1onunno hi1ae1cn ho
nosxonoc1n nsxenn1i neec1ec1nen-
nie cn1yann; hepecxa1pnnae1 ne-
ocymec1nnxie cpoxn; qqex1nnno
pachpepene1 cnoe npexn

Kapin ueonex hpnnnxae1 yuac1ne no xnoinx nnpax pen1ei-
noc1n nne opiannsann. Hnunan nsni 1oe upena1a c1peccaxn, xo-
1opie oxasinan1 neia1nnnoe nnnnne na qqex1nnnoc1i 1pyponon
pen1einoc1n n opiannsann. 1a6ne 8.3 cpeana hohi1xa nipe-
n1i o1nocn1einoe snauenne nec1pecconoio c1nn nsnn, nisnanno-
io uac1o nc1peuanmnxncn cn1yannxn n nunon nsnn.
Hn6on upesxepnin c1pecc cnnae1 qqex1nnnoc1i pen1eino-
c1n pa6o1nnxa.
Chenanc1i xenepxen1a c1pan speon pinounon xonoxn-
xn pexoxenpyn1 npnx, c1papanmnx o1 pnc1pecca, xe1opi yhpane-
nnn c1peccaxn, cnnanmne eio yponeni:
anans hpnopn1e1on n pa6o1e poxa n n opiannsann; u1o napo
pea1i ceiopnn n hpepe nceio, u1o xono cpea1i hospnee, a u1o
cpea1i n 1ox cyuae, ecn nanpe1e npexn;
ne 6ypi1e 6eso1xasnix ueonexox, hepecxa1pnnan1e hoy-
uennie sapannn n apiyxen1npyn1e cnon nosxonoc1n;
c1apan1eci naanna1i xopomne o1nomennn c oxpyanmnxn,
a c npixn, o1 xo1opix sanncn1 ame 6aiohoyune n nec1pecconoe
coc1onnne, oco6enno qqex1nnnie n napenie o1nomennn; nayun-
1e nx ynaa1i amn hpnopn1e1i, pa6ouyn naipysxy n pana1i apiy-
xen1nponannie hopyuennn;
o6cypan1e cnnsannie c sapannnxn nohpoci, ni6npan ne-
c1pecconie 1ax1nxy n c1pa1einn;
o6nsa1eino eepnenno naxopn1e npexn pn o1pixa, pacca6-
ennn, hpnn1nix xicen, u1o6i ocnen1i cnon xosi;
ne c1anonn1eci n hosy aynmeiocn, o6cypan uync1no cxyxn
nn o1cy1c1nnn nn1epeca x 1oxy nn nnoxy nnpy pen1einoc1n, snan-
1e ce6e eny;
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

315
yxen1e yhpann1i nsxenennnxn, hponcxopnmnxn n ac n xoop-
pnnnpona1i nx c ppyinxn nsxenennnxn, nahpnxep, hponcxopnmnxn n
opiannsann. Opnaxo qqex1nnnoe yhpanenne nsxenennnxn nnne1cn
opnon ns caxix 1pypnix, no n hpec1nnix sapau, xo1opyn neisn pe-
mn1i qopxaino, hoisynci sayuennixn pexoxenpannxn. Heo6xopn-
xo pocxonaino sna1i cymnoc1i opiannsann, snaunxoc1i hepexennix
qax1opon, xo1opie o1nuan1 opny cn1yann o1 ppyion.

jnpanncnnc namcncnnnmn 6ype1 qqex1nnnee, ecn sna1i
pexoxenpann chenanc1on. Hahpnxep, Hppn Ipennep paspa6o1a
xopei hpoecca ychemnoio yhpanennn opiannsanonnixn nsxe-
nennnxn (cx. pnc. 8.8):






















ospenc1nne na c1pyx1ypy nac1n

Ieaxnn c1pyx1ypi nac1n

Puc. 8.8. Mnpcnn ycncmnnrn npnncpcnnn nprannaannnnnmx
namcncnnn[16, C.534]
1 1ah
6 1ah
5 1ah
4 1ah
Haxo-
penne
nonoio
peme-
nnn
2 1ah
jane-
nne na
nicmee
pyxono-
pc1no Ho-
cpepnn-
uec1no
na nic-
mex
yponne
,|oao-
ctad
3 1ah
jnaino-
c1nxa
hpo-
6ex-
nix son
Hopxpe-
henne
na ocno-
ne hoo-
n1ei-
nix
pesyi-
1a1on
xche-
pnxen1
c nonix
peme-
nnex
Ho6y-
penne x
penc1-
nnnx
Hepeopnen-
1ann na
nny1pennne
hpo6exi
Ocosna-
nne
xapon
xon-
xpe1non
hpo6e-
xi
O6nsa-
1eic1
no ho
niho
nennn
nonoio
xypca
inn-
enne
pesyi-
1a1on
Hpnnn-
1ne
nonix
xe1opon
Mcucdcun

316
Ho6ypenne n panenne hepnin 1ah coc1on1 n ponepennn po
cosnannn pyxonopc1na neo6xopnxoc1n nsxenennn, nisnannix n6o
nny1pennnxn qax1opaxn (poc1 ce6ec1onxoc1n hpopyxnn, ycyi,
cnnenne hponsnopn1einoc1n 1pypa, poc1 1exyuec1n xappon, pnc-
qynxnonainie xonqnx1i, 6oimoe xonuec1no ao6 pa6o1nn-
xon, uac1ie pnc1pecci cpepn nnx n 1.p.), n6o nnemnnxn (nospocman
xonxypennn, honnenne nonix saxonopa1einix ax1on).
Hcpcnpncn1annn nnnmannn n nncpcpnnwcc1nn n1opon 1ah
nxnuae1 1enpennn hpnopn1e1noc1n pemennn nonix sapau n nc-
hoisonannn hocpepnnuecxnx ycyi nnemneio xoncyi1an1a, choco6-
noio o6:ex1nnno oenn1i nny1pennne n nnemnne hpo6exi, u1o uac-
1o hoppasyxenae1 nonie 1ouxn spennn n nx nochpnn1ne pyxonopc1nox
6es hepexapinannn o1ne1c1nennoc1n na xoio1o ppyioio.
narnnc1na n ncnanannc 1pe1nn 1ah 1o 1ah c6opa pee-
nan1non nnqopxann, ohpepeennn nc1nnnix hpnunn honnennn
hpo6ex, 1pe6ynmnx nsxenennn cymec1nynmeio hooennn n opia-
nnsann c yue1ox apexna1non nnqopxann, hpepe nceio, hpo6ex-
nix son.
Haxnxpcnnc nnnnrn pcmcnnn n n6naa1cnnc1na nn crn nmnnnnc-
nnm ue1nep1in 1ah 1o honcx choco6a yhpanennn xnennnxn ncho-
nn1een, ne hoppananci ncxymennn hpnxenn1i c1apie pemennn x nonix
hpo6exax, a naxopn1i nonie n ynnxainie pemennn.
cncpnmcn1 n nmnnncnnc cpm1mx 1pypnnc1cn hn1in
1ah 1o hponepenne nchi1annn hpephoaiaexix nsxenennn po
mnpoxoxacm1a6noio nneppennn nonann. xchepnxen1 hoxoiae1
o6napyn1i neia1nnnie hocepc1nnn n cxoppex1npona1i cnon peme-
nnn n penc1nnn n enx 6oee qqex1nnnoio yhpanennn nsxene-
nnnxn.
j6cxpcnnc nnpwnncnnmx npnnn1n nnnmcc1na mec1on 1ah
hopxpehennn na ocnone hoon1einix pesyi1a1on n hpnnn1ne
nonix xe1opon.
Opnon ns pachpoc1panennix n Ioccnn 1ouex spennn na yhpan-
enne cohpo1nnennex nsxenennnx, nnne1cn 1ouxa spennn, ohy6n-
xonannan M. X. Mecxonox, M. A. Ai6ep1ox n u. Xepoypn n xnnie
Ocnoni xenepxen1a [16, C. 537-545]. nen pexoxenpye1cn ce-
pynman 1ax1nxa:
1. Lcn cohpo1nnenne nisnano ne1ounon nnqopxanen nn ee
o1cy1c1nnex, 1o pexoxenpye1cn nnqopxnpona1i cohpo1nnnnmnxcn
o6 nsxenennnx n o6yun1i nx nonoxy, hpnnexan nchonn1een x
hpnnn1nn pemennn.
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

317
2. Koipa nchonn1en cohpo1nnnn1cn nsxenennnx 1oixo ns
c1paxa hepep nunixn hpo6exaxn, napo hoppepnna1i nx n o6:nc-
nn1i hpenxymec1na nsxenennn.
3. cyuanx, ipe nchonn1en nnno hponipinan1 hpn nnepennn
nonmec1n n nxen1 6oimne nosxonoc1n oxasina1i cohpo1nnenne,
neo6xopnxo nec1n hepeionopi.
4. jn chenqnuecxnx cyuaen, n xo1opix ppyian 1ax1nxa cnnsana
co cnmxox 6oimnxn pacxopaxn nn noo6me neocymec1nnxa, pe-
xoxenpye1cn xooh1ann (pyxonopn1en nxnun1i n ipyhhy paspa-
6o1unxon nsxenennn nonix uenon 6es hponepennn ni6opon)
5. cn1yannx, ipe ppyian hon1nxa 6ype1 neqqex1nnnon nn
cnmxox popoion, pexoxenpye1cn xanenpnponanne.
6. Lcn neo6xopnxi cpounie nsxenennn n nnnna1opi o6apa-
n1 snaun1einon nac1in, xono hpnxenn1i hpnnypenne.

Kapan 1ax1nxa nxee1 cnon hnci n xnnyci, ho1oxy pyxono-
pn1enx neo6xopnxo pasnnna1i nanixn, 1ouno xapax1epnsona1i cn-
1yann, ni6npa1i nan6oee hopxopnmne 1ax1nxn n yxe1i hpoqec-
cnonaino oennna1i qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanennn.

Mcucdcun

318
Tec1

1. Konq:uxm (confliktus) neeooe c osnauaem cmo:xno-
enue cmoon:
a) ipeuecxoio;
6) aninncxoio;
n) a1inn;
i) qpanyscxoio.

2. Konq:uxm ocnunu+aemcn ne mo:txo 5+nuuuecxu, no u
asaammaemcn xonq:uxmo:oeun xax omnocume:tno ca+ocmon-
me:tnan meoun 5nox:
a) ospopennn;
6) Hpocnemennn;
n) Inpyc1pnainyn;
i) Inqopxanonnyn.

3. Konq:uxm usuaemcn cecmoonne, noucxooum oono:nu-
me:tnan xonxemusauun xonq:uxmo:oeuu, o:ee uemxue ouemanun
ee no:e+amuxu, na:enue xonq:uxmo+, o ue+ nuum c:eomuue
amom:
a) Hnxoan Kohepnnx, joppano 5pyno, Hnxoan Kysancxnn;
6) upncnc 5xon, Apax Cxn1, Ixxanyn Kan1;
n) Hnpnni uenep6ax, 3nixynp upenp, Mnxan 5axynnn;
i) Manx Mecxon, Manx Ai6ep1, upanxnn Xepoypn.

4. Konq:uxm, xomomu eoem x nomuenum 5qqexmunocmu
oenme:tnocmu oeanusauuu, nasmaemcn:
a) opiannsanonnix;
6) qynxnonainix;
n) pncqynxnonainix;
i) hponsnopc1nennix.

5. Hmou +o+enm asumun xonq:uxma u+eem cou mouxu
uqxauuu:
a) paspnoennn;
6) pasne1nennn;
n) paspemennn;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

319
6. una+uxa xonq:uxma xaaxmeusemcn cmaoueu:
a) a1en1non (cxpi1on);
6) o1xpi1on;
n) sanepmanmen;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

7. Onmu+a:tno na:nmt xonq:uxmnou cumauueu oeanu-
sauuu ne noso:nm:
a) snannn nonnn xonqnx1ooinn;
6) xopen xonqnx1a xax hpoecca;
n) qace1nan xaccnqnxann xonqnx1on;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

8. do+a u cmenent cmo:xnoenun +oem mmt:
a) nep1nxainon;
6) chon1annon;
n) an1aionnc1nuecxon;
i) oxainon.

9. Ko++nuxamunan nana:ennocmt xonq:uxma maem:
a) chpononponannon;
6) iopnson1ainon;
n) pn1einon;
i) conainon.

10. Cmecc 5mo cocmonnue:
a) 1penoin n c1paxa;
6) nqopnn n ypnnennn;
n) xononainoio pacc1ponc1na, cnnsannoio c nechoco6noc1in
ueonexa apexna1no penc1nona1i n connmencn cn1yann;
i) neynepennoc1n n xc1pexainix cn1yannx.

11. }na:enue cmecca+u usuamm:
a) xenepepi;
6) xapxe1ooin;
n) conoin;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

12. Pooonaua:tnuxo+ meouu cmecca cuumaemcn:
a) upepepnx Tenop;
6) Ianc Ceie;
Mcucdcun

320
n) Anpn uanoi;
i) 3nixynp upenp.

13. }na:enue oeanusauuonnm+u us+enenun+u n:nemcn oo-
nou us ca+mx:
a) 1pypnix sapau xenepxen1a;
6) hpec1nnix sapau xenepxen1a;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

14. Mooe:t nouecca cneunoeo na:enun oeanusauuonnm+u
us+enenun+u asaoma::
a) Manx Mecxon;
6) Manx Ai6ep1;
n) upanxnn Xepoypn;
i) Hppn Ipennep.

15. }eoenue noouunennmx nunnmt nouecmo 5mo 5man:
a) hopxpehennn na ocnone hoon1einix pesyi1a1on;
6) pnainoc1nxn hpo6exnix son;
n) naxopennn nonoio pemennn;
i) xchepnxen1a c nonix pemennex.

16. Amoxo++nuxauun ne omnocumcn x ocnonm+ nuuuna+
eenesuca xonq:uxma:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

17. Cmecc ne onacen o:n soootn:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

18. Kenue u oeue eonme numuxu n:nmmcn 5qqexmu-
nm+ ceocmo+ o:n cnnmun cmecca:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

19. }na:enue cmecca+u neocma:nem coou cosname:tnm
oenme:tnocmt ue:oexa, ocuecm:ne+m na cex 5manax cmecco-
mx cumauuu:
a) pa;
6) ne1.
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

321
20. 3qqexmunoe na:enue us+enenun+u ne cnococmem
coxanenum xonxenmocnoconocmu oeanusauuu:
a) pa;
6) ne1.

Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuue (21-30) onocm:

21. Kaxou xonq:uxm cuumaemcn qnxuuona:tnm+?
22. Houe+ qacemnan x:accuquxauun +oem no+out onmu-
+a:tno na:nmt xonq:uxmnou cumauueu?
23. mo maxoe amoxo++nuxauun?
24. mo cuumaemcn eenesuco+ xonq:uxma?
25. mo neocma:nem coou uncmumuuona:usauun xon-
q:uxma?
26. B ue+ nunuunua:tnoe om:uuue xone5nmnocmu om xon-
qo+us+a?
27. mo maxoe xonq:uxmo:oeun?
28. B ue+ cmt cnocoa aseuenun xonq:uxma?
29. mo neocma:nem coou cmecc?
30. Houe+ na:enue oeanusauuonnm+u us+enenun+u n:n-
emcn oonou us ca+mx nucmunmx saoau +eneo+enma?

Mcucdcun

322
Dpax1axyM

1. Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm

8.1.1. 1o 1axoe xonqnx1?
8.1.2. Kaxne nayxn ohncinan1 n nccepyn1 xonqnx1?
8.1.3. Ison1e nonnn 1eopnn n hpax1nuecxnx hopxopon n
nsinpon na xonqnx1 sa hocepnne 100 e1.
8.1.4. Hasonn1e an1opon nosspennn na xonqnx1, a sa1ex yhpane-
nne nx.
8.1.5. 1o 1axoe yhpanenne xonqnx1ox n opiannsann?
8.1.6. Ison1e nn napncyn1e cxexy hopxopon ho opnoxy ns xa-
poio npexennoio hepnopa x nsyuennn xonqnx1a n poccnncxox
xenepxen1e.
8.1.7. Kaxoni ocnonnie hpnunni nosnnxnonennn xonqnx1-
non cn1yann n opiannsann?
8.1.8. Kaxne o1nun1einie xapax1epnc1nxn nxee1 xopei xon-
qnx1a xax hpoecca?
8.1.9. 1o 1axoe 6nqypxann n pasnn1nn xonqnx1a?
8.1.10. Ison1e ocnonnie qasi, 1ahi n c1apnn pnnaxnxn xon-
qnx1a.

2. ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm

8.2.1. Kaxne cymec1nyn1 ipanni xonqnx1a n u1o onn co6on
hpepc1annn1? Coiacni n i c cymec1nynmen xonehnen?
8.2.2. 1o hpepc1anne1 co6on qace1nan xaccnqnxann xon-
qnx1on? Kax i 1o honnxae1e? jan1e o6myn xapax1epnc1nxy
cymec1nennix hpnsnaxax xonqnx1on. Hopen1eci co6c1nennix
ohi1ox.
8.2.3. Kaxne i snae1e qopxi n c1ehenn c1oxnonennn? Hpoxox-
xen1npyn1e am o1ne1.
8.2.4. Hasonn1e choco6i ypeiynponannn xonqnx1a n honcnn1e nx
cy1i. Coiacni n i c 1nxn choco6axn? Honcnn1e amy hosnnn.
8.2.5. uex saxnuae1cn ocnonnan ei yhpanennn xonqnx1axn
n opiannsann ho amexy xnennn.
8.2.6. Hasonn1e ue1ipe c1pyx1ypnix xe1opa paspemennn xon-
qnx1a. Hpoxoxxen1npyn1e am o1ne1.
8.2.7. Oxapax1epnsyn1e hn1i ocnonnix xenunoc1nix c1nen
paspemennn xonqnx1on. Kaxon c1ni, ho amexy xnennn, caxin
oh1nxainin?
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

323
8.2.8. Ison1e nn napncyn1e cxexy hocepona1einoc1n xe1o-
pnxn yhpanennn xonqnx1ox uepes pemenne hpo6exi. Hpoxox-
xen1npyn1e 1y cxexy.
8.2.9. uex coc1on1, ho amexy xnennn, oco6ennoc1n yhpanennn
xonqnx1axn?
8.2.10. 1o i snae1e o6 ananse honepennn xonqnx1ynmnx c1o-
pon n hocpepnnxa? Ison1e 1eopnn n hopen1eci co6c1nennix
ohi1ox.
8.2.11. Hohpo6yn1e ohnca1i honepenuecxne xapax1epnc1nxn hn1n
1nhon xonqnx1non nunoc1n. Kaxon 1nh ax cnxha1nunen?
8.2.12. 1o 1axoe c1pecc? Kax i caxn c nnx chpanne1eci?
8.2.13. Ison1e nn napncyn1e cxexy xopen c1pecconon peax-
nn. Hpoxoxxen1npyn1e 1y cxexy.
8.2.14. Kax nnne1 c1pecc na poc1nenne een opiannsanen? A
xax na amn en?
8.2.15. Kaxoni, ho amexy xnennn, ocnonnie hpnunni nosnnxno-
nennn c1pecca?
8.2.16. Cohoc1ani1e c1pecconin n nec1pecconin c1nn nsnn. Ho-
pen1eci co6c1nennix ohi1ox.
8.2.17. Iaccxan1e o xopen hocepona1einoc1n ychemnoio
yhpanennn opiannsanonnixn nsxenennnxn. Mono n yconep-
menc1nona1i 1y xopei? Honcnn1e amy hosnnn.

3. jwc6nmc cn1yannn

8.3.1. (23) Hpoanansnpyn1e pasnunie hopxopi n nsinpi na
xonqnx1, naunnan c ppennnx npexen n po nameio npexenn, hpnne-
pennie n 8 iane yue6noio hoco6nn Menepxen1. Kax i nx oxa-
pax1epnsonan 6i, xax hpo1nnohoonie nn xax nsanxopoho-
nnnmne, pasnnnanmne? Hpnnepn1e hpnxepi xonqnx1non cn1ya-
nn n opiannsann.
8.3.2. (24) Kaxona ama oenxa pasnn1nn o1euec1nennon xon-
qnx1ooinn? Axen1npyn1e nnnxanne na hepnope, naunnan c
1990 i. ho nac1onmee npexn.
8.3.3. (25) Kaxyn poi n yhpanennn xonqnx1axn nipae1 qa-
ce1nan xaccnqnxann xonqnx1on, hpnnepennan n 8 iane yue6-
noio hoco6nn Menepxen1? Honcnn1e amy hosnnn.
8.3.4. (26) 1o, ho amexy xnennn, nnnoci c1nxynpynmnx
nauaox n pasnn1nn 1eopnn yhpanennn c1peccaxn n nsxenennn-
xn n opiannsann?
Mcucdcun

324
8.3.5. (27) Hoc1pon1e cenapnn pasnn1nn c1pecconon cn1yann
n cqopxynpyn1e ocnonnie pexoxenpann yhpanennn en.
8.3.6. (28) Hpephoon1e, u1o i pyxonopn1ei opiannsann,
1pe6ynmen nsxenennn. Iaspa6o1an1e xopei hocepona1eino-
c1n ychemnoio yhpanennn opiannsanonnixn nsxenennnxn.

Ocnnnnmc nmnnpm, nnnn1nn, nnpcpcncnnn

Konqnx1 1o c1oxnonenne, xo1opoe ohpepene1cn 1ex, u1o
ocosnannoe honepenne opnon ns c1opon nc1yhae1 n hpo1nnopeune c
nn1epecaxn ppyion c1oponi (opiannsanen n eox, ipyhhon nn
o1peinix ueonexox).
Konqnx1 ohncinan1 n nccepyn1 chenanc1i pasnunix
nayx: hcnxooinn, qnocoqnn, hon1ooinn, conooinn, xenep-
xen1a.
enx qqex1nnnoio yhpanennn xonqnx1ox napo sna1i co-
pepanne hopxopon n nsinpon na xonqnx1, nonnn xonehnn.
1euenne hocepnnx 100 e1 xonqnx1 nsyuan1, n eio hosna-
nnn honnnn1cn hpephocixn x cnc1exnoxy hopxopy. On nochpnnn-
xae1cn ne 1oixo xhnpnuecxn, no n paspa6a1inae1cn xonqnx1oo-
inn xax o1nocn1eino caxoc1on1einan 1eopnn. nonenmee npexn
xonqnx1 nsyuae1cn ncec1oponne, hponcxopn1 pohonn1einan xon-
xpe1nsann xonqnx1ooinn, 6oee ue1xne ouep1annn ee hpo6exa-
1nxn, yhpanenne xonqnx1ox. Axen1npye1cn nnnxanne na 1nhax
xonqnx1on, nx yponnnx n opiannsann. Iaspa6a1inan1cn n mnpoxo
nchoisyn1cn c1pyx1ypnie xe1opi yhpanennn xonqnx1ox nny1pn
opiannsann, cnnsannie c ocymec1nennex nsxenennn n c1pyx1ype
opiannsann pn paspemennn xonqnx1on, ye hoyunnmnx pasnn-
1ne n nahpanennix na cnnenne nn1encnnnoc1n xonqnx1a.
Han6oee nsnec1nixn an1opaxn nosspennn na xonqnx1, a sa-
1ex n yhpanenne nx cun1an1cn: Konqynn, uoxa Axnnncxnn, Hn-
xoan Kohepnnx, Ixxanyn Kan1, Hn1npnx Copoxnn, Manx Mec-
xon n xnoine ppyine.
uace1nan xaccnqnxann, nahpnxep, xonqnx1on hpepc1ann-
e1 co6on hapaeinoe paspeenne xnoec1na hpnsnaxon na nesann-
cnxie xaccnqnxanonnie ipyhhnponxn. 1ox xe1ope xaccnqn-
xanonnan conoxyhnoc1i ohncinae1cn na6opox nesanncnxix qace-
1on (chncxon), ne nxenmnx ec1xon nsanxocnnsn ppyi c ppyiox, xo-
1opie xono nchoisona1i o1peino pn pemennn pasnunix sapau.
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

325
C1pecc 1o coc1onnne xononainoio (pymennoio) honepen-
uecxoio pacc1ponc1na, cnnsannoe c nechoco6noc1in ueonexa eeco-
o6pasno n panonaino penc1nona1i n connmencn cn1yann.
C1pecc 1o ne 1o, u1o c axn cyunoci, a 1o, xax i 1o nochpnnn-
xae1e y1neppa Ianc Ceie poponauainnx 1eopnn c1pecca. Ka-
pin upesxepnin c1pecc cnnae1 qqex1nnnoc1i pen1einoc1n co-
1pypnnxa n popoio o6xopn1cn opiannsann.
Iasnn1ne xenepxen1a nenosxono 6es nsxenennn, xo1opixn
neo6xopnxo yhpann1i. C nsxenennnxn cnnsani o6mne hpnnnhi
pasnn1nn xenepxen1a. Hauaox pn pasnn1nn xenepxen1a nnne1-
cn honnenne nonix sapau, u1o paccxa1pnnae1cn n xauec1ne hepnoio
maia x oinuecxon cxexe pasnn1nn xenepxen1a. jaee n 1on cxexe
nipa6a1inae1cn peaxnn na nonie sapaun:
1. Hohi1xa nnueio ne nsxenn1i;
2. Hponepenne opiannsanonnix nsxenennn n xenepxen1e,
cospanne nonix yhpanenuecxnx opianon;
3. Isxenenne ocnonohoaianmnx naua, na xo1opix c1pon1cn
cnc1exa xenepxen1a.

Isxenennn n opiannsann 1o ne epnnonpexennin ax1, a hpo-
ecc, 1pe6ynmnn hoc1onnnoio cohoc1anennn penc1nnn ho hpeo6pa-
sonannn xenepxen1a c sapauaxn, c1onmnxn hepep yhpanennex, a
1axe c nosxonoc1nxn, xo1opixn o6apae1 opiannsann n eox n
qynxnonnpynman n nen cnc1exa xenepxen1a n uac1noc1n.
xapon opiannsann neo6xopnxo panonaino oennna1i
qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanennn.

Oqnpmncnnc nn c1anpap1y

3apannn ho 1exe 8 nxnuan1:
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 8 10 m1.
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci ho 1exe 8 18 m1.
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 8 6 m1.

Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 8

Hnc1annna aapannn
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 8 pasxemeni n CjO Kaxhyc n
qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 8.
Mcucdcun

326
Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 xpa1xnn o1ne1 (ne 6oee 200 cnxnoon)
na xapin nohpoc n qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 8 po na-
uaa aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 8 (cx. Kaenpapnin han xypca).
O1ne1i na nohpoci n qopyxe cepye1 pasxema1i, xnxnyn na
cnxno O1ne1n1i. am o1ne1 poen honnn1icn n pepene coo6me-
nnn hop coo1ne1c1nynmnx nohpocox. HL ICHOHI3\ITL KHOH-
K\ (cospa1i) jH2 OTLTA HA OHIOCI.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
O1ne1i na nohpoci pasxeman1e ncen ipyhhon n qopyxe
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 8.

Tac:ua 1

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na nn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 8

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnnnmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcnpyc-
mmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. Konuec1no hpanninix
o1ne1on
7 ns 10 4 8 n 6oee ns
10
6
2. O1ne1i pasxemeni hop
nohpocaxn (n pepene
coo6mennn)
pa 1

ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 8

Hnc1annna aapannn
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci 6ypy1 yc1no o6cypa1icn na cexnnape ho
1exe 8. ax neo6xopnxo hopio1onn1icn x 6ecepe ho pannix nohpocax.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 o6ocnonannan hosnnn ho xapoxy
nohpocy, osnyuennan no npexn aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 8 (cx.
Kaenpapnin han xypca); n xope cexnnapa i 6ype1e o1neua1i na
nohpoci n cyuannox hopnpxe; xapin c1ypen1 poen yche1i o1ne-
1n1i na 1 nn 2 nohpoca.
ama hosnnn pona 6i1i ocnonana na n1a1ax ns yue6nix
xa1epnaon ho 1exe 8.
}npa:cuuc xcuq:uxnau, cnpcccau u u-cucuunu

327
Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
ax neo6xopnxo yc1no nson1i n o6ocnona1i cnon hosnnn n
xope aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 8.

Tac:ua 2

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na pncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 8

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. Konuec1no hpanninix
o1ne1on
1 10 2 n 6oee 13
2. O6ocnonannoc1i o1ne1on
(nchoisonanne n1a1 ns
yue6nix xa1epnaon)
ec1i 2
3. Ichoisonanne poho-
nn1einix nc1ounnxon
1 nc1ounnx
n 6oee
5


jwc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 8. Bapnan1 23 nnn 24, nnn 25, nnn
26, nnn 27, nnn 28

Hnc1annna aapannn
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 8 paccxa1pnnan1cn axn caxoc1on1eino.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 qan c o1ue1ox ho opnon cn1yann,
oqopxennin ho HA5HOH\ N___ (cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc),
nicannin 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn CjO Kaxhyc po nauaa
cepynmeio aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 8 (cx. Kaenpapnin han
xypca); i xoe1e o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen-
1axn n qopyxe \ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 8.
Ha6on o1ue1a (Tn1yinan c1panna. Chncox ocnonnix paspe-
on) cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc. O6mnn o6:ex ameio 1exc1a n
o1ue1e ho 1exe 8 ne 6oee 1 c1panni (3000 snaxon).

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
Io1onin o1ue1 hepeciae1cn 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn
CjO Kaxhyc. 3aioonox coo6mennn c qanox poen copepa1i
Mcucdcun

328
nasnanne ipyhhi, noxep 1exi n noxep yue6non cn1yann, nahpnxep
O1ue1_uIO_ju102_\ue6nan_cn1yann_8.3.1(23). i xoe1e
o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen1axn n qopyxe
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 8.

Tac:ua 3

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na ywc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 8

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. uan o1ue1a oqopx-
en ho ma6ony
pa 1
2. uan o1hpanen n cpox pa 2
3. O6:ex 1exc1a ne hpe-
nimae1 1pe6onannn
pa 2
4. O1ne1 nxee1 o6ocnona-
nne (xonuec1no cciox
n n1a1)
3 2 5 4
5. O1ne1 ynnxaen (ne1
hon1opon n anaoion n
o1ue1ax ppyinx
c1ypen1on)
pa 4

Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

329
Fnaaa 9.



Oqeaxa sqqex1aaaoc1a ynpaaneaas






Hsyuaa 1eMy 9, c1ypea1 ponwea
saa1b:
hoxasa1en qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn.

yMe1b:
paccun1ina1i hoxasa1en qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn.
npaopec1a aaamxa:
hpnxenennn pasnunix xe1opnx oenxn qqex1nn-
noc1n yhpanennn.


Mcucdcun

330
Hu usuenuu me+m 9 neoxoou+o:

Hn1a1n iany 9 yue6noio hoco6nn ho xenepxen1y n exnn.
Bmnnnnn1n aapannc hpax1nxyxa n 6anxa 1ec1on ho xenep-
xen1y ho paspey 9: o1ne1n1i na xon1poinie nohpoci, hpnnn1i yua-
c1ne n o6cypennn pncxyccnonnix nohpocon, yue6nix cn1yann, 1ec-
1nponannn. Hopio1onn1i xypconyn pa6o1y, peqepa1 nn cce n hpn-
oennn ho 1exax:

1. Conainan qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanennn opiannsanen;
2. Hoxasa1en qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn n hopxopi x nx ohpe-
peennn;
3. ac1nie xe1opnxn ohpepeennn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn;
4. Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn opiannsanen (c1ypen1ax,
xo1opie pemnn 6oee yiy6enno nsyun1i 1exy 9).


Coepnnn1e snanne n 1pyp, pan1e snanne 1ex npnx,
xo1opie ho neo6xopnxoc1n nsnexy1 ns neio ncn
saxnuanmyncn n nex hpax1nuecxyn hoisy,
n ni ynnpn1e, u1o 6oia1c1na c1pani n napopa nauny1
ynenunna1icn c nenepon1non 6ic1po1on.
[.H.|ucapc


9.1. Doxasa1ena sqqex1aaaoc1a ynpaaneaas
a nopxopm x ax pacue1y

qqc1nnnnc1n ynpanncnnn 1o pesyi1a1nnnoc1i pen1ei-
noc1n xonxpe1non yhpannnmen cnc1exi, xo1opan o1paae1cn n pas-
nunix hoxasa1enx xax o6:ex1a yhpanennn (opiannsann n eox
n e hoppaspeennn), 1ax n cy6:ex1a yhpanennn (co6c1nenno yhpan-
enuecxon pen1einoc1n), hpnuex 1n hoxasa1en nxen1 xonuec1-
nennie n xauec1nennie xapax1epnc1nxn.
Is ohpepeennn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn cepye1, u1o e xo-
no paccxa1pnna1i n:
mnpoxox cxice qqex1nnnoc1i qynxnonnponannn yhpan-
nexon cnc1exi n eox n (nn) e exen1on;
ysxox cxice pesyi1a1nnnoc1i co6c1nenno yhpanenuecxon
pen1einoc1n.
Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

331
Hoxasa1en qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn xono xaccnqnn-
pona1i na:
1. O6o6manmne hoxasa1en xonoxnuecxon qqex1nnnoc1n
yhpanennn, nahpnxep:
o1nomenne o6meio pesyi1a1a ncen pen1einoc1n opiannsann
x sa1pa1ax na hoyuenne 1oio pesyi1a1a;
o1nomenne sa1pa1 na copepanne ahhapa1a yhpanennn x
poxopax opiannsann n pp.

2. O6o6manmne hoxasa1en conainon qqex1nnnoc1n yhpan-
ennn, nahpnxep:
o1nomenne unca pemennn, hpnnn1ix ho hpepoennn nc-
honn1een (co1pypnnxon) opiannsann, x o6mexy uncy hpnnn1ix
pemennn;
o1nomenne uncennoc1n hepconaa, hpnneuennoio x yhpan-
enuecxon pen1einoc1n, x o6men uncennoc1n nceio hepconaa op-
iannsann.

3. ac1nie hoxasa1en xonoxnuecxon qqex1nnnoc1n yhpane-
nnn, nahpnxep:
o1nomenne yhpanenuecxnx pacxopon exa x o6men cyxxe ncex ns-
pepex exa;
1pypoexxoc1i o6pa6o1xn yhpanenuecxon nnqopxann o1pea
xappon.

4. ac1nie hoxasa1en conainon qqex1nnnoc1n, nahpnxep:
o1nomenne 1exnnuecxon ocnamennoc1n yhpanenuecxoio 1py-
pa exa x o6men 1exnnuecxon ocnamennoc1n nceio exa;
cpannenne xoqqnnen1a 1exyuec1n pa6o1nnxon ahhapa1a
yhpanennn amen opiannsann c xoqqnnen1ox 1exyuec1n pa-
6o1nnxon ahhapa1a yhpanennn opiannsannxonxypen1a.

Cymnoc1in qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn nnne1cn qqex1nnnoc1i:
1pypa co1pypnnxon ahhapa1a yhpanennn;
hpoecca yhpanennn:
qynxnn;
xe1opon;
pemennn;
xoxxynnxann n pp.
nepapxnn yhpanennn;
Mcucdcun

332
xexannsxa yhpanennn:
xapponoio;
xapxe1nnionoio;
hponsnopc1nennoio;
conainoio;
qnnanconoio;
nnqopxanonnoio n pp.

Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn upesniuanno cona,
ho1oxy neo6xopnxi xonxpe1nie xe1opnxn, hopxopi, xo1opie n
6oimen c1ehenn paspa6o1ani pn oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n o1-
peinix xepohpnn1nn ho nayunon opiannsann yhpanenuecxo-
io 1pypa, uex yhpanennn n eox.
Oenxa xonoxnuecxon qqex1nnnoc1n xepohpnn1nn ho conep-
menc1nonannn yhpanennn, uame nceio, nxnuae1 n ce6n pacue1 iopono-
io xonoxnuecxoio qqex1a, hoyuennoio o1 nx peansann, n cpanne-
nne eio c sa1pa1axn na 1n xepohpnn1nn. qqex1 nsxepn1i iopaspo
conee, uex pesyi1a1, 1.x. qqex1 1o poiocpounoe hponnenne
poc1nennn pesyi1a1a. Hahpnxep, ecn n xauec1ne pesyi1a1a 6ep1cn
ccxpacuuc npcdc:unc:tuccnu npcccca pa-paccnxu u pca:u-auu aucec
pcucuun, 1o qqex1ox o1 poc1nennn 1oio pesyi1a1a xoe1 6i1i c--
cuccnt dpqecu aua:ununccxcu paccnu u cacccpa-cauun sa cue1 nicno-
6opennn uac1n pa6oueio npexenn yhpanenen.
Cnc1exa hoxasa1een qqex1nnnoc1n pen1einoc1n opiann-
sann pona pana1i ncec1oponnnn oenxy nchoisonannn ncex
pecypcon n copepa1i nce o6mexonoxnuecxne hoxasa1en. Oueni
nano, u1o6i pacue1i qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn nenci nehpe-
pinno: na c1apnnx hpoex1a 6nsnechana, y1neppennn 6nsnec
hana, ho xepe eio nihonennn. cnc1exe hoxasa1een qqex-
1nnnoc1n yhpanennn ne nce hoxasa1en nxen1 opnnaxonyn sna-
unxoc1i. Lc1i iannie n pohonn1einie hoxasa1en. Lcn hep-
nie hpnnn1o nasina1i o6o6manmnxn, 1o n1opie nnnn1cn uac1-
nixn (qynxnonainixn), xapax1epnsynmnxn xaxynn6o oh-
pepeennyn c1opony pen1einoc1n.
Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n ahhapa1a yhpanennn n e cnc1exa ho-
xasa1een xoe1 6i1i xaccnqnnponana cepynmnx o6pasox:
I. Ipyhha hoxasa1een, xapax1epnsynmnx qqex1nnnoc1i cnc-
1exi yhpanennn, nipaanmnxcn uepes xoneunie pesyi1a1i
pen1einoc1n opiannsann, n sa1pa1i na yhpanenne. Hpn oenxax
qqex1nnnoc1n na ocnone hoxasa1een, xapax1epnsynmnx xoneunie
Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

333
pesyi1a1i pen1einoc1n opiannsann n xauec1ne qqex1a, o6ycon-
ennoio qynxnonnponannex nn pasnn1nex cnc1exi yhpanennn,
xoiy1 paccxa1pnna1icn:
hpn6ii;
qax1nuecxnn unc1in poxop.

II. Ipyhha hoxasa1een, xapax1epnsynmnx copepanne n opia-
nnsann hpoecca yhpanennn, n 1ox unce nehocpepc1nennie pe-
syi1a1i n sa1pa1i yhpanenuecxoio 1pypa. xauec1ne sa1pa1 na
yhpanenne yun1inan1cn 1exymne pacxopi na copepanne ahhapa1a
yhpanennn, xchya1ann 1exnnuecxnx cpepc1n, copepanne spannn
n hoxemennn, hopio1onxy n hepehopio1onxy xappon yhpanennn n 1.h.

Hpn oenxe qqex1nnnoc1n hpoecca yhpanennn hpnxenn-
n1cn hoxasa1en, xo1opie hpno6pe1an1 nopxa1nnnin xapax1ep n
xoiy1 nchoisona1icn n xauec1ne xpn1epnn qqex1nnnoc1n oipann-
uennn, xoipa opiannsanonnan c1pyx1ypa nsxenne1cn n nahpanennn
yyumennn opnoio nn ipyhhi hoxasa1een qqex1nnnoc1n 6es ns-
xenennn (yxypmennn) oc1ainix. K nopxa1nnnix xapax1epnc1nxax
ahhapa1a yhpanennn xoiy1 6i1i o1neceni cepynmne: hponsnopn-
1einoc1i, xonoxnunoc1i, apah1nnnoc1i, in6xoc1i, ohepa1nnnoc1i,
napenoc1i.
Iaccxo1pnx nx xapax1epnc1nxn:
1. Hponsnopn1einoc1i 1pypa pa6o1nnxon ahhapa1a yhpanennn
xoe1 ohpepen1icn, xax xonuec1no hponsnepennon opiannsanen
xoneunon hpopyxnn nn o6:exa nipa6o1annon n hpoecce yhpan-
ennn nnqopxann n cpepnex na opnoio co1pypnnxa 1oio ahhapa1a.
2. Hop xonoxnunoc1in ahhapa1a yhpanennn honnxan1cn o1no-
cn1einie sa1pa1i na eio qynxnonnponanne. jn oenxn xono-
xnunoc1n xoiy1 nchoisona1icn 1axne hoxasa1en, xax ypeinin nec
sa1pa1 na copepanne ahhapa1a yhpanennn n o6men cyxxe ncex sa-
1pa1, ypeinin nec yhpanenuecxnx pa6o1nnxon n uncennoc1n nceio
hepconaa, ce6ec1onxoc1i epnnni nihonennn o6:xa o1peinix
nnpon yhpanenuecxnx pa6o1.
3. Apah1nnnoc1i cnc1exi yhpanennn ohpepene1cn e choco6no-
c1in qqex1nnno nihonn1i sapannie qynxnn n ohpepeennox
pnahasone nsxennnmnxcn yconnn. ex o1nocn1eino mnpe 1o1
pnahason, 1ex 6oee apah1nnnon cun1ae1cn cnc1exa.
4. In6xoc1i xapax1epnsye1 cnonc1no opianon ahhapa1a yhpane-
nnn nsxenn1i n coo1ne1c1nnn c nosnnxanmnxn sapauaxn cnon pon n
Mcucdcun

334
hpoecce hpnnn1nn pemennn n naanna1i nonie cnnsn, ne napyman
hpncymen pannon c1pyx1ype yhopnpouennoc1n o1nomennn.
5. Ohepa1nnnoc1i hpnnn1nn yhpanenuecxnx pemennn xapax1e-
pnsye1 cnoenpexennoc1i ninnennn yhpanenuecxnx hpo6ex n 1a-
xyn cxopoc1i nx pemennn, xo1opan o6echeunnae1 xaxcnxainoe poc-
1nenne hoc1anennix een hpn coxpanennn yc1onunnoc1n naa-
ennix hponsnopc1nennix n o6echeunnanmnx hpoeccon.
6. Hapenoc1i ahhapa1a yhpanennn n eox xapax1epnsye1cn eio
6eso1xasnix qynxnonnponannex. jn oenxn napenoc1n ncho-
nn1einoc1n ahhapa1a yhpanennn n eio hopcnc1ex xoe1 nchoiso-
na1icn yponeni nihonennn sapannn n co6npenne y1neppennix
nopxa1nnon, o1cy1c1nne o1xonennn hpn nchonennn yxasannn.

III. Ipyhha hoxasa1een xapax1epnsye1 panonainoc1i opiann-
sanonnon c1pyx1ypi n e opiannsanonno1exnnuecxnn yponeni. K
c1pyx1ypax o1nocn1cn snennoc1i cnc1exi yhpanennn, yponeni en-
1pansann qynxnn yhpanennn, hpnnn1ie nopxi yhpannexoc1n,
c6aancnponannoc1i pachpepeennn hpan n o1ne1c1nennoc1n.

jn oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn 6oimoe snauenne
nxee1 ohpepeenne coo1ne1c1nnn cnc1exi yhpanennn n e opiannsa-
nonnon c1pyx1ypi o6:ex1y yhpanennn. 1o naxopn1 nipaenne n
c6aancnponannoc1n coc1ana qynxnn n een yhpanennn, coo1ne1-
c1nnn uncennoc1n coc1ana pa6o1nnxon o6:exy n conoc1n pa6o1,
hono1e o6echeuennn 1pe6yexon nnqopxanen, o6echeuennoc1n
hpoeccon yhpanennn 1exnnuecxnxn n 1exnooinuecxnxn cpepc1na-
xn c yu1ox nx noxenxa1ypi.
anixn 1pe6onannnxn nnnn1cn choco6noc1i apexna1noio
o1paennn pnnaxnunoc1n yhpannexix hpoeccon, c6aancnpo-
nannoc1i n nehpo1nnopeunnoc1i hoxasa1een. Hpn oenxe q-
qex1nnnoc1n o1peinix xepohpnn1nn ho conepmenc1nonannn
cnc1exi yhpanennn pohycxae1cn nchoisonanne ocnonnix 1pe-
6onannn x nx ni6opy xaxcnxainoe coo1ne1c1nne xapoio ho-
xasa1en eenon opnen1ann hponopnxoio xepohpnn1nn n ho-
no1a o1paennn poc1niaexoio qqex1a.
yconnnx pinxa pesxo nospac1ae1 poi oh1nxainoio yhpan-
ennn qqex1nnnoc1in 1pypa, xo1opyn napo paccxa1pnna1i ne 1oi-
xo xax o1nomenne hepepa6o1xn hoc1yhanmnx pecypcon n xoneunin
hpopyx1 x sa1pa1ax 1pypa, no n xax hpoecc, nxenmnn mnpoxnn
xpyi nnemnnx nospenc1nnn (peonoio n qononoio oxpyennn).
Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

335
jn 1oio, u1o6i xauec1nenno oenn1i qqex1nnnoc1i yhpane-
nnn neo6xopnxa ncxopnan nnqopxann. cyuae nanunn c6aancnpo-
nannon cnc1exi hoxasa1een, 1axan nnqopxann ye nsnauaino hpn-
cy1c1nye1 n nnpe xpn1nuecxnx qax1opon ychexa n xnuenix hoxasa1een
qqex1nnnoc1n, a 1axe nx snauennn. cyuae o1cy1c1nnn c6aancnpo-
nannon cnc1exi hoxasa1een, 1axon nnqopxann ne1, ho1oxy nsna-
uaino neo6xopnxo hponec1n pnainoc1nxy cnc1exi yhpanennn, u1o6i
ninnn1i neo6xopnxie qax1opi n hoxasa1en, a 1axe nx snauennn.
jnainoc1nxa cnc1exi yhpanennn opiannsann hpnsnana ninn-
n1i cnxh1oxi n hpnunni cymec1nynmnx hpo6ex. xope pnaino-
c1nxn ninnnn1cn ca6ie xec1a (cnxh1oxi) cymec1nynmen cnc1exi
yhpanennn, anansnpyn1cn n ninnnn1cn hpnunni nx nosnnxnone-
nnn (cx. pnc. 9.1, hosnnn 1 n 2 coo1ne1c1nenno). 1o xpanne o1ne1c1-
nennan pa6o1a, 1pe6ynman o1 e nchonn1een nicoxon xnanqnxa-
nn, 1ax xax hpannino hoc1anennin pnainos hoonnna pemennn
hpo6exi. enx o6:ex1nnnoc1n pnainoc1nxn nny1pennnx hpo6ex
opiannsann xoiy1 hpniama1i nnemnnx xoncyi1an1on.

Opnaxo nepepxo hpn yhpanenuecxox o6ceponannn opiann-
sann xoncyi1an1i ncxopn1 ns ye cymec1nynmeio y nnx peme-
nnn, a ne ns peainix ho1pe6noc1en 1on opiannsann. O6cepo-
nannn hopnepian1cn 1oixo 1e o6ac1n n sapaun yhpanennn, pn
xo1opix hpepnasnaueno ye cymec1nynmee pemenne. pesyi1a-
1e nsyuennie cnxh1oxi ne n honon xepe o1paan1 cn1yann n
opiannsann n, u1o caxoe iannoe, ne hosnonn1 xoppex1no ni-
nnn1i hpnunni nosnnxnonennn 1exymnx hpo6ex. Icxnuenne
coc1annn1 1e cyuan, xoipa n opiannsann ye conoci hpep-
c1anenne o 1exymen cn1yann n xoncyi1an1i hpniaman1cn
ncxnun1eino pn xchep1noio xoncyi1nponannn n xaxon1o
o1peino nsn1on o6ac1n yhpanennn.

innenne cnxh1ox n hpnunn, nx nisnanmnx, coc1on1 ns
pnyx hocepona1einix 1ahon:
1. C6op nnqopxann o cnc1exe yhpanennn opiannsanen;
2. Anans hoyuennon nnqopxann.

Kapin ns 1nx 1ahon naen n nxee1 nnnnne na pesyi1a1.
Hehpannino co6pannan nnqopxann ne hosnon1 hponec1n qqex-
1nnnin anans ho ninnennn hpo6ex (cnxh1ox) n nx hpnunn. Ho n
1o e npexn pae peenan1nan nnqopxann nnuex ne hoxoe1 xon-
cyi1an1y, ecn on nenepno e hpoanansnpye1.
Mcucdcun

336










Puc. 9.1. Cxcma pnarnnc1nn cnc1cmm ynpanncnnn

Kax hoxasinae1 hpax1nxa, hpn c6ope nnqopxann eecoo6-
pasno nchoisona1i hpoeccno-opnen1nponannyn xopei, n xo1opon
opiannsann paccxa1pnnae1cn xax conoxyhnoc1i hpoeccon. Hpn 1ox
ne1 neo6xopnxoc1n n hoppo6nox ohncannn hpoeccon: poc1a1ouno
saqnxcnpona1i xnen1on hpoeccon, hoxasa1en qqex1nnnoc1n
(c nx snauennnxn) n pesyi1a1i hpoeccon. Taxon hopxop hosnon1
cxonoxn1i npexn n peniin, 1ax xax hpephoaiae1 pa6o1y na yponne
hpoeccon, ne poc1nian po yponnn qynxnn.
Iaccxo1pnx nexo1opie xe1opnxn oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n
yhpanennn.
PECVPCI
nacroxmee
yymee
2 1
3
npnunnt
cnmnromt
pesyntrart
+]]exrt
npomnoe
Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

337
9.2. Pasnauame Me1opaxa oqeaxa
sqqex1aaaoc1a ynpaaneaas

jn xoxhexcnon oenxn 1exymeio coc1onnnn cnc1exi yhpan-
ennn chenanc1i hpepaian1 hponopn1i anans ho cepynmnx
nahpanennnx:
oenxa nnnec1nnonnon pen1einoc1n;
yhpanenne qnnancaxn;
qqex1nnnoc1i nny1pennnx 6nsnechpoeccon;
nnnonann n pasnn1ne nnqpac1pyx1ypi;
o6yuenne n pasnn1ne hepconaa;
nsanxoo1nomenne c xnen1axn.

Anans hpoecca yhpanennn opiannsanen n paspese yxasan-
nix achex1on hosnon1 nan6oee hono o1ne1n1i na ocnonnie nohpo-
ci (cx. pnc. 9.2.).
Hoxnxo yxasannix achex1on neo6xopnxo anansnpona1i
nihonenne qynxnn yhpanenuecxoio nxa: hannponanne,
opiannsann, xo1nnann n xon1poi.
Iaccxo1pennin napnan1 xoxhexcnon pnainoc1nxn hosno-
ne1 saqnxcnpona1i xaxcnxainoe xonuec1no hpo6ex, n 1ox
unce n naxopnmnxcn na c1ixax yxasannix achex1on.
Lcn y pyxonopn1een opiannsann ye cymec1nye1 honnxa-
nne oc1po1i hpo6exi ho xaxnx1o o1peinix achex1ax cnc1exi
yhpanennn opiannsanen, 1o pnainoc1nxy xono hponec1n ni6o-
pouno. Opnaxo, n cny cnc1exnoc1n n nsanxocnnsannoc1n achex1on,
ni6opounin anans ne pae1 hono1i xap1nni, xo1opyn xono 6io
6i hoyun1i hpn xoxhexcnox ananse qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn.
Iesyi1a1ox pnainoc1nxn 6ype1 c1pyx1ypnponannoe ohncanne
hpo6exnoio coc1onnnn cnc1exi yhpanennn, nipaennoe uepes
qax1opi ychexa n hoxasa1en qqex1nnnoc1n. Hoce 1oio neo6xo-
pnxo nincnn1i hpnunni nosnnxnonennn hpo6ex, 1o ec1i ohpepe-
n1i hpnunnnocepc1nennyn cnnsi cnxh1oxon n nx hpnunn.
nexo1opix cyuanx hpnunnnocepc1nennyn cnnsi xono
nic1pon1i n yxe, ne hpn6eian x chenainix nnc1pyxen1ax n 1ex-
nooinnx. Ho ecn o6:ex ncceponannn nenx, 1o yume nochoiso-
na1icn xe1opnxon ohpepeennn hpnunnnocepc1nennix cnnsen n
pesyi1a1on, nahpnxep, pnaipaxxon Kaopy Icnxani. Lme ee nasi-
nan1 pi6on nn pi6nn cxee1, 1ax xax c1pyx1ypa pnaipaxxi
nahoxnnae1 cxee1 pi6i, ipe ioona 1o oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n
yhpanennn, a o1 xpe61a cxee1a o1xopn1 xoc1n hpnunni.
Mcucdcun

338

























Puc. 9.2. Ocnnnnmc nnnpncm npn anannac npnnccca
ynpanncnnn nprannaanncn


jnaipaxxa Kaopy Icnxani poc1a1ouno nainpno o1o6paae1
hpnunnnocepc1nennie cnnsn xepy hpo6exaxn oenxn qqex-
1nnnoc1n yhpanennn n hpnunnaxn nx nosnnxnonennn. Opnaxo ne-
xo1opie hpnunnnocepc1nennie cnnsn 1pe6yn1 pohonn1einoio
honcnennn, ho1oxy nx eecoo6pasno cohponopa1i 1exc1onix ohn-
cannex hpnunn. Hoyuennie n xope pnainoc1nxn hoxasa1en xono
nchoisona1i pn oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn.

