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Pre-Columbian Societies
A. Early inhabitants of the Americas Nomads migrated from Beringia originally during the Ice Age and spread out through North America The Clovis was among the first distinguished cultures Around 8000 BC, cultures became agricultural and settled down instead of being nomads

B. American Indian empires in Mesoamerica, the Southwest, and the Mississippi Valley Mississippi Valley cultures were based on the growing of corn and other grains Location: Tribes: Incas created large infrastructures based on religious and ceremonial needs Mayans did the same but had a written language and calendar as well. Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan at present-day Mexico City was largest city in the world at the time (100,000 people) Mayans=Yucatan Peninsula, Incas=Peru, Aztecs=Mexico City

C. American Indian cultures of North America at the time of European contact Iroquois Confederacy was the dominant political force in eastern America and ended much warfare Rivals of the Iroquois were the Algonquin tribes and Muskogean tribes Woodland Indians were most productive in food. Engaged in farming, hunting, gathering, and fishing Substantial permanent settlements and trade routes

Pueblo Indians in the South West

2. Transatlantic Encounters and Colonial Beginnings, 1492-1690

A. First European contacts with Native Americans Hernan Cortes set out with his Conquistadores to conquer the Aztecs and other tribes. Defeated the Aztecs after infecting them with the foreign disease of small pox

Francisco Pizzaro conquered the Incas in Peru Enslaved the Indians and treated them like complete savages

B. Spain's empire in North America Columbian exchange- traded horses, guns, corn, potatoes, etc. Church required Catholicism to be the only religion in the conquered territories This caused the creation of Catholic missions Mission was the most common type of Spanish settlement with Presidios (military bases) attached

Pueblo Revolt occurred in 1680 Rebellion against the Catholic missions and the enslavement of Indians Drove Spanish from the land, but they came back 12 years later and crushed the Pueblos

C. French colonization of Canada First permanent French settlement was in Quebec Established close, direct ties with the natives

French Jesuit missionaries came over between the Algonquin and Huron tribes

Coureurs de bois were adventurous fur traders with the Indians that functioned largely as agents
D. English settlement of New England, the Mid-Atlantic region, and the South Roanoke was the first attempted settlement, but became the Lost Colony when it mysteriously disappeared Virginia Company created Jamestown by funding settlers At first, had problems because there were no women sent John Smith imposed work and order within the community when he took charge Jamestown experienced a severe starving time in the winter of 1609-1610 John Rolfe produced new strain of tobacco that became cash crop

Puritans settled in Massachusetts They came from Holland with the Mayflower Compact Known as pilgrims who settled at Plymouth just north of Cape Cod Led by William Bradford Caused small pox epidemic , killed off many wild animals, brought over new kinds of animals and crops

The Carolinas were also settled and funded by King Charles II He gave the Carolina territories to noblemen Close relations to Barbados in the Caribbean Had a hierarchal society, headright system and religious freedom


From servitude to slavery in the Chesapeake region Indentured servants were common because they wanted someone to fund their voyage to America Headright system encouraged the servants to come over Slavery used prominently in Caribbean When plantations wanted to expand, owners began to switch to slavery Creation of the Middle Passage


Religious diversity in the American colonies Puritan separatists lived in New England mostly Protestants and others lived in the Chesapeake region Complete religious freedom in Rhode Island the south Quakers lived in Pennsylvania

G. Resistance to colonial authority: Bacon's Rebellion, the Glorious Revolution, and the Pueblo Revolt Pueblo Revolt occurred in 1680 Rebellion against the Catholic missions and the enslavement of Indians Drove Spanish from the land, but they came back 12 years later and crushed the Pueblos

Bacons Rebellion in 1675 Led by Nathaniel Bacon He was a wealthy farmer in the backcountry of Virginia He did not like the Western control and restrictions of expansion or the Indian policy

Started a rebellion against the western government

Glorious Revolution in 1688 It was the overthrow of King James II by William III People didnt like his religious freedom policy and Catholicism This scared people that he favored France

