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THE LIFE AND TIMES OF JAMES McRAE TILLMAN (1892 1940 CE)

A CHRONOLOGICAL BIOGRAPHY

by Donald J. Ivey

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter I.

Title The Early Years (1892-1911 CE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page

II.

Lake Wales Pioneer (1911-1917) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

III.

World War I (1917-1919) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

IV.

From Arcadia to Winter Haven (1919-1922) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Home at Last: Lake Wales Citrus Grower & Community Leader (1922-1940) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 32

V.

EPILOGUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ENDNOTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

APPENDIX 1: BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 APPENDIX 2: GENEALOGICAL TABLES Table A: The Ancestors of James McRae Tillman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table B: The Children of James McRae Tillman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C: The Family of Ola McRae Tillman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table D: The Family of Maude Johnson Tillman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52 53 54 55

PREFACE

Every community, large and small, has its quiet heroes, men and women whose accomplishments on a local level go largely unheralded by historians, who prefer to focus on the bigger picture. As a result, many stories have gone untold or mistold, or worse yet, have been completely forgotten. This is a great tragedy because the study of history in its purest form begins at the local level. History is you and I, our families, our memories, ourselves. Maj. James M. Jim Tillmans story deserves a different fate. His contributions to the Lake Wales area were impressive and deserve recognition. As a young man, he helped to plat the town site of Lake Wales; and later, he was a key figure in helping to guide the young community through critical years of expansion and change, first as a town councilman in the early- to mid-1920s, and later as president of the Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association during the 1920s and 30s. During World War I, he also demonstrated his personal courage by serving his country in combat, seeing horrors on a scale which few men have ever seen either before or since. But Jim Tillman would be the last man to ever tell you of these things. A quiet man, he was modest and unassuming--not one for bragging or boasting. It is left for us to tell his remarkable story as accurately and honestly as possible. This is a revised and expanded edition of an earlier biography I had originally written on Tillman back in 1989, when I was serving as curator of the Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center in Lake Wales, Florida. It is presented in the form of an historical timeline chronology. By tracing the major developments of Tillmans life through time, I hope to present both a concise and readable account of his life based entirely on the facts as we know them. A biographical record on Tillman and genealogical charts on his family are also provided as appendices. In preparing this paper, I have many people to thank. First and foremost, I would like to express my thanks to Miss Jeanne Tillman, daughter of Major Tillman, who generously gave me her time and lent me many photographs and other materials in preparing this work. The Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association also provided me with full access to their corporate records, which was sincerely appreciated as well. I would also like to thank the executive director of the Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center, Mrs. Mimi Reid Hardman, who encouraged me to undertake this work and who generously allowed me the time and resources to complete this study. And last, but certainly never least, I would like to thank my lovely wife Mylene for her undying support, patience and love, and my son John, who always inspires me to do my best. Donald J. Ivey November 18, 1998

THE LIFE AND TIMES OF JAMES McRAE TILLMAN (1892-1940 CE) A CHRONOLOGICAL BIOGRAPHY

Chapter I: The Early Years (1892-1910)

1892 September 23 Birth of James McRae Tillman in the town of Baxley, in Appling County, State of Georgia, the second child and second son of the five children of George Vernon (G.V.) Tillman and his wife Ola (McRae) Tillman. (1) The Tillman family in America is an old one, having originally come to James City, Virginia from England in 1635. James McRae Tillman was named after his grandfather and great-grandfather, both named James Tillman, who were early farmers and cattlemen in Georgia. His middle name, McRae, came from his mothers side of the family, the McRaes, who founded the town of McRae in Telfair County, Georgia, which became the county seat. (2)

1899 May 4 James Tillmans mother, Ola McRae Tillman, died in Appling County at the age of 35 years, 10 months, and 24 days. The cause of her death is unknown. James, by now known more commonly by his nickname Jim, was only 6 years old at the time of his mothers death and had little memory of his mother in later years, according to his youngest daughter Jeanne. (3) After Ola Tillmans death, the family was broken up and G.V. Tillmans five sons were sent to live with nearby relatives in the area. Jim Tillman was sent to live with an aunt in Baxley. G.V. Tillman himself went to Bartow, the county seat of Polk County, Florida, where he began operations in the lumber, turpentining and naval stores industries. (Naval stores is a term for resin and turpentine distilled from the gum of the Longleaf and Slash Pines, which abound in this part of Florida.) (4)

1901 January 3 G.V. Tillman married for a second time, to Miss Effie Lee Campbell, a native of Tolarsville, North Carolina. By now he had made a success of his turpentining and naval stores businesses, and after his re-marriage, he arranged for all of his sons by his first wife to re-join him in Bartow. There, G.V. continued in his work of scouting the Central Florida wilderness for unclaimed lands that could provide good stands of virgin pine forests to yield both timber and turpentine for his 1

growing enterprises. (5)

1902 The following year, Tillman, on one of his explorations into the Florida wilderness discovered an area which was to change not only his life, but the future development of the entire region. As historian Dorothy Kaucher, author of They Built A City tells it: In 1902 G.V. Tillman of Belleville, Georgia, pushed along a sandy cow trail on the Ridge [the Ridge is an elevated area running through much of the south central part of Florida]. No wagon roads. No railroad. Nobody but himself. Finally on the shores of Lake Wailes and Crystal Lake, so named later, he was amazed at the beauty he saw. The larger lake had been known as Watts Lake, honoring an old-time cattleman. Later, as seen from the east side, the larger lake being round and connected by a small stream to the small one like to stem of a watch, both were temporarily named Watch Lake. Mr. Tillman began buying up land mainly because of its beauty and because he foresaw what this locality might some day become. (6)

1905 Meanwhile, in his search for prime lands to fuel his turpentining and naval stores enterprises, G.V. Tillman had made the acquaintance of several other men with the same interests, some of them connected with the Sessoms Investment Company, owners or lessees of thousands of acres of Central Florida wilderness, with naval stores and lumber interests both in Florida and in South Georgia. Thus would begin a partnership that would eventually create a new community on the shores of Lake Wailes. In her book Crown Jewel of the Highlands: Lake Wales, Florida, author Janyce Ahl gives a description of the events of this momentous year: In 1905, C.L. Johnson arrived in Bartow as a representative of the Sessoms Investment Company. He was closely followed by Mr. B.F. Bullard and son, B.K. Bullard, who also arrived in Bartow via the Sessoms Investment Company. Also in the year 1905, G.V. Tillman foretold the movement hed originated in 1902 to the three new arrivals. They became inquisitive and were desirous of first-hand experience. As the four journeyed through the wilderness they were enraptured with the beauties of nature. They traveled through the thick cypress swamps, dense bay heads and sandy hills, all in the heart of Polk County. 2

. . . No doubt, as G.V. Tillman, C.L. Johnson, B.F. Bullard and son, B.K. Bullard, stood spellbound, drinking in the beauties of silvery lakes, lofty hills, shady glens, gigantic forests and observing the skies enriched at dawn and sunset with unspeakable grandeur, noticing dew-drenched sunrises, flashing with invaluable gems and woodlands yielding to the sway of the winds, a vision of a beautiful town encircling the lakes, with its parks, paved streets, waterworks, and all the improvements known to the present day and age of wonderful development, must have arisen before them as though a mirage was leading them on and on. Those men wanted to preserve all the beauty of its natural setting without restricting the towns growth in population or industry. They, too, saw the graceful deer walking majestically around the shoreline and refreshing themselves from the waters of the lake, as they were engulfed in their delightful and mysterious dreamlike vision. The astonishing beauty of the scenery made it an appealing site to the men. They quickly discovered that untold wealth lay dormant at their feet. The characteristic growth on the land was, of course, first the yellow pine; then oak: water oak, black jack and turkey oak; and here and there cabbage palmetto. The quickly recognized the varied possibilities the spacious, peaceful and quiet area could afford mankind. They realized that nature had certainly worked with a lavish hand in beautifying this section of Florida. They decided they could add little to its natural beauty, but at least they would be careful to spoil it as little as possible. By looking into he future, G. V. Tillman, C. L. Johnson, B. F. Bullard and B. K. Bullard emphasized their desire to build a turpentine complex and to establish a unique town, where the virgin timber and land were unscarred by husbandmen, because of the distance from the railway. Then, too, they thought the beautiful land would be free from malaria because of its elevation. Even in its uncleared and unsettled condition, it seemed to possess an air of sophistication and genuineness, the very ingredients the men wanted for their new adventure. After breaking up camp all except G. V. Tillman returned to Bartow. He and his black companion Old Jack Jordan remained in the area, pitching their tents and constructing a roughly built kitchen along the southeast side of the oak and hickoryshaded banks of the little lake that was later named Crystal Lake. At that time the area was also overshadowed by vines and moss. G. V. Tillman was especially fitted for such a mission; being a former Naval Stores operator, he was familiar with untamed territory. Daniel Boone had nothing on G. V. Tillman when it came to knowing the woods. He was also an authority on land 3

lore. Mr. Tillman and Old Jack would return to Bartow occasionally to visit with their families and friends, and to stock up on supplies necessary for the camp. But Monday morning would find them back on the little lake, nestled in the wilderness. While camping in the area, Mr. Tillman became familiar with the terrain and especially its existing possibilities, as he roamed the almost trackless woods in his buggy drawn by Old Tom, his faithful horse, the grain-eating quadruped that had not been replaced by the newfangled horseless vehicle. Mr. Tillman, was, at that point, definitely convinced the area would materialize into a feasible project; therefore, he and his friends were ready to face the possible risks with unflinching courage. Being a group of tenacious men, they decided not to procrastinate until the opportunity they had discovered was lost. After sifting the considerations for and against they decided such a beautiful country could not long remain unnoticed and untouched by man. With verve and eagerness they decided they were in the right place at the right time, reiterating that, while their dream contained some risk, it stood an excellent chance of succeeding, because they were in one accord. And that was brought about because G. V. Tillman, C. L. Johnson, B. F. Bullard and their good friend, E. C. Stuart, communicated extraordinarily well with one another, and each was working toward the same end. (7)

1909 September 27? Jim Tillman, now age 17, entered Summerlin Institute in Bartow. Founded in 1888 by cattle baron Jacob Summerlin, the institute was widely considered to be the first school in Florida south of Sanford to offer students a modern education in subjects such as surveying and astronomy. While a student there, Tillman also played football on the school team, the Gridders, who claimed to be the undisputed champions of Florida from 1909 until 1912. (8)

1910 April 16 United States census records for Polk County, Florida list Jim Tillman, age 17, as residing in the City of Bartows Election Precinct #3 with his father George B. [V.] Tillman, 49, step-mother Effie, and his six brothers: Clarence, 19; Orris, 16; Rollie and Walter, both 13; Campbell, 6, and Spurgeon, 4. George Tillmans occupation is listed as Capitalist largely involved in Timber & turps. [turpentining operations]. (9)

Chapter II: Lake Wales Pioneer (1911-1917)

1911 April 10 Letters patent were issued by the State of Florida to the Lakes Wailes Land Company, Inc., which had been incorporated for the purpose of establishing a community on the shores of Lake Wailes in eastern Polk County. G.V. Tillman was elected vice president and general manager of the company and was a member of its Board of Directors. Other principal officers of the corporation were: E. C. Stuart, president; C. L. Johnson, secretary-treasurer; and B. K. Bullard, incorporator. (10) Early Summer Along with his friend Bob Hatton of Bartow, Jim Tillman joined the surveying crew of A. C. Nydegger, a Winter Haven surveyor who had been contracted by the Lake Wailes Land Company to plat the companys 5,000 acre tract on Lake Wailes. The crew set up camp along the south shoreline of present-day Crystal Lake and for ten weeks conducted a survey of the site, staking out a townsite two miles square. Author Ahl gives the following account of the expedition: During the early summer of 1911, the Lake Wales Land Company engaged a young 24-year old Civil Engineer, Allen Carlton Nydegger of Winter Haven, Florida, to map the 5,000 acre tract. Young Nydegger had recently moved to Winter Haven from Pennsylvania where he had worked as a civil engineer for the Western Maryland Railroad. Prior to that he had resided in Oakland, Maryland. The young surveyor had never ventured into the Lake Wales area, but agreed to meet Mr. Tillman [G.V. Tillman], and survey the site. The surveyor was contracted for $8.00 a day, plus expenses. He brought two assistants in a two-horse wagon, plus surveying equipment and camping gear. On their way over from Winter Haven, the surveying team proceeded slowly and cautiously, with everyone alert. Their first stop was at Rollie Pinkstons homestead, which was a few miles north of the spot that they were to meet Mr. Tillman. Mr. Pinkston gave them directions which led them to the big lake named Lake Wailes. Upon Nydeggers arrival at the lake, not finding Mr. Tillman, the crew became apprehensive, thinking perhaps they had stopped too soon--maybe at the wrong lake! The young engineer sent several shouting calls to Mr. Tillman; but there was no response, no one answered! The team proceeded southward. Fortunately, G. V. Tillman spotted the wagon and quickly sent several shouting messages through the air for the team to turn around. At that time they were near the location of the present Bullard home, on Lake Shore Boulevard. 5