Hpoecc
yhpanennn
opiannsanen
iiopna n
cnc1exa
yhpanennn
axnonepax?
C xaxon xoxanpon
co1pypnnxon
pa6o1ae1 ahhapa1
yhpanennn?
Kaxoni
xonxypen1nie
hpenxymec1na
n nosxonoc1n
nx pasnn1nn?
Kaxoni
hpopyx1onie n
1exnooinuecxne
nnnonann?
Hacxoixo
qqex1nnno
yhpanenne
qnnancaxn?
Xopomo n pasnn1a
nnqpac1pyx1ypa?
Kax xnen1i
o1nocn1cn x
cnc1exe
yhpanennn?
Kaxon unc1in
poxop, cpox
oxyhaexoc1n
n nnpexc
poxopnoc1n
nnnec1nnn?
Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

339
uax1opnie hoxasa1en cpepnne xoc1n
(hpo6exi, cnnsannie c peonix n qononix oxpyennex)










Mexne
xoc1n




uax1opnie hoxasa1en cpepnne xoc1n
(hpo6exi, cnnsannie c nny1pennen cpepon hepconaox, qnnan-
caxn n pp.)

Puc. 9.3. narpamma nncnn aqqc1nnnnc1n ynpanncnnn
(npnwnn n pcaynn1a1nn)

Chenanc1i o1xeuan1, u1o oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n yhpane-
nnn sapaua, xo1opyn neo6xopnxo pema1i n caxix pasnunix cn-
1yannx. Ha hpax1nxe uame nceio 1o1 nohpoc nosnnxae1 n cnnsn c
xpnsncnix hooennex opiannsann. C1anpap1nin anans qnnan-
conix xoqqnnen1on xoe1 ninnn1i cymec1nennie o1xonennn o1
nopxi, no pn 1oio, u1o6i paso6pa1icn, cnnsano n yxypmenne hoxa-
sa1een c nospenc1nnex nnemnnx ne6aiohpnn1nix qax1opon nn
ono nnne1cn cepc1nnex neqqex1nnnoio yhpanennn, nyni
pohonn1einie ncceponannn (1. n. yhpanenuecxnn aypn1). jpyion
pachpoc1panennin cyuan hpnnn1ne pemennn o hpnxix nnnec1n-
nnx. 5oimnnc1no hpoqeccnonainix nnnec1opon (n n hepnyn oue-
pepi nenuypnie nnnec1nnonnie qonpi) hpepe uex hpoqnnancn-
pona1i xaxonn6o hpoex1, hponopn1 1. n. hponepxy ponon po6po-
conec1noc1n opiannsannpenhnen1a, a hoxec1nn cpepc1na n opia-
nnsann, hpnc1aino cepn1 sa qqex1nnnoc1in nx nchoisonannn.
5oiman xoc1i Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n
iannan hpo6exa. yhpanennn (pesyi1a1)
hpn-
unni
hpn-
unni
Mcucdcun

340
hocepnee npexn nce uame anans n oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n
cnc1exi yhpanennn oxasinan1cn noc1pe6onannixn n cnnsn c cospa-
nnex nn peopiannsanen xopnnionix c1pyx1yp. cyuae, xoipa
peui npe1 o6 ynnqnxann cnc1exi yhpanennn n opiannsannx, nxo-
pnmnx n xopnni, xpanne nano ohpepen1i, xaxyn xopei yhpane-
nnn hpnnn1i n xauec1ne 6asonon. Oh1nxainoe pemenne coc1on1 n
1ox, u1o6i hpoanansnpona1i qqex1nnnoc1i cnc1ex yhpanennn n
xapon ns opiannsann n nsn1i sa ocnony nan6oee qqex1nnnyn.
Lme 6oee oc1po 1a sapaua c1on1 n cyuae nic1pannannn en1pan-
sonannon cnc1exi yhpanennn n hpn ohepannx cnnnnn (hoiome-
nnn). Hpnnnxan pemenne o cnnnnn nn hoiomennn, neo6xopnxo
hoxnn1i, u1o nosxonie pasnunn n cnc1exax yhpanennn o6:epn-
nnexix opiannsann xoiy1 cymec1nenno honnn1i na c1onxoc1i
cpexn sa cue1 nspepex, cnnsannix c hponepennex opiannsanonnon
hepec1ponxn. Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n cnc1exi yhpanennn opiann-
sann nyna hpn hponepennn xepohpnn1nn ho pennnnnpnniy nn
nneppennn xophopa1nnnon nnqopxanonnon cnc1exi.
anionsiunon n1epa1ype honn1ne qqex1nnnoc1n xenep-
xen1a nipaae1cn pnyxn xnuenixn 1epxnnaxn:
managerial effectiveness cnc1exnan qqex1nnnoc1i;
management efficiency ohepanonnan qqex1nnnoc1i.

Cnc1exnan qqex1nnnoc1i sanncn1 o1 1oio, nacxoixo pa-
nonaino opiannsonano yhpanenne, 1.e. o1 coc1ana n xonuec1-
na snenien, nx hopunnennoc1n, pachpepeennn qynxnn. Inixn
conaxn, qqex1nnnoc1i cnc1exi yhpanennn ohpepene1cn xa-
uec1nox opiannsanonnon c1pyx1ypi, hpoeccon yhpanennn, a
o1 xnanqnxann xonxpe1nix yhpanenen hou1n ne sanncn1.
Ohepanonnan qqex1nnnoc1i, 1.e. coo1nomenne xepy pe-
syi1a1axn yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n n sa1paunnaexixn ycn-
nnxn, nahpo1nn, n hepnyn ouepepi ohpepene1cn peonixn xauec1-
naxn yhpanenen, a 1axe 1ex, nacxoixo panonaino nchoisye1-
cn nx ho1enna.
Ho1oxy, u1o6i oennna1i qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanennn, neo6-
xopnxo paspen1i oenxy cnc1exnon qqex1nnnoc1n qqex1nn-
noc1n cnc1exi yhpanennn n ohepanonnon qqex1nnnoc1n
qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n.
Iasnunn n ohpepeennn hpepxe1a anansa 1ecno cnnsani c
pasnunixn hopxopaxn x xopenponannn n oenxe qqex1nnnoc1n
yhpanennn opiannsanen.
Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

341
Mexannc1nuecxan xopei paccxa1pnnae1 opiannsann xax
xexannsx, hpepc1annnmnn co6on xox6nnann ocnonnix hponsnop-
c1nennix qax1opon: c1anxon, o6opyponannn, pa6ouen cni, cipin,
nnqopxann n 1.p. 1.e. xax xamnny pn peansann een ee cospa-
1een.
Iyxannc1nuecxan xopei hpepc1anne1 opiannsann xax
xoex1nn npen, nihonnnmnx o6myn pa6o1y na hpnnnhax pas-
peennn n xoohepann 1pypa, hpn 1ox nanenmnx qax1opox poc1a
hponsnopn1einoc1n 1pypa nnne1cn ueonex xax conainin pen-
1ei, eio snannn, hpephpnnnxa1eicxne choco6noc1n.
O6e xopen, necxo1pn na nx hpnnnhnainie o1nunn, nxen1
opny o6myn oco6ennoc1i: en opiannsann opnosnauno ohpepeeni n
hpnnnxan1cn ncexn yuac1nnxaxn yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n.
o1nune o1 1oio ec1xoio cnc1exnoio hopxopa, xnixnn
cnc1exnin hopxop ncxopn1 ns neo6xopnxoc1n yun1ina1i pasnoo6-
pasnie n pasnohanonie nn1epeci c1nxxopepon (hoxnxo axno-
nepon n xenepepon x nnx o1nocn1 1axe pa6o1nnxon n nx cexin,
hoc1anmnxon n hoxyha1een hpopyxnn opiannsann, opiani nac1n
n nexoxxepuecxnx hap1nepon 1.e. ncex 1ex, x1o 1ax nn nnaue sann-
1epeconan n cymec1nonannn opiannsann.
i6op 1ex nn nnix xe1opnx n nnc1pyxen1on c6opa n anansa
nnqopxann sanncn1 xax o1 xapax1epa hoc1anennon sapaun, 1ax n
o1 1oio, x1o ee c1ann1 n c xaxon ein.
Lcn opiannsann nn1epecye1 oh1nxnsann cnc1exi yhpane-
nnn n paxxax hoc1anonxn peiynpnoio xenepxen1a, 1o, xax hpa-
nno, ohncinae1cn cymec1nynman opiannsanonnan c1pyx1ypa, oe-
nnnae1cn coo1ne1c1nne hpnnnhax yumen hpax1nxn n pan1cn pe-
xoxenpann ho hponepennn coo1ne1c1nynmnx xepohpnn1nn (hepe-
hopunnennn c1pyx1ypnix hoppaspeennn, hepepachpepeennn
qynxnn n 1.h.). Hpn 1ox nchoisyn1 chenaino paspa6a1inaexie
xoxhin1epnie xopen, nn cymec1nynmne hpoipaxxnie cpepc1na
1nha 5IIC1pyx1ypnsa1op.
Lcn hepep opiannsanen c1on1 sapaua coxpa1n1i nsnmne
paspy1in m1a1 yhpanenen, 1o oh1nxainix pemennex nnne1cn
hponepenne a11ec1ann n hcnxooinuecxoio 1ec1nponannn c ho-
cepynmnx o1cennannex nmnnx npen. Hpn 1ox ocnonnix
nnc1pyxen1ox, hoxnxo 1ec1on, nnnn1cn nnpnnnpyainie co6e-
ceponannn n nn1epnin, conoxe1pnn.
Opnaxo ecn paspa6a1inaexie xoncyi1an1axn pexoxenpann
sa1painnan1 nn1epeci 6oee uex opnoio c1enxxopepa (a nxenno 1ax
Mcucdcun

342
n 6inae1 n 6oimnnc1ne cyuaen), 1o n nnc1pyxen1apnn anan1nxa
nxnuan1cn cpepc1na, hpephoaianmne xoex1nnnoe o6cypenne
hpo6exi n honcx coiaconannoio pemennn.
Anans xa1eiopnn qqex1nnnoc1n, qax1opon, ee ohpepenn-
mnx, copepannn n pesyi1a1on yhpanenuecxoio 1pypa hosnone1
cpea1i ninop, u1o apexna1nixn copepannn n qopxax hponnennn
qqex1nnnoc1n nnnn1cn ipyhhi hoxasa1een, xo1opie xoiy1 ni-
c1yha1i n xauec1ne nsxepn1en, xpn1epnn qqex1nnnoc1n n sanncn-
xoc1n o1 nasnauennn opiannsann n yconnn ee qynxnonnponannn.
Kapoxy napnan1y cnc1exi yhpanennn coo1ne1c1nye1 ohpepeennoe
snauenne xpn1epnn qqex1nnnoc1n, n sapaua xenepxen1a coc1on1 n
1ox, u1o6i nan1n 1axon napnan1 yhpanennn, hpn xo1opox coo1ne1-
c1nynmnn xpn1epnn hpnnnxae1 nanniiopnenmee snauenne.
xauec1ne xpn1epnn qqex1nnnoc1n pen1einoc1n opiannsa-
nn n yhpanennn nchoisyn1cn o6o6manmne hoxasa1en, xapax1e-
pnsynmne xoneunie pesyi1a1i (nahpnxep, pen1a6einoc1i), n ua-
c1nie hoxasa1en nchoisonannn o1peinix nnpon pecypcon (nahpn-
xep, 1pypa, ocnonnix qonpon, nnnec1nnn).
Hoxasa1en hpn6in n pen1a6einoc1n nan6oee hono xa-
pax1epnsyn1 xoneunie pesyi1a1i pen1einoc1n, coo1ne1c1nenno
qqex1 n qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanennn. Hpn 1ox cepye1 ncxnun1i
nnnnne na hpn6ii qax1opon, ne cnnsannix c pen1einoc1in xon-
xpe1non opiannsann. O6o6manmne hoxasa1en o1paan1 pesyi-
1a1 pen1einoc1n n yhpanennn n eox, no ne n honon xepe xapax-
1epnsyn1 qqex1nnnoc1i n xauec1no yhpanennn 1pyponixn hpo-
eccaxn, hponsnopc1nennixn qonpaxn, xa1epnainixn pecypcaxn.
jn 1oio nchoisyn1cn uac1nie hoxasa1en. Tax, pn oenxn q-
qex1nnnoc1n nchoisonannn 1pyponix pecypcon hpnxenne1cn hoxa-
sa1ei pnnaxnxn hponsnopn1einoc1n 1pypa; qqex1nnnoc1n nc-
hoisonannn xa1epnainix pecypcon hoxasa1en xa1epnaoexxo-
c1n hpopyxnn, a qqex1nnnoc1n nchoisonannn ocnonnix qonpon
hoxasa1en qonpoo1paun nn qonpoxxoc1n, hpnuex hocepnnn
6oee anan1nuen.
Hpn oenxe qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn neo6xopnxo xox-
hexcnoe hpnxenenne ncen cnc1exi o6o6manmnx n uac1nix ho-
xasa1een xax xonuec1nennix, 1ax n xauec1nennix.
qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n hpnxenn1eino
x cy6:ex1y yhpanennn xoe1 xapax1epnsona1icn xonuec1nennixn
(xonoxnuecxan qqex1nnnoc1i) n xauec1nennixn (conainan q-
qex1nnnoc1i) hoxasa1enxn.
Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

343
Konuec1nennie hoxasa1en pen1einoc1n cnc1exi yhpane-
nnn nxnuan1 xoxhexc 1pyponix hoxasa1een xonoxnn nnoio
1pypa n cqepe yhpanennn (nahpnxep, coxpamenne cpepnen chncou-
non uncennoc1n yhpanenen n pp.); qnnanconie hoxasa1en pen-
1einoc1n cnc1exi yhpanennn (coxpamenne pacxopon na yhpane-
nne n 1.h.); hoxasa1en xonoxnn npexenn (coxpamenne hpopon-
1einoc1n nxon yhpanennn n pesyi1a1e nneppennn nnqopxan-
onnix 1exnooinn, opiannsanonnix hpoepyp).
Oco6enno nanoe snauenne nxen1 xauec1nennie hoxasa1en
conainon qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn: honimenne xnanqnxann
pa6o1nnxon ahhapa1a yhpanennn; poc1 yponnn nn1eipann hpoec-
con yhpanennn; honimenne nxnpa xenepepon; honimenne ypon-
nn o6ocnonannoc1n hpnnnxaexix pemennn; qopxnponanne 6oee
nicoxon xophopa1nnnon xyi1ypi, yumen yhpannexoc1n cnc1exi,
ypone1nopennoc1n 1pypox; sanoenanne o6mec1nennoio ponepnn;
ycnenne conainon o1ne1c1nennoc1n opiannsann; xooinuecxne
hocepc1nnn.
Lcn n pesyi1a1e panonansann yhpanennn ypae1cn poc-
1nui nicoxoio yponnn yxasannix nime hoxasa1een, 1o hponcxopn1
hoon1einin cpnni n opiannsann cnc1exi yhpanennn n poc1n-
iae1cn xonoxnuecxnn qqex1 n qqex1nnnoc1i.
Taxnx o6pasox, hoce ohpepeennn hoxasa1een pesyi1a1a,
sa1pa1, qqex1nnnoc1n n nx snauennn honnne1cn nosxonoc1i qop-
xansann oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn, nahpnxep, ho ce-
pynmen cxexe (cx. pnc. 9.4.).
Hapo nxe1i n nnpy, u1o sa1pa1i na ocnoenne n nneppenne, na-
hpnxep nonix xoxhin1epon n ppyion 1exnnxn, nxnuan1 pacxopi
na o6cynnanne, na o6yuenne hepconaa, a 1axe pacxopi, cnnsan-
nie c yue1ox nspepex ho cospannn nny1pnopiannsanonnon
nnqpac1pyx1ypi. Iacxopi na conepmenc1nonanne yhpanenuecxoio
1pypa nxopn1 n coc1an nspepex hponsnopc1na. Hpn coc1anennn xa1-
pni pn anansa sa1pa1i nihycx n honie sa1pa1i 1axe nxn-
uan1 xchya1anonnie nspepxn ho pacxopax na 1exnnuecxoe
o6echeuenne sahuac1nxn, pexon1, saxeny, xopepnnsann xa1epn-
ainon uac1n, a 1axe na sapa6o1nyn ha1y hepconay, o6cyn-
nanmexy nonmec1no.
C1pyx1ypa sa1pa1 hponsnopn1cn n xa1pnunon qopxe pn nos-
xono 6oee honoio yue1a ncex hpnxix n xocnennix nspepex.
Toixo yue1 honix sa1pa1 hosnone1 ohpepen1i eecoo6pasnoc1i
hpnxenennn nonon nayunon opiannsann yhpanenuecxoio 1pypa.
Mcucdcun

344
























Puc. 9.4. Cxcma annnmnn-c1a1nc1nwccnx n ma1cma1nwccnx
mc1npnn qnpmannaannn nncnn aqqc1nnnnc1n ynpanncnnn

Hpn cpannennn necxoixnx nonmec1n yun1inan1cn ne 1oixo
honie sa1pa1i, no n pachpepeenne sa1pa1 ho npexenn, a n cnnsn c
1nx hpopon1einoc1i nx nsnennoio nxa, hocxoixy cymec1-
unpmynnpnnannc
annnmnwccnn rnnn1cam n n6mnx
1pc6nnannn qnpmannaannn
Onpcpcncnnc rpannn, nn1cpnannn,
pnanaannnn npncmncmnc1n
Cnc1anncnnc n6mcn
cnc1cmm mnpcncn
Hpnmcncnnc cncnnannnmx
annnmnn-c1a1nc1nwccnx
n ma1cma1nwccnx mc1npnn
Me1opi
n1epann
Me1opi
xa1exa1nuecxon
c1a1nc1nxn
Koppenn-
onnin
anans
Ieipeccn-
onnin
anans
jnchepcnon-
nin anans
xonoxe1pnuecxne
xopen
sa1pa1i-nihycx
Me1op anaoinn,
hpo6 n omn6ox
Me1op
xchep1nix
oenox
Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

345
nye1 ne 1oixo o6man oipannuennoc1i pecypcon, no n pnnaxnxa nx no
npexenn. Oco6oe nnnxanne cepye1 ypen1i cpepne n poiocpounix
achex1ax, hpnxennn xonoxnxoc1a1nc1nuecxne n xa1exa1nuecxne
xe1opi. Mono nchoisona1i xax xchep1nie n xauec1nennie xe1o-
pi oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn, 1ax n xonoxnuecxne pacue-
1i. Hpnxenenne cnc1exnix xopeen o6:ncnne1cn cepynmnxn hpe-
nxymec1naxn hpn ni6ope nanyumnx napnan1on cnc1exi yhpane-
nnn opiannsanen:
1. Hoinuecxan ncnoc1i c1pyx1ypi hpn ohpepeennn nsanxocnnsn
exen1on.
2. osxonoc1i nnopa n xopen xauec1nennon n xchep1non nn-
qopxann. o6men xopen c1onxoc1n yhpanennn yun1inan1cn nce
xonuec1nennie n xauec1nennie hapaxe1pi.
3. Hpnxenenne xopeen xoe1 hosnon1i anansnpona1i hpoecc
yhpanennn na n6on eio c1apnn c nicoxon c1ehenin poc1onepnoc1n.

Opnaxo n nac1onmee npexn n cny chenqnxn yhpanenuecxoio
1pypa n conoc1n pacue1a eio pesyi1a1on n sa1pa1 ohpepeenne
xnoinx xauec1nennix hoxasa1een, nahpnxep, xnanqnxann, xyi-
1ypi yhpanenuecxoio 1pypa, pn oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpane-
nnn upesniuanno cono. cnnsn c 1nx chenanc1i [17, C.235, 236]
pexoxenpyn1 ohpepen1i ioponon xonoxnuecxnn qqex1 o1 nne-
ppennn xepohpnn1nn ho nayunon opiannsann yhpanenuecxoio
1pypa (
i
) ho cepynmen qopxye:

i
=(C
1
C
2
)
2
L
n
3
ep,

ipe C
1
, C
2
c1onxoc1i epnnni nihonennon pa6o1i po n hoce
nneppennn xepohpnn1nn ho nayunon opiannsann yhpanenuecxoio
1pypa (oha1a 1pypa, py6.);

2
ioponon o6:ex pa6o1 hoce nneppennn xepohpnn1nn ho
nayunon opiannsann yhpanenuecxoio 1pypa n na1ypainox nipa-
ennn;
L
n
nopxa1nnnin xoqqnnen1 cpannn1einon xonoxnue-
cxon qqex1nnnoc1n (nenunna o6pa1nan nopxa1nnnoxy cpoxy oxy-
haexoc1n T
n);
3
ep
epnnonpexennie sa1pa1i, cnnsannie c paspa6o1xon n
nneppennex xepohpnn1nn ho nayunon opiannsann yhpanenuecxo-
io 1pypa.
Mcucdcun

346
Oueni cono nipasn1i o6:ex pa6o1i n na1ypainix ns-
xepn1enx. Ho1oxy pexoxenpyn1 hpnxenn1i 6oee yxpyhnen-
nin n necxoixo yconnin xe1op oenxn o6men xonoxnn o1
nneppennn xepohpnn1nn ho nayunon opiannsann yhpanenue-
cxoio 1pypa (
o6
) ho cepynmen qopxye:

o6
=
n
+
pc
+
o1
3,

ipe
n
xonoxnn, poc1niny1an sa cue1 nicno6opennn yhpanen-
en, py6.

pc
xonoxnn, poc1niny1an sa cue1 nsxenennn ponoc1non
c1pyx1ypi yhpanenen n qynxnonainix n hponsnopc1nennix
hoppaspeennnx, py6.;

o1


xonoxnn, poc1niny1an sa cue1 panonainoio nchoiso-
nannn cpepc1n opi1exnnxn, xanenpcxnx 1onapon n pp., py6.
3 sa1pa1i na ocymec1nenne xepohpnn1nn ho nayunon opia-
nnsann yhpanenuecxoio 1pypa, py6.

3nan o6:ex sa1pa1 (V
sa1p.
) n xonoxnuecxnn qqex1 (x. q.),
cpox oxyhaexoc1n nspepex yhpanenuecxoio xapax1epa xono oh-
pepen1i ho cepynmen qopxye:

V
sa1p.

x. qq.

Ha conpexennox 1ahe pasnn1nn xonoxnxn Ioccnn, hpepe nce-
io, nnqnnn o6ycannnae1 oipannuenne cpoxon oxyhaexoc1n nspep-
ex yhpanenuecxoio xapax1epa. Haoionie ha1en, cnnsannie c ns-
pepxaxn yhpanenuecxoio xapax1epa hopea1 panonainon xnnn-
xnsann. Heo6xopnxo hoxnn1i, u1o hpn oenxe qqex1nnnoc1n
yhpanennn oco6oe snauenne hpnpae1cn nsanxocnnsnx hoxasa1een, 1a
oenxa hponsnopn1cn n o1nocn1einox nsxepennn. Hpn oenxe qqex-
1nnnoc1n yhpanennn eecoo6pasno hpnxenn1i naxohennyn n pe-
syi1a1e na6npennn ncxopnyn xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxyn nnqopxa-
nn n 1eope1nxo-nepon1noc1nie xopeinie snannn.
Ianonainan n cnoenpexennan oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n yhpan-
ennn n xonoxnuecxoe o6ocnonanne xepohpnn1nn ho conepmenc1-
nonannn xenepxen1a hosnon1 honicn1i eio qqex1nnnoc1i n xon-
xypen1ochoco6noc1i opiannsann.
Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

347
Tec1

1. B ane:onsmunou naunou :umeame nonnmue 5qqexmu-
nocmu na:enun maaemcn x:muem+u me+una+u:
a) managerial effectiveness 1ax nasinaexan cnc1exnan q-
qex1nnnoc1i;
6) management efficiency 1ax nasinaexan ohepanonnan
qqex1nnnoc1i;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

2. K ocnonm+ nonnmun+ 5qqexmunocmu na:enun ne om-
nocumcn 5qqexmunocmt:
a) 1pypa pa6o1nnxon ahhapa1a yhpanennn;
6) hpoecca yhpanennn;
n) cnc1exi yhpanennn;
i) xexannsxa yhpanennn;
p) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

3. Hu cex c:onocmnx ouenxu 5qqexmunocmu +eneo+enma
o:tueu +ee asaomanm meoemuxo-+emooo:oeuuecxue u +e-
moouuecxue nue+m ouenxu 5qqexmunocmu:
a) yhpanennn n eox;
6) o1peinix xepohpnn1nn ho nayunon opiannsann yhpan-
enuecxoio 1pypa;
n) yhpanenuecxoio 1pypa xenepepon;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

4. Oonu+ us xumeue 5qqexmunocmu na:enun nu ca-
nenuu as:uunmx auanmo oeanusauuonnou cmxmm n:nemcn
os+onocmt:
a) nihycxa nan6oee xauec1nennon hpopyxnn, ypone1no-
pnnmen nicmnx 1pe6onannnx xnponoio yponnn;
6) hoyuennn 6ic1pix hpn6ien;
n) cospannn pohonn1einix pa6ounx xec1;
i) nan6oee honoio n yc1onunnoio poc1nennn xoneunix e-
en cnc1exi yhpanennn hpn xnnnxainix sa1pa1ax ee qynxno-
nnponannn.
Mcucdcun

348
5. :n ouenxu 5qqexmunocmu na:enun +oem ucno:tso-
amtcn maxue noxasame:u, xax omnouenue:
a) sa1pa1 na copepanne ahhapa1a yhpanennn xo ncex nspep-
xax opannsann;
6) uncennoc1n yhpanenuecxnx pa6o1nnxon x o6men uncen-
noc1n nceio hepconaa opiannsann;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

6. Oouamuu+u noxasame:n+u 5xono+uuecxou 5qqexmuno-
cmu uuoxo+ c+mc:e +oem mmt:
a) c1eheni nihonennn saxason ho1pe6n1een;
6) pon o6:exa hpopa opiannsann na pinxe;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

7. Oouamuu+u noxasame:n+u couua:tnou 5qqexmunocmu
sxo+ c+mc:e n:nmmcn:
a) pon pemennn, hpnnn1ix ho hpepoennn pa6o1nnxon op-
iannsann;
6) uncennoc1i co1pypnnxon, hpnneuennix x paspa6o1xe
yhpanenuecxoio pemennn;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

8. Ocooe snauenue nu ouenxe 5qqexmunocmu na:enun
nuoaemcn:
a) ncxnuennn neonpannoc1en;
6) ninnennn saxonoxepnoc1en;
n) honcxy yconnoc1en;
i) nsanxocnnsnx hoxasa1een.