3. Colonial North America, 1690-1754

A. Population growth and immigration More colonies were created with groups that came and settled Headright system and indentured servitude allowed people to make the voyage Family-community was created in all the colonies

B. Transatlantic trade and the growth of seaports Triangular trade routes developed Traded furs, fish, and fruit to England in return for manufactured goods Sugar and molasses went to England and the colonies from Barbados Slaves came from Africa along the Middle Passage Triangular trade was much more complicated than often described

New merchant class Port cities of New York, Boston and Philadelphia Colonial merchants enjoyed protection from foreign competition with the British Navigation Acts However, merchants needed to trade outside of England too

C. The eighteenth-century back country The backcountry was prevented from expanding because of the western control England was worried it wouldnt be able to control an expanded territory Bacons Rebellion was a result of this restriction Relations with the Indians were not favorable

D. Growth of plantation economies and slave societies First plantations emerged in Virginia and Maryland that grew tobacco Some plantations were extremely large Even the most successful planters were at great risk because of the uncontrollable fluctuating market Some of the larger plantations even created town-like communities centered on the plantation

Slaves began to make their own cultures on the plantations Formal marriages were discouraged, but families still formed Family structure increased life expectancy Slaves emphasized extended kinship because family members could be sold at any time English-African hybrid languages were made and also a mixed religion of Christianity and African folklore


The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening Old Light- Puritan ministers who believed in elaborate theological and intellectual doctrines


New Light- ministers who supported individual new birth and emotional search for salvation Jonathon Edwards(Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God) and George Whitefield

Creates new divides and denominations in Christianity, weakens traditional church power, promoted religious pluralism
Colonies created a new political system that was largely self-government Colonial assemblies were much like Parliament in England Imperial governors powers were largely limited by the colonial assemblies This led to problems later

Colonial governments and imperial policy in British North America

4. The American Revolutionary Era, 1754-1789

A. The French and Indian War This was part of the Seven Years War in Europe between Britain and France Ben Franklin suggested the Albany Plan of Union for the first time B. Join or Die cartoon

George Washington built Fort Necessity in the Ohio River Valley Conflict with the French in the West and the Iroquois Confederacy William Pitt was Prime Minister of Britain and led the British to defeat the French Britain was angry about lack of colonial help Established Britain as the dominant power in North America Peace of Paris of 1763 gives Britain Canada, Florida and everything east of the Mississippi

The Imperial Crisis and resistance to Britain Proclamation of 1763 Britain restricted colonial expansion to east of the Appalachians Wanted to avoid conflicts with Indians and better control the colonists who were starting to show resistance Settlers wanted more land and resources so they ignored British policy

England found itself with a staggering war debt at the end of the Seven Years War England thought the colonies should help pay since they didnt help with the French and Indian War. Implemented Sugar, Currency, and Stamp Acts Sugar Act- goal was to eliminate the sugar trade and pay for the war. It strengthened enforcement of the duty on sugar Currency Act- Paper is declared illegal Stamp Act- tax on all official documents made in the colonies

Paxton Boys protested against colonial (not British taxes) in Philadelphia which showed that tensions were just as higher between territories in the colonies Mutiny Act- required colonists to quarter British soldiers in their homes Sons of Liberty were organizations that fought the acts and organized protests Virginia Resolves- Made by Patrick Henry that said Americans could only be taxed by the Virginia assembly Coercive Acts- Closed the port of Boston and reduced colonial self-government


The War for Independence The First Continental Congress(with delegates from every colony except Georgia) endorsed a statement of grievances rejected British authority and cut trade with them started a military organization

Britain responds with virtual representation policy to refute no taxation without representation Second Continental Congress Issues the Olive Branch Petition which fails George Washington becomes the Commander-in-chief Thomas Jefferson writes the Declaration of Independence

Thomas Paine releases Common Sense which attacks the British policies War began, but the colonies did not have an organized government or military Washington won at Trenton and Yorktown and had a huge victory at Valley Forge

