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It is the act of pulling a body part.

It is another way in which a fracture can be maintained in reduction and immobilized for healing. It is pulling force exerted on bones when an overriding of a broken bone or muscle spasm interferes with the alignment of the structure. It can also be used to maintain correct body alignment and prevent deformities.

TRACTION
Uses -to regain normal length and alignment -reduce and immobilize fracture -overcome muscle spasm -stretch adhesions -correct certain deformities and prevent deformity Principles -position the client in the dorsal recumbent -there must be counter traction -there must be continuous traction -the line of pull must be in line with the deformity -friction should be avoided

Types of Traction a. manual traction-it is a pull exerted using the hands b. mechanical traction-the traction applied to the skin is indirectly exerted on the skeleton. Traction strips with fastened bias-cut stockinet or woven bandage are applied to the extremities. Head halter of various types are applied to the cervical spine. Pelvic sling (for fracture for the pelvic) or pelvic belt (for low back pain) is applied to the pelvis c. skeleton traction (operative) this traction is applied directly to the bones by means of pins or wires passed through the bone, or tongs anchored in the skull. The most common means for skeletal traction of the extermities are the kerschner wire, steinmann pin, cervical traction which includes crutchfeild, vinke, blackburn, or barton tongs. Types of Pull in Extremity Traction A. straight or running pull 1. bucks traction- it is used for fracture 2. bryants traction- it is applied to both lower limbs. This is also for fracture of the femur in children under 6years of age B. balances traction-it provides a running traction plus a balanced or counter traction. Examples of this traction are; 1. Russel traction is used for the lower extremities (for hip or thigh). This is used for the treatment of an aged person. This is more comfortable for most clients because the client are able to move more freely and permit bending of the knees. 2. Dunlop traction is used for the upper extremities( for elbow) C. plaster traction 1. Skeletal traction is applied by incorporating the ends of the Steinmann pins or kirshoner wires in a cast. 2. Scoliosis jackets- shifts jacket are used for growing child. Turnbuckle jackets allow adjustment to exert pressure to correct deformities. 3. Hyperextension cast D. Brace traction 1. Hyperextension braces 2. Long leg braces are used to correct leg alignment deformities 3. Dennis-Browne splint are used to correct tibial torsion and foot position deformities 4. Scissor-type braces are used to hold the low back flat

Joezerk Jhon Biel

Von Dexter Bitoon

It is a break in the continuity of a bone.

FRACTURE
Classification 1. General a. Complete-There is complete separation of the bone , producing two fragments. there is fracture in the entire section of the bone b. Incomplete- Only one part of the bone is broken c. simple or closed the skin is intact there is no communication outside the skin d. Compound or open there is a break in the skin extending through the mucous membrane e. Complicated- A bone fragment, such as a rib, has penetrated an internal structure, such as a lung f. Fracture without displacement- the bone fragments are in good alignment. Theres is no change in the bones normal position g. Fracture with displacement-The bone fragments have separated at the point of fracture 2. Specific a. Greenstick- Splintering on one side of the bone. The other side being bent. Most often occurs in young children with soft bone. b. Transverse-There is a break straight across the bone. c. Oblique-The line of fracture is at an oblique angle to the bone shaft. d. Spiral- The fracture lines partially encircling the bone. e. telescoped-A bone fragment is forcibly pushed against and into the adjacent fragments. f. Comminuted- It has several fragments. g. Depressed-It is a fracture in which a fragment is in driven(seen in fracture skull and facial bones.) h. Impacted-It is a fracture in which the bone fragments are driven firmly with each other by the force producing the fracture.

Therapeutic Management 1. Reduction-to maintain alignment a. closed reduction is bringing the bony fragment into position (ends in contact) by the manipulation and manual traction. This procedure is done under anesthesia. Cast is applied to immobilize extremity and maintain reduction. b. Traction is applying force in to two direction to obtain reduction and regain normal length and alignment. it is used for fracture of long bones c. Skin traction-It involves the use of adhesive or moleskin trip. d. Skeletal traction-it involves the use of wires, pins ,and tongs placed through bone e. open reduction is an operative intervention f. Prosthetic Replacement 2. Immobilize- It has two methods a. External fixation-plaster cast fixation, splints traction b. Internal fixation-pin and plaster technique, internal fixation devices

Joezerk Jhon Biel

Von Dexter Bitoon

Nursing care of the client in traction 1. in order for traction to be effected, the client must lie on his or her back. Turning to side or sitting up changes body alignment, and the pull (traction) is lost or becomes less effective. 2. the nurse must be certain that the weights are hanged freely. 3. the rope should have no knots. It should be long enough so that it will not breakif more weights are added. 4. weight such us handbags are tied to the rope and hanged freely. 5. the client should not suffer from lack of any kind of nursing care because he or she is immobilized. This should be good back care. Particular attention must be given to the skin that comes into contact with any traction apparatus. 6. the client must be placed on a firm mattress. 7. be alert for odors, signs for local inflammation, or other bony prominences 8. supply counet traction by increasing the pull in the opposite direction. 9. active action of all unaffected joints are encouraged

Joezerk Jhon Biel

Von Dexter Bitoon