After returning to Mr. Tillman and proceeding west, the crew set up camp. Their tents were pitched on the south shoreline of the little lake that was later named Crystal Lake. A wooden fence, low enough to step over, was constructed around the campsite, to protect it from the intrusion of the roaming cattle and the razorbacks, which roamed wild through the pinelands. The razorbacks were the critters responsible for the distribution of the wingless, bloodsucking, leaping insect known as the flea. And the cattle played host to the pestilent tick. Mr. Tillmans son, James, and his friend Bob Hatton, both of Bartow, were added to the surveyors crew. First, the young surveyor was to stake out a townsite--two miles square, beginning near the present site of the Gulf Life Insurance Co., which is located on the southwest corner of Park Avenue and Scenic Highway, leaving space for 56 acres of parks, and several acres for schools. During several interesting and enjoyable interviews with Mr. Nydegger, he very vividly recalled the year 1911, and the surveying job that he executed in Lake Wales, for the Lake Wailes Land Company. In reminiscing he told of the sub-tropical climate in this humid section of Florida. He said because of the nature of the weather he and his crew would begin work at the first appearance of daylight and continue until around twelve noon. At that time he said theyd return to camp and relax by jumping into Lake Wailes for a back-tonature swim! With a chuckle in his voice, he said there were only a few twelve-foot alligators to watch them in the nude. He told of Mr. Tillman bringing lumber for them to construct a diving board at the lake. Back at camp theyd feast upon a noonday meal prepared by Old Jack. Then around three oclock theyd return to their surveying task and work until twilight. Back at camp, with night quickly approaching, supper consisted of wild game, freshly caught bass, etc., and served by the flickering flames of the kerosene lantern. He said their evening chores were accomplished by the kerosene light, also. A. C. Nydeggers recollection of their sleepless nights, caused by the cry of the whippoorwill or the hooting of owls, was most entertaining. He related how, weary from a hard days work, they would fall asleep only to be awakened by the nocturnal creatures! With only a pistol to fire into the tree, Mr. Nydegger said the bird escaped unharmed each night. He said that if only theyd had a shotgun theyd have had a better chance of killing the fowl! 6

Mr. Nydegger told, also, of Old Jack killing a turkey out of season, but said Mr. Tillman went to Bartow and paid the fine. Although the buggies, wagons and early model cars of 1911 didnt require wide streets, the young surveyor said he persuaded Mr. Tillman that the main streets should be mapped wider than the 50 feet that he had proposed; therefore, Park and Stuart Avenues were each mapped for 60 feet and Central Avenue for 80 feet, making it the widest of the towns principal streets. Since the request of young Nydegger was taken under advisement and the three main streets made wider, their foresight is paying off today. Especially as Central Avenue is being used as one of the towns principal thruways, over which traffic is constantly on the move. The young engineer named the following streets: Stuart Avenue for E. C. Stuart. Johnson Avenue for C. L. Johnson. Tillman Avenue for G. V. Tillman. Bullard Avenue for B. K. Bullard. Sessoms Avenue for the Estate of Albert Sessoms, one of the stockholders in the Lake Wailes Land Company. Messrs. E. C. Stuart, C. L. Johnson, G. V. Tillman and B. K. Bullard wanted a street named for the young engineer, but Nydegger objected, saying that he didnt want to impose that name upon the hamlet. A compromise was made, thus Carlton Avenue was named in honor of Allen Carlton Nydegger. The entire surveying job, including final map drafts, drawn back in Winter Haven, and a couple of return trips to Lake Wales, took about ten weeks. (11)

1913 May 14 Jim Tillman, now age 21, graduated from Summerlin Institute, one of eight students to graduate during this years session. (12) September 24 Tillman entered the University of Florida in Gainesville, where he majored in agriculture and took special course work in citrus culture. During his four years at the university, he was also active in a variety of extracurricular activities. In his freshman year, he served as class president; as a sophomore and junior, he was a member of the Inter-Fraternity Conference, and was sergeant-major of the universitys Military Organization Battalion; and during his junior and senior years, he served as business manager of the Seminole, the school yearbook. He was also a member of Alpha Tau Omega Social Fraternity, and the Polk County Club. (13)

1915 February 12 Meanwhile, in Lake Wales, G. V. Tillman began construction of a new ten-room, two-story Colonial Revival frame home on the northeast corner of Sessoms Avenue and Third Street at 313 East Sessoms. The family used this as their summer home until May of 1917, when they moved there permanently after all of Tillmans older children had finished school in Bartow. (14) In Lake Wales, Tillman managed the daily affairs of the Lake Wailes Land Company in addition to his own businesses, and served as a director of the communitys second bank, the State Bank of Lake Wales. He was also, according to Ahl, active in his church (Baptist), civic affairs, social life and the welfare of the surrounding area. (15)

1917 April 2 Following Germanys threat to wage unrestricted submarine warfare against all ships at sea, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress in a special session to issue a declaration of war. The Senate adopted the resolution by a vote of 82 to 6 on April 4, and the House of Representatives followed that same day, voting 373 for and 50 against. On April 6, the President signed the declaration, and the United States was officially at war. (16) May 3 In Lake Wales, citizens unanimously approved a charter of incorporation for the community, and on May 17, the Florida Legislature passed an act officially making the Town of Lake Wales a municipality. The act was signed into law by Gov. Sidney J. Catts on May 28. A mayor and five councilmen were chosen by popular election in June, with B.K. Bullard serving as president of the City Council and C.L. Johnson as tax assessor. (17) May 12(?) With the war now on, a call for volunteers was made, and Tillman entered U.S. Army Officers Training School at Camp Gordon in Atlanta, Georgia. (18) June 5 In Gainesville, Jim Tillman, now 24, graduated from the University of Florida with a Bachelor of Science degree in Agriculture (B.S.A.). His senior entry in the Universitys yearbook, The Seminole, reads: JAMES M. TILLMAN Jim Bartow, Fla.
AGRICULTURE

Alpha Tau Omega; Polk County Club; SergeantMajor Battalion 15, 16; President Freshman Class; Business Manager Seminole 16, 17; Inter-Fraternity Conference 15, 16. (19)

Chapter III: World War I (1917-1919)

1917 August 15 Tillman was commissioned in the United Stated Army Reserve Corps with the rank of captain after completing Officers Training at Camp Gordon. (20) August 23 Just days before he was to ship out for Europe, Jim Tillman married Miss Maude Johnson, 23, the oldest daughter of Charles Leon Johnson and his wife Eliza Belle (Riggins) Johnson of Lake Wales. Johnson (known popularly as C. L.), was a director and secretary-treasurer of the Lake Wales Land Company and was closely engaged with G.V. Tillman in the turpentining, naval stores, citrus and other industries in Lake Wales. The wedding was performed by Tillmans younger brother, the Rev. Orris G. Tillman, at the Johnson home, located next door to the Tillmans at 315 East Sessoms Avenue in Lake Wales. An article in the Lake Wales Highlander, which covered the wedding, noted that: Promptly at 4.45 p.m. the bride, who was unattended save by her father, entered to the strains of Lohengrins Wedding March played by Miss Dorothy Ellerton. The bride looked charming in her traveling suit of navy and black beaver hat with accessories to match, and carrying a beautiful bouquet of brides roses and lilies of the valley. The groom in military uniform entered on his brothers arm, Rev. O. G. Tillman, who tied the nuptial knot, while the wedding march was softly played. The impressive ring ceremony was used. Only the immediate relatives witnessed the ceremony after which Mr. and Mrs. G.V. Tillman entertained the bridal party at a buffet luncheon. Immediately following the happy couple accompanied by several of the party, motored to Haines City and amid showers of rice boarded the train for Jacksonville where they will spend a few days en route to Atlanta. They were the recipients of many handsome and useful gifts and have the good wishes of a large circle of friends. (21) August 25 Captain Tillman was assigned to the 328th Regiment of the newly formed 82nd Division, commanded by Maj. Gen. Eben Swift. Raised at Camp Gordon, the 82nd was formed as part of the massive growth of the U.S. Army towards a goal of one million troops in France by May 1918. Since members of the division came from all forty-eight states in the Union, the unit was given the nickname All American, which was the source of the divisions famed AA shoulder sleeve insignia. (22)

1918 April 25 Their training in the U.S. completed, the 82nd Division left New York for Europe, as part of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF). They were only the second National Army division to leave for the war. (23) May 7 Landing at Liverpool, England, the division moved via Southampton to Le Havre, France. In France, the 82nd went into training immediately with the weapons they would use in combat, a training to which the nearness of battle gave a sense of urgency. By June, a few officers and noncommissioned officers (NCOs) were receiving on the job combat training in the front lines with their British allies. According to one historian of the 82nd: Although the rapid growth of the US Army caused grave equipment shortages which forced the 82nd Division initially to train with wooden rifles, the All Americans did receive intensive training in the methods of trench warfare from French and British officers as well as American officers. Shortage of machine guns and grenades also forced the doughboys of the 82nd to spend extra time training with their bayonets. (24) June 25 Captain Tillmans 2nd Battalion of the 328th was among the first of the 82nds units to move into the front line trenches in the Lagny Sector of the Woevre front, northeast of Paris. Here the 82nd experienced its first taste of combat, although action was sporadic and light, and casualties were only slightly over 300. (According to author Dorothy Kaucher, The Captain would be writing his bride later that he was reading a copy of The Highlander by candlelight in the trenches of No Mans Land as enemy shells burst overhead.) (25) August 4 The 82nd carried out its first combat raid at night in France, attacking German positions around Lagny. By August 10, when the division was pulled out of this sector of the fighting for rest, they had suffered staggering losses--a total of 374 casualties. (26) August 15 The 82nd division was moved into the Marbache Sector, about nine miles north of Nancy in the Lorrain region of France, where the division relieved the U.S. 2nd Division. This sector had developed a reputation for being somewhat quiet--both sides had, in fact, used it to rest units who had seen heavy combat--but the 82nd found that for them, at least, it was not all that calm. In addition to frequent artillery and air bombardment, the All Americans found themselves having to deal with aggressive German patrols. (27) September 12 U.S. Maj. Gen. John J. Black Jack Pershing, in command of 550,00 men of the U.S. 1st Army, launched the first major American offensive of the war with an attack on German forces on the St. Mihiel salient south of Verdun in Northeast France. Operating on the right flank of the southern portion of the advance, the 82nd was assigned the village of Norroy as an objective. They occupied it, meeting virtually no resistance, and the division was relieved in the Marbache 10

Sector by the French 69th Division. By the end of the offensive on September 21, the salient was wiped out and more than 15,000 enemy soldiers had been captured, although the division itself suffered a total of 950 killed or wounded. One of the seventy-eight killed was the divisional machine gun officer, Lt. Col. Emory Pike, who won a posthumous Congressional Medal for Honor for rallying disorganized men of Tillmans 328th Infantry and then going to the aid of a wounded man under fire. (28) September 21 Pershings 1st Army participated in a major offensive along 200 miles of the Argonne Forest, just west of the French-Belgian border. By the end of October the Americans had crossed the forest, and on November 7, they established bridgeheads across the Meuse River and cut the railroad that carried German supplies to the front. (29) September 24 The 82nd moved into the Clermont area west of Verdun as a reserve unit for the U.S. 1st Army. In the reserve, the 82nd was not initially committed to the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, which began on 26 September. The respite did not last long, however, as the first divisional element--the 327th Infantry Regiment--was committed to shore up the defenses near Apremont on 29 September. After only one and a half hours notice, the men of the 327th made a forced march to move into the line and then held their ground against stiff German pressure for two days until relieved by the 1st Division, having suffered 1,782 casualties. (30) October 4 The 328th Regiment joined advance units of the 82nd at the front near Varennes in the Argonne, and that same day, Maj. Gen. George B. Duncan took command of the division, replacing Brig. Gen. William P. Burnham, who had commanded the 82nd since its arrival in Europe. Two days later, the entire 82nd Division was put into the front lines of the offensive, replacing the U.S. 28th Division. (31) October 7 Back on the offensive, the 82nds 164th Brigade (of which Captain Tillmans 328th Regiment was a part) launched an attack against the Germans, seizing Hills 180 and 223 against tenacious resistance. (32) October 8 The following day, Tillmans unit, the 2nd Battalion of the 328th, was assigned to infiltrate through the German lines near the town of Chatel Chechery. During the advance, Cpl. Alvin C. York of Company G, 328th Infantry, single-handedly killed twenty-five German machine gunners and captured 132 more men, including three officers. Returning with his prisoners to battalion headquarters several hours later, he turned the German prisoners over to his commanding officer-- James M. Tillman. After ten hours of fighting that day, the 2nd Battalion reached all of its objectives and captured 375 prisoners, 123 machine guns, a battery of 77mm guns, and two trench mortars, at a cost of 390 men killed or wounded. Yorks unprecedented feat, which became widely celebrated as one of the greatest acts of heroism during the war, earned him a promotion to sergeant, the U.S. Congressional Medal of Honor, the French Croix de Guerre, and a host of other awards.