Battle of Saratoga- Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold stop British campaign that was trying to separate the northern and southern colonies, moral boost and French support because of this victory French join the Americans to get back at Britain for the Seven Years War Britain pulls out of the war
D. State constitutions and the Articles of Confederation Articles of Confederation is made as the government of America after the war E. Very weak with biggest problem being unable to impose taxes Unicameral legislature with one vote per state Shays Rebellion Massachusetts uprising against high taxes, debt imprisonment and no war salary payments One success was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 which divided up the territory and said that 60,000 people can make a state

State governments were still much stronger than the central government

The federal Constitution Much more powerful than the Articles Great Compromise-Bicameral legislature with House of Representatives and Senate

5. The Early Republic, 1789-1815

A. Washington, Hamilton, and shaping of the national government Alexander Hamilton Pay debts with bonds, taxes, and tariffs Have government absorb state debts Create a National Bank

George Washington Neutrality Proclamation- US in neutral in European affairs, not involved in war with Britain and France Jays Treaty- British give up Northwest forts for paying pre-Revolution merchant debts in return


Pinckneys Treaty- Spain gave the US free navigation of the Mississippi Washingtons Farewell Address- Warned about dangers of political parties

Emergence of political parties: Federalists and Republicans

FEDERALISTS 1. Favored strong central government 2. Favored limiting state power. Argued that Senate (with two representatives per state) adequately represented state interests 3. Wanted AOC replaced 4. Bill of rights was not necessary 5. Supported by large farmers, merchants, artisans

REPUBLICANS 1. Wanted states to be in power 2. Favored strong state power 3. Thought the AOC needed to be amended, not abolished 4. Called for a Bill of Rights 5. Supported by mainly small farmers


Republican Motherhood and education for women Idea that the republican mother was responsible for training the new generation How would mothers train their children to be enlightened if they are ignorant Female academies and even some public schools gave women educational opportunities Cult of Domesticity


Beginnings of the Second Great Awakening Much more emotional attachment Faith in human ability to improve with help of God, seeking salvation and stability evangelical camp meetings rejected predestination, spread from west to east Affected women, blacks and Indians unlike ever before Joseph Smith set up Mormon religion and went to Utah Other Utopias


Significance of Jefferson's presidency He wanted to put more power back into the states because he was the first Republican to become president He went to great lengths to eliminate the aura of majesty surrounding the presidency Drastically reduced government spending and internal taxes Made a smaller military to prevent the appearance of being a threat


Expansion into the trans-Appalachian West; American Indian resistance Jefferson made the Louisiana Purchase from Napoleon Bonaparte Explorations of Lewis and Clark and Zebulon Pike allowed for further expansion Indians traded with Britain for guns and supplies Jeffersons solution to Indian Problem was to assimilate or move westward Tecumseh and Prophet united tribes to create resistance


Battle of Tippecanoe was a huge failure for the Indians because the Prophet was killed at Prophetstown

Growth of slavery and free Black communities Slave trade abolished in 1808, but slaves continued to be sold in America Prossers Conspiracy- a slave who bought his own freedom, his supposed plan was foiled Veseys Conspiracy- would have been a massive slave uprising, but was found out, increased white fear Turners Revolt- really the only slave revolt to ever happen, Nat Turner and group killed 55 whites, even though it failed, stricter salve laws were put in place and Southern abolition movements disappeared


The War of 1812 and its consequences The war was caused by the anger of impressment of soldiers and the want of Canada War Hawks= John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay Rush-Bagot Agreement was disarmament on the Great Lakes Hartford Convention- Federalists in Connecticut that wanted to make constitutional amendments, but led to the downfall of the Federalists

6. Transformation of the Economy and Society in Antebellum America

A. The transportation revolution and creation of a national market economy B. Government began to fund internal improvements like the National Road Steamboats became a popular form of transport Much of the economy on the interior depended on eastern merchants to sell their goods Erie Canal connected Albany and Lake Erie Railroad systems slowly grew