9. Ouenxa 5qqexmunocmu na:enun nousooumcn :
a) a6con1nox nsxepennn;
6) o1nocn1einox nsxepennn;
n) poapax ($);
i) enpo ().

Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

349
10. Hu ouenxe 5qqexmunocmu na:enun ue:ecooasno
nu+ennmt:
a) 1eope1nxonepon1noc1nie xopeinie snannn;
6) naxohennyn n pesyi1a1e na6npennn ncxopnyn xonoxn-
xoc1a1nc1nuecxyn nnqopxann;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

11. Cox oxnae+ocmu usoeex na:enuecxoeo xaaxme-
a +ono oneoe:umt no qo+:e:
a)
qq. x.
sa1p. V
;
6)
sa1p. V
qq. x.
;
n)
. qq . x
100% sa1p. V
;
i)
sa1p. V
100% qq. x.
.

12. Oeanuuenue coxo oxnae+ocmu usoeex na:enuecxo-
eo xaaxmea na coe+enno+ 5mane asumun 5xono+uxu Poccuu
neoe ceeo oc:a:uamm:
a) qnnanconie pncxn;
6) xpepn1nie pncxn;
n) c1paxonie pncxn;
i) nnqnnn.

13. C:eomuue usoexu na:enuecxoeo xaaxmea noo-
:eam auuona:tnou +unu+usauuu:
a) na ex1ponepinn;
6) na 1ohnno;
n) na pexaxy;
i) naoionie ha1en.

14. |oooou 5xono+uuecxuu 5qqexm om neoenun +eonun-
muu no naunou oeanusauuu na:enuecxoeo moa (3
e
) +ono on-
eoe:umt no c:eomueu qo+:e:
a) (C
1
+C
2
) B
2
E
n
3
eo
;
Mcucdcun

350
6) (C
1
C
2
) B
2
+ E
n
3
eo
;
n) (C
1
C
2
) B
2
E
n
3
eo
;
i) (C
1
+C
2
) B
2
+ E
n
3
eo
.

15. Ko5qquuuenm 5qqexmunocmu coeuencmoanun
na:enun (K
5
) accuummamm no qo+:e:
a)
3y
i
;
6)
i
3y
;
n)
% 100 3y
i

;
i)
i
% 100 3y
.

Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuue (16-25) o-
nocm:

16. Kaxu+u x:muem+u me+una+u maaemcn nonnmue 5q-
qexmunocmu na:enun ane:onsmunou naunou :umeame?
17. Kax oneoe:nemcn 5qqexmunocmt na:enun?
18. B ue+ nunuunua:tnoe om:uuue 5qqexmunocmu nouecca
na:enun om 5qqexmunocmu +exanus+a na:enun?
19. Houe+ nu ouenxe 5qqexmunocmu +eneo+enma o:tueu
+ee asaomanm meoemuxo+emooo:oeuuecxue u +emoouuecxue
nue+m ouenxu 5qqexmunocmu omoe:tnmx +eonunmuu no naunou
oeanusauuu na:enuecxoeo moa, a ne na:enun ue:o+?
20. Kaxue oouamuue noxasame:u ucno:tsmmcn o:n ouenxu
5xono+uuecxou 5qqexmunocmu na:enun oeanusauueu?
21. Kaxue oouamuue noxasame:u ucno:tsmmcn o:n ouenxu
couua:tnou 5qqexmunocmu na:enun oeanusauueu?
22. Kaxue Bm snaeme uacmnme noxasame:u 5xono+uuecxou 5q-
qexmunocmu na:enun oeanusauueu?
23. Kaxue Bm snaeme uacmnme noxasame:u couua:tnou 5qqex-
munocmu na:enun oeanusauueu?
24. mo Bm snaeme o x:accuquxauuu cucme+m noxasame:eu
ouenxu 5qqexmunocmu annaama na:enun na mu sau+ocn-
sannme ennm?
Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

351
25. Kaxue Bm snaeme uacmnme +emoouxu oneoe:enun 5qqex-
munocmu na:enun oeanusauueu?

26. 3xono+uuecxue acnexmm 5qqexmunocmu na:enun no-
muoeuam couua:tnm+:
a) pa
6) ne1

27. Couua:tnan 5qqexmunocmt oneoe:nemcn omnouenue+
noxasame:eu omaamuu+ ee es:tmam x samama+, neoxoou+m+
o:n eeo oocmuenun:
a) pa
6) ne1

28. Memoouxa acuma 5xono+uuecxoeo 5qqexma saucum u
om nmanco cucme+noeo nooxooa, xomome +ono uenouoamt:
a) pa
6) ne1

29. He:ecooasno :u oneoe:nmt 5qqexmunocmt +eonunmuu,
nooou+mx na xooe nouecc nousoocma u na mxooe?
a) pa
6) ne1

30.3qqexmunocmt qnxuuonuoanun oeanusauuu - 5mo
5qqexmunocmt na:enun sxo+ c+mc:e?
a) pa
6) ne1


Mcucdcun

352
Dpax1axyM

1. Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm

9.1.1. 1o hpepc1anne1 co6on qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanennn?
9.1.2. Kaxoni ocnonnie honn1nn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn?
9.1.3. uex cy1i oenxn conainon qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn, a n
uex xonoxnuecxon?

2. ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm

9.2.1. Iaccxan1e o hoxasa1enx qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn n
hopxopax x nx ohpepeennn. Kaxne conoc1n i nchi1inan hpn
hopxopax x nx ohpepeennn?
9.2.2. Ison1e uac1nie xe1opnxn oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n
yhpanennn. Hpoxoxxen1npyn1e am o1ne1.
9.2.3. Koppex1no n cpannnna1i n oennna1i qqex1nnnoc1i pa-
6o1i pyxonopn1een nicmeio, cpepneio n nnsonoio yponnen? Honc-
nn1e amy hosnnn.
9.2.4. osxono n, ho amexy xnennn, oenn1i qqex1nnnoc1i
yhpanennn, ecn nnqopxann, xo1opon i pachoaiae1e, nxnuae1
pasnonahpanennie hoxasa1en. Hpoxoxxen1npyn1e ame pemenne,
xonxpe1nsnponan nohpoc.

3. jwc6nmc cn1yannn

9.3.1. (29) xamnnoc1pon1einon opiannsann c1onxoc1i epn-
nni yhpanenuecxon pa6o1i po nneppennn xepohpnn1nn ho nayu-
non opiannsann yhpanenuecxoio 1pypa (oha1a 1pyponix sa1pa1)
coc1anna 10 yconnix epnnn (y.e.), a hoce nneppennn 1nx xepo-
hpnn1nn 8 y.e. Ioponon o6:ex pa6o1 hoce nneppennn xepohpnn1nn
n na1ypainox nipaennn coc1ann 10 1ic. epnnn. Hopxa1nnnin
xoqqnnen1 cpannn1einon xonoxnuecxon qqex1nnnoc1n yc1a-
nonen pannix 0.15. Lpnnonpexennie sa1pa1i, cnnsannie c paspa-
6o1xon n nneppennex xepohpnn1nn, 320 y.e.
Tpe6ye1cn:
1. Iaccun1a1i ioponon xonoxnuecxnn qqex1 o1 nneppennn xe-
pohpnn1nn ho nayunon opiannsann yhpanenuecxoio 1pypa;
2. Ohpepen1i nopxa1nnnin cpox oxyhaexoc1n xepohpnn1nn.
3. Cpea1i ninopi n xoxxen1apnn.
Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

353
9.3.2. (30) xonpn1epcxox axnonepnox o6mec1ne ioponon
xonoxnuecxnn qqex1, hoyuennin n pesyi1a1e hponepennn
xepohpnn1nn ho nayunon opiannsann yhpanenuecxoio 1pypa
coc1ann 1078 y.e., a sa1pa1i, na xepohpnn1nn ho conepmenc1no-
nannn yhpanennn 1012 y.e.
Ohpepen1e xoqqnnen1 qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn. Cpe-
an1e ninopi n xoxxen1apnn.

Ocnnnnmc nnnpm, nnnn1nn, nnpcpcncnnn

qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanennn nceipa nnne1cn o1nocn1einon nen-
unnon n hpepc1anne1 co6on xapax1epnc1nxy pesyi1a1nnnoc1n pen1ei-
noc1n xonxpe1non yhpannnmen cnc1exi. qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanennn
o1paae1cn n pasnunix hoxasa1enx xax o6:ex1a yhpanennn (opiannsa-
nn n eox n (nn) e hoppaspeennn), 1ax n cy6:ex1a yhpanennn (co6-
c1nenno yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n), hpnuex 1n hoxasa1en nxen1
xonuec1nennie n xauec1nennie xapax1epnc1nxn.
Ocnonnixn honn1nnxn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn cun1an1-
cn cepynmne:
1. qqex1nnnoc1i hpoeccon yhpanennn, hpo1exanmnx n opia-
nnsann n o1paanmnx pnnaxnsx opiannsanonnon cnc1exi. Kn-
uenix hpoeccox nnne1cn xoxxynnxann. A en1painyn poi n
conoxyhnoc1n ncex opiannsanonnix hpoeccon nipae1 hpnnn1ne
pemennn;
2. qqex1nnnoc1i ncen cnc1exi yhpanennn opiannsann n e-
ox n na pasnunix ee yponnnx, qqex1nnnoc1i qynxnonnponannn
nny1pennen cpepi opiannsann: qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanennn hpons-
nopc1nox, o1peaxn hannponannn, xapxe1nnia, qnnancon, cna6e-
nnn, HIOKI, xappon, 1exnnuecxnx, 6yxia1epnen, xoxnccnen ho pas-
pemennn xonqnx1on n 1.p.;
3. qqex1nnnoc1i qynxnn xenepxen1a: hannponannn, opia-
nnsann, xo1nnann, xon1pon;
4. qqex1nnnoc1i nsanxopenc1nnn c peonix n qononix oxpy-
ennex.

xenepxen1e pasnuan1 cepynmne nnpi qqex1nnnoc1n:
5. Conainan qqex1nnnoc1i;
6. xonoxnuecxan qqex1nnnoc1i.
Mcucdcun

354
Cy1i conainon qqex1nnnoc1n n c1ehenn xaxcnxaino nos-
xonoio ypone1nopennn pasnunix ho1pe6noc1en npen. Cy1i xo-
noxnuecxon qqex1nnnoc1n n c1ehenn xaxcnxaino nosxonon
oxyhaexoc1n sa1pa1. Iesyi1a1 pen1einoc1n opiannsann poen
hpenima1i sa1pa1i, cnnsannie c hoyuennex 1oio pesyi1a1a.

Oqnpmncnnc nn c1anpap1y

3apannn ho 1exe 9 nxnuan1:
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 9 3 m1.
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci ho 1exe 9 4 m1.
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 9 2 m1.

Knn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 9

Hnc1annna aapannn
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 9 pasxemeni n CjO Kaxhyc n
qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 9.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 xpa1xnn o1ne1 (ne 6oee 200 cnxnoon)
na xapin nohpoc n qopyxe Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 9 po na-
uaa aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 9 (cx. Kaenpapnin han xypca).
O1ne1i na nohpoci n qopyxe cepye1 pasxema1i, xnxnyn na
cnxno O1ne1n1i. am o1ne1 poen honnn1icn n pepene coo6me-
nnn hop coo1ne1c1nynmnx nohpocox. HL ICHOHI3\ITL KHOH-
K\ (cospa1i) jH2 OTLTA HA OHIOCI.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
O1ne1i na nohpoci pasxeman1e ncen ipyhhon n qopyxe
Kon1poinie nohpoci ho 1exe 9.

Tac:ua 1

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na nn1pnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 9

Hapamc1pm n 6annm Kpn1cpnn
O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. Konuec1no hpanninix
o1ne1on
1 ns 3 4 2 nn 3 ns 3 6
Ocuxa qqcxnuuccnu qnpa:cuun

355
Tac:ua 1 (cxcunauuc)

Hapamc1pm n 6annm Kpn1cpnn
O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
2. O1ne1i pasxemeni hop
nohpocaxn
(n pepene coo6mennn)
pa 1

ncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 9

Hnc1annna aapannn
jncxyccnonnie nohpoci 6ypy1 yc1no o6cypa1icn na cexnnape ho
1exe 9. ax neo6xopnxo hopio1onn1icn x 6ecepe ho pannix nohpocax.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 o6ocnonannan hosnnn ho xapoxy
nohpocy, osnyuennan no npexn aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 9 (cx.
Kaenpapnin han xypca); n xope cexnnapa i 6ype1e o1neua1i na
nohpoci n cyuannox hopnpxe; xapin c1ypen1 poen yche1i o1ne-
1n1i na 1 nn 2 nohpoca.
ama hosnnn pona 6i1i ocnonana na n1a1ax ns yue6nix
xa1epnaon ho 1exe 9.

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
ax neo6xopnxo yc1no nson1i n o6ocnona1i cnon hosnnn n
xope aypn1opnoio sann1nn ho 1exe 9.

Tac:ua 2

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na pncyccnnnnmc nnnpncm nn 1cmc 9

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. Konuec1no hpanninix
o1ne1on
1 10 2 n 6oee 13
2. O6ocnonannoc1i o1ne1on
(nchoisonanne n1a1 ns
yue6nix xa1epnaon)
ec1i 2
3. Ichoisonanne pohonn-
1einix nc1ounnxon
1 nc1ounnx
n 6oee
5
Mcucdcun

356
jwc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 9. Bapnan1 29 nnn 30

Hnc1annna aapannn
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 9 paccxa1pnnan1cn axn caxoc1on1eino.

Tpc6nnannn nn nqnpmncnnm pcaynn1a1nn
Onpaexin pesyi1a1 qan c o1ue1ox ho nihonennon op-
non cn1yann, oqopxennin ho HA5HOH\ N___ (cx. n 5n6no1exe
CjO Kaxhyc), nicannin 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn CjO Kax-
hyc po nauaa saue1non ceccnn (cx. Kaenpapnin han xypca); i
xoe1e o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen1axn n qopy-
xe \ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 9.
Ha6on o1ue1a (Tn1yinan c1panna. Chncox ocnonnix paspe-
on) cx. n 5n6no1exe CjO Kaxhyc. O6mnn o6:ex ameio 1exc1a n
o1ue1e ho 1exe 9 ne 6oee 1 c1panni (3000 snaxon).

Cnncn6 ncpcpawn pcaynn1a1nn
Io1onin o1ue1 hepeciae1cn 1in1opy uepes O6xen qanaxn
CjO Kaxhyc. 3aioonox coo6mennn c qanox poen copepa1i na-
snanne ipyhhi, noxep 1exi n noxep yue6non cn1yann, nahpnxep
O1ue1_uIO_ju102_\ue6nan_cn1yann_9.3.2(30). i xoe1e
o6cypa1i yue6nie cn1yann c ppyinxn c1ypen1axn n qopyxe
\ue6nie cn1yann ho 1exe 9.

Tac:ua 3

Hana nncnn n1nc1nn na ywc6nmc cn1yannn nn 1cmc 9

Hapamc1pm n 6annm
Kpn1cpnn O6naa1cnn-
nmc
napamc1pm
Bann

Pcnmcn-
pycmmc
napamc1pm
Bann
1. uan o1ue1a oqopxen ho
ma6ony
pa 1
2. uan o1hpanen n cpox pa 2
3. O6:ex 1exc1a ne hpe-
nimae1 1pe6onannn
pa 2
4. O1ne1 nxee1 o6ocnonanne
(xonuec1no cciox n n1a1)
3 2 5 4
5. O1ne1 ynnxaen (ne1 ho-
n1opon n anaoion n o1ue1ax
ppyinx c1ypen1on)
pa 4

Mcucdcun

357
Me1opauecxae pexoMeapaqaa no amnonaeaam
xypcoao a xoa1ponbao pao1

1. enb pexoMeapaqa a nonoweaas FOCTa

Hein xe1opnuecxnx pexoxenpann ho nihonennn xypconix
pa6o1 nnne1cn hoxomi c1ypen1ax n ocymec1nennn 1on cepiesnon
pa6o1i.
Me1opnuecxne pexoxenpann choco6c1nyn1 xnanqnnponan-
noxy ni6opy c1ypen1ox 1exi xypconon pa6o1i, ohpepenn1 o6mne
1pe6onannn, hpep:nnnexie x pannoxy nnpy pen1einoc1n, yxasina-
n1 hocepona1einoc1i e hopio1onxn, 1pe6onannn x apxn1ex1onnxe,
copepannn n oqopxennn.
hpoecce paspa6o1xn xe1opnuecxnx yxasannn 6in yu1eni ho-
oennn IOCT 7.32-91 Cnc1exi c1anpap1on ho nnqopxann, 6n6no-
1eunoxy n nspa1eicxoxy pey. O1ue1 ho nayuno-nccepona1eicxon
pa6o1e. C1pyx1ypa n hpanna oqopxennn; IOCT 7.1-2003 Cnc1exa
c1anpap1on ho nnqopxann, 6n6no1eunoxy n nspa1eicxoxy pey.
5n6noipaqnuecxan sahnci. 5n6noipaqnuecxoe ohncanne. O6mne
1pe6onannn n hpanna coc1anennn; IOCT 7.80-2000 Cnc1exa c1anpap-
1on ho nnqopxann, 6n6no1eunoxy n nspa1eicxoxy pey. 5n6no-
ipaqnuecxan sahnci. 3aioonox. O6mne 1pe6onannn n hpanna coc1an-
ennn; IOCT 7.82-2001 Cnc1exa c1anpap1on ho nnqopxann, 6n6no-
1eunoxy n nspa1eicxoxy pey. 5n6noipaqnuecxan sahnci. 5n6no-
ipaqnuecxoe ohncanne ex1ponnix pecypcon: O6mne 1pe6onannn n
hpanna coc1anennn; IOCT 1.5-92 Iocypapc1nennan cnc1exa c1anpap-
1nsann. Hoc1poenne, nsoenne, oqopxenne n copepanne c1anpap-
1on; IOCT I.6.30-2003 \nnqnnponannie cnc1exi poxyxen1ann.
Cnc1exa opiannsanonno-pachopnpn1einon poxyxen1ann. Tpe6ona-
nnn x oqopxennn poxyxen1on.
Me1opnuecxnxn yxasannnxn saxpehena cnc1exa xon1pon
ipaqnxa nihonennn xypconon pa6o1i n xoncyi1ann xapoio
c1ypen1a na ncex 1ahax pa6o1i nap ns6pannon 1exon co c1oponi
nayunoio pyxonopn1en.

2. Oae nonoweaas a nopspox amopa
1eMm xypcoao pao1m

Kypconan pa6o1a nnne1cn qopxon xon1pon nap o6yuennex
c1ypen1a ho ns6pannon nx chenainoc1n.
Mcucdcun

358
Hcnn ypcnnnn pa6n1m:
Cnc1exa1nsann 1eope1nuecxnx snannn, hpax1nuecxnx yxennn,
hpno6pe1ennix c1ypen1ox hpn nsyuennn chenainix pncnhnn;
3axpehenne nanixon napennn xe1opnxaxn ncceponannn,
xchepnxen1nponannn, xopenponannn n hpoex1nponannn;
Ohpepeenne c1ehenn hopio1onennoc1n c1ypen1a x caxoc1on-
1einon pa6o1e.

Inannmc aapawn ypcnnnn pa6n1m:
1. Teope1nuecxoe o6ocnonanne n pacxpi1ne cymnoc1n, honn1nn,
saxonoxepnoc1en, hpnnnhon, ocnonnix xa1eiopnn, nnennn n hpo-
6ex ho ns6pannon 1exe;
2. Anans co6pannoio xa1epnaa n eio o6pa6o1xa n coo1ne1c1nnn
c xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxnxn, opiannsanonno-pachopnpn1ei-
nixn, conaino-hcnxooinuecxnxn xe1opaxn xenepxen1a n pas-
nunixn xe1opnxaxn.
3. Honcx n o6ocnonanne hy1en painenmeio conepmenc1nonannn
qqex1nnnoc1n pen1einoc1n o6:ex1a ncceponannn ho xonxpe1noxy
nahpanennn ns6pannon 1exi.
4. Iaspa6o1xa nayuno o6ocnonannix ninopon, hpepoennn ho
ninnennn n xo6nnsann pesepnon poc1a xonoxnuecxon n con-
ainon qqex1nnnoc1n xonxpe1noio o6:ex1a ncceponannn.

Kypconan pa6o1a pona o1paa1i snanne c1ypen1ox:
Hpanonon ocnoni yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n;
uynpaxen1ainix ncceponannn ho 1exe;
Hy6nxann nepymnx chenanc1on ho 1exe;
jpyion yue6non n nayunon n1epa1ypi ho 1exe.

C1ypen1 poen hoxasa1i yxenne ocymec1nn1i anan1nue-
cxyn oenxy xonehnn pasnunix an1opon n yxeo hpnxenn1i pas-
nie xe1opi anansa qax1nuecxoio xa1epnaa ho 1exe xypconon pa-
6o1i (Hpnoenne 1).
Texy xypconon pa6o1i c1ypen1 ni6npae1 caxoc1on1eino, py-
xonopc1nynci:
1. In1epecox x hpo6exe;
2. Hpax1nuecxnx ohi1ox;
3. osxonoc1in hoyuennn xonxpe1non nnqopxann;
4. joc1yhox x chenainon n1epa1ype n In1epne1-pecypcax.
Mcncdunccxuc qxa-auun nc ncdecncxc xqpccux paccn


359
C1ypen1 xoe1 hpepon1i cnon 1exy xypconon pa6o1i, hox-
nn, u1o ocnonnix 1pe6onannex nnne1cn ee nayunan n hpax1nuecxan
snaunxoc1i n ax1yainoc1i, a 1ax e coo1ne1c1nne chenansann n
nahpanennnx nayuno-nccepona1eicxon pa6o1i nayunoio pyxono-
pn1en, c xo1opix ona o6nsa1eino hpepnapn1eino coiaconinae1cn.

3. Dopspox pao1m c ac1ouaaxaMa a na1epa1ypo

Ia6o1a c nc1ounnxaxn n n1epa1ypon pona naunna1icn eme
n hpoecce ni6opa 1exi. Ona hpno6pe1ae1 nanenmee snauenne ho-
ce coiaconannn hana xypconon pa6o1i.
C1ypen1, xax hpanno, hop6npae1 1pe6yexyn n1epa1ypy caxo-
c1on1eino. Ioi nayunoio pyxonopn1en saxnuae1cn, n ocnonnox, n
pexoxenpannx n cone1ax ho o16opy nc1ounnxon n nnpon hy6nxann.
Hpn pa6o1e c nc1ounnxaxn n hepnyn ouepepi nsyuan1cn saxo-
ni Ioccnncxon uepepann, hoc1anonennn Hpann1eic1na Iu, ppy-
ine nopxa1nnnie ax1i, ocnonohoaianmne nc1ounnxn.
3a1ex nsyuae1cn nayunan n chenainan n1epa1ypa ho hpo-
6exe ncceponannn, nspannan n Ioccnn n sa py6eox. Hpn nanunn
necxoixnx nspannn ho ohpepeennon hpo6exe eecoo6pasno ns-
6pa1i 6oee hospnee nspanne (hpnxepno sa hocepnne 3-4 iopa po
nahncannn xypconon pa6o1i), o1paanmee oxonua1eino conn-
myncn 1ouxy spennn.
3anepmanmen c1apnen nnne1cn osnaxoxenne c oqnnai-
nixn xa1epnaaxn c1a1nc1nxn xax poxyxen1ainon ocnonon anan-
sa n cohoc1anennn pannix ho hpo6exe ncceponannn.
Hnpo1a n hono1a nsyuennn nc1ounnxon n n1epa1ypi, yxe-
nne nipen1i neo6xopnxoe, iannoe, cohoc1anenne n anans pas-
nunix qax1nuecxnx n c1a1nc1nuecxnx pannix, cpannenne pannix,
xapax1epnsynmnx pasnn1ne poccnncxoio n sapy6enoio xenepxen-
1a nanenmnn hoxasa1ei xauec1na ncceponannn c1ypen1a n nani-
xon pa6o1i c n1epa1ypon.

4. Dopspox copa a opao1xa nepaauao aaqopMaqaa

C6op hepnnunon nnqopxann (qax1nuecxoio xa1epnaa) ocyme-
c1nne1cn, xax hpanno, n hpoecce hponsnopc1nennon hpax1nxn n nnn-
e1cn o1ne1c1nennix 1ahox hopio1onxn xypconon pa6o1i. Le xauec1no,
o6:ex1nnnoc1i ninopon no xnoiox 6ype1 sannce1i o1 1oio, nacxoixo
hpannino n hono hopo6pan n hpoanansnponan qax1nuecxnn xa1e-
pna ho 1exe ncceponannn n pen1einoc1n o6:ex1a nsyuennn.
Mcucdcun

360
Toixo nsyuenne xnoinx (hopon hpo1nnopeunnix) qax1on, nx
cohoc1anenne n anans hosnonn1 ninnn1i saxonoxepnoc1n, ocnon-
nie 1enpennn pasnn1nn nccepyexoio nnennn nn o6:ex1a, nx o-
inuecxne nsanxocnnsn, a 1axe xonoxnuecxoe n hpanonoe snauenne
pnnaxnxn pasnn1nn. Hpnnopnxie qax1i n nqponon xa1epna
poni 6i1i poc1onepni.
pa6o1e c1ypen1y neo6xopnxo ninnn1i n nson1i ocnonnie
1enpennn nsyuaexix hpoeccon n nnennn, hopxpehn1i nx nan6o-
ee 1nhnunixn hpnxepaxn n hpax1nuecxnxn pacue1axn, a 1axe
o6ocnona1i hpnxennexie xe1opi ncceponannn n ni6pa1i nan6oee
qqex1nnnie xe1opnxn anansa.
Cnc1exa1nsann, anans n o6pa6o1xa hepnnunon nnqopxann
hpephoaian1 mnpoxoe nchoisonanne n xypconon pa6o1e 1a6n,
pnaipaxx, ipaqnxon, cxex, xo1opie ne 1oixo choco6c1nyn1 nainp-
noc1n hpnnopnxoio na c1pannax pa6o1i xa1epnaa, no n y6epn-
1eino pacxpinan1 cy1i nccepyexix nnennn n hpoeccon.
C6op n o6pa6o1xa hepnnunon nnqopxann (qax1nuecxoio xa-
1epnaa) nnne1cn caxix 1pypoexxnx 1ahox n hopio1onxe xypconon
pa6o1i, ho1oxy 1o1 1ah poen 6i1i hop oco6ix nnnxannex c1y-
pen1a n nayunoio pyxonopn1en.
enx ycxopennn o6pa6o1xn n cnc1exa1nsann hepnnunon
nnqopxann pexoxenpye1cn mnpoxo nchoisona1i pasnunie xe1o-
pi n conpexennie xoxhin1epnie 1exnooinn.