11

Two years later, in an interview with reporter Walter A. Kaler of The De Soto County News, Tillman told the full story of that remarkable day: On the morning of October 8, 1918, Major Tillmans battalion jumped off Hill 223 at 6 oclock for an advance on Chatel Chechery, which they made without a barrage. When the front ranks had advanced three-fourths of the way, they were held up by strong machine-gun fire from three sides. The battalion headquarters moved up to within 100 yards of the front line, in between the assaulting wave and the supporting wave of the front line company on the left flank. At 9:45 information came from the captain commanding the left-hand company that his left flank was being held up by machine fun fire from its left. A platoon was sent out, in charge of Sergeant Earley, with orders to surround the machine-gun nest and silence its fire. This was the third platoon of Company G, 328th Infantry, Major Tillman commanding. Sergeant Earley was badly wounded early in the action and Corporal York assumed command. At 10:15, after encircling the German machine-gun nest, York and his men, who were deployed as skirmishers with York nearly 20 feet ahead of his men, rounded a hill and saw two Red Cross Germans run out of the bushes and take over a hill. The man behind York got rattled and fired at the Red Cross Germans as they ran. Jumping a little creek, York broke through the bushes and surprised a German battalion headquarters company which was at ease, its arms stacked. As soon as he saw the Germans, York began firing with his service automatic and killed some of them. There were about 75 of these men and when Yorks automatic had taken considerable toll from their numbers the commander asked in English, Are you English? No, Americans, was Yorks reply. My God! ejaculated the commander. He at once offered to surrender. While this palavering was going on the German machine guns, which were situated on a hill about 45 feet from York and his prisoners, who were in the valley, had been turned around and their muzzles depressed as low as they could be and missed the Germans whom York had corralled under his automatic. Before York could take his prisoners to the rear the guns began to rain a hail of missiles over the heads of the Germans, and York escaped annihilation by kneeling at the rear of the Germans. While kneeling and while the machine-gun missiles were singing their song of death, he kept up a hot pistol fire from his automatic and killed and wounded a number of German machine gunners and put several guns out of commission. Occasionally the prisoners would become restless and try to rush York or get to their stacked arms. Whenever a move like this was made, York would turn his deadly automatic on the prisoners and kill a few of them and then they would quiet down. A German lieutenant and six men from the machine-gun nest on the hill rushed 12

down the hill to attack York. He directed his automatic on them and killed or wounded all seven before they reached him. Of the 18 men who went with York, ten were killed or badly wounded by machinegun fire. One man was behind a tree directly behind York and he was riddled with machine-gun bullets. The tops of the bushes above Yorks head were mowed off as smoothly as the scythe mows the waving grass in harvest time. The boles of the trees in Yorks rear were honeycombed with the bullets which were seeking his life and were only prevented from taking it by the proximity of his prisoners. The German battalion commander, thinking that he was entirely surrounded and losing men on all sides at the rate Corporal York was mowing them down, said to York, If you will make your men stop shooting, I will make my men surrender. York said, Make them surrender, then. The German commander blew his whistle and issued an order in German. Immediately the machine guns ceased firing; the gunners began throwing off their equipment and came running down the hill to join their comrades in the valley who were Yorks prisoners. York ordered the German officer to form his men in columns of twos. This done, the German officer said, I will show you the way out. You will go where I say, said York. (They found out later that the way the German commander would have taken them would have brought them into another machinegun nest.) Turning, York led directly up the hill and through the machine-gun nest just abandoned. The German officer was in front, with Corporal York behind him with his gun trained on the German officer. Yorks remaining men, seven in number, guarded the prisoners on the sides and rear. In this formation they reached battalion headquarters, 350 yards from where the scrap occurred. The fight between York and his men and the Germans could be plainly heard from battalion headquarters. The platoon was detailed at 9:00 a.m. and returned with their prisoners at 11:00 a.m. Major Tillman says that he supposed the German nest consisted of three guns, as was usual, and if he had known there were so many guns he would have sent two platoons instead of one. When York reached battalion headquarters his first words, in a high, squeaky voice, were: I had some more prisoners, but they got away. He had started out with 150 prisoners, but a few of them had gotten away from their small escort. He reached headquarters with 132 prisoners, including a major and two lieutenants. The prisoners were counted by the adjutant and personnel officer. A patrol was immediately sent to the scene of the fight to scour the woods for escaped German prisoners and to count up the American dead and locate them. They were also to dismantle the German machine guns. The patrol reported back that it 13

had found 20 dead Germans on the spot of Corporal Yorks fight and had dismantled 83 German machine guns on the hill, in the same nest which Corporal York had silenced. Company E had captured 42 prisoners and these were added to Yorks prison squad and sent to the rear to brigade headquarters by York and five men, who delivered them and received a receipt for 174 men. He reported back for duty with his men at 5 oclock that evening. In the meantime the battalion had reached its objective (about 4:30 p.m.), cutting off the Decanville Railroad which had been supplying ammunition and food to the remnant of the German army still in the Argonne. The Germans began to abandon Cornay, south of this point, about 8 oclock at night. A heavy artillery barrage was called for on the roads they were using in their retreat, which was found two days later to have resulted in the death of 212 Germans. The 77th division on the morning of October 9 advanced 4-1/2 kilometers (a kilometer is five-eighths of a mile). On October 8 the 2nd battalion lost 190 men killed and wounded and succeeded in capturing 123 machine guns and four 77's (bigrifled cannon). Corporal York was recommended for promotion after he came out of the Argonne and was made a sergeant after the armistice was signed. Journalist Kaler concluded the article by noting: The above is one instance where a non-com received publicity which has made him known all over the civilized world while his commanding officer has been living quietly here in Arcadia several months and his connection with this historical incident of the World War, we believe, is now made public for the first time. Those were strenuous times and one can hardly realize by seeing Major Tillman at his desk or talking about farming interests with the farmers that this quiet unassuming man was the commander of the battalion which did such good work in the Argonne. Truly, the brave are unostentatious. (33) October 10 Tillman was promoted to the rank of major on the field of battle for meritorious conduct and indefatigable zeal under fire during the Battle of Cornay and Sommerance in the Argonne Forest, where under his leadership the 2nd Battalion (consisting of Companies E, F, G, and H of the 328th Regiment) achieved all of its objectives and cut off the Decanville Railroad, which had been supplying food and ammunition to the German Army in the Argonne. (34) October 31 After more than three weeks of intense fighting, the 82nd held the ground they had gained until they were relieved for rest by the fresh U.S. 77th and 80th Divisions, which continued the offensive. 14

During the Meuse-Argonne offensive the 82nd Division had performed impressively, but at a high cost: more than 6,000 casualties had been sustained during the fighting, including 902 killed. (35) November 11 Germany signed an armistice with the Allied powers which finally ended the war.

The end of the war found the 82nd Division assigned near Pravthay in East-Central France, where they had been sent for training exercises following their combat tour. After less than seven months of service in Europe, the All Americans of the 82nd division had spent a total of 105 days on the front lines, seeing more continuous action than any other American division in the war, with a casualty rate of almost 75%. (36)

1919 January 13 Major Tillman was officially cited for his heroism during the operations of the previous October. The official citation, issued by Maj. Gen. George B. Duncan, commander of the 82nd Division, reads: In the vicinity of Chatel Chehery, France, October 8th, 1918, Major Tillman led the attack of the 2nd Battalion, under very heavy machine gun and artillery fire, thru a densely wooded country. For three days and nights, without sleep, he directed his battalion in the attack and by his frequent visits to the men in the front line and his interest in their welfare, he contributed materially to the high state of morale of his battalion, which resulted in the successful achievement of its objective. His courage and bravery under fire were an inspiration to his officers and men. (37) April (or June 7) York. (38) Tillman returned to the United States with rest of the 82nd, landing in New

May 26 or 28 (or June 12) Maj. James M. Tillman was honorably discharged from the United States Army at Fort Dix, New Jersey as major of the 2nd Battalion of the 328th Infantry Regiment, 82nd Division. He was awarded a Victory Medal for his service during the war, and was twice cited in corps and division orders for bravery in action. (39) On May 27, the remainder of the 82nd Division was deactivated. During their service, the division has spent 105 days in the front lines, and had suffered a total of 1,413 casualties, having seen more action than any other American unit in the war. (Later, during World War II, the 82nd was converted into one of the Armys first airborne paratroop divisions, and in the subsequent campaigns in North Africa and Europe would achieve lasting fame. Today, the 82nd continues in this proud tradition and now serves as one of Americas most elite airborne units.) (40)

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Chapter IV: From Arcadia to Winter Haven (1919-1922)

1919 Summer After leaving the Army, Jim Tillman and his wife moved to the town of Arcadia in DeSoto County, Florida, where he apparently engaged in farming and citrus growing. Why he had chosen not to return to Lake Wales is unclear, except that possibly he wished to strike out on his own, instead of going to work in one of his fathers various enterprises. (41) October 1 Tillman was appointed to serve as a collaborator with the States Relations Service of the United States Department of Agriculture in Arcadia. In this position, he served in an advisory, part-time capacity to help educate local farmers and citrus growers in the most modern and efficient methods of agriculture. His salary at the time was set at $1.00 per year. (42)

1920 January 22 United States census returns for DeSoto County, Florida listed James Tillman, then age 27, as residing in Arcadia with his wife Maude, 24, in a rental home on Oak Street. His occupation was listed as Co. Demonstration Agent, County. (43) March 17 A daughter, Ola Belle was born to Jim Tillman and his wife Maude in Arcadia. The couples first child, she was named after Tillmans mother, Ola McRae Tillman, and Maudes mother, Eliza Belle (Riggins) Johnson. Ola Belle, who remains unmarried and served for more than thirty years as a librarian at the Lake Wales Junior and Senior High Schools. Retired since 1985, she currently lives in Lake Wales. (44) July 1 Jim Tillman was appointed the farm demonstration agent for DeSoto County, Florida. Acting as employees of the U.S. Department of Agriculture under a cooperative program between the Federal government and state and local governments, county farm agents served to assist farmers, growers, and livestock owners with their different problems. Tillman was appointed to the position on the recommendation of A.C. True, the local director of Extension Work, who noted that he has had considerable experience as a practical farmer and especially in the growing of oranges. His salary was set at $2,490 per year. (45)

1921 May 15 Tillman resigned as a county farm agent, apparently to take a position as a sales representative with the Bradley fertilizer company in Winter Haven. (46) July 18 Meanwhile, the Cooperative Fruit Company , headquartered in Lake Wales, was incorporated by the State of Florida. The Company, founded by members of the Stuart, Tillman, Johnson, and Bullard families, planned to plant between 225-250 acres of citrus fruit west of Lake 16

Belle, southwest of Lake Wales. In addition to its own holdings, the company would also care for 200 acres of groves owned by C.L. Johnson and G.V. Tillman. Their choice regarding who should manage the day-to-day operations of the groves was obvious: Jim Tillman. According to a 1932 newspaper article from The Highlander: Major Tillman was put in full charge of operations. The company had 300 acres of land south of Lake Wales and east of the Scenic Highway, and Major Tillman cleared this land in 1922 and put it into groves the following season. The company still retains its original owners, and Major Tillman has one fifth of this property and in addition had about 40 acres of grove south of this city. In addition to serving as manager of the companys operations, Tillman also served as a charter director and secretary-treasurer of the company. Other officers of the corporation were: C.L. Johnson, president; E.C. Stuart, vice-president; and B.K. Bullard, second vice president. Later, Tillman also served as president of the company. (47) August 30 A son, James McRae Tillman, Jr. was born to the Tillmans in Winter Haven. He was the couples second child and their first son. James Tillman, Jr. served as an assistant supervisor of the stevedoring division of the Carolina Shipping Company until he was killed by shifting cargo at Charleston harbor, South Carolina on June 23, 1964, at the age of 41. An obituary notice which appeared in a local paper noted that : He was directing freight movement at a forward cargo hold aboard the Yugoslavian freighter Jablanica. A large clamshell bucket used for off loading was lying idly nearby. Mr. Tillman went to the rail to see what was holding up progress on the pier. The bucket--no one can say why--slid against him, crushing him to death. The best explanation anyone can offer is that the ship listed slightly, setting the bucket in motion--but no one saw it list. (48)