Beginnings of industrialization and changes in social and class structures Moses Brown built Americas first textile mill in the Lowell experiment Conditions at first were far superior to Englands industrial revolution The growth of cities starting in 1840 rapidly accelerated Factories and mills absorbed this city growth, but overcrowding became a problem


Immigration and nativist reaction Massive immigration from Germany and Ireland This was caused mostly by crop failures in Europe Industrialists welcomed the flood of cheap labor and some areas saw it as an opportunity to gain political influence 1.7 Irish immigrants settled mainly in port cities in Northeast which became overpopulated Know-Nothing Party wanted to restrict and suppress Irish and German immigrants Nativists were scared of lowered wages and stolen jobs


Planters, yeoman farmers, and slaves in the cotton South The South depended mainly on the production of cotton After Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, 75% of slaves worked on cotton plantations The Planter elite(4% of the population) acted like they were a noble class although they only lived in America for a few generations

Yeomen were small farmers that had some or no slaves and aspired to become an elite planter. They were the population majority

7. The Transformation of Politics in Antebellum America

A. Emergence of the second party system Whigs and Democrats Whig Party denounced Jackson as King Andrew I Wanted to expand power of the federal government encouraging industrial development Cautious about westward expansion

Democrats Role of government should be limited but should include efforts to remove obstacles to opportunity Defend Union for steady economic growth

B. Federal authority and its opponents: judicial federalism, the Bank War, tariff controversy, and states' rights debates Nicholas Biddle and the National Bank fought with Jackson for power Jackson did not like the concentrated power Webster-Hayne debates Webster attacked secession and nullification Turned into a debate over states rights and national power Attacked Hayne and Calhoun

Tariff of Abominations Was meant to protect struggling industries from foreign competition South hated it because it hurt the cotton market


Jacksonian democracy and its successes and limitations Jackson was very forceful in his policies because he wanted to hold the Union together Force Act on South Carolina and the Bank Veto His policies were effective but it almost caused huge problems by angering the South

8. Religion, Reform, and Renaissance in Antebellum America

A. Evangelical Protestant revivalism B. Not quite like the Transcendentalists, but they believed in personal salvation Launched a series of passionate revivals by Charles Grandison Finney Revivals occurred in the Burner-Over District near the Erie Canal

Social reforms Temperance Crusade Led by women Inspired by Evangelical Protestantism

Education Reform Led by Horace Mann

Built new schools, created teacher colleges, made grade system, tax-funded elementary schools

Asylum Movement Dorothea Dix wanted to improve conditions Separated insane from criminals


Ideals of domesticity People believe that women should only be involved in domestic affairs Guardians of domestic virtues Women had their own separate sphere


Transcendentalism and utopian communities Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau believed in the divinity of man, the value of human intuition Self-reliance and harmony with nature


American Renaissance: literary and artistic expressions Hudson River School- depicted American landscapes and natural beauty and opportunity Washington Irving reflected American nationalism in his popular writings James Fennimore Cooper, Walt Whitman, Edgar Allan Poe

9. Territorial Expansion and Manifest Destiny

A. Forced removal of American Indians to the trans-Mississippi West B. Indian Removal Act moved 125,000 Indians to established Indian territory in Oklahoma Defeated the Sauk and Fox Indians in the Black Hawk War Trail of Tears was the brutal removal of the Cherokee Indians In Worchester v. Georgia, the Marshall Court upheld the Cherokees right to land

Western migration and cultural interactions With Manifest Destiny, settlers were encouraged to move west Manifest destiny was the idea that the US was destined to eventually rule the continent Impresarios were Mexican agents who wanted to bring Americans into Texas Stephan F. Austin was the most successful of these


Territorial acquisitions Texas wanted independence as a nation so the intermediaries such as Austin led a revolt against the Mexican government Polk wanted to annex Texas and the Oregon territory Britain wanted to hold on to the Canadian border Polks slogan was 54 40 or Fight! but there was a compromise made in the end


Early U.S. imperialism: the Mexican War US supports Texan border at the Rio Grande John Slidell tries to buy the territory on a diplomatic mission, but the Mexicans refuse the offer and refuse to fight Zachary Taylor is sent after Polk hears the news to lead an army against the Mexicans Zachary Taylor showed weakness in tactical skill.