Kypcnnan pa6n1a - nanan coc1annnman yue6noio hpoecca.
Ona hoxasinae1 yxenne c1ypen1a pa6o1a1i caxoc1on1eino, choco6-
c1nye1 6oee yiy6ennoxy nsyuennn opnon ns penn1n ian xenep-
xen1a.

5. Ocaoaame s1anm amnonaeaas xypcoao pao1m:

1. i6op 1exi n oxonua1einoe ee qopxynponanne (cx. Hpno-
enne 1);
2. Hop6op n coc1anenne chncxa nayunon n1epa1ypi, nxnuan
In1epne1pecypci (ne xenee cexn nc1ounnxon);
3. Ohpepeenne c1pyx1ypi xypconon pa6o1i (copepanne, chncox
nchoisonannon n1epa1ypi, nxnuan In1epne1pecypci, nnepenne,
ocnonnan uac1i: o1 2
x
po 5 ian, c pas6nnxon xapon iani na 25 ha-
paipaqon; saxnuenne, hpnoennn).
Mcncdunccxuc qxa-auun nc ncdecncxc xqpccux paccn


361
4. Coiaconanne c nayunix pyxonopn1eex pesyi1a1on niho-
nennn hepnix 1pex 1ahon;
5. C6op neo6xopnxon nayunon nnqopxann, ee o6pa6o1xa, ana-
ns co6pannon n hpom1ypnponannon nnqopxann;
6. Hahncanne nnepennn (ax1yainoc1i 1exi, ee snauenne n conpe-
xennix yconnnx Ioccnn, ei amen pa6o1i, sapaun, o6:ex1 n
hpepxe1 nsyuennn);
7. Hopio1onxa ocnonnon uac1n (ian n hapaipaqon);
8. 3axnuenne qopxynponxa pexoxenpann, ninopon, caxoio
nn1epecnoio ns ncen pa6o1i (12 c1p.) n pnyx hpnoennn, xono n
6oime;
9. Oqopxenne xypconon pa6o1i na xoxhin1epe n coo1ne1c1-
nnn c yc1anonennixn 1pe6onannnxn (hpnxepno 2025 c1p., 14
mpnq1ox, uepes 1,5 xec1pounix nn1epnaa);
10. Hopio1onxa x samn1e (yxenne paccxasa1i caxoe iannoe n
hoxasa1i hpesen1ann (ne xenee 10 canpon), samn1a xypconon
pa6o1i n pnyx nn 6oee hpnoennn x nen:

1. jonoc1nan nnc1pyxnn (na ns6pannyn axn ponoc1i);
2. Caxoxon1poi ameio pa6oueio npexenn, sa1pauennoio na ho-
yuenne snannn n MCI.

Ho eannn c1ypen1a xoiy1 6i1i n ppyine hpnoennn.
Kypconan pa6o1a pona 6i1i sanepmena n hpepc1anena na-
yunoxy pyxonopn1en ho ipaqnxy, no ne hospnee, uex sa 4 nepen po
oxonuannn cexec1pa.
Hpn oqopxennn xypconon pa6o1i cepye1 o6pa1n1i nnnxa-
nne na c1e1nunoc1i. Hasnanne xapon iani n hapaipaqa cepye1
nipen1i 6oee xpyhnix n npnix mpnq1ox nn ppyinx ne1ox,
ne sa6ina1i uame naunna1i a6sa c xpacnon c1poxn. Kapyn iany
napo hnca1i c nonon c1panni, a hapaipaq ne1.
xnua1i n 1exc1 cxexi, ipaqnxn, 1a6ni, o6nsa1eino yxa-
sinan n ccixe, o1xypa sanxc1nonana 1a nn nnan nnqopxann, na-
hpnxep [1,www.gov.ru].
Isaia1i xa1epna cepye1 ncnix, ue1xnx n cnonc1nennix
ax nuno n1epa1ypnix nsixox.
Hecxoixo hoppo6nee paccxo1pnx copepanne xypconon pa-
6o1i.
Mcucdcun

362
6. Copepwaaae xypcoao pao1m

Kypconan pa6o1a pona nxnua1i:
1. Tn1yinin nc1, oqopxennin n coo1ne1c1nnn c yc1anonen-
nixn 1pe6onannnxn (Hpnoenne 2);
2. Oianenne;
3. nepenne;
4. Iaspei (iani) n hoppaspei;
5. 3axnuenne;
6. Chncox nchoisonannix nc1ounnxon n n1epa1ypi;
7. Hpnoennn.

Hpnoennn n o6mnn o6:ex pa6o1i ne nxopn1.
Oianenne nxnuae1 nnepenne, nanxenonannn paspeon (ian),
hoppaspeon, saxnuenne, chncox nc1ounnxon n n1epa1ypi, hpno-
ennn c yxasannex noxepa nx nauainon c1panni (Hpnoenne 3).
o LjLHII:
1. O6ocnoninae1cn ax1yainoc1i ns6pannon 1exi;
2. uopxynpye1cn ei n sapaun xypconon pa6o1i;
3. Ohpepene1cn c1eheni nayunon nonnsni n paspa6o1annoc1n
hpo6exi ncceponannn na pannin xoxen1 npexenn;
4. uopxynpye1cn o6:ex1 n hpepxe1 ncceponannn;
5. Ohpepenn1cn xponooinuecxne ipanni nccepyexon hpo-
6exi;
6. jae1cn xapax1epnc1nxa nnqopxanonnon 6asi;
7. Apiyxen1npye1cn hpnnn1an n pa6o1e xe1opnxa ncceponannn,
anansa, hpoex1nponannn n o6pa6o1xn xa1epnaa;
8. jae1cn o6sop nc1ounnxon n coo1ne1c1nynmen o1euec1nennon n
sapy6enon n1epa1ypi c anansox an1opcxnx xonehnn ho ncce-
pyexon hpo6exe. ( xypconon pa6o1e 1eope1nuecxoio xapax1epa o6-
sop nc1ounnxon n n1epa1ypi xoe1 6i1i nipeen n chenainin
paspe);
9. jae1cn xpa1xan xapax1epnc1nxa c1pyx1ypi xypconon pa6o1i.

nepenne 1o nnsn1nan xap1ouxa, pexaxa xypconon pa6o1i.
O6:ex nnepennn poen coc1ann1i hpnxepno 5-10% o1 o6meio o6:-
exa pa6o1i.
1. Hei ncceponannn 1o xoneunin pesyi1a1 nihonennn
xypconon pa6o1i.
Mcncdunccxuc qxa-auun nc ncdecncxc xqpccux paccn


363
2. 3apaun 1o hy1n (u1o napo cpea1i) pn poc1nennn en nc-
ceponannn.
3. Hpepxe1 ncceponannn 1o 1a hpo6exa (hpoecc), na xo1o-
pyn nahpaneno ncceponanne.
4. O6:ex1 ncceponannn - opiannsann, hpephpnn1ne, o1paci n
1.p., na hpnxepe qynxnonnponannn n pasnn1nn xo1opoio peae1cn
ncceponanne.

COjLIAHIL xypconon pa6o1i (iani, hoppaspei, nx xo-
nuec1no) ohpepene1cn ee 1exon n nahpanennex ncceponannn
(1eope1nuecxan nn hpnxapnan).
I. xypconix pa6o1ax, hpepc1annnmnx 1eope1nuecxoe ncce-
ponanne, xono ohnca1i:
1. Ic1opnn pasnn1nn hpo6exi ncceponannn;
2. Iacxpi1i honn1ne n cymnoc1i nsyuaexoio nnennn;
3. \1ounn1i qopxynponxn;
4. Iaccxo1pe1i cymec1nynmne xe1opnuecxne hopxopi x anansy
pannon hpo6exi n pp.

Iexoxenpye1cn: oc1anonn1icn na 1enpennnx pasnn1nn 1ex nn
nnix hpoeccon; paccxo1pe1i pncxyccnonnie nohpoci ho 1exe nc-
ceponannn n ai1epna1nnnie nsinpi pasnix an1opon. ea1eino
ne hpoc1o hepecxasa1i cymec1nynmne n xonoxnuecxon, npnpnue-
cxon n yhpanenuecxon n1epa1ype 1ouxn spennn, a 1nopuecxn oc-
xicn1i n hpoanansnpona1i nx. pa6o1e cepye1 o6ocnona1i co6c1-
nennyn xonehnn an1opa xypconon pa6o1i n apiyxen1npona1i na-
yunyn, xonoxnuecxyn, conainyn n yhpanenuecxyn ennoc1i
pesyi1a1on ncceponannn.
II. xypconon pa6o1e, nnnnmencn nayuno-o6ocnonannon pas-
pa6o1xon hpnxapnon hpo6exi ncceponannn, cepye1 hpepc1ann1i:
1. Xapax1epnc1nxy o6:ex1a ncceponannn;
2. Hponec1n anans co6pannoio xa1epnaa n paxxax ns6pannon
1exi;
3. O6ocnona1i qqex1nnnoc1i hoyuennix pesyi1a1on;
4. ja1i pexoxenpann ho nx hpax1nuecxoxy hpnxenennn na
pannox o6:ex1e nn n o1pacn.

Kax hpanno, nce copepanne xypconon pa6o1i nxnuae1 pna
xopyn: 1eope1nuecxan uac1i, n xo1opon hoppo6no paccxa1pnnan1cn
1eope1nuecxne achex1i hpo6exi (1eopnn, xe1opi, xe1opnxn, hoxa-
Mcucdcun

364
sa1en, oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n n 1.p.) n hpax1nuecxan uac1i, n xo1o-
pon pae1cn anans hpax1nxn pen1einoc1n xonxpe1noio hpephpn-
n1nn ho pannon hpo6exe ncceponannn.
Konuec1no paspeon (ian) xypconon pa6o1i ohpepene1cn
c1ypen1ox c nayunix pyxonopn1eex c yue1ox ns6pannon 1exi.
Isoenne copepannn pa6o1i pono 6i1i c1poio oinu-
nix. Oco6oe nnnxanne cepye1 o6pa1n1i na oinuecxnn hepexop o1
opnon iani x ppyion.
Kapin paspe (iana) pa6o1i poen saxanunna1icn ninopaxn.
O6:ex copepa1einon uac1n pa6o1i coc1anne1 hpnxepno 70-
80% o6meio o6:exa pa6o1i (hpnxepno 2530% - 1eope1nuecxan
uac1i).
Hpn n1nponannn nc1ounnxon n n1epa1ypi ho 1exc1y pa6o1i
nnnsy c1panni peae1cn hopc1pounan ccixa (c yxasannex an1opa,
nasnannn, iopopa, nspa1eic1na, iopa nspannn n noxepa c1panni
n1a1i).

3AKHBLHIL hopnopn1 n1oi pemennn 1ex sapau, xo1opie
6in hoc1aneni n xypconon pa6o1e. nex cepye1 cqopxynpona1i:
1. inopi;
2. Hpnnec1n pannie o6 xonoxnuecxon qqex1nnnoc1n o1 nne-
ppennn pexoxenpann nn o nayunon ennoc1n pemaexix hpo6ex;
3. \xasa1i hepchex1nni painenmen paspa6o1xn 1exi.

O6:ex saxnuennn coc1anne1 hpnxepno 5-10% o1 o6meio o6:-
exa pa6o1i.

CHICOK ICHOHI3OAHHIX ICTOHIKO I HITLIA-
T\II nxnuae1 nc1ounnxn n n1epa1ypy, xo1opixn hoisonacn
an1op hpn nsyuennn 1exi n nahncannn xypconon pa6o1i.
Chncox nxee1 cepynmyn c1pyx1ypy c o6nsa1einix saioon-
xox pn xapoio paspea.
1. Ic1ounnxn
jen1cn na pna hoppaspea: ohy6nxonannie n neohy6nxo-
nannie.
1.1. Ohy6nxonannie nc1ounnxn
coc1an ohy6nxonannix nc1ounnxon xoiy1 6i1i nxnueni
saxonopa1einie n nopxa1nnnie poxyxen1i Iu. 1n poxyxen1i
poni cnc1exa1nsnpona1icn ho snaunxoc1n, a nny1pn xapon ni-
peennon ipyhhi poxyxen1on ho xponooinn.
Mcncdunccxuc qxa-auun nc ncdecncxc xqpccux paccn


365
Hopxa1nnno-xe1opnuecxne poxyxen1i:
1. C1anpap1i;
2. Me1opnuecxne pexoxenpann;
3. \xasannn;
4. Hpanna;
5. Inc1pyxnn n 1.p.

pachoaian1cn n hpepeax xapon ipyhhi poxyxen1on ho xponoo-
inn. Hy6nxann poxyxen1on pachoaian1cn ho aqann1y nx nasna-
nnn. Ic1ounnxn n n1epa1ypa na nnoc1pannix nsixax yxasinan1cn
na nsixe opninnaa n hpnnopn1cn n xapox paspee (hoppaspee)
chncxa hoce xnpnnuecxoio aqann1noio pnpa. ex1ponnie pe-
cypci (nahpnxep, CD-ROMi, c1a1in ns ex1ponnix ypnaon,
ex1ponnie xnnin) hoxeman1cn n coo1ne1c1nynmnn paspe chncxa
n epnnox aqann1nox pnpy. Hasnannn can1on c appecaxn pecypcon
In1epne1a nipenn1cn n o1peinin chncox. Cnepennn pn ohncannn
ex1ponnix nspannn 6epy1cn c poxamnen c1panni can1a nn c
1n1yinoio xpana.

1.2. Heohy6nxonannie nc1ounnxn

coc1an neohy6nxonannix nc1ounnxon nxnuan1cn:
1. \c1an hpephpnn1nn;
2. \upepn1einie poxyxen1i;
3. 5yxia1epcxan o1ue1noc1i n hpouee (ho aqann1y nasnannn).

hoppaspe xoiy1 6i1i nxnueni o1ue1i o HII (ho iopax ns-
pannn), neohy6nxonannie hepenopi (ho aqann1y qaxnnn an1o-
pon nn nasnannn), a 1axe apxnnnie poxyxen1i (ho aqann1y na-
snannn apxnnon c yxasannex noxepon n nasnannn qonpon, noxepon
ohncen n pe).

2. Hn1epa1ypa

Monoipaqnn, c1a1in, peensnn, an1opeqepa1i, ex1ponnie
pecypci pachoaian1cn n aqann1e uIO an1opon nn saiannn.
ohncannn c1a1en o6nsa1eino yxasinan1cn uIO an1opon, nasnanne
c1a1in, nasnanne ypnaa nn c6opnnxa, ipe onn ohy6nxonani, iop,
noxep n c1panni, n ppyinx hosnnnx n1epa1ypi yxasinae1cn 1ax-
e o6mee xonuec1no c1pann n hy6nxann.
Mcucdcun

366
3. Chpanounie n nnqopxanonnie nspannn

nnxohepnn c yxasannex c1a1en, conapn, hy1enopn1en,
chpanounnxn n 1.h. ho aqann1y n co ncexn neo6xopnxixn pexnn-
sn1axn.
Chncox nchoisonannon n1epa1ypi poen 6i1i coc1anen n
aqann1nox hopnpxe n 1ax, xax snaun1cn 1o1 nc1ounnx na n1opon
c1panne n6on xnnin. Heo6xopnxo nchoisona1i hepnopnuecxyn
n1epa1ypy: iase1i n ypnai, nahpnxep:
1. Menepxen1 n Ioccnn n sa py6eox.
2. Hon1nuecxne ncceponannn.
3. Hpo6exi 1eopnn n hpax1nxn yhpanennn.
4. eonex n 1pyp.
5. \hpanenne hepconaox.
6. xonoxnc1.
7. xchep1.

Hpn sa1pypnennnx n nahncannn n oqopxennn xypconon pa-
6o1i c1ypen1 xoe1 o6pama1icn x nayunoxy pyxonopn1en sa xon-
cyi1anen. Opnaxo nayunin pyxonopn1ei ne nnne1cn nn coan1o-
pox, nn pepax1opox xypconon pa6o1i. On xoe1 o6pa1n1i ame
nnnxanne na nepoc1a1xn, u1o1o hocone1ona1i, no pemenne ho nx ni-
honennn oc1ae1cn sa an1opox c1ypen1ox!
Kypconan pa6o1a, ne ypone1nopnnman 1pe6onannnx, nosnpa-
mae1cn c1ypen1y na popa6o1xy n ne pohycxae1cn x samn1e.
Opo6pennan nayunix pyxonopn1eex xypconan pa6o1a samn-
mae1cn c1poio n yc1anonennin cpox.
o npexn samn1i c1ypen1 pexonc1pnpye1 hpesen1ann (n qopxa-
1e PowerPoint; saioonox canpa ne 6oee 5 con; mpnq1 20 n 6oee;
o6nsa1eini pncynxn, cxexi, nosxoni 1a6ni, na xo1opix mpnq1
ne xenee 12;) cnoen xypconon pa6o1i, xoxxen1npye1 1o, u1o on cun1ae1
neo6xopnxix, o1neuae1 na nohpoci nayunoio pyxonopn1en n n6oio,
eanmeio sapa1i nohpoc, ns hpncy1c1nynmnx na samn1e.
Ho hpesen1ann n o1ne1ax na nohpoci nayunin pyxonopn1ei
oennnae1 snanne, yxenne, nanixn hy6nuno nic1yha1i n apiyxen-
1nponano o1c1anna1i cnon 1ouxy spennn. Oenxa hpoc1anne1cn n x-
saxenanonnyn nepoxoc1i, saue1nyn xnnxy n hpn ychemnox oxon-
uannn ynnnepcn1e1a (MCI) nnocn1cn no nxapim pnhoxa o6
oxonuannn \3a.
|pu:ccuuc


367
Dpanoweaae 1

TeMa1axa xypcoamx pao1, peqepa1oa ana scce
no pacqannaae MeaepwMea1

1. nonnn xonehnn xenepxen1a.
2. Ic1opnn pasnn1nn hpax1nuecxoio xenepxen1a.
3. Oco6ennoc1n poccnncxoio xenepxen1a.
4. Cymnoc1i nonon yhpanenuecxon hapapnixi n xnpe n n Ioccnn.
5. 3nauenne xenepxen1a xax nnpa hpax1nuecxon pen1einoc1n.
6. Tenpennn nxnuecxoio pasnn1nn opiannsann na xonxpe1-
nox hpnxepe.
7. C1pa1einuecxoe yhpanenne opiannsanen.
8. uopxnponanne n qynxnonnponanne qopxainix n ne-
qopxainix ipyhh n opiannsann xax pnnaxnunin hpoecc n xe-
ipyhhonoe nsanxopenc1nne na xonxpe1nox hpnxepe.
9. uynxnn xenepxen1a, nx nsanxocnnsi n pnnaxnsx.
10. C1pa1einuecxoe hannponanne xax yconne ninnannn n ycn-
ennn xonxypen1nix hosnnn opiannsann na pinxe na xonxpe1-
nox hpnxepe.
11. npi opiannsanonnix c1pyx1yp yhpanennn n hpnnnhi
hpoex1nponannn c1pyx1ypi yhpanennn opiannsanen na xonxpe1-
nox hpnxepe.
12. jeeinponanne honoxounn n o1ne1c1nennoc1i.
13. Copepa1einie 1eopnn xo1nnann n nx o1nune o1 hpoec-
cyainix.
14. Han6oee npxne hpepc1ann1en 1eopnn xo1nnann n anans
nx 1pypon.
15. Kon1poi xax qynxnn xenepxen1a n eio qqex1nnnoc1i.
16. Tenpennn hpnxenennn pasnunix xe1opon xenepxen1a.
17. xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne xe1opi n xapxe1nnie n xe-
nepxen1e 1opionix opiannsann.
18. Conepmenc1nonanne opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einix xe-
1opon xenepxen1a.
19. Hpo6exi hpnxenennn conainohcnxooinuecxnx xe1opon
xenepxen1a na xonxpe1nox hpnxepe.
20. Hpnnn1ne pemennn xax nanenman uac1i n6on yhpanen-
uecxon pen1einoc1n na xonxpe1nox hpnxepe.
21. Tpe6onannn x pemennnx n nx cnc1exa1nxa.
Mcucdcun

368
22. Iaspa6o1xa yhpanenuecxoio pemennn c hpnxenennex
1eopnn hpoex1nponannn xchepnxen1on.
23. Teopnn n xe1opi hpnnn1nn pemennn.
24. Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n pemennn.
25. Conainan n xonoxnuecxan qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanenue-
cxnx pemennn na xonxpe1nox hpnxepe.
26. Hpnnnhi yhpanennn hepconaox opiannsann.
27. Oco6ennoc1n hop6opa n oenxn hpoqeccnonainon hpniop-
noc1n chenanc1onxapxe1ooion na xonxpe1nox hpnxepe.
28. Hpnnnhi hpoex1nponannn oh1nxainix cnc1ex xo1nnann
1pypa chenanc1onxapxe1ooion na xonxpe1nox hpnxepe.
29. Mopei xenepepa 1opionon opiannsann.
30. Kpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne conpexennoio xapxe1ooia na xon-
xpe1nox hpnxepe.
31. uopxi nac1n n nnnnne.
32. Hnunoc1nie n opiannsanonnie nc1ounnxn nac1n.
33. Ocnonnie 1eopnn npepc1na n hpax1nuecxne nanixn xenepepa.
34. Caxoxenepxen1.
35. Opiannuecxne qynxnn pyxonopn1en.
36. Apah1ann c1nen pyxonopc1na x peonix cn1yannx na xon-
xpe1nox hpnxepe.
37. Ocnoni xonehnn xonqnx1a n yhpanenne xonqnx1non
cn1yanen na xonxpe1nox hpnxepe.
38. Hpnunni xonqnx1on n nx poi n yhpanennn opiannsanen.
39. Hpoeccyainie xapax1epnc1nxn xonqnx1a.
40. Hpnpopa n xaccnqnxann c1peccon.
41. \hpanenne c1peccaxn: qqex1i n hapapoxci na xonxpe1nox
hpnxepe.
42. Cymnoc1i yhpanennn nsxenennnxn n opiannsann.
43. Coxpanenne xonxypen1ochoco6noc1n yumnxn opiannsa-
nnxn n pesyi1a1e qqex1nnnoio yhpanennn nsxenennnxn na xon-
xpe1nox hpnxepe.
44. Conainan qqex1nnnoc1i yhpanennn opiannsanen na
xonxpe1nox hpnxepe.
45. Hoxasa1en qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn n hopxopi x nx oh-
pepeennn.
46. ac1nie xe1opnxn ohpepeennn qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn.
47. Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn opiannsanen.
48. Conpexennin xenepep n eio xpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne.
49. In1epne1-nnxy6a1op xax nonan pn Ioccnn qopxa opiannsann.
50. \hpanenne xophopanen n yconnnx poxnnnponannn nncanpepon.
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369
Dpanoweaae 2

O6pase oqopxennn
1n1yinoio nc1a

MHHHCTEPCTBO OBPA3OBAHH2 H HAjKH POCCHHCKOH
uEEPAHHH
uEEPAHBHOE AIEHTCBO HO OBPA3OBAHHK
MOCKOCKII IOC\jAICTLHHII \HILICITLT KOHO-
MIKI, CTATICTIKI I IHuOIMATIKI


HHCTHTjT KOHOMHKH H uHHAHCOB

Kaqeppa o6meio xenepxen1a n c1a1nc1nxn qnpx



K\ICOA2 IA5OTA
nn pncnnnnnnc Mcncpxmcn1 na 1cmy N 48:
KILATIHOL O5IA3OAHIL COILMLHHOIO MLHLjLIA







Hcnnnnn1cnn:
nnwnan nnpnncn
C1ypcn1 rpynnm u-201 _________2007r.
3axnrnn Bacnnnn
Ccprccnnw


nnwnan nnpnncn
Haywnmn pynnnpn1cnn
anpnpa1 annnmnwccnx
nay, pnncn1 _________2007r.
Iyccna
Encna Hc1pnnna



Mncna 2007

Mcucdcun

370
Dpanoweaae 3

O6pase oqopxennn oianennn
xypconon pa6o1i ho 1exe 48
Kpea1nnnoe o6pasonanne
conpexennoio xenepepa


Ornanncnnc

nepenne.................................................................................................... 3

Inana 1. Cnpcpxannc n ncn6cnnnc1n pca1nnnnrn n6paannannn 4
1.1. 3nauenne xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn xenepepa n Ioccnn..... 4
1.2. Oco6ennoc1n poccnncxoio xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn............. 6

Inana 2. O1nnwn1cnnnmc npnanan pca1nnnnrn n6paannannn 9
2.1. Cnc1exnoe hoc1poenne o6pasona1einoio hpoecca ............... 9

2.2 Texnooinn o6pasona1einoio hpoecca ..................................... 12
2.3 Me1opi hoyuennn snannn 6ypymnx xenepepox................. 14

2.4 joc1a1ounan qynpaxen1ainan hopio1onxa. xenepepa........ 15

2.5 Heo6xopnxoc1i xpea1nnnoio o6pasonannn xenepepa............ 16

Inana 3. unpmynm n6paannannn n pca1nnnmc pnnn
n npnqcccnnnannnnn pcn1cnnnnc1n mcncpxcpa .......................... 22

3.1 uopxyi o6pasonannn conpexennoio xenepepa .................... 22
3.2 Kpea1nnnie pon n hpoqeccnonainon
pen1einoc1n xenepepa....................................................................... 23

3axnuenne .............................................................................................. 24

Chncox nchoisonannix nc1ounnxon n n1epa1ypi...................... 25

Hpnoenne............................................................................................. 27

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Kpa1xae Me1opauecxae pexoMeapaqaa
no amnonaeaam xoa1ponbao pao1m

Knn1pnnnnan pa6n1a nihonne1cn c ein hponepxn snannn,
yxennn n nanixon c1ypen1a ho xenepxen1y. Ona nxnuae1 pna 1eo-
pe1nuecxnx nohpoca n pna nohpoca 1ec1a ns pasnix 1ex xypca. O1ne1i
na 1eope1nuecxne nohpoci poni hoxasa1i, xax iy6oxo snae1 c1y-
pen1 cymnoc1i xonxpe1non 1exi, choco6en n on ncno, ue1xo, nepno
n xopo1xo qopxynpona1i cnon snannn n nanixn.
1. Haunna1i nihonenne xon1poinon pa6o1i neo6xopnxo c
nsyuennn yue6no-hpax1nuecxoio hoco6nn ho xenepxen1y, hpepe
nceio, \ue6noio hoco6nn, a 1axe In1epne1pecypcon ho xonxpe1-
nix 1exax.
2. O1ne1i na 1eope1nuecxne nohpoci poni 6i1i xonxpe1ni, ne
nixopn1i sa paxxn 1exi, copepa1i neo6xopnxie cxexi, ipaqnxn,
nqponyn nnqopxann c o6nsa1einixn ccixaxn na nchoiso-
nannyn n1epa1ypy.
3. Hpanninie, ho amexy xnennn, o1ne1i na nohpoci 1ec1a
cepye1 nipen1i npnix mpnq1ox. Lcn i cun1ae1e nynix,
xono cpea1i honcnenne, 1o ec1i apiyxen1npona1i am o1ne1.
4. Cospae1cn xon1poinan pa6o1a na 1on e pncxe1e, u1o n xypco-
nan pa6o1a. O6nsa1eino c nonon c1panni:

1 c1pouxa. Hasnanne pncnhnni n napnan1 N.
2 c1pouxa. ohpoc 1. i hepenocn1e eio qopxynponxy n 1y1 e
o1neuae1e na neio, yxasinan hepnonc1ounnxn.