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Chapter V: Home at Last: Lake Wales Citrus Grower & Community Leader (1922-1940)

1922 c. September Tillman moved his family back to Lake Wales, where he built an eleven-room, onestory concrete and stucco home for his family at 324 East Central Avenue. In addition to his work with the cooperative, he also became involved in community affairs, serving as a deacon and trustee of the First Baptist Church of Lake Wales, and was an active member of the Dykeman-Pinkston Post No. 71 of the American Legion in Lake Wales. (49)

1923 April 18 The Lake Wales Highlander reported that friends of Maj. J.M. Tillman have prevailed upon him to allow his name to be used as a candidate in the upcoming elections for Lake Wales Town Council. In running for office, Tillman sought the seat currently held by H.E. Draper, who had refused to run for another term. (50) May 1 Tillman was elected a member of the Lake Wales Town Council for a two-year term. (Election returns for this race are no longer extant, but during this period, council members were elected on an at-large basis, that is, they were elected to represent the town as a whole and not specified districts.) (51) May 29 Tillman was also elected vice president and a member of the Board of Directors of the Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association (LWCGA), a corporation organized to help local area citrus growers pack, market and sell their products. Tillmans father, G.V. Tillman, was one of the original members of Board of Directors for the association when it was chartered on July 31, 1918 by local citrus growers Tillman, A.C. Thullbery, T.L. Wetmore, C.C. Thullbery, W.A. Varn, J.P. Wetmore, C.L. Johnson and J.B. Briggs. (52) June 5 Tillman officially took his seat as a member of the Town Council of the Town of Lake Wales in Council Chambers. During this year, Councilman Tillman was appointed to serve on the Council Finance Committee, and the School Committee (as chairman). His colleagues on the council were: George E. Wetmore, president; C.C. Thullbery, president pro tempore; H.S. Norman; and George A. Robinson. Louis H. Kramer was mayor and J.F. Dubois, town clerk, collector and treasurer. (53) July 6 During a meeting of the Town Council, Councilman Tillman offered a motion which was unanimously approved by the Council that the City take over the lighting and maintaining of the White Way installed on Park Avenue. The White Way, largely the work of local architect J.T. Rhodes, was a lighted portion of the town extending from Scenic Highway to First Street, a distance of 850 feet. (54) 18

1924 By this year, a huge land boom took hold in Florida, bringing a large influx of new residents, eager to buy land in the growing state. With this unprecedented growth, scores of new cities were founded, and both state and local governments spent large sums to pay for the construction of new roads, bridges, schools, and other public improvements throughout the state. Lake Wales benefited greatly from all this activity, to an extent that the town might almost be regarded as a product of the Florida Land Boom. From a base of 795 residents in 1920, the towns population jumped in five years to 2,747, an increase of 245%, which by one account at the time was said to be the greatest gain made during that period by any Florida city or town. (55) April 21 During a council session, Councilman Tillman introduced a set of five proposed ordinances which together provided for the borrowing of $195,000 by the town for five major public improvements. Ordinance No. 72 would allow for the borrowing of $50,000 for public parks improvements, including the filling in of the marsh around Lake Wales; Ordinance No. 73 was for $25,000 for improving Crystal Park with playgrounds, a wading pool, and a bandstand; Ordinance No. 74 allowed for $50,000 to be borrowed to take care of the towns floating indebtedness incurred for paving Scenic Highway north and south of town, and for other streets; Ordinance No. 75 was for $15,000 to provide for a public park, athletic field and ball park, with a grandstand, showers and other amenities; and Ordinance No. 76 provided for the borrowing of $55,000 for acquiring and establishing a 200 acre, 18-hole public golf course. The five ordinances, which were all passed unanimously by the Council, also provided for an election to be held to secure the voters approval to authorize the issuance of bonds in order to secure the loans. (56) June 2 Lake Wales voters overwhelmingly approved the bond issues for the five public improvement ordinances introduced by Tillman and passed by the Town Council in April. (57)

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TABLE 1 OFFICIAL ELECTION RESULTS PUBLIC IMPROVEMENT BONDS FOR THE TOWN OF LAKE WALES, FLORIDA JUNE 2, 1924 Bond Issue Ordinance No. 72: $50,00 for parks Improvements Ordinance No. 73: $25,000 for improving Crystal Park Ordinance No.74 $50,000 for town Floating debt Ordinance No. 75 $15,000 for Athletic field Ordinance No. 76 $55,000 for public Golf course Total Votes Cast For125 Against13 Scattering- 1 ForAgainst134 5 Percentage of Total Votes Cast 89.9 9.4 .7 96.4 3.6 96.4 2.9 .7 87.6 12.4 .7 89.9 9.4 .7

For133 Against 4 Scattering- 1 For120 Against17 Scattering- 1 For124 Against 13 Scattering- 1

June 4 With the induction of new councilmen into office, Tillman was assigned to serve on the Council Cemetery Committee during this year, while he continued to serve on the Finance Committee and the School Committee, as chairman. During the 1924-1925 sessions of the Town Council, Tillmans colleagues in office were: George E. Wetmore, president; C.C. Thullbery, president pro tempore; H. S. Norman; and N. L. Edwards. Louis H. Kramer and J. F. Dubois both continued in office as mayor and clerk, collector and treasurer, respectively. (58) September 14 Jim and Maudes third child, Jeanne Tillman, was born in Lake Wales. The Tillmans second daughter, Jeanne (who like her older sister also remains unmarried) currently resides in Lake Wales and serves as a librarian at Webber College in Babson Park. (59)

1925 During this year, the bubble began to burst on the Boom. Property values that in some locations had soared to exaggerated levels during the Booms peak crashing, bringing over extended speculators down with them. Conditions worsened in 1926 and construction activity in most parts of the state had shut down almost completely by 1927. In Lake Wales, however, development in 1927 of the Mountain Lake subdivision, construction of a new city hall in 1928 and high school, and the opening of Bok Tower in 1929, along with the continuing prosperity of the citrus industry appears to have insulated the area to some extent against the worst effects of the Booms collapse. (60)

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March 4 At a meeting of the Town Council, Tillman proposed a motion that would officially change the status of Lake Wales from a town to a city and would provide for payment of bonds out of unlimited millage; and a local plat and zoning act. The measure was passed by the council unanimously. (61) April 1 Tillman was appointed by Town Council President Wetmore as chairman of a committee to look for a sight for a new sewerage disposal plant for the town. Throughout his tenure on the Council, Tillman was keenly interested in the problems of constructing and maintaining an adequate sewage disposal system for Lake Wales and studied, traveled to other municipalities, and sponsored a series of ordinances to help ensure its integrity. (62) April 14 A citizens caucus nominated Tillman to serve for a second term on the Lake Wales Town Council. (63) May 5 In town elections, Tillman was re-elected to a second two-year term as a member of the Lake Wales Town Council. (64)
TABLE 2 OFFICIAL ELECTION RESULTS OFFICE OF TOWN COUNCILMAN FOR THE TOWN OF LAKE WALES, FLORIDA MAY 5, 1925 (NON-PARTISAN BALLOTING) Candidates (Top 3 Were elected) James M. Tillman C.C. Thullbery George E. Wetmore J.C. Watkins Ballots thrown out Total Votes Cast 143 125 122 87 5 Percentage of Total Votes Cast 79.0 69.1 67.4 48.1 2.8

That same day, at the annual meeting of the Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association held at the Scenic Theater in Lake Wales, Tillman was elected president of the Board of Directors of the LWCGA by the directors of the corporation. Only the second president of the Association, he succeeded William A. Varn in office, who was retiring due to pressing business concerns. (65) June 1 Acting on Tillmans and the Town Councils recommendations, the Florida Legislature passed an act . . . Providing a Supplemental, Additional and Alternative Method of Making Local Improvement in the Town of Lake Wales, Authorizing and Providing for Special Assessments for the Cost Thereof, and Authorizing the Issuance and Sale of Bonds of such Town in Connection with said Local Improvements, said Bonds to be General Obligations of the said Town. Also that same day, a second act passed the Legislature on behalf of the town, permitting it to regulate zoning, and . . . granting to the Town of Lake Wales, Florida, a Municipal Corporation of Polk County, Florida, Powers, in Addition to those Contained in its Charter, to Regulate and Restrict 21

the Height, Number of Stories, and Size of Buildings and Other Structures . . . and Granting Powers, and Creating a Board or Commission to Carry Into Effect such Regulations and Provisions. (66) June 3 Tillman began his second term of office on the council of the Town of Lake Wales. Since the composition of the Council was unchanged from last year, his committee assignments remained the same. (67) July 1 On this day, the Town of Lake Wales officially became a City. The law changing the status of the settlement had been approved by special act of the Florida State Legislature on May 28 and was signed into law by Gov. John W. Martin on June 3, to take effect on July 1. (68)

July 15 The newly designated City Council unanimously approved Ordinance No. 99, authorizing the city to borrow $50,000 for the construction of a new city hall, which would also house a fire station and the headquarters for the Lake Wales Chamber of Commerce. The original plans called for a structure of Spanish design to be located on the corner of Crystal Park at Park Avenue and Depot Street. (A new City Hall was formally dedicated in 1928, but at a site other than that originally envisioned--at the corner of Central Avenue and Second Street.) (69) November 5 Councilman Tillmans proposed Ordinance No. 102 was passed by the City Council by a unanimous vote. The new provision prohibited the erection . . . of any pier, wharf, dock, boathouse, or other structure on any lake . . . within the corporate limits of the city. (70)

1926 June 2 On the induction of a new City Council for the year, Tillman was appointed to the Council Finance Committee (as chairman), the Cemetery Committee, the Streets & Alleys Committee, and the Sanitary Committee. City officers for 1926-1927 were: George E. Wetmore (council president); C. C. Thullbery (president pro tempore); J.M. Elrod, R.E. Reed, and Tillman, councilmen; V. A. Sims, mayor, and W. F. Anderson, city clerk, assessor and treasurer. (71) June 17 Councilman Tillman introduced two new major city ordinances authorizing the city to borrow additional funds for continuing general improvements in the area. Ordinance No. 113 allowed the city to borrow $110,000 for the purpose of paying for the filling in and making additional Lake Shore improvements in and around Lake Wales; and Ordinance No. 114 would borrow $20,000 for the purpose of constructing a municipal pavilion located in Lake Wales. As with previous ordinances authorizing borrowing, the measures would go before the voters for ratification. (72) July 21 Voters once again approved the city bond issues proposed by Tillman, although the proportion of residents favoring bonding was significantly less than on previous occasions. (73)

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TABLE 3 OFFICIAL ELECTION RESULTS PUBLIC IMPROVEMENT BONDS FOR THE TOWN OF LAKE WALES, FLORIDA JULY 21, 1926 Bond Issue Ordinance No. 113: $100,00 for Lake Shore improvements Ordinance No. 114: $20,000 for a Municipal pavilion Total Votes Cast For89 Against- 57 For83 Against- 59 Percentage of Total Votes Cast 61.0 39.0 58.5 41.5