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo- Mexico loses New Mexico (Arizona, Nevada, Utah), California, Texas, US pays Mexico $15 million

10. The Crisis of the Union

A. Pro- and antislavery arguments and conflicts Proslavery All societies depended on the landless poor Saved slaves from the atrocities of the industrial north system Calhoun was the major defender of slavery Only way for the two races to live in peace

Antislavery Inhumane Unused potential in the restriction of the slaves


Compromise of 1850 and popular sovereignty Henry Clay made compromise Compromise of 1850 Admit California as a free state Abolish slave trade in Washington DC Stronger fugitive slave act

Suggested that allowing the residents to decide free or slave was best


The Kansas-Nebraska Act and the emergence of the Republican Party Kansas-Nebraska Act officially repealed the Missouri Compromise Made Kansas and Nebraska popular sovereignty Bleeding Kansas Many Missourians crossing the border and illegally voting for slavery Charles Sumner beating (by Preston Brooks) Pottawatomie Massacre with John Brown and other conflicts

Bleeding Kansas created the Democrat-Republican system Democrats=proslavery, Republicans=antislavery


Abraham Lincoln, the election of 1860, and secession Lincoln began to challenge Douglas, a national political figure, to debates to gain national attention Democrats were divided between endorsement of slavery and popular sovereignty Nominated Stephan Douglas Seceded from Union when Lincoln was elected because they believed he was very antislavery even though he had no intentions of abolition

11. Civil War

A. Two societies at war: mobilization, resources, and internal dissent The South seized all military and government establishments within their borders The South attacked Fort Sumter, the off-shore military base This was the official beginning of the fighting of the Civil War


Military strategies and foreign diplomacy Confederate advantages: Better leaders such as Robert E. Lee Home advantage and geography A reason for motivation to fight unlike the North Cotton diplomacy almost got the South to win British support

Union advantages: Much larger population for military force Industry and railroad transportation Access to natural resources unlike the cotton south


Emancipation and the role of African Americans in the war The Emancipation Proclamation was made near the end of the war It made the war about slavery African Americans participated in the war, but only in segregated regiments


Social, political, and economic effects of war in the North, South, and West Lincoln suspended the right of habeas corpus and imposed martial law in the border states Copperheads caused violent draft riots that targeted mostly blacks Confederates had to borrow heavily to pay for the war effort

12. Reconstruction
A. Presidential and Radical Reconstruction B. Lincolns 10% Plan was to allow the readmission of states after 10% of the population take a loyalty oath Wade-Davis Bill was similar to Lincolns plan but more radical. Pocket -vetoed by Lincoln Radical Republicans wanted to punish the South and make it harder to join the Union Tenure of Office Act and impeachment of Andrew Johnson

Southern state governments: aspirations, achievements, failures In the state governments, whites were in control of both houses except in South Carolina Republicans provided for universal male suffrage in the south, property rights for women, debt relief, and modernized penal codes Graft and wasteful spending occurred and lots of corruption in politics


Role of African Americans in politics, education, and the economy Freedmens Bureau Encouraged blacks to find employment Helped bring families back together, learn to read and write Assisted freedmen financially as well

Booker T. Washington wanted to encourage blacks to seek economic opportunities without political agitation W.E.B. Du Bois wanted direct push for civil rights and started the Niagara Movement


Compromise of 1877 Compromise on the election of 1876

Hayes would become president if he: Immediately ended the federal support for the Republicans in the South Supported the building of the Southern transcontinental railroad


Impact of Reconstruction Reconstruction overall was a failure at achieving lasting reforms It made new governments in the South that were not complete failures Produced very important black leaders such as W.E.B. Du Bois

13. The Origins of the New South

A. Reconfiguration of southern agriculture: sharecropping and crop lien system B. Many blacks became tenants of white landowners instead of owning their own land This means blacks were not actually free from white rule The crop-lien system was a system of credit used by farmers which they paid back with harvested crops