Hoce oxonuannn o1ne1a na hepnin nohpoc qopxynpye1e o-
hpoc 2 n o1neuae1e na neio, yxasan hepnonc1ounnxn. Ho1ox o1neuae1e
na nohpoci 1ec1a, hepehncinan nx n ai1epna1nnnie napnan1i, ni-
penn nepnin o1ne1 npnix mpnq1ox.

Hocepnnn c1pouxa pa1a, uIO n N ipyhhi.

5. Io1onyn xon1poinyn pa6o1y 1oixo na pncxe1e cpae1e hpeho-
pana1en na hponepxy coiacno ipaqnxy. Hoce opo6pennn hpehopa-
na1eex samnmae1e ee nxec1e c xypconon pa6o1on.
Mcucdcun

372
Dpoaepeaae a1oroaoro xoa1pons

Bapnan1m nn1pnnnnnn pa6n1m

Bapnan1 1

1. Bnnpnc. Oxapax1epnsyn1e ocnonnie mxoi xenepxen1a.
2. Bnnpnc. jan1e pna ohpepeennn nac1n, nahpnxep, M. Mec-
xona n j. K. I6pn1a.
3. Tcc1. Koxxepuecxne opiannsann 1o:
a) ho1pe6n1eicxne xoohepa1nni;
6) ynn1apnie hpephpnn1nn;
n) acconann;
i) qonpi.

4. Tcc1. Iemenne n xenepxen1e 1o:
a) ni6op ai1epna1nni;
6) xonen1pnponannoe nipaenne hpoecca yhpanennn;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

Bapnan1 2

1. Bnnpnc. Iacxpon1e copepanne 1pex xopeen poccnncxoio
xenepxen1a.
2. Bnnpnc. Kaxne qopxi nac1n ni snae1e? uex cy1i xapon?
3. Tcc1. An1opox xnnin Hpnnnhi nayunoio yhpanennn
6i:
a) A. Cxn1;
6) j. Inxappo;
n) u. Tenop;
i) u. Xepoypn.

4. Tcc1. O6o6manmnxn hoxasa1enxn xonoxnuecxon q-
qex1nnnoc1n n mnpoxox cxice xoiy1 6i1i:
a) c1eheni nihonennn saxason ho1pe6n1een;
6) pon o6:exa hpopa opiannsann na pinxe;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.
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373
Bapnan1 3

1. Bnnpnc. Cxoixo nsnennix nxon pasnn1nn opiannsann
nipenn1 n conpexennon n1epa1ype ho xenepxen1y? Hepeuncn1e
1nhi opiannsann.
2. Bnnpnc. Kaxyn poi nipae1 xapnsxa n u1o 1o 1axoe?

3. Tcc1. 3axonoxepnoc1i honnennn n Ioccnn 1epxnna xe-
nepxen1 chenanc1i cnnsinan1 c:
a) peqopxnponannex namen xonoxnxn;
6) nxopennex Ioccnn n sony c1pan pasnn1on pinounon xo-
noxnxn;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

4. Tcc1. O6o6manmnxn hoxasa1enxn conainon qqex-
1nnnoc1n n ysxox cxice nnnn1cn:
a) pon pemennn, hpnnn1ix ho hpepoennn pa6o1nnxon op-
iannsann;
6) uncennoc1i co1pypnnxon, hpnneuennix x paspa6o1xe
yhpanenuecxoio pemennn;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

Bapnan1 4

1. Bnnpnc. Kax nasinae1cn hepnin 1ah nsnennoio nxa
opiannsann? 1o on xapax1epnsye1?
2. Bnnpnc. jan1e ohpepeenne honn1nn caxoxenepxen1.
3. Tcc1. Iannix hpopoa1eex, pasnnnmnx npen ocnona1en
mxoi nayunoio xenepxen1a, cun1an1:
a) u. Tenopa;
6) A. uanon;
n) . Mno;
i) M. Mecxona.

4. Tcc1. Oco6oe snauenne hpn oenxe qqex1nnnoc1n yhpane-
nnn hpnpae1cn:
a) ncxnuennn neonpannoc1en;
6) ninnennn saxonoxepnoc1en;
Mcucdcun

374
n) honcxy yconnoc1en;
i) nsanxocnnsn hoxasa1een.

Bapnan1 5

1. Bnnpnc. 1o xapax1epnsye1 1nh opiannsann, naxopn-
mencn xepy xchepen1ox n nnoen1ox?
2. Bnnpnc. Oxapax1epnsyn1e ocnonnie hpnnnhi caxoxe-
nepxen1a.
3. Tcc1. Cymec1nennix qax1opox honimennn pesyi1a-
1nnnoc1n poccnncxoio xenepxen1a nnne1cn:
a) hpnpoc1 nanenmnx 1exnnxoxonoxnuecxnx hoxasa1een;
6) ypnoenne H na pymy naceennn x 2010 iopy ho cpannennn
c 2002 i.;
n) xonoxnuecxoe nospopenne Ioccnn;
i) chenansann yhpanennn.

4. Tcc1. Oenxa qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn hponsnopn1cn n:
a) a6con1nox nsxepennn;
6) o1nocn1einox nsxepennn;
n) poapax.
i) enpo.

Bapnan1 6

1. Bnnpnc. Hasonn1e hn1i xe1ahnix hpoeccon hepexopa op-
iannsann ns opnoio coc1onnnn n ppyioe. jan1e xapax1epnc1nxy xa-
poxy.
2. Bnnpnc. 1o 1axoe xonqnx1?
3. Tcc1. Cxoixo % naxohennoio 6oia1c1na, paccun1annoio n
xnponox xacm1a6e, coc1anne1 ueoneuecxnn ho1enna ho oenxax
chenanc1on, sannxanmnxcn hpo6exaxn ncuncennn nanonai-
noio 6oia1c1na?
a) 47%;
6) 57%;
n) 67%;
i) 77%.

4. Tcc1. xenepxen1e hpnnn1ne pemennn 1o:
a) cnc1exa1nsnponannin hpoecc;
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375
6) yxenne, pasnnnaexoe o6yuennex n ohi1ox;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

Bapnan1 7

1. Bnnpnc. jan1e xaccnqnxann ipyhh opiannsann. Kaxne
qax1opi (xnnnxyx nocexi) oxasinan1 nospenc1nne na pesyi1a1nn-
noc1i nx pen1einoc1n?
2. Bnnpnc. Iaccxan1e o6 nonnn 1eopnn n hpax1nuecxnx
hopxopon n nsinpon na xonqnx1.
3. Tcc1. An1opox y1neppennn: Kpn1epnex nc1nni nnne1cn
ohi1 cun1ae1cn:
a) A6yiuapap 5ap 6pen cnpnncxnn xicn1ei;
6) Apnc1o1ei ppenneipeuecxnn xicn1ei;
n) Konqynn xn1ancxnn xicn1ei;
i) Toxxaso Kaxhanea n1ainncxnn xicn1ei.

4. Tcc1. Ohpepeenne xnccnn opiannsann cnnsano c qynxnen
xenepxen1a:
a) hannponanne;
6) opiannsann;
n) xo1nnann;
i) xon1poi.

Bapnan1 8

1. Bnnpnc. Oxapax1epnsyn1e xapxe1nnionin, qynxnonai-
nin n nochponsnopc1nennononnonnin hopxopi hpn hannpo-
nannn.
2. Bnnpnc. 1o 1axoe yhpanenne xonqnx1ox n opiannsann?
3. Tcc1. jo6ponoinoe o6:epnnenne ipapan pn conxec1non
pen1einoc1n, ocnonannon na nx nunox 1pyponox n nnox yuac1nn n
o6:epnnennn eio uenaxn nxymec1nennix haenix nsnocon, nosxo-
no yuac1ne n npnpnuecxnx n 1o:
a) honie 1onapnmec1na;
6) 1onapnmec1na na nepe;
n) axnonepnie o6mec1na;
i) hponsnopc1nennie xoohepa1nni.
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376
4. Tcc1. Tepxnn sahpoipaxxnponannie pemennn sanxc1no-
nan ns nsixa:
a) xocxonan1on;
6) hpoinosnc1on;
n) npnc1on;
i) xoxhin1epnix 1exnooinn.

Bapnan1 9

1. Bnnpnc. 1o 1axoe peeinponanne honoxounn n houexy ono
neo6xopnxo?
2. Bnnpnc. Ison1e nn napncyn1e cxexy hopxopon x nsyue-
nnn xonqnx1on n poccnncxox xenepxen1e.
3. Tcc1. Koxxepuecxne opiannsann 1o:
a) ho1pe6n1eicxne xoohepa1nni;
6) ynn1apnie hpephpnn1nn;
n) acconann;
i) qonpi.

4. Tcc1. 3ahpoipaxxnponannie pemennn nnnn1cn xpn1epnex:
a) copepannn;
6) hpopon1einoc1n penc1nnn;
n) c1pyx1ypnponannoc1n;
i) nahpanennoc1n.

Bapnan1 10

1. Bnnpnc. jan1e ohpepeenne honn1nn xo1nnann.
2. Bnnpnc. Kaxne o1nun1einie xapax1epnc1nxn nxee1 xo-
pei xonqnx1a xax hpoecca?
3. Tcc1. uononoe oxpyenne opiannsann 1o:
a) xonxypen1i;
6) hoc1anmnxn;
n) ho1pe6n1en;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

4. Tcc1. Ho copepannn caxixn conixn n 6oimnnc1ne
cyuaen nnnn1cn pemennn:
a) xonoxnuecxne;
6) conainie;
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377
n) opiannsanonnie;
i) nnnonanonnie.

Bapnan1 11

1. Bnnpnc. Is xaxnx 1ahon coc1on1 hpoepypa xon1pon xax
qynxnn xenepxen1a?
2. Bnnpnc. Iaccxan1e o6 ocnonnix qasax, 1ahax n c1apnnx
pnnaxnxn xonqnx1a.
3. Tcc1. Opiannsann xoe1 oxasina1i nehocpepc1nennoe nos-
penc1nne na oxpyenne:
a) qononoe;
6) peonoe;
n) nepno (a n 6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

4. Tcc1. xonoxnuecxne pemennn 1ecno nsanxocnnsani, hpepe
nceio, c pemennnxn:
a) nnnonanonnixn;
6) 1exnooinuecxnxn;
n) opiannsanonnixn;
i) conainixn.

Bapnan1 12

1. Bnnpnc. Iaccxan1e o nanenmnx oco6ennoc1nx xono-
xnxoc1a1nc1nuecxnx xe1opon xenepxen1a.
2. Bnnpnc. Kaxne cymec1nyn1 ipanni xonqnx1a n u1o onn
co6on hpepc1annn1?
3. Tcc1. Tnh opiannsann, naxopnmnncn na hnxe hop:exa, ho-
yun nasnanne:
a) xchepen1;
6) ha1nen1;
n) nnoen1;
i) xoxxy1an1.

4. Tcc1. Opiannsanonnie pemennn 1ecno nsanxocnnsani,
hpepe nceio, c pemennnxn:
a) nnnonanonnixn;
6) 1exnooinuecxnxn;
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378
n) xonoxnuecxnxn;
i) conainixn.

Bapnan1 13

1. Bnnpnc. Oxapax1epnsyn1e hn1i son o6pasa qopxynpa io-
cypapc1nennoio c1a1nc1nuecxoio na6npennn, y1neppennoio hoc1a-
nonennex Iocxoxc1a1a Ioccnn N 55.
2. Bnnpnc. 1o hpepc1anne1 co6on qace1nan xaccnqnxann
xonqnx1on?
3. Tcc1. Hn1in 1ah nsnennoio nxa opiannsann, o1n-
uanmnncn ee pec1pyx1ypnsanen, nasinae1cn:
a) ha1nen1nin;
6) nnoen1nin;
n) xoxxy1an1nin;
i) e1aen1nin.

4. Tcc1. Kaccnqnxann pemennn na opno n xnoioyponnenie
o1nocn1cn x:
a) uncy een;
6) hpopon1einoc1n penc1nnn;
n) yponnn hpnnn1nn pemennn;
i) iy6nne nospenc1nnn.

Bapnan1 14

1. Bnnpnc. Kaxne ocnonnie hoxasa1en xapax1epnsyn1 1onapoo6o-
po1 posnnunon 1opionn?
2. Bnnpnc. Hasonn1e choco6i ypeiynponannn xonqnx1a n
honcnn1e nx cy1i.
3. Tcc1. Tepxnn c1pa1einn osnauae1 coc1annyn uac1i noenno-
io ncxycc1na, hpepc1annnmyn ee nicmyn o6ac1i n hepenope c:
a) a1inn;
6) ipeuecxoio;
n) aninncxoio;
i) nexexoio.

4. Tcc1. Hepnix 1ahox pemennn conon hpo6exi cun1ae1cn:
a) c6op peenan1non nnqopxann;
6) pnainoc1nxa hpo6exi;
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379
n) coc1anenne chncxa ncex ai1epna1nn;
i) ninnenne ai1epna1nn.

Bapnan1 15

1. Bnnpnc. Koipa n ipe sapopnnci opiannsanonno
pachopnpn1einie xe1opi xenepxen1a?
2. Bnnpnc. uex saxnuae1cn ocnonnan ei yhpanennn xon-
qnx1axn?
3. Tcc1. Hpepxe1ox c1pa1einuecxoio yhpanennn ne nnne1cn peme-
nne hpo6ex, cnnsannix c:
a) ienepainixn enxn opiannsann, opnen1nponannixn na
6ypymee honimenne qqex1nnnoc1n ee pen1einoc1n;
6) hpno6pe1ennex nonoio pn opiannsann 1exnooinuecxoio
o6opyponannn, hpniamennex 6oee xnanqnnponannix chena-
nc1on n 1.h.;
n) nexon1ponpyexixn nnemnnxn qax1opaxn, iannix
o6pasox, qononoio oxpyennn;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

4. Tcc1. Ieenan1nan nnqopxann pn hpnnn1nn pemennn 1o
nnqopxann:
a) neyxec1nan;
6) Kaccanppi;
n) o16npaexan hop xonxpe1nyn sapauy;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

Bapnan1 16

1. Bnnpnc. Ison1e 1pn 1aha nayunoio xe1opa n xenepxen-
1e, honcnn1e nx cymnoc1i.
2. Bnnpnc. Hasonn1e ue1ipe c1pyx1ypnix xe1opa paspemennn
xonqnx1on.
3. Tcc1. Ipyhhi n opiannsann xaccnqnnpyn1cn na:
a) qopxainie;
6) neqopxainie;
n) nepno (a n 6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.
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380
4. Tcc1. Iemennn, ncxnuanmne caxoc1on1einoc1i n hono-
c1in nahpannnmne pen1einoc1i hopunnennix, nasinan1cn:
a) peiaxen1npynmne;
6) opnen1npynmne;
n) pexoxenpynmne;
i) nepno (a+6).

Bapnan1 17

1. Bnnpnc. Kaxne o6mne hpo6exi nepepxo nosnnxan1 hpn
xopenponannn?
2. Bnnpnc. Oxapax1epnsyn1e hn1i ocnonnix xenunoc1nix
c1nen paspemennn xonqnx1on.
3. Tcc1. Hpenxymec1na nanunn neqopxainix ipyhh n opia-
nnsann 1o:
a) o6eiuenne naipysxn na xenepxen1;
6) yyumenne xoxxynnxann;
n) cnnenne xonqnx1noc1n;
i) nepno (a+6+n);
p) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

4. Tcc1. Me1opi, hoc1poennie na oinuecxnx cypennnx, ho-
cepona1einix poxasa1eic1nax, ohnpanmnxcn na hpax1nuecxnn
ohi1, n poccnncxon nayunon n1epa1ype hoyunn nasnanne:
a) nn1yn1nnnix xe1opon;
6) xe1opon sppanoio cxica;
n) xe1opon nayuno1exnnuecxoio hopxopa;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

Bapnan1 18

1. Bnnpnc. Iaccxan1e o xaccnqnxann ocnonnix conaino
hcnxooinuecxnx xe1opon xenepxen1a.
2. Bnnpnc. Ison1e nn napncyn1e cxexy hocepona1einoc1n
xe1opnxn yhpanennn xonqnx1ox uepes pemenne hpo6exi.
3. Tcc1. 1o6i yc1pann1i neia1nnnoe n ycnn1i hosn1nnnoe
nnnnne neqopxainix ipyhh, pyxonopc1ny ne eecoo6pasno:
a) hpnsna1i nx cymec1nonanne;
6) yun1ina1i xnenne neqopxainix npepon n uenon ipyhhi;
n) hpnnexa1i neqopxainie ipyhhi x paspa6o1xe n hpnnn-
1nn pemennn;
|pccdcuuc unceccec xcunpc:n


381
i) nepno (a+6+n);
p) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

4. Tcc1. jn yiy6ennon oenxn qqex1nnnoc1n hpnnn1ix
pemennn xono nchoisona1i xe1opi ocnonnoio xaccnna, xoxen1on,
nanxenimnx xnappa1on, xo1opie nasinan1cn:
a) xonoxnxoc1a1nc1nuecxne;
6) opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einie;
n) conainohcnxooinuecxne;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

Bapnan1 19

1. Bnnpnc. ex hcnxoanans o1nuae1cn o1 xhnpnuecxnx xe1opon
ncceponannn hpo6exi?
2. Bnnpnc. uex coc1on1 oco6ennoc1n yhpanennn xonqnx1axn?
3. Tcc1. Teopnn n hpax1nxa xenepxen1a hpepaian1 cepynmne
nnpi qopxainix ipyhh:
a) pa6ouan (eenan);
6) pyxonopnman (xoxanpnan);
n) xoxn1e1 (xoxnccnn nn cone1);
i) nepno (a+6+n);
p) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

4. Tcc1. Honn1ne nac1n ne xoe1 o1nocn1icn x:
a) nnpnnnpy;
6) ipyhhe;
n) opiannsann;
i) nepno (a+6+n);
p) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

Bapnan1 20

1. Bnnpnc. Kaxne nsnenno nanie pemennn xoiy1 6i1i
hpn nihonennn qynxnn opiannsann?
2. Bnnpnc. 1o i snae1e o6 ananse honepennn xonqnx1yn-
mnx c1opon n hocpepnnxa?
3. Tcc1. uopxainie ipyhhi ncex nnpon ne xoiy1 cospana1icn n
cepynmnx opiannsannx:
a) hpann1eic1nennix;
Mcucdcun

382
6) peninosnix;
n) xoxxepuecxnx;
i) nepno (a+6+n);
p) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

4. Tcc1. Ohpepeenne nac1n xax opiannsanonnoio hpoecca
ne hoppasyxenae1, u1o:
a) nac1i 1o ho1enna, nxenmnncn y ee hoisona1en;
6) xepy 1ex, x1o nchoisye1 nac1i n 1ex, xoxy ona hpnxenn-
e1cn, cymec1nye1 nsanxocnnsi;
n) 1o1, x xoxy hpnxennn1 nac1i, nxee1 ohpepeennyn cno6opy
penc1nnn;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

Bapnan1 21

1. Bnnpnc. Hpnnepn1e xo1n 6i 1pn hpnxepa hpnnn1nn peme-
nnn hpn xo1nnann.
2. Bnnpnc. Ohnmn1e honepenuecxne xapax1epnc1nxn hn1n 1nhon
xonqnx1non nunoc1n.
3. Tcc1. \hpanenuecxnx o6ceponannex opiannsann nasi-
nae1cn:
a) c1pa1einuecxoe hannponanne;
6) hpoecc pnainoc1nxn nny1pennnx hpo6ex;
n) hpoecc pnainoc1nxn nnemnnx hpo6ex;
i) nepno (6+n).

4. Tcc1. j. upenu, 5. Innen, K. Xenc nipenn1 cepynmee
unco qopx nac1n:
a) 4;
6) 5;
n) 6;
i) 7.

Bapnan1 22

1. Bnnpnc. 1o i snae1e o nosxonix pemennnx hpn niho-
nennn qynxnn xon1pon?
2. Bnnpnc. 1o 1axoe c1pecc? \xan1e hpnunni c1pecca, nipe-
nn ue1ipe opiannsanonnix qax1opa.
|pccdcuuc unceccec xcunpc:n


383
3. Tcc1. Me1op oenxn c1pa1einuecxoio hooennn n penc1nnn
opiannsann nasinae1cn:
a) SWOTanans;
6) xe1op cenapnen;
n) xe1op xnuenix nohpocon;
i) xe1op SPASE.

4. Tcc1. uopxa nac1n, hpn xo1opon pa6o1nnx nihonne1 pe-
xoxenpann nauainnxa ho1oxy, u1o 1ax hpnnn1o, nasinae1cn:
a) 1papnnonnon;
6) saxonnon;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

Bapnan1 23

1. Bnnpnc. ex conainie pemennn o1nuan1cn o1 xonoxn-
uecxnx?
2. Bnnpnc. Ison1e nn napncyn1e cxexy xopen c1pecconon
peaxnn.
3. Tcc1. Iemenne o6 opiannsanonnon c1pyx1ype hpnnnxae1:
a) xenepep;
6) iannin 6yxia1ep;
n) iannin nnenep;
i) pyxonopn1ei nicmeio snena.

4. Tcc1. Hnpepc1no 1o:
a) o1nomenne x ueonexy n nnnnne na neio;
6) c1anpap1nin na6op xapax1epnc1nx;
n) choco6noc1i oxasina1i nnnnne;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

Bapnan1 24

1. Bnnpnc. 1o 1axoe peenan1nan nnqopxann?
2. Bnnpnc. Kax nnne1 c1pecc na poc1nenne een opiannsann?
3. Tcc1. Hpoecc peennn opiannsann na o1peinie 6oxn 1o:
a) en1pansann;
6) pehap1axen1ansann;
n) peen1pansann;
i) xoxxepnansann.
Mcucdcun

384
4. Tcc1. Iannne penhnen1i 1o:
a) npepi, cospanmne nonmec1no;
6) pyxonopn1en, hepnixn xyhnnmne nonmec1no;
n) hpephpnnnxa1en, hepnixn ocnonnmne nonmec1no;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

Bapnan1 25

1. Bnnpnc. Kaxona o6o6mennan cxexa peansann pemennn n
oenxn eio qqex1nnnoc1n?
2. Bnnpnc. Kaxoni ocnonnie hpnunni nosnnxnonennn c1pecca?
3. Tcc1. K 6npoxpa1nuecxnx c1pyx1ypax o6iuno o1nocn1:
a) qynxnonainie;
6) hpoex1nie;
n) pnnnsnonainie;
i) xa1pnunie.

4. Tcc1. Caxoxenepxen1 1o:
a) yxenne yhpann1i co6on;
6) caxoopiannsann;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

Bapnan1 26

1. Bnnpnc. Hoc1pon1e ipaqnx sanncnxoc1n xepy niiopon n
sa1pa1axn hpn peansann yhpanenuecxoio pemennn.
2. Bnnpnc. Cohoc1ani1e c1pecconin n nec1pecconin c1nn nsnn.
3. Tcc1. K apah1nnnix c1pyx1ypax o1nocn1:
a) qynxnonainie n nnennie;
6) pnnnsnonainie;
n) xa1pnunie n hpoex1nie;
i) hpoex1nie n qynxnonainie.

4. Tcc1. An1opaxn yhpanenuecxon peme1xn nnnn1cn:
a) Hop1ep n Hoyep;
6) 5enx n My1on;
n) Mecxon n Xepoypn;
i) Ai6ep1 n Tenop.
|pccdcuuc unceccec xcunpc:n


385
Bapnan1 27

1. Bnnpnc. Kaxne xe1opi xono nchoisona1i hpn yiy6en-
non oenxe qqex1nnnoc1n hpnnn1ix pemennn?
2. Bnnpnc. Iaccxan1e o xopen hocepona1einoc1n ychemno-
io yhpanennn opiannsanonnixn nsxenennnxn.
3. Tcc1. He cymec1nye1 opiannsanonnix c1pyx1yp:
a) opiannuecxnx;
6) neopiannuecxnx;
n) hoc1poennix ho hpopyx1onoxy hpnnnhy;
i) hoc1poennix ho peinonainoxy hpnnnhy.

4. Tcc1. Knnia, n xo1opon ohy6nxonani Teopnn X n Teopnn
\, nasinae1cn:
a) Hayunan opiannsann 1pypa;
6) Ion ueoneuecxoio n ipyhhonoio qax1opon;
n) eoneuecxan c1opona hpephpnn1nn;
i) C1nn pyxonopc1na.