Also on this date, Councilman Tillman introduced a motion that a summary of the financial statement of the City be published every quarter commencing Sept. 1st, 1926, which passed the Council unanimously. (74) August 4 Councilman Tillman introduced and secured passage of Ordinance No. 117, defining disorderly conduct and providing penalties for violation of same. (75) September When a powerful hurricane hit the East Coast of Florida and flooded the area around Lake Okeechobee, the Lake Wales post of the American Legion, then headed by Jim Tillman, organized a truck train of sixty to seventy vehicles to bring aid to the stricken residents. (76) An account of the expedition was later given by O. L. Shobe of Lake Wales, who wrote: A terrific hurricane swooped down on the East Coast of Florida, tore down about half of the boom-time shacks being sold to the suckers from the world at large, killed hundreds of people, came on over and slopped the waters of Okeechobee onto, and tore down, the half-finished dike on the west- bank. Here another three or four hundred people were wiped out. The disaster took place during the night. Some of the people had fled, but like brave pioneers, most of them stayed and took their chances. Many of them were carried away into the saw grass and custard apple jungles, and were never found. For several years the pitiful skeletons of men, women and children would be discovered . . . Lake Wales responded to the urgent calls for help from the stricken area most nobly; the American Legion, under command of the late Maj. J.M. Tillman, organized a truck-train of 60 or 70 vehicles and rushed to the task of giving aid and succor to the stricken. I went along to do what I could, and I did it, I am proud to say. Company K of Arcadia [of the Florida National Guard] had been on the job for around three days and nights, and they were almost ready to drop. Capt. Rupert Smith of Company K 23

took us under his charge, and we let the soldiers get a few winks of rest. For several days the combined forces, aided by many civilians, made wide sweeps through the waist-deep waters looking for the dead--there were no living to look for. Nothing was left. People, animals, alligators, fish, everything that breathed, swam, walked or crawled had been beaten to death by the terrific wind and water. Horrible! One morning, as we lined up at the old Cypress Tree to go out into the devastated country, the officials told us to go about our business, as there would be no more search. A loud chorus of opposition arose from folks who still wanted to look for their lost loved ones. The officers were firm--and they were right, too. My buddy in the ranks--that is, the man next to me as we slopped thorough the wilderness of water and slush--went to the captain and wanted to make just one more sweep. The captain gently but firmly refused the request. He and I walked over to the concrete canal lock and sat down, utterly worn out; that is, I was. I was beginning to get sick of the odor of decay and death, and was longing to get back to Lake Wales, where people were walking around in the clean, fresh air, among the lovely homes with their flowers, and not lying, faces and bodies swelled out of all proportion, in the slushy muck and mud. My buddy sighed and said, I would like to go out once more. I said to him that I had enough and was willing to call it a day. Yeah, no doubt. You Lake Wales men and the soldiers and the other gents have done more than we ought to expect, but I have a wife, four children and a mother-inlaw out in that God-forsaken water, and I hate to quit without one more search. I think I know just where to look. How would you know where to look, son? I asked. I am terribly sorry. I thought you were just one of the volunteer help. Nope, I had a home almost at the foot of the dike. When the water tore down the dike, the house floated away toward the west. Pretty soon the roof went off, then the walls; nothing was left but the floor, like a raft. I could hear a scream now and then, but couldnt see or do anything. My clothes were torn off my body by the terrible wind. At last the floor hit something and stopped. It was the canal bank where the canal leads to the Caloosahatchee river. I felt around in the dark. I was alone. I think I could follow pretty closely the course we went during the storm. I was thunderstruck. It was the first time he had mentioned his loss. Why didnt he weep? How could he smile, now and then, as he talked of his former home . . .? I couldnt conceive of such a person. He knew what I was thinking, too, for he said, You wonder why I am not in a wild rage of grief, cursing God and tearing out my hair, I guess, but the fact is I dont feel a thing. I have heard of zombies--the walking dead folks the darkies tell about in the islands south of Florida [i.e., Haiti]--I am just like one of those fabulous monsters. All I have left is a tract of land under four feet 24

of water. Family all gone, 200 head of registered horses gone, I am just about in the same mess old Job was, only I am worse off, I cant feel a thing. Maybe I shall sometime, but right now, I am totally numb. (76) November 17 In Lake Wales, Councilman Tillman introduced Ordinance No. 126 at a meeting of the City Council, making it unlawful to commit a trespass or entering with a view of trespassing . . . in the corporate limits of the city. The Ordinance passed the Council unanimously. (77)

1927 June 1 On the induction of new city councilmen into office for the year, Tillmans term of service on the Council expired. He had declined to run for re-election to a third term in office in the May 3 municipal elections. (78)

1928 August 16 The Florida Citrus Growers Clearinghouse Association was officially organized on this date. Headquartered in Winter Haven, the newly-formed association sought to establish a comprehensive marketing plan and organization to regulate the marketing of Floridas citrus products. Jim Tillman served on the committee to help sign up and educate growers on the goals of the association in the Lake Wales, Waverly, and Babson Park areas, and according to the Lake Wales News, played a major role in securing finances during the drive to obtain [a] Clearinghouse and was always to be counted upon for anything he could do in the signing of contracts for the new organization. (79)

1929 March 14 The Tillmans youngest child, Charles Marion Tillman was born in Lake Wales. He was the couples fourth child and second son and was named after his maternal grandfather (Charles L. Johnson) and great-grandfather (James Marion Johnson). Charles attended Lake Wales High School and the University of Florida, and after combat service in the Korean War, he went on to have a distinguished career as a community leader in Lake Wales, serving as president of the Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association (1961-1985), Lake Wales city commissioner (1958-1961; mayor pro tempore 1960-1961), and president of the Greater Lake Wales Chamber of Commerce (1964). In 1973, he was honored by his fellow citizens by being named Citizen of the Year in Lake Wales. He died of a sudden heart attack while mowing the front lawn of his home in Lake Wales on October 25, 1985, at the age of 56 years, 7 months, and 11 days. According to his obituary in the Highlander: Tillman, a Lake Wales native, was beloved by nearly everyone with whom he came in contact. His smile and wit were appreciated by business associates, fellow church members, and those in amateur entertainment that he so much enjoyed. 25

Longtime friend Frank M. Hunt, president of Citrus World, said, He was always a fine Christian and a true friend. Charles was one of those people who could relate to everybody, Hunt said. He was true-blue. (80)

1930 July 21 Under Jim Tillmans leadership, the LWCGA joined with The Waverly Cooperative Association, Hunt Brothers Packing House, Mountain Lake Corporation, Babson Park Citrus Growers, and Alcoma to form the Ridge Citrus Canners, Inc., the early predecessor to Citrus World, Inc., now the largest single employer in the Lake Wales Area. (81)

1931 August 14 As president, Tillman presided over a special meeting of the Board of Directors of the LWCGA, which voted to reorganize the corporation as a stock co-operative under the states new Agricultural Co-operative Act. Under this arrangement, the LWCGA was changed to a stock cooperative, with each grower required to own one share of stock per acre of grove land. (82)

1932 January 18 A new and modern packing plant for the LWCGA was officially opened for business at 515 North Walker Street in Lake Wales. Begun in 1930, the 62,000 square foot building was at the time touted as one of the largest and most modern packing facilities in the state. Tillman himself was a member of the original building committee that began the project and was the driving force behind its construction. (83) January 19 The following day, an article on Tillman appeared in The Highlander entitled Tillman Trained Specially in the Citrus Business. It read, in part: Among the directorate of the Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association, there are several men whose knowledge of the citrus business is first class. One member of the Board of Directors was especially educated in grove matters, and he is, most appropriately indeed, the president of the Board, James M. Tillman. This is not to say that Major Tillmans interest in citrus affairs is purely that of a theorist, because he planted 300 acres of citrus groves as far back as 1922 and 1923 and takes care today of more than 600 acres of groves for himself and for his associates. Jim Tillman--for most of his associates will not recognize him under the formal title of Major James M. Tillman . . . went . . . to the University of Florida to take a 26

special course in citrus culture, graduating in 1917. . . . The Cooperative Fruit Company takes care of this 300 acres of fruit and about 300 acres more belonging individually to various members of the corporation, so that Jim Tillman, while a graduate of a theoretical institution is by no means without plenty of practical experience. In fact, it is probable that there is no better posted citrus man in Polk County, than James M. Tillman. (84)

1933 March 7 Jim Tillman was elected for a two-year term as a member of the Board of Trustees for Special Tax District #53 (Lake Wales), Board of Public Instruction for Polk County. Colleagues in office with Tillman were: V. A. Sims (who served as secretary of the board), and B. H. Alexander. Trustees for School Districts oversaw the hiring and firing of teachers in their districts as well as school policy. Their real power, however, was fiscal--it was their responsibility to recommend bond issue elections to decide millage rates to the county School Board, and to get those issues approved by the voters. (85)
TABLE 4 OFFICIAL ELECTION RESULTS BOARD OF TRUSTEES SPECIAL TAX DISTRICT #53 (LAKE WALES) BOARD OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA MARCH 7, 1933 (NON-PARTISAN BALLOTING) Candidates (Top 3 Were elected) James M. Tillman B.H. Alexander V.A. Sims John D. Clark Mrs. W.J. Smith Henry H. True Total Votes Cast 182 169 161 143 128 118 Percentage of Total Votes Cast 58.7 54.5 51.9 46.1 41.3 38.1

November 4 G.V. Tillman, Tillmans father, died of complications following a paralytic stroke at his home in Lake Wales. He was 72 years, 9 months, and 26 days of age at the time of his death. After a funeral at the First Baptist Church in town, he was buried in the Lake Wales City Cemetery. (86)

1935 March 5 Tillman was re-elected to a second term on the Board of Trustees for School District #53 (Lake Wales). Sims and Alexander also continued in office. (87)

27

TABLE 5 OFFICIAL ELECTION RESULTS BOARD OF TRUSTEES SPECIAL TAX DISTRICT #53 (LAKE WALES) BOARD OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA MARCH 5, 1935 (NON-PARTISAN BALLOTING)

Candidates (Top 3 Were elected) James M. Tillman B.H. Alexander V.A. Sims

Total Votes Cast 43 43 42

Percentage of Total Votes Cast 95.5 95.5 93.3

Significantly also, the trustees were able to convince the voters--in the midst of the Depression-- to retain a ten mill levy in their district for the year.
TABLE 6 OFFICIAL ELECTION RESULTS BOARD OF TRUSTEES SPECIAL TAX DISTRICT #53 (LAKE WALES) BOARD OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION MILLAGE LEVY REFERENDUM POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA MARCH 5, 1935 Total Votes Cast 35 2 1 Percentage of Total Votes Cast 77.8 4.4 2.2

For Millage Ten Mills Five Mills Six Mills

At the conclusion of their terms of office, all three members of the board declined to run for a third term in the March 6, 1937 election. (88)

1940 November 23 James M. Tillman died of a sudden heart attack while making out the payroll for his citrus workers at his grove office near Lake Belle. At his death, he was 48 years and 2 months of age. He was survived by his wife, Maude, age 46 their four children Ola Belle, then 20; six brothers, a sister, and his step-mother. The Lake Wales community was stunned by the loss, and as one local newspaper noted:

28

The sudden passing of Major J. M. Tillman. . . came as a shock to this community Saturday forenoon and his death seemed almost unbelievable to friends who had visited with him a short time before . . . For some time Major Tillman had not been in the best of health, suffering from a heart affliction, but he was seldom confined to his home. Saturday morning he was down town apparently feeling fine and later he went to his grove to prepare the weekly payroll . . . According to another newspaper articles of the time: . . . He was found dead about 8 o clock in his grove office on Belle Lake by Ray Martin, foreman of this property. He as in the Lake Wales business district a little earlier, speaking to a number of friends. Apparently he suffered a heart attack soon after going to the office. Another editorial of the time called his death A Severe Loss to [the] Community, saying that: In the sudden passing of Major J. M. Tillman last Saturday morning, this community lost one of its finest citizens--a man whose word was recognized among his associates as being as good as his bond, and a resident who commanded and attracted the respect of citizens from every walk of life. Major Tillman was a World War veteran and although he seldom discussed his experiences overseas, he took a keen interest in the happenings of Europe today and had at all times an intimate knowledge of the maneuvers as given through the press dispatches from over there. His constructive suggestions for the development of the citrus industry had proven invaluable, and although his modesty forbid acceptance of many honors which associates hoped to bestow upon him, he had served efficiently in many capacities, and was a leader. His sudden passing is a direct loss to this section and the loved ones left behind have the sympathy of every acquaintance. (89) November 24 After funeral services were held at the Tillman home at 324 East Central Avenue by Rev. R. E. Reed, the body of Maj. James M. Jim Tillman was buried in the Lake Wales Cemetery in Lake Wales. Funeral services for Tillman were conducted at the Tillman home in Lake Wales. The Rev. R. E. Reed, assisted by Dr. R. T. Nelson of the A. R. Presbyterian Church and the Rev. A. A. Koestline of the First Methodist Church, officiated, and according to one newspaper account of the funeral: . . .Active pallbearers were Ray Martin, Buford Gum and R. E. Lassiter, Lake Wales; Kolb Stewart, Major A.D. Tomasello, and Don McLean of Bartow. Honorary pallbearers were Spessard Holland [then Governor-elect, and later a United States Senator] of Bartow; H. F. Steedly, P. P. Sanford, W. H. Greene, H. S. Norman, D. C. Darty, Bill Rinaldi, J. F. Townsend, Sr., J. A. Harris, F. W. Davis, B. 29