Expansion of manufacturing and industrialization Reasons for industrial expansion: Country was a treasure-house of natural resources Huge labor supply especially in the North with thousands of immigrants arriving constantly Advanced transportation methods such as the railroad Development of new technologies

Rockefeller and Standard Oil along with many other large trusts forming


The politics of segregation: Jim Crow and disfranchisement The courts said that the 14th amendment did not apply for private institutions so segregation continued for 60 years Made many laws for segregation in the South The Redeemers in the south imposed poll taxes and literacy tests to prevent black from voting

14. Development of the West in the Late Nineteenth Century

A. Expansion and development of western railroads Railroads played a key role in the expansion of the west because it promoted the settlement of the Great Plains and created a national market by linking the East and West Federal government granted huge subsidies in the form of loans and land grants so the railroad network could expand Problems B. Hasty and poor construction Corruption such as the Credit Mobilier scandal

Competitors for the West: miners, ranchers, homesteaders, and American Indians The Gold Rush in 1848 stimulated the settlement of the California region Created large mining towns in the West Texas cattle was easy to get and the wide open spaces encouraged many ranchers to go into the business


Homestead Act of 1862 encouraged farming on the Great Plains by offering 160 acres of public land free to any family that settled on it for a period of five years Western tribes were dependent on the hunting of buffalo so it was bad when the Americans began to kill them off

Government policy toward American Indians Andrew Jackson made a large reservation policy Anticipated that west of the Mississippi would always be Indian Country, but it wasnt There were small wars with the Indians such as the Sioux War The assimilation and education(like in the Pennsylvania Carlisle School) of Indians was emphasized Dawes Severalty was designed to split up Indian tribes and make them civilized


Gender, race, and ethnicity in the far West Whites did not like the immigration of the Chinese to America because they worked hard and took their jobs Chinese Exclusion Act halted all legal immigration from China in 1882 Women on the frontier got more rights than women in the East


Environmental impacts of western settlement When people settled in the West many buffalos were killed for sport and this had major environmental effects Also, the cattle began to destroy the Great Plains

15. Industrial America in the Late Nineteenth Century

A. Corporate consolidation of industry B. Almost all major trades became consolidated The steel industry was Andrew Carnegie and then J.P. Morgen Standard Oil was led by J.D. Rockefeller Some didnt like the unchecked power of the trusts The result was the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 which was too vaguely worded to actually stop the expansion of trusts

Effects of technological development on the worker and workplace The telegraph was invented which greatly improved communication ability Typewriter, cash register, calculating machine, adding machine, camera, and fountain pen were all important inventions of the time period The mechanization of industries and the invention of the assembly line made less of a need for skilled workers This made skilled workers nervous and led to the creation of the AFL


Labor and unions American Federation of Labor Bread and Butter 25 craft unions united (only skilled workers) Focused on gaining economic interests such as higher wages and improved working conditions

Knights of Labor Secret society to avoid detection and exclusion


Accepted all types of workers including African Americans Wanted to abolish child labor, trusts and monopolies

National politics and influence of corporate power Industrial warfare techniques included: the lockout, the blacklist, yellow-dog contracts, private guards Pullman strike was a nationwide strike but showed that the federal government was on the side of management when they intervened to put down the strike The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was one of the worst labor violent protests but it was also put down by federal troops


Migration and immigration: the changing face of the nation In the last half of the 19th century, the US population increased three-fold This was fueled by the massive influx of immigrants mainly from Europe The new immigrants came more from southern and eastern Europe Overcrowded in Europe Many displaced farm workers Religious persecution


Proponents and opponents of the new order, e.g., Social Darwinism and Social Gospel Social Darwinism the idea that only the fit would succeed a capitalist economy Thought wealth should be concentrated in the fit Gospel of Wealth was Carnegies idea that the wealthy should use their wealth to give opportunities to the poor to help them better themselves The Social Gospel was applying Christian principles to social problems