Bapnan1 28

1. Bnnpnc. Kaxoni pexoxenpann chenanc1on hpn oenxe
qqex1nnnoc1n hpnnn1ix pemennn?
2. Bnnpnc. uex cy1i conainon qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn,
a n uex xonoxnuecxon?
3. Tcc1. Opiannsanonnie nsxenennn nc1peuan1 nan6oimee
cohpo1nnenne ncepc1nne:
a) xoncepna1nnnoc1n hepconaa opiannsann;
6) nehpanninon hocepona1einoc1n penc1nnn;
n) anpaon hepec1ponxn;
i) nepoc1a1xa pecypcon pn hponepennn nsxenennn.

4. Tcc1. Teopnn X hpephoaiae1, u1o:
a) pa6o1a 1ax e ec1ec1nenna, xax nipa pn pe6enxa;
6) cpepnnn ueonex c1pexn1cn x o1ne1c1nennoc1n;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) cpepnnn ueonex hpephoun1ae1, u1o6i nx pyxonopnn, on
ns6eiae1 o1ne1c1nennoc1n.
Mcucdcun

386
Bapnan1 29

1. Bnnpnc. 1o o1nocn1cn x ocnonnix hpnnnhax, xapax1epn-
synmnx 1pe6onannn x qopxnponannn cnc1exi yhpanennn hepco-
naox?
2. Bnnpnc. Iaccxan1e o hoxasa1enx qqex1nnnoc1n
yhpanennn n hopxopax x nx ohpepeennn.
3. Tcc1. K copepa1einon o1nocn1cn 1eopnn:
a) onpannn pyxa;
6) chpanepnnoc1n Apaxca;
n) MaxKeanpa;
i) xopei Hop1epaHoyepa.

4. Tcc1. Ieqepen1nan nac1i 1o:
a) xapnsxa;
6) qopxa nac1n, ocnonannan na nunix xauec1nax pyxonopn1en;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

Bapnan1 30

1. Bnnpnc. Kaxoni ocnonnie nnpi pen1einoc1n chenanc1on
xapxe1ooion?
2. Bnnpnc. Ison1e uac1nie xe1opnxn ohpepeennn qqex-
1nnnoc1n yhpanennn.
3. Tcc1. Icxnun1i o1xonennn o1 naxeuennix hanon n nnc1-
pyxnn hosnone1 xon1poi:
a) hpepnapn1einin;
6) 1exymnn;
n) saxnun1einin;
i) n1oionin.

4. Tcc1. Iyxonopc1no 1o:
a) choco6noc1i n neo6xopnxoc1i nec1n sa co6on co1pypnnxon;
6) conainin qenoxen, cnnsannin c peiynponannex
oqnnainix o1nomennn n opiannsann;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

8cnpccu x x-acuq


387
Bonpocm x sxsaMeay

1. Oxapax1epnsyn1e ocnonnie mxoi xenepxen1a.
2. Iacxpon1e copepanne 1pex xopeen poccnncxoio xenep-
xen1a.
3. Cxoixo nsnennix nxon pasnn1nn opiannsann nipenn1
n conpexennon n1epa1ype ho xenepxen1y? Hasonn1e 1nhi opiann-
sann.
4. Kax nasinae1cn hepnin 1ah nsnennoio nxa opiannsann?
1o on xapax1epnsye1?
5. 1o xapax1epnsye1 1nh opiannsann, naxopnmnncn xepy xc-
hepen1ox n nnoen1ox?
6. Hasonn1e hn1i xe1ahnix hpoeccon hepexopa opiannsann
ns opnoio coc1onnnn n ppyioe. jan1e xapax1epnc1nxy xapoxy.
7. jan1e xaccnqnxann ipyhh opiannsann. Kaxne qax1opi
(xnnnxyx nocexi) oxasinan1 nospenc1nne na pesyi1a1nnnoc1i nx
pen1einoc1n?
8. Oxapax1epnsyn1e xapxe1nnionin, qynxnonainin n noc-
hponsnopc1nenno-nonnonnin hopxopi hpn hannponannn.
9. 1o 1axoe peeinponanne honoxounn n houexy ono neo6xo-
pnxo?
10. jan1e ohpepeenne honn1nn xo1nnann.
11. Is xaxnx 1ahon coc1on1 hpoepypa xon1pon xax qynxnn
xenepxen1a?
12. Iaccxan1e o nanenmnx oco6ennoc1nx xonoxnxo-c1a1n-
c1nuecxnx xe1opon xenepxen1a.
13. Oxapax1epnsyn1e hn1i son o6pasa qopxynpa iocypapc1-
nennoio c1a1nc1nuecxoio na6npennn, y1neppennoio hoc1anone-
nnex Iocc1a1a.
14. Kaxne ocnonnie hoxasa1en xapax1epnsyn1 1onapoo6opo1
posnnunon 1opionn?
15. Koipa n ipe sapopnnci opiannsanonnopachopnpn1einie xe-
1opi xenepxen1a?
16. Hasonn1e 1pn 1aha nayunoio xe1opa n xenepxen1e, honcnn-
1e nx cymnoc1i.
17. Kaxne o6mne hpo6exi nepepxo nosnnxan1 hpn xopenpo-
nannn?
18. Iaccxan1e o xaccnqnxann ocnonnix conainohcnxoo-
inuecxnx xe1opon xenepxen1a.
Mcucdcun

388
19. ex hcnxoanans o1nuae1cn o1 xhnpnuecxnx xe1opon nc-
ceponannn hpo6exi?
20. Kaxne nsnenno nanie pemennn xoiy1 6i1i hpn niho-
nennn qynxnn opiannsann?
21. Hpnnepn1e xo1n 6i 1pn hpnxepa hpnnn1nn pemennn hpn xo-
1nnann.
22. 1o i snae1e o nosxonix pemennnx hpn nihonennn
qynxnn xon1pon?
23. ex conainie pemennn o1nuan1cn o1 xonoxnuecxnx?
24. 1o 1axoe peenan1nan nnqopxann?
25. Kaxona o6o6mennan cxexa peansann pemennn n oenxn eio
qqex1nnnoc1n?
26. Hoc1pon1e ipaqnx sanncnxoc1n xepy niiopon n sa1pa1axn
hpn peansann yhpanenuecxoio pemennn.
27. Kaxne xe1opi xono nchoisona1i hpn yiy6ennon oenxe
qqex1nnnoc1n hpnnn1ix pemennn?
28. Kaxoni pexoxenpann chenanc1on hpn oenxe qqex1nnno-
c1n hpnnn1ix pemennn?
29. 1o o1nocn1cn x ocnonnix hpnnnhax, xapax1epnsynmnx
1pe6onannn x qopxnponannn cnc1exi yhpanennn hepconaox?
30. Kaxoni ocnonnie nnpi pen1einoc1n chenanc1onxapxe-
1ooion?
31. jan1e pna ohpepeennn nac1n, nahpnxep, M. Mecxona n j.
K. I6pn1a.
32. Kaxne qopxi nac1n ni snae1e? uex cy1i xapon?
33. Kaxyn poi nipae1 xapnsxa n u1o 1o 1axoe?
34. jan1e ohpepeenne honn1nn caxoxenepxen1.
35. Oxapax1epnsyn1e ocnonnie hpnnnhi caxoxenepxen1a.
36. 1o 1axoe xonqnx1?
37. Iaccxan1e o6 nonnn 1eopnn n hpax1nuecxnx hopxopon n
nsinpon na xonqnx1.
38. 1o 1axoe yhpanenne xonqnx1ox n opiannsann?
39. Ison1e nn napncyn1e cxexy hopxopon x nsyuennn xonqnx-
1on n poccnncxox xenepxen1e.
40. Kaxne o1nun1einie xapax1epnc1nxn nxee1 xopei xon-
qnx1a xax hpoecca?
41. Iaccxan1e o6 ocnonnix qasax, 1ahax n c1apnnx pnnaxnxn
xonqnx1a.
42. Kaxne cymec1nyn1 ipanni xonqnx1a n u1o onn co6on
hpepc1annn1?
8cnpccu x x-acuq


389
43. 1o hpepc1anne1 co6on qace1nan xaccnqnxann xonqnx1on?
44. Hasonn1e choco6i ypeiynponannn xonqnx1a n honcnn1e nx cy1i.
45. uex saxnuae1cn ocnonnan ei yhpanennn xonqnx1axn?
46. Hasonn1e ue1ipe c1pyx1ypnix xe1opa paspemennn xonqnx1on.
47. Oxapax1epnsyn1e hn1i ocnonnix xenunoc1nix c1nen pas-
pemennn xonqnx1on.
48. Ison1e nn napncyn1e cxexy hocepona1einoc1n xe1opn-
xn yhpanennn xonqnx1ox uepes pemenne hpo6exi.
49. uex coc1on1 oco6ennoc1n yhpanennn xonqnx1axn?
50. 1o i snae1e o6 ananse honepennn xonqnx1nix c1opon n
hocpepnnxa?
51. Ohnmn1e honepenuecxne xapax1epnc1nxn hn1n 1nhon xon-
qnx1non nunoc1n.
52. 1o 1axoe c1pecc? \xan1e hpnunni c1pecca, nipenn ue1ipe
opiannsanonnix qax1opa.
53. Ison1e nn napncyn1e cxexy xopen c1pecconon peaxnn.
54. Kax nnne1 c1pecc na poc1nenne een opiannsann?
55. Kaxoni ocnonnie hpnunni nosnnxnonennn c1pecca?
56. Cohoc1ani1e c1pecconin n nec1pecconin c1nn nsnn.
57. Iaccxan1e o xopen hocepona1einoc1n ychemnoio yhpan-
ennn opiannsanonnixn nsxenennnxn.
58. uex cy1i conainon qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn, a n uex
xonoxnuecxon?
59. Iaccxan1e o hoxasa1enx qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn n hopxo-
pax x nx ohpepeennn.
60. Ison1e uac1nie xe1opnxn ohpepeennn qqex1nnnoc1n
yhpanennn.



Mcucdcun

390
H1oroam 1ec1

1. Omxmman cucme+a xaaxmeusemcn:
a) caxoo6echeuennex;
6) nsanxopenc1nnex c nnemnen cpepon;
n) nesanncnxoc1in o1 cpepi, oxpyanmen cnc1exy;
i) nepno (6+n).

2. Oeanusauun +oem oxasmamt nenoceocmennoe osoeu-
cmue na oxenue:
a) qononoe;
6) peonoe;
n) nepno (a n 6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

3. }na:enuecxu+ oc:eooanue+ oeanusauuu nasmaemcn:
a) c1pa1einuecxoe hannponanne;
6) hpoecc pnainoc1nxn nny1pennnx hpo6ex;
n) hpoecc pnainoc1nxn nnemnnx hpo6ex;
i) nepno (6+n).

4. Peuenue o oeanusauuonnou cmxme nunu+aem:
a) xenepep;
6) iannin 6yxia1ep;
n) iannin nnenep;
i) pyxonopn1ei nicmeio snena.

5. Houecc osoeucmun na necona: c ue:tm nooenun eeo x
oneoe:ennm+ oeucmun+ nasmaemcn:
a) xo1nnanen;
6) xo1nnnponannex;
n) xo1nnanonnon 1enpennen;
i) xo1nnanonnon c1pyx1ypon.

6. Hcx:muumt omx:onenun om na+euennmx n:ano u uncmx-
uuu noso:nem xonmo:t:
a) hpepnapn1einin;
6) 1exymnn;
n) saxnun1einin;
i) n1oionin.
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391
7. 3xono+uxo-cmamucmuuecxue +emoom ne ocuecm:nmmcn
noceocmo+:
a) c6opa nnqopxann;
6) o6pa6o1xn nnqopxann;
n) xapax1epnc1nxn o6o6manmnx hoxasa1een n nx anansa;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

8. Oeanusauuonno-acnonoume:tnme +emoom +eneo+enma
neme asaoma:u:
a) axepnxani;
6) aninuane;
n) nexi;
i) nhoni.

9. B xomoncxux 5xcneu+enmax ucno:tsoa:uct neu+uecm-
enno +emoom:
a) xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne;
6) opiannsanonno-pachopnpn1einie;
n) conaino-hcnxooinuecxne;
i) ppyine.

10. :n e::ennou ouenxu 5qqexmunocmu nunnmmx eue-
nuu +ono ucno:tsoamt +emoom ocnonoeo +accua, +o+enmo,
nau+entuux xaoamo, xomome nasmammcn:
a) xonoxnxo-c1a1nc1nuecxne;
6) opiannsanonno-pachopnpn1einie;
n) conaino-hcnxooinuecxne;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

11. B xo+nemenuum c:m necona:a oeanusauuu xooum:
a) pachpepeenne nac1nix honoxounn;
6) o6yuenne hepconaa;
n) nsxenenne opiannsanonnon c1pyx1ypi;
i) yhpanenne xonqnx1axn n opiannsann.

12. Knuea, xomoou on:uxoanm Teoun X u Teoun },
nasmaemcn:
a) Hayunan opiannsann 1pypa;
6) Ion ueoneuecxoio n ipyhhonoio qax1opon;
n) eoneuecxan c1opona hpephpnn1nn;
i) C1nn pyxonopc1na.
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392
13. Pxooocmo 5mo:
a) choco6noc1i n neo6xopnxoc1i nec1n sa co6on co1pypnnxon;
6) conainin qenoxen, cnnsannin c peiynponannex oqnn-
ainix o1nomennn n opiannsann;
n) nepno (a+6);
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

14. Mooe:t nouecca cneunoeo na:enun oeanusauuonnm+u
us+enenun+u asaoma::
a) Manx Mecxon;
6) Manx Ai6ep1;
n) upanxnn Xepoypn;
i) Hppn Ipennep.

15. }eoenue noouunennmx nunnmt nouecmo 5mo 5man:
a) hopxpehennn na ocnone hoon1einix pesyi1a1on;
6) pnainoc1nxn hpo6exnix son;
n) naxopennn nonoio pemennn;
i) xchepnxen1a c nonix pemennex.

16 Ouenxa 5qqexmunocmu na:enun nousooumcn :
a) a6con1nox nsxepennn;
6) o1nocn1einox nsxepennn;
n) poapax ($);
i) enpo ().

17. Oeanuuenue coxo oxnae+ocmu usoeex na:enuecxo-
eo xaaxmea na coe+enno+ 5mane asumun 5xono+uxu Poccuu
neoe ceeo oc:a:uamm:
a) qnnanconie pncxn;
6) xpepn1nie pncxn;
n) c1paxonie pncxn;
i) nnqnnn.

18. Hoou na:enuecxou naaoue+e XXI . coomemcmmm
c:eomuue nunuunm +eneo+enma:
a) chenansann 1pypa;
6) en1pansann;
n) hopunnennoc1i nunix nn1epecon o6mec1nennix;
i) iannin axen1 peae1cn na ueonexa n na snannn.
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393
19. B oa:tneuue+ XXI . no meoenum O.C. Buxancxoeo u
A.H. Ha+oa om neo:aoamt c:eomuue uemme nauo:ee a-
nmx qaxmoa :unnun na +eneo+enm:
a) paspeenne 1pypa, peeinponanne honoxounn, xophopa-
1nnnin pyx, nosnaipapenne hepconaa;
6) pnqqepennann, choco6 coepnnennn ueonexa co cpepc1-
naxn 1pypa, poxnnnpynmnx hpopyx1ox c1ane1 spoponie ueonexa,
ycnenne nnnnnn xyi1ypi na xenepxen1 n axen1 na yhpanenne
pasnoo6pasnex;
n) peeinponanne honoxounn, pnqqepennann, choco6 co-
epnnennn ueonexa co cpepc1naxn 1pypa, ycnenne nnnnnn xyi1y-
pi na xenepxen1;
i) xophopa1nnnin pyx, paspeenne 1pypa, pnqqepennann,
axen1 na yhpanenne pasnoo6pasnex.

20. Heo+emo+ cmameeuuecxoeo na:enun ne n:nemcn e-
uenue c:eomuux ocnonmx no:e+, cnsannmx c:
a) ienepainixn enxn opiannsann, opnen1nponannixn na
6ypymee honimenne qqex1nnnoc1n ee pen1einoc1n;
6) hpno6pe1ennex nonoio pn opiannsann 1exnooinuecxoio
o6opyponannn, hpniamennex 6oee xnanqnnponannix chena-
nc1on n 1.h.;
n) nexon1ponpyexixn nnemnnxn qax1opaxn, iannix o6pa-
sox, qononoio oxpyennn;
i) ne1 nepnoio o1ne1a.

21. Mooe:t Hau+ana Homea-3oaoa Ho:ea ocnoana na
meounx:
a) Macoy n Iep6epia;
6) hoc1anonxn en n onpannn;
n) ueoneuecxnx ho1pe6noc1en;
i) onpannn n chpanepnnoc1n.

22. Memoom +eneo+enma, asumuuecn na :acmu, oucuun-
:une, smcxanunx, nasmammcn:
a) hcnxooinuecxnxn;
6) conooinuecxnxn;
n) apxnnnc1pa1nnnixn;
i) xonoxnuecxnxn.
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23. Memoo Coxama cocmoum :
a) qnocoqcxnx paccypennnx;
6) nunox hpnxepe pyxonopn1en nn npepa;
n) nchoisonannn cone1on pnxnn;
i) hpnexe nnymennn, ocnonannox na hcnxooinuecxox nac1poe
na nynin pesyi1a1.

24. Pacc+ome +noecmo auanmo, oneoe:umt +uccum
oeanusauuu 5mo anoe euenue cnsano c qnxuueu +eneo+en-
ma, no:uuueu nasanue:
a) hannponanne;
6) opiannsann;
n) xo1nnann;
i) xon1poi.

25. 3anoea++uoannme euenun n:nmmcn xumeue+:
a) copepannn;
6) hpopon1einoc1n penc1nnn;
n) c1pyx1ypnponannoc1n;
i) nahpanennoc1n.

26. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: ue+
aoanmunan (oeanuuecxan) OC} nunuunua:tno om:uuaemcn om
moxamuuecxou OC}?
27. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
neocma:nmm coou ea:tnme u neea:tnme ceocma +e:uu-
nocmnou xo++nuxauuu?
28. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: ue+
nunuunua:tnoe om:uuue oenama+enma:usauuu om oeuenma:usauuu?
29. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
maxoe unmeeauun?
30. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: ue+
cunocmt noou na:enuecxou naaoue+m?
31. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: na
xaxue oa neuooa c:ono +ono x:accuquuuoamt +uom uc-
moum asumun +eneo+enma?
32. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xoeo
nasmamm +eneoeo+?
33. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
n:nemcn e:oa:tnou ue:tm +eneo+enma?
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395
34. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xaxoeo
snauenue +eneo+enma na coe+enno+ 5mane asumun ouecma?
35. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xoeo
Poccuu cuumamm neonunu+ame:e+?
36.Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc : ue+
ocoennocmu occuucxoeo +eneo+enma?
37. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue oeanusauuu u xaxux oeanusauuonno naomx qo+ neo:a-
oamm Poccuu nacmonuee e+n?
38. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc : xa-
xue usnennme uux:m cuecmmm asumuu oeanusauuu?
39. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: ue+
nunuunua:tnoe om:uuue uo:enma om 5xcn:eenma?
40. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
neocma:nem coou ennoan ouna+uxa nouecce na:enun u
asumun oeanusauuu?
41. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
neocma:nem coou nouecc cmameeuuecxoeo n:anuoanun?
42. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue +emoom nu+ennem oeanusauun o:n ouenxu coeeo cmameeuue-
cxoeo cocmonnun?
43. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: na
umo nana:ena oeanusauun xax qnxuun +eneo+enma?
44. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue m snaeme uom oeanusauuonnmx cmxm na:enun oeanu-
sauueu?
45. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue nunuunm o:n xooocma nuecce na:enun exo+enomm
cneuua:ucmm, ocnomanct na meouu +omuauuu?
46. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
neocma:nem coou cqea xonmo:n?
47. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue ocnonme 5xono+uxo-cmamucmuuecxue +emoom Bm snaeme?
48. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: no-
ue+ nu +ooe:uoanuu neeoxo osnuxamm no:e+m?
49. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
neocma:nmm coou 5ucmuuecxue +emoom?
50. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: sa-
ue+ neoxoou+o snamt +emoom +eneo+enma?
51. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
maxoe euenue +eneo+enme?
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396
52. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xom ocnonme meoanun x euenun+ +eneo+enme?
53. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xax
x:accuquuummcn euenun +eneo+enme, nanu+e, no xumeun+?
44. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue +emoom asaomxu na:enuecxoeo euenun Bm snaeme?
55. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xm unqo+auum o:n nunnmun euenuu cuumamm e:eanmnou?
56. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
neocma:nem coou na:enuecxoe euenue?
57. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xoe euenue cuumamm cneonmu+a:tnm+?
58. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: no-
ue+ neoxoou+m oneoe:ennme qo+m ea:usauuu na:enuecxoeo
euenun?
59. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xax
oneoe:nmm 5qqexmunocmt na:enuecxoeo euenun?
60. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
maxoe DSS (Decision Support System)?
61. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue ocnonme nunuunm na:enun necona:o+ asaomanm na-
cmonuee e+n naxou u naxmuxou +eneo+enma?
62. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: no-
ue+ xaeeo:tnm+ xa+ne+ na:enun cuumaemcn ana:us cooea-
nun aomm comonuxo?
63. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: om
xaxux qaxmoo (omnocnuuxcn x na:enum necona:o+) saucum
oo:eoe+ennmu cnex xaoou oeanusauuu?
64. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xoeo
cuumamm +axemo:oeo+?
65. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: no-
ue+ ocoennocmtm noooa cneuua:ucma-+axemo:oea n:nemcn
ouenmauun na eeo :uunocmnme xauecma?
66. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
neocma:nem coou +euenoausune?
67. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: noue+
cneuua:ucm-+axemo:oe oo:en coomemcmoamt +euenoausune?
68. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
maxoe moaoooom?
69. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xax
oneoe:nemcn :acmt oeanusauuu?
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397
70. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue qo+m :acmu Bm snaeme?
71. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
Bm nonu+aeme noo me+uno+ :unnue?
72. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xax
oneoe:nemcn xaus+a?
73. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue meouu :uoecma (mu) Bm snaeme?
74. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
neocma:nem coou ca+o+eneo+enm?
75. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: ue+
neu+uecma o:aoenun ucxccmo+ ca+o+eneo+enma?
76. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: ue+
cunocmt ca+o+eneo+enma xax coeuenno nooeo acnexma ca+o-
oeanusauuu?
77. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue oeanuuecxue qnxuuu xoooume:n Bm snaeme?
78. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: ue+
non:nemcn aoanmauun cmu:eu xooocma x oe:om+ cumauun+?
79. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xou xonq:uxm cuumaemcn qnxuuona:tnm+?
80. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: no-
ue+ qacemnan x:accuquxauun +oem no+out onmu+a:tno na-
:nmt xonq:uxmnou cumauueu?
81. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
maxoe amoxo++nuxauun?
82. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
cuumaemcn eenesuco+ xonq:uxma?
83. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc:umo
neocma:nem coou uncmumuuona:usauun xonq:uxma?
84. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: ue+
nunuunua:tnoe om:uuue xone5nmnocmu om xonqo+us+a?
85. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
maxoe xonq:uxmo:oeun?
86. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: ue+
cmt cnocoa aseuenun xonq:uxma?
87. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
neocma:nem coou cmecc?
88. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: no-
ue+ na:enue oeanusauuonnm+u us+enenun+u n:nemcn oonou us
ca+mx necmunmx saoau +eneo+enma?
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89. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xaxu-
+u x:muem+u me+una+u maaemcn nonnmue 5qqexmunocmu
na:enun ane:onsmunou naunou :umeame?
90. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xax
oneoe:nemcn 5qqexmunocmt na:enun?
91. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: ue+
nunuunua:tnoe om:uuue 5qqexmunocmu nouecca na:enun om
5qqexmunocmu +exanus+a na:enun?
92. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: no-
ue+ nu ouenxe 5qqexmunocmu +eneo+enma o:tueu +ee as-
aomanm meoemuxo-+emooo:oeuuecxue u +emoouuecxue nue+m
ouenxu 5qqexmunocmu omoe:tnmx +eonunmuu no naunou oea-
nusauuu na:enuecxoeo moa, a ne na:enun ue:o+?
93. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue oouamuue noxasame:u ucno:tsmmcn o:n ouenxu 5xono+uue-
cxou 5qqexmunocmu na:enun oeanusauueu?
94. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue oouamuue noxasame:u ucno:tsmmcn o:n ouenxu couua:tnou
5qqexmunocmu na:enun oeanusauueu?
95. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue Bm snaeme uacmnme noxasame:u 5xono+uuecxou 5qqexmunocmu
na:enun oeanusauueu?
96. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue Bm snaeme uacmnme noxasame:u couua:tnou 5qqexmunocmu
na:enun oeanusauueu?
97. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
Bm snaeme o x:accuquxauuu cucme+m noxasame:eu ouenxu 5qqex-
munocmu annaama na:enun na mu sau+ocnsannme ennm?
98. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xue Bm snaeme uacmnme +emoouxu oneoe:enun 5qqexmunocmu
na:enun oeanusauueu?
99. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: umo
neocma:nem coou neo+em +eneo+enma?
100. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xax
cnsano asumue oeanusauuu c nouecco+ na:enun em?
101. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc:
ue+ nunuunua:tnoe om:uuue cucme+noeo nooxooa om cumauuonno-
eo nooxooa?
102. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xax
:unem couua:tno-ncuxo:oeuuecxuu x:u+am na cmu:t na:enun?
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103. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc:
ue+ cmt cmameeuu +axemunea?
104. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: xa-
xoo snauenue xomoncxux 5xcneu+enmo?
105. Hs:oume asnmmu omem na c:eomuuu onoc: na
ue+ ocnoan xonuenma:tnmu nooxoo x na:enum uxo:m noeoen-
uecxux nax (uxeuoucmuuecxux)?