H. Alexander, Frank Holland of Winter Haven, M. C. Dopler, W. A. Varn, Dr. Bruce Tinkler, Dr. R. E. Wilhoyte, O. V. Haynes and A.E. Campbell. The high esteem in which Mr. Tillman was held was testified to by the fact that there were 98 beautiful wreathes and floral pieces taken to the cemetery and we are informed that nearly half that many were on order at various florists which could not be made up in time for the funeral services. The faithful colored men who composed his large grove crews were present to show their love for their respected and admired employer. Their loss is felt as keenly as those of the white friends, and their presence was a tribute to the splendid character of Mr. Tillman. And finally, a notice in the Lake Wales Daily announcing his death had the following comments: Major Tillman was a man of unusual refinements, and the sights and sounds of the Great War made an impression on his health far beyond what he showed or admitted. Those who knew him best realized that he had been wounded in soul as much as, or more, than some whose bodies had been torn by the brutal implements of battle . . . His love for his country was only equaled by that for his home, his church and his little, beloved Lake Wales. We shall all miss his noble, dignified, gentlemanly presence on our streets . . . He has joined that great Army of which the poet said: On Fames eternal camping grounds, Their silent tents are spread; And Glory guards with solemn rounds, The Bivouac of the Dead. (90)

30

EPILOGUE

Following Tillmans death, memorials came pouring out of the Lake Wales community honoring this quiet, unassuming and outstanding citizen. On December 2, the Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association passed a resolution noting that: . . . in the death of Major Tillman was have sustained the loss of a friend whose fellowship it was a honor and a pleasure to enjoy; that we bear willing testimony to his many virtues, to his unquestioned integrity and stainless life that we offer to his bereaved family and mourning friends our heartfelt condolence, and pray that Infinite Goodness may bring speedy relief to these burdened hearts and to inspire them with the consolation that are given by Hope in futurity and Faith in God. The First Baptist Church, where he had served as both a trustee and deacon, also passed a resolution declaring that: . . . In the passing of Brother Tillman his loved ones have lost a devoted companion and father, the church and town a kind and loyal citizen whose life will ever be a guiding light to his friends and loved ones. His passing leaves a vacancy in our hearts, our homes and our churches and we shall greatly miss his fine spirit and wise counsel. While we miss the gentle presence, the gracious personality, the splendid mental ability of this dear friend whom we have loved and lost awhile we know that in our loss Heaven has gained another spirit of love and light and is richer because of his presence. On January 7, 1941, the Dykeman-Pinkston Post No. 71 of the American Legion in Lake Wales also weighed in, saying: Whereas, during his lifetime he faithfully, conscientiously and unselfishly served his country as a brave and courageous military officer, and served his fellowman in many positions of trust and responsibility, as an honest, able, and efficient citizen and, Whereas, he was held in respect and high esteem, and was loved by those who had the opportunity and pleasure of knowing him, and, Whereas, we wish to place on record a testimonial of the love and esteem we had for him in life, of our sorrow at his death, and of our appreciation for his fine qualities of mind and heart.

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Now, therefore, be it resolved . . . that in the passing of Major James M. Tillman, this post has lost one of its most valuable, loved, and respected members, and that in his departure, this community, state and national has lost a citizen faithful in his duties, wise in his counsel and advice, and loyal and devoted to his family, friends, community state and nation. Finally, one last honor was paid to the memory of this extraordinary soldier and citizen. On January 18, 1941, in a solemn ceremony in Lake Wales, the Major J. M. Tillman Post No. 2420 of the Veterans of Foreign Wars was instituted and named in honor of Jim Tillman, in memory of his heroic service during World War I and his unselfish devotion to his community.

32

ENDNOTES

Chapter I: The Early Years (1892-1911) 1. William E. (Bill) Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae], Lake Wales Daily Highlander, 29 September 1985, sec. A, p. 5; Charlton W. Tebeau and Ruby L. Carson, Florida from Indian Trail to Space Age, 3 vols. (Delray Beach, Fla.: The Southern Publishing Company, 1965), 3:306. 2. Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [George Vernon Tillman], Lake Wales Daily Highlander, 15 September 1985, sec. A, p. 5. 3. Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [George Vernon Tillman], sec. A, p. 5; Jeanne Tillman, daughter of James M. Tillman, interview with author, 15 July 1988 (hereinafter referred to as Tillman interview). 4. Ibid. There are discrepancies in dating exactly when G.V. Tillman came to Florida, but 1899 (immediately after his first wifes death) seems most probable. 5. Ibid; Tebeau and Carson (Florida from Indian Trail to Space Age, 3:306) give the date of Jim Tillmans coming to Florida as 1900, but Tillmans daughter Jeanne confirms 1901 (after the remarriage) as the most probable date. 6. Dorothy Kaucher, They Built A City (Orlando, Fla.: Kirstein & Son, 1970), p. 7. 7. Janyce Barnwell Ahl, Crown Jewel of the Highlands: Lake Wales, Florida, 1st ed. (Lake Wales, Fla.: Lake Wales Library Association, 1983), pp. 4-5. 8. Football, 11 November 1907 and Bartow Beats Winter Haven, 28 October 1909, in Summerlin Institute, Bartow Newspaper Clippings, 1909, 1913-1915, on file at the Polk County Historical and Genealogical Library, Bartow, Florida; Louise K. Frisbie, Yesterdays Polk County (Miami: E.A. Seemann, 1976), pp. 39, 44; and Tillman interview. The exact date of his entry into Summerlin Institute cannot be determined with absolute reliability, owing to the absence of yearbooks or other records from this period. Regarding Tillmans abilities as a football player, an article dated October 28, 1909 from an unnamed newspaper from the files of the Polk County Historical & Genealogical Library under the heading Bartow Beats Winter Haven noted the following: The local football season opened last Friday with a game at the baseball park between the teams of Winter Haven and Summerlin Institute. The two teams were evenly matched in weight, but Summerlin was far better in the science and skill of 33

the game, so naturally the scoring was all Summerlins way . . . Summerlins new men showed up particularly strong. Knight, at full, McLain, at left half, O. Tillman [Orris Tillman, James younger brother], at right end, C. Tillman [Clarence, James older brother], at left end, Lang, at tackle, J. Tillman and Davis, at guards, are the most promising candidates for the first team. 9. United States Census Bureau, Thirteenth United States Census, Polk County, Florida, 1910, sheet 2B.

Chapter II: Lake Wales Pioneer (1911-1917) 10. Ahl, Crown Jewel of the Highlands, p. 6; and Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [George Vernon Tillman], sec. A, p. 5. The community of Lake Wales drew its name from the lake on whose shores the future town was platted. Ahl, whose father was a pioneer settler of the town, offers the most widely accepted explanation of the names origin and the discrepancy in the spelling of the names of the lake and town. The lake was named in 1879 by J.W. Childs, a government surveyor, for S. I. Wailes, the agent in Washington, D.C. for the State of Florida. Wailes had assisted Childs in obtaining the survey contract. In 1913, when the Atlantic Coast Line built its railroad depot in the new settlement, the i was omitted from Wailes on the depot sign. The suggestion to then change the spelling of the name of the community was attributed to G. V. Tillman. The original spelling of the lake remained Wailes, however. See Ahl, Crown Jewel of the Highlands, pp. 4-19. According to Jeanne Tillman, however, Contrary to popular belief, Mr. Nydegger, who surveyed Lake Wales and most of the Ridge, claimed the correct spelling of the big lake is Wales, not Wailes. See Highlight on Jeanne Tillman from undated Lake Wales Daily Highlander article, in the Tillman family files of the Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center, Lake Wales, Florida. 11. Ahl, Crown Jewel of the Highlands, pp. 7-8; and Kaucher, They Built A City, pp. 8-9. 12. Summerlin Institute, Bartow Newspaper Clippings, Polk County Historical & Genealogical Library; Summerlin Institute 1913 graduation announcement, in the possession of Miss Jeanne Tillman; and Tillman interview. Although extant newspaper clippings do not mention Tillman as a member of the graduating class of 1913, this is confirmed by the surviving graduation announcement and by his daughter Jeanne. 13. Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae], sec. A, p. 5; University of Florida, Seminole (Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida, 1914-1917), pp. 85, 135 (1914); pp. 81, 119 (1915); pp. 68, 119, 141, 171 (1916); pp. 63, 131, 181, 187 (1917); University Record (Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida, 1912), p. 6, (1912-1913); Tillman interview; and Tillman Specially Trained in the Citrus Business, (Lake Wales) Highlander, 19 January 1932, p. 1. 34

14. Ahl, Crown Jewel of the Highlands, pp. 38, 64. 15. Historic Property Associates, Inc. Historic Building Survey of Lake Wales, Florida (St. Augustine, Fla.: By the Author, 1988), pp. 6-8. 16. Linton, Calvin D., ed., The Bicentennial Almanac (Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson, 1975), p. 293. 17. Kaucher, They Built a City, p. 109; and Historic Property Associates, Historic Building Survey, p. 8. 18. Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae], sec. A, p. 5; and Tebeau and Carson, Florida from Indian Trail to Space Age, 3:306. There are considerable discrepancies with regards to Tillmans actual dates of military service. In an employment application for the United States Department of Agriculture in 1919, Tillman gave his enlistment date as May 12, 1917, and his date of commission as August 15, 1917. However, in an American Legion certificate of service apparently completed by Tillman, he gave conflicting information (Entered U.S. Army August 14, 1917 at Fort McPherson, Georgia, as Captain, 82nd Division), and the surviving military records from the National Archives are far too sketchy to trust. Exactly when Tillman volunteered and was commissioned then, is anyones guess. See American Legion certificate of service of James M. Tillman in World War I, in the possession of Miss Jeanne Tillman; United States, National Personnel Records Center (Civilian Personnel Records), civilian service records of James M. Tillman in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 19191920; and United States, National Personnel Records Center (Military Personnel Records), statement of service of James M. Tillman in the United States Army, 1917-1919. 19. University of Florida, University Record, p. 7 (1915-1916); and University of Florida, Seminole, p. 63 (1917). Owing to the onset of the war, Tillman may have received his diploma without attending the commencement exercises on this date, or he may have been granted a leave of absence from the Army in order to attend the ceremonies.

Chapter III: World War I (1917-1919) 20. Civilian personnel records of James M. Tillman with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1919; and Florida Department of Military Affairs, Florida Veterans of the First World War All Services 1917-1919 Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Special Archives Publication Number 26 (St. Augustine, Fla.: State Arsenal, 1980), p. 4. This date, supported by the above references, seems the most probable as his date of commission as captain in the Army. 21. Ahl, Crown Jewel of the Highlands, pp. 249-251; and Tillman-Johnson Wedding, Lake Wales Highlander, 30 August 1917, p. 1. 35

22. Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae], sec. A, p. 5; Leroy Thompson, The All Americans: The 82nd Airborne (New York: Sterling Publishing Co., 1988), p. 8; and W. Forrest Dawson, ed., Saga of the All American (Atlanta: Albert Love, 1946). 23. Thompson, The All Americans, p. 8; and Dawson, Saga of the All American. 24. Thompson, The All Americans, p. 8; and Kaucher, They Built A City, p. 110. 25. Dawson, Saga of the All American. 26. Thompson, The All Americans, p. 8; Kaucher, They Built A City, p. 110; and Dawson, Saga of the All American. 27. Thompson, The All Americans, pp. 9-10. 28. Linton, The Bicentennial Almanac, p. 296; American Legion certificate of James M. Tillman; Thompson, The All Americans, p. 10; and Dawson, Saga of the All American. 29. Linton, The Bicentennial Almanac, p. 296; and Thompson, The All Americans, p. 10. 30. Linton, The Bicentennial Almanac, p. 296; Thompson, The All Americans, p. 10; and Dawson, Saga of the All American. 31. Thompson, The All Americans, pp. 10-11; and Dawson, Saga of the All American. . 32. Thompson, The All Americans, p. 11. 33. Thompson, The All Americans, pp. 10-11; Walter A. Kaler, Major Commanding Battalion, to Which Hero of Argonne Belonged Resides in Arcadia, The DeSoto County News, 2 April 1920, p. 1. The Kaler article is the only known instance in which Tillman consented to be interviewed for a published piece about the momentous events of that day. Kaler also noted in his article that: At first Major Tillman was reluctant to tell us the story of Yorks coup, but when the editor [of the News] insisted the major consented to tell the story if his name was given no publicity in it. Daughter Jeanne also adds that her father very rarely ever talked about his war experiences, and only then in very general terms--about places he had been, sites he had seen, and etc.--and he rarely related anything about his actual combat experience. (See Tillman interview.) Shortly before his death, however, Tillman served as a technical consultant to Warner Brothers on the 1940 film Sergeant York starring Gary Cooper, and according to an unnamed Gainesville newspaper found in the Tillman family files of the Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center: Major Tillman . . . had refused an offer to appear in [the film] . . . but furnished technical data for the film. The company had sent sound equipment to his Lake Wales home, following his refusal to act in the film, and his voice was recorded and plans made for a stand-in. Members of the family had also made plans to attend the 36

