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.

13 2012


u1 + u2 + . . . + un + =

un .

n=1

un . ,
1 2 3 4
+ + + +
3 5 7 9
n
. , n
2n + 1
{0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}. ,
un =

X
1 1 1
1 + + + + ... =
2 4 8
n=0

 n
1
.
2


sn = u1 + u2 + . . . + un .
lim sn = s, ,
n
.
.
2

1 + q + q + q + ... =

qn

n=0

, |q| < 1,
.
.






u1 + u2 + + un + lim un = 0.
n

1 1
1
+ + + +
2 3
n
, .
1+

u1 + u2 + + un +
Sn

P
.
un < .
n=1


0 un vn , n = 1, 2, . . .,

P
n=1

vn < ,

un < .

n=1

un > 0, vn > 0, n = 1, 2, . . .,

un
lim
,
n vn
(
).
.

u1 + u2 + + un +
.

lim

l > 1 .
.

X
n=1

un+1
= l, l < 1 ,
un

1.1n
,
20n + 1

1.1n+1
1.1n
:
= 1.1 > 1.
n 20(n + 1) + 1
20n + 1
lim


lim

un = l, l < 1 ,

l > 1 .

( )
u1 + u2 +
, .. u1 u2 . . . un . . ., f (x)
[1, ),
f (1) = u1 , f (2) = u2 , . . . , f (n) = un , . . .
Z
f (x)dx

,
1

Z
un = f (n) = 4/n,

u1 + . . . + un1 >

f (x) dx
1

y
y = 4/x

u1
u2
u3

u4
x

un

1
1
1
+ p + + p +
2p
3
n
, p > 1, , p 1.
p = 1 .
1+

(1)

|u1 | + |u2 | + + |un | + ,


u1 + u2 + + un +

(2)

(2) .
,
cos 1 cos 2 cos 3
cos n
+
+
+ +
+
1
4
9
n2
.
, , ,
.

u1 u2 + u3 u4 + u5

(3)

un , .
( )
un ,
(3) .
,
1

1 1 1
+ +
2 3 4

, .

u1 (x) + u2 (x) + + un (x) +

(4)

. ,
, x. x,
, .
,
1 + x + x2 + + xn +

(5)

(1, 1). (4)


, .
1
, (1, 1).
(5)
1x

,
, [a, b],
> 0
. ,
(1 x) + x(1 x) + x 2 (1 x) + + x n (1 x) +
[0, 1] .

,
(, )

u1 (x) + u2 (x) + = S(x)
[a, b] ,
[a, b].
1

S(x) [a, b].

, ..
Zb

Zb
S(x) dx =

Zb
u2 (x) dx +

u1 (x) dx +
a



a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + + an x n + =

an x n .

(6)

n=0


(R, R) ( , ,
). R .
,
.

,
.
.

.

a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + + an x n + = S(x)
an =

S (n) (0)
.
n!

f (x)
,
f (0) + f 0 (0)x +

f 00 (0) 2
f (n) (0) n
x + +
x +
2!
n!


. (
) f (x).

(7)

x x x0 ,
, ,
(x0 R, x0 + R).

f (x0 )+f 0 (x0 )(x x0 )+

f 00 (x0 )
f (n) (x0 )
(x x0 )2 + +
(x x0 )n + (8)
2!
n!

f (x)
.
.

x3
xn
x2
+
+ ... +
+ ...,
(; ).
2!
3!
n!
x3
x5
x 2n1
sin x = x
+
. . . + (1)n+1
+ . . . , (; ).
3!
5!
(2n 1)!
ex = 1 + x +

cos x = 1

x2
x4
x 2n
+
. . . + (1)n+1
+ ...,
2!
4!
(2n)!

(; ).

m(m 1) 2 m(m 1)(m 2) 3


x +
x + ...+
12
123
m(m 1) . . . (m n + 1) n
x + ...,
(1; 1).
n!
x2
x3
x4
xn
ln(1 + x) = x
+

+ . . . + (1)n+1
+ ...,
(1; 1].
2
3
4
n
x3
x5
x7
x 2n1
arctan x = x
+

+ . . . + (1)n+1
+ ...,
(1; 1).
3
5
7
2n 1
1 x3
1 3 x5
1 3 5 x7
arcsin x = x +
+
+
+ ...+
23
245
2467
1 3 5 . . . (2n 1) x 2n+1
+ ...,
(1; 1).
2 4 6 . . . 2n (2n + 1)
(1 + x)m = 1 + mx +

sin x
y
y =x

x3
x5
+
6
120

y = sin x

y =x
y =x

x3
6

x3
x5
x7
+

6
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