Mcucdcun

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Cnacox na1epa1ypm

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MCI, 2001.232c.
9. Iycena L. H. Hpax1nxyx ho xypcy Ocnoni xenepxen1a.
M.: MCI, 2003. 8 c.
10. Iycena L. H. 5anx 1ec1on ho xypcy Ocnoni xenepxen1a.
M.: MCI, 2003. 24 c.
11. Iycena L. H. Hpesen1ann xypca Ocnoni xenepxen1a. M.:
MCI, 2003. 15 c.
12. januenox H. A., Hacxone C. . \hpanenne xapxe1nniox.
Mocxoncxnn iocypapc1nennin ynnnepcn1e1 xonoxnxn c1a1nc1n-
xn n nnqopxa1nxn. M.: MCI, 2004. 80 c.
13. Iienxona C. j., Kysneon . I. Menepxen1. M.: MMI-
IuH, 2003. 71 c.
14. Innonanonin xenepxen1: \ue6nnx pn nyson 2-oe nsp. he-
pepa6. n poh. / Hop pep. C. j. Iienxonon. M.: M. BHITI jA-
HA, 2003. 343 c.
15. Kopo1xon .M. Icceponanne cnc1ex yhpanennn: \ue6nnx.
M.: Ispa1eicxo-xonca1nnionan xoxhannn jeKA, 2003. 288 c.
16. Mecxon M.X. Ai6ep1 M., Xepoypn u. Ocnoni xenepxen1a.
Hep. c ani. M.: jeo, 1997. 704 c.
17. Hpax1nxyx ho 1eopnn yhpanennn: \ue6noe hoco6ne / Hop
pep. . H. Hapaxnnon, H. I. \mnnxoio. M.: unnanci n c1a1nc1nxa,
2003. 272 c.
18. Hponsnopc1nennin xenepxen1: \ue6nnx pn nyson / Hop pep.
C. j. Iienxonon. M.: BHITIjAHA, 2002. 583 c.
19. Conainin xenepxen1: \ue6nnx pn nyson / Hop pep. C. j.
Iienxonon. M.: 5anxn n 6npn, BHITI, 1998. 270 c.
20. \hpanenne opiannsanen: \ue6nnx / Hop pep. A.I.Hopmnena,
3. H. Iyxnnenon, H. A. Cooxa1nna. 2oe nspanne, hepepa6. n poh.
M.: IHuIA M, 2001. 669 c.
21. Hne1xon . H. Konqnx1ooinn: \ue6noe hoco6ne c ai6oxox
cxex. M.: Ispa1eic1no Hn1M, 2004. 176 c.

Mcucdcun

402
Hnmenemeccm

1. www.gov.ru
2. www.mesi.ru
3. www.infoqks.ru
4. www.infram.ru
5. www.computerra.ru
6. www.sokol.sp.ru
7. www.kadrovik.ru.
8. http://cnt.online.ru/mpl/face?id=4065
9. http://www.iworld.ru/magazine/index.phtml?fnct=page&p=70
539053
10. http://www.iis.ru/glossary/internetincubator.ru.html
11. http://21vek.renet.ru/arhiv/2000/11-2000/20-11-2000/st18-20-
11-2000.htm
12. http://offline.computerra.ru/2000/352/
13. http://offline.computerra.ru/2000/352/
14. http://www.uprav.biz/materials/psyhology/view/709.html?next=
15. http://www.auditorium.ru/v/index.php?a=vconf&c=getForm&
r=secDesc&id_vconf=70&id_sec=433&PHPSESSID=e3ff21375bd937f37
16. CTC//Conaino-xonoxnuecxne n 1exnnuecxne cnc1exi:
ncceponanne, hpoex1nponanne, opiannsann. N 6 , 2006 i.
http://www.kampi.ru/sets/index2.php?arhiv/22nomer.php#
17. http://nauka.relis.ru/16/0301/16301013.htm

|:cccapuu

403
Fnoccapa

An1nnmmynnannn ec1ec1nennoe yconne hcnxooinuecxon ax-
1nnnoc1n ueonexa, hoc1onnnoe o6menne c
caxnx co6on, hpnnopnmee hpn ohpepeen-
nix o6c1on1eic1nax x nny1pnnunoc1noxy
xonqnx1y.

Apan1nnnan
(nprannwccan)
c1py1ypa
opiannsanonnan c1pyx1ypa, hosnonnman
in6xo peainpona1i na nsxenennn n oxpy-
anmen cpepe, 1ex caxix hpnnnhnaino
o1nuanci o1 6npoxpa1nuecxon c1pyx1ypi.

Ananna cnnnnmx
nnncn
xe1op, hpn xo1opox c1pon1cn xopei xaxon
n6o xonqnx1non cn1yann nn cn1yann,
1pe6ynmen hpeo6pasonannn.

Accnnnannn o6:epnnenne npen nn opiannsann c
ein nsanxnoio co1pypnnuec1na hpn co-
xpanennn caxoc1on1einoc1n nxopnmnx n
o6:epnnenne qnsnuecxnx n (nn) npnpn-
uecxnx n.

Ay1cnpcnnr c1pa1einn yhpanennn, nihonenne nexo-
1opix 6nsnecqynxnn nn uac1en 6nsnec
hpoecca; ienepainin hy1i pasnn1nn xn-
ponon xonoxnxn n nicman qopxa chena-
nsann.

Bnanccnny6a1np xaoe hpephpnn1ne, cospanaexoe xynnn-
hainixn n peinonainixn opianaxn
nac1n, a 1axe xpyhnixn qnpxaxn c e-
in nipamnnannn nonix hpephpnn1nn
pn peansann nnnonanonnix hpoex1on.

Bncq 1ax1nuecxnn hpnex xonqnx1noio hpo1n-
no6opc1na, pexonc1pann peaino cymec1-
nynmnx n (nn) xnnxix cn n cpepc1n c
ein sahyinnannn ohhonen1a.

Mcucdcun

404
Bcnwypnmc
npcpnpnn1nn
hpephpnn1nn xaoio 6nsneca, sann1ie na-
yunixn ncceponannnxn, cospannex n nne-
ppennex nnnonann, cnnsannix c ohpepe-
ennix pncxox.

Bcp6annnmc n
ncncp6annnmc
cpcpc1na
mcxnnwnnc1nnn
nmmynnannn

choco6i ocymec1nennn xoxxynnxann c
hoxomin n 6es hoxomn con xax cnxnoon.

Bcp1nannnan
Mapc1nnrnnan
cnc1cma (BMC)
qopxa nn1eipann yuac1nnxon xanaa 1o-
napopnnennn n nnpe coiamennn o xoop-
pnnann conxec1nix penc1nnn ho ponepe-
nnn 1onapa o1 hponsnopn1en po ho1pe6n-
1en.

Bnpm nnqnpmannn opiannsanonnan, conainan, conaino-
1exnooinuecxan, xonoxnuecxan, ohepa-
1nnnan, 1exyman, c1pa1einuecxan, ho qynx-
nnx yhpanennn.

Icncanc nnqnn1a xoxen1 sapopennn, nosnnxnonennn n ho-
cepynmnn hpoecc pasnn1nn xonqnx1a.

Inn6annnan ncnn
ynpanncnnn
xaxcnxainoe ypone1nopenne ho1pe6no-
c1en n nn1epecon ueonexa, xoex1nna,
o6mec1na.

Ipynnnnan
pnnamna
hpoecc qopxnponannn n qynxnonnpo-
nannn qopxainix n neqopxainix
ipyhh n opiannsann.

cncrnpnnannc hepepaua hpan n o6nsannoc1en hoyua1en,
xo1opin hpnnnxae1 na ce6n sa nnx o1ne1c1-
nennoc1i.

cnap1amcn1annaa-
nnn
o6:epnnenne cxonx nnpon pen1einoc1n n
paxxax o1peinix hoppaspeennn opiann-
sann.
|:cccapuu

405
nnxnnc1nan nnc1-
pynnn
xpa1xoe nsoenne sapau, nanixon, hono-
xounn, hpan, o1ne1c1nennoc1n, yconnn pa-
6o1i.

3nawcnnc
mcncpxmcn1a
oenxa pon xenepxen1a, nxenman pna
achex1a:
1) ohpepennman poi xenepxen1a pn yc-
hemnoio pasnn1nn opiannsann;
2) oipoxnoe nnnnne xenepxen1a na pas-
nn1ne o6mec1na n eox.

Hnc1n1ynnnnannaa-
nnn nnqnn1a
yc1anonxa ue1xnx nopx n hpann xon-
qnx1noio nsanxopenc1nnn, ohpepeenne
pa6ounx ipyhh n xoxnccnn ho yhpanennn
xonqnx1ox.

Hn1crpannn yponeni co1pypnnuec1na, cymec1nynmeio
xepy hoppaspeennnxn opiannsann n
o6echeunnanmeio poc1nenne nx een n
paxxax 1pe6onannn, hpep:nnnexix nnem-
nnx oxpyennex.

Hn1pamcncpxmcn1 nny1pennnn xenepxen1, o1nuanmnncn
hpnopn1e1axn pemennn nny1pennnx hpo-
6ex, a ne nnemnnx (nnqpaxenepxen1).

Kap1cnn opna ns qopx xonohonn, oipannunnan-
man xonxypennn c ein hoyuennn
cnepxhpn6ien. Lc1i nny1pennnn, nxhop1-
nan, xepynapopnan, xchop1nan.
Kawcc1nn
ynpanncnwccnrn
pcmcnnn

c1eheni coo1ne1c1nnn yhpanenuecxoio pe-
mennn xnccnn n enx opiannsann.

Knmmynna6cnn-
nnc1n
choco6noc1i eixo xon1ax1npona1i, o6-
ma1icn, conxec1no qqex1nnno 1pypn1icn.

Knnrpyan1nnc1n apexna1nan xononainan peaxnn nunoc1n
na xonqnx1nyn cn1yann.

Knnncpn opna ns qopx o6:epnnennn pasnix opia-
nnsann c nicoxnx yponnex xonen1pann
n en1pansann xahn1aa n hponsnopc1na.
Lc1i - o1pacenie n xeo1pacenie.
Mcucdcun

406
Knpncp opna ns qopx xophopa1nnnoio o6:epnnennn
c ein cocpepo1ouennn, nchoisonannn xa-
hn1aa hocpepc1nox cxyhxn axnn pn ona-
pennn pinxaxn ohpepeennoio 1onapa.

Knnqnn1nan
cn1yannn
ncxopnoe hooenne, ocnona xonqnx1a
(c1oxnonennn), hopopaexan naxohennex
n o6oc1pennex hpo1nnopeunn n cnc1exe
conainix cnnsen, n ipyhhonox honepe-
nnn n xenunoc1nix o1nomennnx.

Knnqnn1nnnrnn cnc1exa snannn o saxonoxepnoc1nx n xexa-
nnsxax nosnnxnonennn n pasnn1nn xon-
qnx1on, a 1axe o hpnnnhax n 1exnoo-
innx yhpanennn nxn.

Knnqnpmnam hcnxooinuecxan xapax1epnc1nxa hosnnn
pa6o1nnxa o1nocn1eino hosnnn ipyhhi:
haccnnnoe hpnnn1ne nx ohpepeennoio
xnennn, cnonc1nennoio ipyhhe; hpnchoco6-
enuec1no, yc1yhxa n xonqnx1e.

Knnncnnnn cnc1exa nsinpon, ocnonnix npen, hpnnnhon,
hooennn, hosnonnman iy6oxo honn1i
cymnoc1i nnennn, co6i1nn n 1.p. Menepep
xoe1 nxe1i co6c1nennyn xonehnn xe-
nepxen1a, o1o6paanmyn nayunie pexo-
xenpann n hpax1nuecxne cone1i, ohi1 q-
qex1nnnoio yhpanennn.

Hnpcpc1nn choco6noc1i nec1n sa co6on npen, hcnxoo-
inuecxnn qenoxen, cnnsannin c peiynpona-
nnex neoqnnainix xenunoc1nix o1-
nomennn n ipyhhe, c nunix an1opn1e1ox.

Mapc1nnr pen1einoc1i, nahpanennan na ponepenne
1onapa o1 hponsnopn1en po ho1pe6n1en,
na ypone1nopenne ho1pe6noc1en; paspa-
6o1xa peainix n in6xnx hpoipaxx penc1-
nnn opiannsann na xonxpe1nox pinxe;
yhpanenne pinounon pen1einoc1in.
|:cccapuu

407
Mapc1nnr
mcncpxmcn1
yhpanenne xapxe1nnionon pen1eino-
c1in (nn xapxe1nniox).

Mapc1nnnr 1) chenanc1, nihonnnmnn ohpepeennie
xapxe1nnionie qynxnn;
2) chenanc1, sannxanmnncn nsyuenn-
ex pinxa;
3) yuenin, nsyuanmnn n (nn) paspa6a-
1inanmnn 1eopnn xapxe1nnia.

Mcncpxcp 1) naexnin pa6o1nnx, sannxanmnn pyxo-
nopnmyn ponoc1i n opiannsann;
2) hpoqeccnonainin yhpannnmnn;
3) pyxonopn1ei pasnunoio yponnn (nn-
sonoio, cpepneio, nicmeio), sannxanmnn
hoc1onnnyn ponoc1i n opiannsann n
napeennin honoxounnxn n o6ac1n
hpnnn1nn pemennn n ohpepeennix cqe-
pax pen1einoc1n opiannsann.

Mcncpxmcn1 1) opnn ns nanenmnx nnpon pen1einoc1n
ueonexa, nxnuanmnn qynxnn: hannpo-
nanne, opiannsann, xo1nnann, xon1poi;
2) yhpanenne opiannsanen, xosnnc1nyn-
men n yconnnx pinxa.

Mcpwcnpanannr 1) ncxycc1no 1opionn;
2) cnc1exa nn1encnnnoio hpopnnennn 1o-
napon n posnnunon 1opione, hosnonnman
hoyua1i xaxcnxainyn nipyuxy c epnnn-
i homapn 1opionoio saa.

Mc1npnnnrnn
mcncpxmcn1a
yuenne o xe1opax hosnannn n xenepxen1e.
O6mnxn ocnonaxn xe1opooinn xenep-
xen1a nnnn1cn pnaex1nxa, a6c1painpona-
nne; hopxopi: cnc1exnin, cn1yanonnin,
hpoeccnin, cy6:ex1nnnc1cxnn, panona-
nc1nuecxnn, xhnpnuecxnn; hpnnnhi:
epnnc1na 1eopnn n hpax1nxn, ohpepeen-
noc1n, xonxpe1noc1n, hosnanaexoc1n, o6:-
ex1nnnoc1n n pp.
Mcucdcun

408
Mc1npm paapa6n1n
ynpanncnwccnrn
pcmcnnn
opiannsanonnie, 1exnooinuecxne, xo-
noxnuecxne, hpanonie n conainie xepo-
hpnn1nn, nahpanennie na qopxnponanne
yhpanenuecxoio pemennn.

Mn1nnannn 1) opna ns ocnonnix qynxnn xenepxen-
1a; 2) ho6ypenne ueonexa, ipyhhi x ax-
1nnnon, eenahpanennon pen1einoc1n;
3) hpoecc c1nxynponannn caxoio ce6n n
ppyinx na pen1einoc1i, nahpanennyn na
poc1nenne nnpnnnpyainix n o6mnx e-
en opiannsann.

Hnnan
ynpanncnwccan
napapnrma
nonan cnc1exa nsinpon na xenepxen1,
nxnuanman eio 6asonie hpnnnhi,
cqopxynponannie H. jpaxepox, ohpepe-
nnmne cnc1exnoc1i, cn1yanonnoc1i, co-
nainyn nahpanennoc1i yhpanennn op-
iannsanen xax o1xpi1on cnc1exon.

Oprannaannn 1) ipyhha npen, pen1einoc1i xo1opix cosna-
1eino xooppnnnpye1cn pn poc1nennn o6-
mnx een; 2) opna ns nanenmnx qynxnn
xenepxen1a.

Hpcpmc1
mcncpxmcn1a
saxoni n saxonoxepnoc1n nsnepen1eino-
c1n opiannsann n o1nomennn pa6o1nnxon
n hpoecce yhpanennn.

Hpcpnpnnnma1cnn co6c1nennnx, xo1opin npe1 na pncx hpn cos-
pannn nonon opiannsann, hpn nneppennn
nonon npen, hpopyxnn nn ycyin, hpnnn-
xanmnn pemennn ho xopy pasnn1nn cnoeio
6nsneca, o6echeunnanmnn eio pecypcaxn,
peansanen hpopyxnn (ycyin) n hpncnan-
nanmnn (pachopnanmnncn) pesyi1a1axn
pen1einoc1n cnoen opiannsann.

Hpnnccc ynpanncnnn o6mnn o6:ex nehpepinnix nsanxocnnsan-
nix penc1nnn nn qynxnn n paxxax opia-
nnsann.
|:cccapuu

409
Paann1nc
nprannaannn
poiocpounan hpoipaxxa yconepmenc1nona-
nnn nosxonoc1en opiannsann pema1i pas-
nunie hpo6exi n choco6noc1en x o6non-
ennn, n oco6ennoc1n hy1ex honimennn
qqex1nnnoc1n yhpanennn xyi1ypon op-
iannsann. Hpn 1ox ax1nnno nchoisyn1cn
1eope1nuecxne n 1exnooinuecxne nonnnxn,
poc1nennn hpnxapnix nayx o honepennn,
n 1ox unce n 1eopnn ohepann.

Pcncnan1nan
nnqnpmannn pnn
npnnn1nn pcmcnnn

pannie, o16npaexie hop xonxpe1nie sapaun,
no, ei n hepnop npexenn.

Pcmcnnc ni6op ai1epna1nni.

Pnc yponeni neohpepeennoc1n n hpepcxasannn
pesyi1a1a.

Cnncprc1nwccnn
aqqc1
pesyi1a1 conxec1nix ycnnn uenon xo-
xanpi, xo1opin oxasinae1cn 6oime cyx-
xi o1peinix pesyi1a1on ee uenon, ecn
6i onn pa6o1an hoposni.

Cnc1cmnmn nnpxnp ocnona xe1opooinn xenepxen1a, paccxo1-
penne o6:ex1a ncceponannn n hpax1nuecxon
pen1einoc1n n epnnc1ne nnemnnx n nny1pen-
nnx cnnsen.

Cn1yannnnnmn
nnpxnp
choco6 yhpanennn, pemennn hpo6ex n
sanncnxoc1n o1 xonxpe1non cn1yann.

Cnnnannnn
ncnxnnnrnwccnn
nnma1
xononainin qon xenunoc1nix o1no-
mennn n ipyhhe, nxenmnn cy6:ex1nnnyn
snaunxoc1i pn xapoio uena ipyhhi.

Cnncn6 paapcmcnnn
nnqnn1a
conoxyhnoc1i xapax1epnix hpnexon (xon-
qpon1ann, yxonenne, hpnchoco6enne,
co1pypnnuec1no, xoxhpoxncc), o1nuan-
mnx c1ni honepennn, o6pas penc1nnn ho
yc1panennn hpnunni xonqnx1noio
c1oxnonennn.
Mcucdcun

410
C1nnn ynpanncnnn yc1onunnan cnc1exa cpepc1n, xe1opon n
qopx nsanxopenc1nnn pyxonopn1en c xo-
ex1nnox, nahpanennoio na nihonenne
xnccnn opiannsann n ohpepenexoio o6:-
ex1nnnixn n cy6:ex1nnnixn qax1opaxn
hpo1exannn yhpanenuecxoio hpoecca.

C1pa1crnn
mapc1nnra
xoxhexc 6asonix pemennn, nahpanennix
na poc1nenne ienepainon en opiann-
sann, ncxopnmnx ns oenxn pinounon
cn1yann n co6c1nennix nosxonoc1en, a
1axe ppyinx qax1opon n cn peonoio n
qononoio oxpyennn xapxe1nnia.

C1pa1crnwccnc
nnannpnnannc
conoxyhnoc1i penc1nnn n pemennn, hpep-
hpnnn1ix pyxonopc1nox, xo1opie nepy1 x
paspa6o1xe xonxpe1nix c1pa1einn, hpepna-
snauennix pn hoxomn opiannsann n poc-
1nennn ee een n nihonennn ee xnccnn.

C1pccc coc1onnne nn hpoecc honimennoio
nepnnoio nahpnennn nssa nanunn
conix nn ncxnun1einix cn1yann,
nisinanmnx c1pax.

C1py1ypa qopxa opiannsann cnc1exi, o1paanman
nan6oee cymec1nennie, yc1onunnie cnnsn
xepy ee exen1axn n nx ipyhhaxn, xo1opie
o6echeunnan1 ocnonnie cnonc1na cnc1exi.

Cyncpnn1nmannnnc
pcmcnnc
pemenne, xo1opoe o6:ex1nnno hpenocxopn1
1o, u1o cun1aoci nanyumnx pemennex
hpo6ex pannoio 1nha.

Cqcpa nn1pnnn xonuec1no nchonn1een, xo1opie hopun-
nnn1cn nehocpepc1nenno pannoxy pyxono-
pn1en, nanan coc1annnman c1pyx1ypi
yhpanennn.

Tcxnnnnrnn cpepc1no, c hoxomin xo1opoio pecypci
hponsnopc1na hpeo6pasyn1cn n xoneunin
pesyi1a1.
|:cccapuu

411
Tnnapnn6npn1 1) hpoecc o6xena 1onapon na peniin;
2) penenin xnnnaen1 c1onxoc1n hpo-
pannoio 1onapa.

jnpanncnnc
nncpannnmn
penc1nnn ho: paspa6o1xe n peansann
o6men c1pa1einn n nahpanennn ohepa-
nonnon pen1einoc1n opiannsann;
paspa6o1xe n nneppennn ohepanonnon
cnc1exi; hannponannn n xon1pon 1e-
xymeio qynxnonnponannn cnc1exi.

jnpanncnnc
pncamn
cnc1exa c1pa1einn, xe1opon n hpnexon pn
yxenimennn nosxonix o1pna1einix
hocepc1nnn na pesyi1a1i pen1einoc1n
opiannsann hpn hpnnn1nn omn6ounix ho
pasnix hpnunnax pemennn.

jnpanncnwccnc
pcmcnnc
pasnepny1in no npexenn oinxo-xicn-
1einin, xononainohcnxooinuecxnn,
opiannsanonnohpanonon ax1 ni6opa ai-
1epna1nni, nihonnexin pyxonopn1eex n
hpepeax cnonx honoxounn epnnonuno
nn c hpnneuennex ppyinx n.

jpnnnn ynpanncnnn hocepona1einoc1i hopunnennn opnnx
snenien yhpanennn ppyinx cnnsy nnepx.

unpmannnan rpynna ipyhha nny1pn opiannsann, xo1opan
cospae1cn n cymec1nye1 ho noe pyxono-
pc1na n paxxax xonxpe1non pen1einoc1n.

unpmm paapa6n1n
ynpanncnwccnrn
pcmcnnn
choco6 oqopxennn pemennn pyxonopn1e-
n: saxon, yxas, hpnxas, pachopnenne, yxa-
sanne, ax1, hpo1oxo, nnc1pyxnn, poionop,
coiamenne, han, xon1pax1, oqep1a (qop-
xainoe hpepoenne saxnun1i cpexy c
yxasannex ncex yconnn), hooenne, xo-
pei, hpanna, axeh1 (coiamenne na sa-
xnuenne poionopa n coo1ne1c1nne c oqep-
1on) n pp.
Mcucdcun

412
unpmm pcannaannn
ynpanncnwccnrn
pcmcnnn
choco6i hepepaun pemennn nchonn1en:
coo6menne, y6epenne, pas:ncnenne,
hpephncanne, hpnnypenne, nac1anenne,
peonan 6ecepa, o6yuenne, 1pennni (peo-
nie nipi), conemannn, sacepannn, nunin
hpnxep n pp.

uynnnnnannnmn
nnqnn1
xonqnx1, xo1opin nepe1 x honimennn q-
qex1nnnoc1n pen1einoc1n opiannsann.

Xapnama 1) nac1i, hoc1poennan na cne nunix xa-
uec1n nn choco6noc1n npepa;
2) nnnnne pyxonopn1en n iasax eio hop-
unnennix.

Xn1npncnc
acncpnmcn1m
nayunie ncceponannn, hponopnxie 1o-
nox Mno, n pesyi1a1e xo1opix hoyueni
poxasa1eic1na nanoc1n n neo6xopnxoc1n
yue1a conainix nsanxoo1nomennn xe-
py co1pypnnxaxn opiannsann, 6io o1-
xpi1o nnenne neqopxainix ipyhh n op-
iannsann.

Hcncnnc
ynpanncnnc
hpoecc, coc1onmnn ns ue1ipex nesanncn-
xix 1ahon: 1) nipa6o1xa ncnon ca1on
qopxynponxn een; 2) paspa6o1xa pean-
c1nunix hanon nx poc1nennn; 3) cnc1e-
xa1nuecxnn xon1poi n nsxepenne xauec1-
na pa6o1i n pesyi1a1on; 4) hpnnn1ne xop-
pex1npynmnx xep pn poc1nennn hann-
pyexix pesyi1a1on.

Hnna
nnncpcnwccnx nay
(6nxcnnnpnc1nwc-
cnx)

xoneh1yainin hopxop x yhpanennn,
nipocmnn ns pnnennn sa ueoneuecxne
o1nomennn, connmeiocn hoce 2on xn-
ponon nonni. Ocnonan na hepeponix xon-
ehnnx hcnxooinn n conooinn.

Hymm n nnmcxn n6oe nxema1eic1no n xoxxynnxanon-
nox hpoecce, choco6noe ncxasn1i cxic
hocannn.
|:cccapuu

413
npnc1nwccnc
mc1npm
na6op ncxycnix nanopnmnx nohpocon, oc-
nonannix na oinxe, sppanox cxice n
ohi1e, pn nsneuennn cxpi1on n ueonexe
nnqopxann.

nnnmnwccan
aqqc1nnnnc1n
o1nomenne hoyuennoio pesyi1a1a pen1ei-
noc1n x sa1pa1ax.

qqc1nnnnc1n
ynpanncnnn
pesyi1a1nnnoc1i pen1einoc1n xonxpe1-
non yhpannnmen cnc1exi, xo1opan o1pa-
ae1cn n pasnunix hoxasa1enx, xax o6:-
ex1a, 1ax n cy6:ex1a yhpanennn (co6c1nen-
no yhpanenuecxon pen1einoc1n), hpnuex
1n hoxasa1en nxen1 xonuec1nennie n
xauec1nennie xapax1epnc1nxn.

qqc1nnnnc1n
ynpanncnwccnrn
pcmcnnn
qqex1nnnoc1i nchoisonannn pecypcon,
ohpepenexan ho n1oiax paspa6o1xn nn
peansann yhpanenuecxoio pemennn n
opiannsann.

DSS (Decision
Support System)
cnc1exa hoppepxn pemennn.


MIS (Management
Information System)
yhpanenuecxan nnqopxanonnan cnc1exa.