premiere of the film scheduled for the latter part of this year. (See Death Ends Career of Major Tillman, Prominent Florida Citrus Grower, from unnamed Gainesville newspaper c. 30 November 1940, in the Tillman family files of the Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center.) 34. Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae], sec. A, p. 5; and Kaler, Major Commanding Battalion, p. 1. Tebeau and Carson (Florida from Indian Trail to Space Age, 3:306) give the date as October 19, but Daughtrey gives more information on the promotion and is to be preferred. Also, in his U.S. Department of Agriculture employment application in 1919, Tillman gives the date as November 11, 1918--Armistice Day. Perhaps this was the date when his battlefield promotion officially was approved. He may even have been commander of the battalion and acting major before he received the promotion. 35. Thompson, The All Americans, pp. 8, 11-12; and Dawson, Saga of the All American. 36. Linton, The Bicentennial Almanac, p. 296; Thompson, The All Americans, pp. 8, 12; and Dawson, Saga of the All American. 37. Ahl, Crown Jewel of the Highlands, pp. 83-84; and Lake Wales has Just Cause to be Proud of Major James H. [sic] Tillman, undated article from an unknown local newspaper in the Tillman family files of the Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center. 38. Thompson, The All Americans, p. 12; and American Legion certificate. Again, sources regarding Tillmans date for leaving Europe and his separation date from the Army differ wildly, and it is almost impossible to establish the correct date. Although the 82nd returned home in April, Tillman, who furnished the information on the American Legion certificate, gives his ending date of service in Europe as June 7, 1919. 39. American Legion certificate; civilian personnel records of James M. Tillman with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1919; and statement of service of James M. Tillman in the United States Army, 1917-1919. The dates on all three of these sources differ. Daughtrey, in Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley, [Tillman, James McRae], sec. A, p. 5, gives his discharge date as January 17, 1919, but this seems far too early when compared to the other sources and the chronology of the 82nd divisions activities. Some sources (Daughtrey [Tillman, James McRae], sec. A, p. 5; Major James Tillman, Leading Citrus Grower Dies at Lake Wales, article from the [Orlando?] Sunday Sentinel-Star, 24 November 1940(?), in the Tillman family files, Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center; and Tebeau and Carson, Florida from Indian Trail to Space Age, 3:306) also mention that Tillman had twice been cited for heroism, but other than the citation on January 13, 1919, no other citation has been found to date. Perhaps they are referring to the date of his promotion in October 1918 and his official citation in January 1919. Also, according to his daughter Jeanne, Tillman was exposed to mustard gas during the war, which affected his throat. He had a very, very sensitive throat, Miss Tillman said. This statement is also supported by Tillmans surviving military uniform, which was on display for a time in the Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center. On the uniform appears a red wound stripe, which probably was given for the injuries 37

sustained by mustard gas. 40. Thompson, The All Americans, p. 12.

Chapter IV: From Arcadia to Winter Haven (1919-1922) 41. Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae], sec. A, p. 5; and Tillman interview. 42. Civilan personnel records of James M. Tillman with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1919. 43. United States Census Bureau, Fourteenth United States Census, DeSoto County, Florida, 1920, sheet 11B. 44. Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae], sec. A, p. 5; and Tillman interview. 45. Civilian personnel records of James M. Tillmans service with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1920. 46. Civilian personnel records of James M. Tillman service with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1920; Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae], sec. A, p. 5; and Tillman interview. 47. Plant 225 Acres, Lake Wales Highlander, 12 July 1922, p. 1; Tillman interview; and Tillman Specially Trained in the Citrus Business, p. 1. 48. Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae], sec. A, p. 5.; Tillman interview; and Safety Record of Port Marred, from unnamed newspaper c. June 1964, in the Tillman family files of the Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center. The latter article noted that: He [James Tillman, Jr.] was directing freight movement at a forward cargo hold aboard the Yugoslavian freighter Jablanica. A large clamshell bucket used for off loading was lying idly nearby. Mr. Tillman went to the rail to see what was holding up progress on the pier. The bucket--no one can say why--slid against him, crushing him to death. The best explanation anyone can offer is that the ship listed slightly, setting the bucket in motion--but no one saw it list.

38

Chapter V: Home at Last: Lake Wales Citrus Grower & Community Leader (1922-1940) 49. Tillman Specially Trained in the Citrus Business, p. 1; Tillman interview; Daughtrey Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James Mc Rae], sec. A, p. 5; and Resolutions of the First Baptist Church of Lake Wales, c. November 1940 and the DykemanPinkston Post No. 71 of the American Legion, 7 January 1941, both from unnamed local newspapers in the Tillman family files of the Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center. 50. Tillman for Council, Lake Wales Highlander, 18 April 1923, p. 1. 51. City of Lake Wales, Council Minutes, 5 June 1923 (hereinafter referred to as Council Minutes). A survey of these records indicates that Daughtrey and Ahl, who each give Tillmans date of service on the Council as 1924-1928, are incorrect. 52. Exchange Elected Directors, (Lake Wales) Highlander, 30 May 1923, p. 1; Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association, Fifty Years of Service, p. 3; and Arch Abernathy, Through All Ups and Downs, LWCGA Does it Best, Lake Wales Daily Highlander, 24 March 1988, p. 34. 53. Council minutes, 5 June 1923. 54. Council minutes, 6 July 1923; M.F. Hetherington, M.F., History of Polk County Florida (St. Augustine, Fla: Record Company, 1928; Reprint ed., Chuluota, Fla.: Mickler House, 1971), p. 152. 55. C. A. Boswell, Esq., attorney for Polk County, Florida School Board, interview with author, 15 July 1988 (hereinafter referred to as Boswell interview); Allen Morris, comp., The Florida Handbook of 1963-1964 (Tallahassee, Fla.: Peninsular Publishing, 1963), p. 295; and Historic Property Associates, Historic Building Survey, pp. 9-10. 56. Council minutes, 21 April 1924; Bond Items are Likely to Draw Investors Here, Lake Wales Highlander, 7 May 1924, p. 1; and Old Minute Books Tell Story of Problems Faced by City During First Years After Town Incorporated/Paving, Bonds, Elections of the Early 20s Continued, Lake Wales News, 11 October 1951, sec. 3, p. 4. 57. Council minutes, 4 June 1924. 58. Ibid. 59. Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae], sec. A, p. 5; and Tillman interview. 60. Historic Property Associates, Historic Building Survey, pp. 9-11 39

61. Council minutes, 4 March 1925; 1925 Marked Change Over From Town to City, Lake Wales News, 11 October 1951, sec. 3, p. 3. 62. Council minutes, 1 April 1925. 63. Put Ticket in Field for City Offices, May 5, (Lake Wales) Highlander, 15 April 1925, p. 1. 64. Council minutes, 6 May 1925; Old Minute Books Tell Story of Problems Faced by City During First Years After Town Incorporated/Paving, Bonds, Elections of the Early 20s Continued, sec. 3, p. 4. 65. Tillman Heads Citrus Growers of Lake Wales, (Lake Wales) Highlander, 20 May 1925, p. 1; Ahl, and even the LWCGAs booklet are incorrect in giving his date of election to this post as 1928. 66. Florida State Legislature, General Acts and Resolutions Adopted by the Legislature of Florida At its Twentieth Regular Session, April 7 to June 5, 1925 Under the Constitution of A.D. 1885, 2 vols. (Tallahassee, Fla.: T.J. Appleyard, 1925), 1:2671-2683. 67. Council minutes, 3 June 1925. 68. Florida State Legislature, General Acts and Resolutions (1925), 1:2671. Ahl and Kaucher are apparently confused on the actual date Lake Wales became a city, which was on July 1, 1925 when the legislation went into effect. 69. Council minutes, 15 July, 1925; and Council Calls Bond Election for City Hall, (Lake Wales) Highlander, 22 July 1925, p. 1. 70. Council minutes, 5 November 1925. 71. Council minutes, 2 June 1926. 72. Council minutes, 17 June 1926. 73. Council minutes, 21 July 1926. 74. Ibid. 75. Council minutes, 4 August 1926. 76. D. B. McKay, ed. Pioneer Florida, 3 vols. (Tampa, Fla.: The Southern Publishing Company, 1959), 1:158-159. 77. Council minutes, 17 November 1926. 40

78. Council minutes, 1 June 1927. 79. Citrus Sign-Up Campaign Now in Full Swing, (Lake Wales) Highlander, 8 May 1928, p. 1; and Much Credit Due Lake Wales Section, Lake Wales News, 19 July 1928, pp. 1, 5. 80. Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae], sec. A, p. 5; Tillman interview; Tebeau and Carson, Florida from Indian Trail to Space Age, 3:303, 306; Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association, Fifty Years of Service, p. 1; and Tillman Dies [Charles M. Tillman], Lake Wales Daily Highlander, 26 October 1985, sec. A, pp. 1, 10. 81. Sanford Betz, Marvin Walker Recounts Growth of Industry-Citrus World Composed of Cooperatives, Lake Wales Daily Highlander, 4 July 1976, sec. E, p. 5; and Lake Wales Growers Association, Fifty Years of Service, pp. 7, 9, 39. 82. Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association, Board of Directors Minutes, 14 August 1931 and Fifty Years of Service, p. 3. 83. Great Packing House, Worlds Largest, Open, (Lake Wales) Highlander, 19 January 1932, p. 1. 84. Tillman Trained Specially in the Citrus Business, pp. 1-2. 85 .New School Board Named Tuesday in Interesting Race, (Lake Wales) Highlander, 10 March 1933, pp. 1, 2; Polk County, Board of Public Instruction Minutes, Minute Book No. 4, 7 March 1933; and Boswell interview. 86. G. V. Tillman Dead After Long Honorable Career, (Lake Wales) Highlander, 11 November 1933, pp. 1, 8; Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [George Vernon Tillman], sec. A, p. 5. 87. Polk County, Board of Public Instruction Minutes, Minute Book No. 5, 7 March 1935; Trustees Re-Elected in Lake Wales and Babson Park Tuesday, (Lake Wales) Highlander, 8 March 1935, p. 1. 88. Polk County, Board of Public Instruction Minutes, 6 March 1937. Ahl and Daughtrey are both incorrect in giving 1939 as the date of his last year in office. 89. Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae], sec. A, p. 5; Tebeau and Carson, Florida from Indian Trail to Space Age, 3: 306; Passing of Major Tillman is Shock to Community, Major James Tillman, Leading Citrus Grower Dies at Lake Wales, and A Severe Loss to Community, all from Tillman family files, Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center. 90. Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae], sec. 41

A, p. 5; Funeral Services for Major Tillman Held Sunday, from Tillman family files, Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center; Major J.M. Tillman Died Suddenly at His Grove Office, (Lake Wales) Highlander, 29 November 1940, p. 1; and Taps Sounds For Another Soldier, (Lake Wales) Highlander, 29 November 1940, p. 3.

A NOTE ON THE EPILOGUE: The Epilogue is derived from the following sources: In Memory of Major J.M. Tillman, resolution of the Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association, 2 December 1940; Resolution of the First Baptist Church of Lake Wales; Resolution of the DykemanPinkston Post No. 71 of the American Legion, 7 January 1941; and New Post Has Been Started at Lake Wales, c. 19 January 1941, all from unnamed local newspapers, in the Tillman family files of the Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center.

A NOTE ON THE APPENDICES: Appendices 1 and 2 are derived from the following sources: Daughtrey, Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [George Vernon Tillman], sec. A, p. 5 and Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James Mc Rae], sec. A, p. 5; Safety Record of Port Marred, from unknown newspaper c. 23 June 1964, in the Tillman family files of the Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center; Memorial Services Held for Vernon Campbell Tillman, Lake Wales News, 21 February 1985; Services: Funeral for Lake Wales Pioneer Tillman is Tuesday, Lake Wales Daily Highlander, 16 February 1985; Tillman Dies [Charles M. Tillman], sec. A, pp. 1, 10; and Ahl, Crown Jewel of the Highlands, pp. 275-277.

42

BIBLIOGRAPHY

I. Public Documents A. United States United States. Census Bureau. Fourteenth United States Census, 1920. ________. Thirteenth United States Census, 1910. United States. National Personnel Records Center (Civilian Personnel Records). Civilian service records of James M. Tillman in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1919-1921. United States. National Personnel Records Center (Military Personnel Records). Statement of service of James M. Tillman in the United States Army, 1917-1919. B. Florida Florida Department of Military Affairs. Florida Veterans of the First World War All Services 19171919 Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk. Special Archives Publication Number 26. St. Augustine, Fla.: State Arsenal, 1980. Florida State Legislature. General Acts and Resolutions Adopted by the Legislature of Florida At its Twentieth Regular Session, April 7 to June 5, 1925 Under the Constitution of A.D. 1885, 2 vols. Tallahassee, Fla.: T.J. Appleyard, 1925. Florida, University of. Seminole. Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida, 1914-1917. ________. University Record. Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida, 1912-1913; 1915-1916. C. Local Board of Directors Minutes. Filed in the Office of the Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association, Lake Wales, Florida. Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association. Fifty Years of Service. Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association, Lake Wales, Florida, 1969. Lake Wales, City of. Council Minutes, 5 June 1923 to 1 June 1927. Polk, County of. Minutes, Board of Public Instruction, Polk County, Florida. Minute Books Nos. 46, 4 March 1927-25 August 1939. 43

Summerlin Institute, Bartow Newspaper Clippings, 1909, 1913-1915. Polk County Historical & Genealogical Library, Bartow, Florida. Tillman family files. Lake Wales Museum & Cultural Center, Lake Wales, Florida.

II. Books Ahl, Janyce Barnwell. Crown Jewel of the Highlands: Lake Wales, Florida. Lake Wales, Fla.: Lake Wales Library Association, 1983. Dawson, W. Forrest, comp. and ed. Saga of the All American. Atlanta: Albert Love, 1946. Frisbie, Louise K. Yesterdays Polk County. Miami: E. A. Seeman Publishing, 1976. Hetherington, M. F. History of Polk County Florida. St. Augustine, Fla.: Record Company, 1928. Reprint ed. Chuluota, Fla.: Mickler House, 1971. Historic Property Associates, Inc. Historic Building Survey of Lake Wales, Florida. St. Augustine, Fla.: By the Author, 1988. Kaucher, Dorothy. They Built A City. Orlando, Fla.: Kirstein & Son, 1970. Linton, Calvin D., ed. The Bicentennial Almanac. Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson, 1975. McKay, D.B., ed. Pioneer Florida, 3 vols. Tampa, Fla.: The Southern Publishing Company, 1959. Morris, Allen, comp. The Florida Handbook 1963-1964. Tallahassee, Fla.:Peninsular Publishing Company, 1963. Tebeau, Charlton W. and Ruby L. Carson. Florida from Indian Trail to Space Age. 3 vols. Delray Beach, Fla.: The Southern Publishing Company, 1965. Thompson, Leroy. The All Americans: The 82nd Airborne. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., 1988.

III. Periodicals A. Newspapers Abernathy, Arch, Through All Ups and Downs, LWCGA Does it Best. Lake Wales Daily Highlander, 24 March 1988, p. 34. 44

Betz, Sandorf. Marvin Walker Recounts Growth on Industry--Citrus World Composed of Cooperatives. Lake Wales Daily Highlander, 4 July 1976, sec. E, p. 5. Bond Items are Likely to Draw Investors Here. Lake Wales Highlander, 7 May 1924, p. 1. Citrus Sign-Up Campaign Now in Full Swing. (Lake Wales) Highlander, 8 May 1928, p. 1. Council Calls Bond Elections for City Hall. (Lake Wales) Highlander, 22 July 1925, p. 1. Daughtrey, William E. (Bill). Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [George Vernon Tillman]. Lake Wales Daily Highlander, 15 September 1985, sec. A, p. 5. ________. Pioneers of Polk County and the Peace River Valley [Tillman, James McRae]. Lake Wales Daily Highlander, 29 September 1985, sec. A, p. 5. Exchange Elected Directors. (Lake Wales) Highlander, 30 May 1923, p. 1. Great Packing House, Worlds Largest, Open. (Lake Wales) Highlander, 19 January 1932, p. 1. G.V. Tillman, Dead After Long Honorable Career. (Lake Wales) Highlander, 11 November 1933, pp. 1, 8. Kaler, Walter A. Major Commanding Battalion to Which Hero of Argonne Belonged Resides in Arcadia. The DeSoto County News, 2 April 1920, p. 1. Lake Wales Loses Two Notables, Lake Wales Daily Highlander, 26 October 1985, sec. A, pp. 1, 10. Major J. M. Tillman Died Suddenly at His Grove Office. (Lake Wales) Highlander, 29 November 1940, p. 1. Memorial Services Held for Vernon Campbell Tillman, Lake Wales News, 21 February 1985. Much Credit Due Lake Wales Section. Lake Wales News, 19 July 1928, pp. 1, 5. New School Board Named Tuesday, in Interesting Race. Lake Wales Highlander, 10 March 1933, sec. 3, pp. 1-2. 1925 Marked Change over from Town to City. Lake Wales News, 11 October 1951, sec. 3, p. 3. Old Minute Books Tell Story of Problems Faced by City During First Years after Town Incorporated/Paving, Bonds, Elections of the Early 20s Continued. Lake Wales News, 11 October 1951, sec. 3, pp. 1, 4. 45

Plant 225 Acres. Lake Wales Highlander, 12 July 1922, p. 1. Put Ticket in Field For City Offices, May 5. (Lake Wales) Highlander, 15 April 1925, p. 1. Services: Funeral for Lake Wales Pioneer Tillman is Tuesday, Lake Wales Daily Highlander, 16 February 1985. Taps Sounds for Another Soldier. (Lake Wales) Highlander, 29 November 1940, p. 3. Tillman Dies [Charles M. Tillman]. Lake Wales Daily Highlander, 26 October 1985, sec. A, pp. 1, 10. Tillman For Council. Lake Wales Highlander, 18 April 1923, p. 1. Tillman Heads Citrus Growers of Lake Wales. (Lake Wales) Highlander, 20 May 1925, p. 1. Tillman-Johnson Wedding. Lake Wales Highlander, 30 August 1917, p. 1. Tillman Trained Specially in the Citrus Business. (Lake Wales) Highlander, 19 January 1932, pp. 1-2. Trustees Re-Elected in Lake Wales and Babson Park Tuesday. (Lake Wales) Highlander, 8 March 1935, p. 1.

IV. Oral History Interviews Boswell, C.A., Esq., attorney for Polk County, Florida School Board. Interview with author, 15 July 1988. Bartow, Florida. Tillman, Jeanne, daughter of James M. Tillman. Interview with author, 15 July 1988. Webber College, Babson, Park, Florida.

V. Unpublished Materials American Legion. Certificate of service of James M. Tillman in World War I, undated. In the possession of Miss Jeanne Tillman, daughter of James M. Tillman, Lake Wales, Florida.

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APPENDIX 1: BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD

Name: James McRae Tillman

Birth: Baxter, Appling County, Georgia, 23 September 1892.

Ancestry: English; the family was originally from County Kent, England, and is attested as being there as early as 1225 A.D., at which time the surname was spelled Tilghman. The earliest ancestor of the line in America was Christopher Tilghman and his wife Ruth Devonshire, whose arrival in James City-County, Virginia is documented on 9 May 1635.

Father: George Vernon (G.V.) Tillman; born: Appling County, Georgia, 9 January 1861; married: (i) Ola McRae, 13 November 1889; (ii) Effie Lee Campbell, 3 January 1901 (born: Tolarsville, North Carolina, 28 February 1873; died: Lake Wales, Florida, 10 July 1960); died: Lake Wales, Polk County, Florida, 4 November 4 1933.

Fathers Occupation: Turpentine and naval stores manufacturing; citrus cultivation and banking; vice-president and general manager, Lake Wales Land Company.

Mother: Ola (McRae) Tillman; born: McRae, Telfair County Georgia, 10 June 1863; died: Appling County, Georgia, 4 May 1899.

Brothers and Sisters: (Full brothers, sons of G.V. and Ola McRae Tillman:) George Clarence Tillman; born: Baxley, Georgia, 7 October 1890; married: (i) Flora Ann Popham; (ii) Ardith Miller; died: Gainesville, Florida?, 29 July 1952. Orris Golden Tillman; born: Belleville, Georgia, 28 February 1894; married: Cassir Myrtle Fuller; died: Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 23 October 1936. Walter Morris Tillman (twin of Rollie);born: Baxley, Georgia, 27 August 1896; married: Claribel Rutherford; died: Lake Wales, Florida, 8 July 1954. Rollie Tillman (twin of Walter Morris); born: Baxley, Georgia, 27 August 1896; married: Louise Johnson; died: Lake Wales, Florida, 8 July 1961. 47

(Half brothers and sister, children of G.V. and his second wife Effie Lee Campbell Tillman): Vernon Campbell Tillman; born: Bartow, Florida, 15 October 1902; married: Leila Blackwood; died: Orlando, Florida, 16 February 1985. Spurgeon McMillan Tillman; born: Bartow, Florida, 21 February 1906; married: Jeane Bishop; died: Lake Wales, Florida?, 19 August 1964. Gilbert Vernon Tillman; born: Bartow, Florida, 20 March 1913; married: (i) Annie Laurita Summerlin; (ii) Nina Breeland Brooke; died: Lake Wales, Florida?, 22 February 1972. Effie Ola Tillman; born: Bartow, Florida, 4 March 1917; married: William R. Gooch.

Wife: Maude (Johnson) Tillman; born: Blackshear, Pierce County, Georgia, 13 August 1894; died: Lake Wales, Florida, 5 January 1979.

Marriage: Lake Wales, Florida, 23 August 1917.

Children: Ola Belle Tillman; born: Arcadia, Florida, 17 March 1920. James McRae Tillman, Jr., born: Winter Haven, Florida, 30 August 1922; married: Elizabeth Stender Maul, 30 August 1947; died: Charleston, South Carolina, 23 June 1964. Jeanne Tillman; born: Lake Wales, Florida, 14 September 1924. Charles Marion Tillman; born: Lake Wales, Florida, 14 March 1929; married: Mathann Black, 24 November 1949; died: Lakes Wales, Florida, 25 October 1985.

Death: At his grove office at Belle Lake, Polk County, Florida, 23 November 1940.

Burial: Lake Wales Cemetery, Lake Wales, Florida, 24 November 1940.

Physical Features: Height: 5'10" Weight: approx. 170 lbs.

Eye Color: Brown Hair Color: Dark brown (later white)

48

Distinguishing Marks/Features: Tillman suffered wounds from a chemical gas attack during World War I, the result of which, according to his youngest daughter Jeanne left him with throat ailments for the remainder of his life. He was known as a quiet, gentle man who according to daughter Jeanne, had a wonderful sense of humor.

49

APPENDIX 2: GENEALOGICAL TABLES Table A: The Ancestors of James McRae Tillman

James Tillman, Sr. = Martha Marlow (1776-1855) (1781-1864)

| James Tillman, Jr. = Emily J. Hughey


(1821-1908) (1825-1892)

| George Vernon (G.V.) Tillman = (i) Ola McRae (1861-1933) (1863-1899) Settled in Florida = (ii) Effie Lee Campbell c. 1899 ___________________________________________________________________| | | | | | George Clarence James McRae Orris Golden Rollie Walter Morris Tillman Tillman Tillman Tillman Tillman (1890-1952) (1892-1940) (1894-1936) (1896-1961) (1896-1954)

_________________________________________________________________________|________ | | | | Vernon Campbell Spurgeon McMillan Gilbert Vernon Effie Ola Tillman Tillman Tillman Tillman (1902-1985) (1906-1964) (1913-1972) (1917- )

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Table B: The Children of James McRae Tillman


James M. Tillman = Maude Johnson (1892-1940) (1894-1979)

______________________________________________|____________________________________________ | | | | Ola Belle James McRae Jeanne Charles Marion Tillman Tillman, Jr. Tillman Tillman (1920- ) (1922-1964) (1924- ) (1929-1985) = Elizabeth Stender Maul = Marthann Black

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Table C: The Family of Ola McRae Tillman

? McRae ( c. 1830-after 1863)

? (c. 1830-after 1863)

| Ola McRae = George Vernon (G.V.) Tillman (1863-1899) (1861-1933)

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Table D: The Family of Maude Johnson Tillman

James Marion Johnson = Isabel Youmans

| Charles Leon (C.L.) Johnson = Eliza Belle Riggins (1871-1953) (c. 1880-after 1953) Settled in Florida 1903

___________________________________________________________________|__________________________ | | | | | | Maude Irene Robert Leon Louise Bernice Alexander Thalia Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson (1894-1979) = J.S. Whitehurst = Rollie Tillman = S.D. Gooch, = James M. Tillman Jr. (1892-1940)

53