16. Urban Society in the Late Nineteenth Century

A. Urbanization and the lure of the city B. By 1920, more Americans lived in cities than rural areas Farmers were displaced so they went searching for factory work which was centered in the cities Streetcars and skyscrapers were built Cities were made more pretty

City problems and machine politics Problems such as overcrowding, waste, pollution, and disease became major problems Municipal power was concentrated in political machines Party bosses control most of the politics in cities


Intellectual and cultural movements and popular entertainment Books of social criticism especially critical of laissez-faire Expansion of public schools Elementary schools taught reading, writing and arithmetic Literacy rate rose to 90 percent with new compulsory laws

Number of colleges increased Land grants from the Morill Acts of 1862 and 1890 Universities founded by wealthy philanthropists

Realism and naturalism in works of literature

Painting began to switch to realism Most cities had a symphony orchestra and an opera house The public began to be introduced to jazz music Amusement parks became popular because: There was a gradual reduction in the number of work hours Improved transportation Promotional billboards and advertising

Sports, especially boxing, was very popular

17. Populism and Progressivism

A. Agrarian discontent and political issues of the late nineteenth century B. The economy was declining and rural Americans had the most problems Rural Americans were isolated from the Urban-Industrial society The Grange was a farmers organization that was originally for beneficial economic gains It evolved into an organization that tried to gain political power to create economic gains

Origins of Progressive reform: municipal, state, and national Reform leaders arose in other cities seeking to break the power of the city bosses and take utilities out of the hands of private companies State- reform governors battled corporate interests and championed measures to give the common people control of their own government National acts that provided for consumer protection, natural resources, total reorganization of the national banking system


Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson as Progressive presidents Roosevelt became president after McKinleys assassination He was a trust-buster, consumer advocate, and conservationist Taft prosecuted more trusts, but he backed off some of the Progressive platform Alienated some of Roosevelts supporters so Roosevelt made a third Bull Moose party Wilson passed the Underwood Tariff Act, the Federal Reserve Act, and the Clayton Antitrust Act


Women's roles: family, workplace, education, politics, and reform Homemaking became a full-time jobs for millions of women More married women, especially middle-aged entered the work force Women got more colleges and higher educational opportunities Equal suffrage advocates argued that women needed to have a voice in governments that increasingly had impact on family and child-rearing- public school boards Women supported the prohibition movement


Black America: urban migration and civil rights initiatives Progressive movement failed to address civil rights for black Americans Migration from the countryside to the city was occurring in response to industrialization and the factory system W.E.B. Du Bois and the NAACP began civil rights activism Supported the talented tenth idea to promote educational and economic opportunities for blacks

18. The Emergence of America as a World Power

A. American imperialism: political and economic expansion Americans were not alone in pursuing a policy of imperialism which meant either acquiring territory or gaining control over the political or economic life of other countries Expansion: B. War to free Cuba Acquisition of the Philippines Open Door Policy in China Roosevelt Corollary

War in Europe and American neutrality At the beginning of the war, most Americans believed in isolationism World War One, the trouble for the United States rose from the efforts of the belligerent powers to stop supplies from reaching the enemy German submarine warfare and the Zimmerman telegram challenged US neutrality and eventually forced them into the war


The First World War at home and abroad Mobilization was centered on the use of War Boards that encouraged the help of everyone in the war effort Espionage and Sedition Acts were passed to prevent interference in the war effort Effects on American society More jobs for women Migration of Mexicans and African Americans for job opportunities from the displaced workers going to war


Treaty of Versailles The treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans. The big four is the top Allied leaders that met at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 following the end of World War I It include huge reparations to Germany that left them with severe grudges


Society and economy in the postwar years 500,000 Americans died in the 1918 flu pandemic impacting economic confidence Hardings presidential campaign was a success because of his promise a return to normalcy Society was tired of aggressive reform and war There was a major Red Scare that led to the Palmer Raids which turned up almost nothing

19. The New Era: 1920s

A. The business of America and the consumer economy The Second Industrial Revolution is the period of rapid growth in machinery in the US in the late 1800s There was a mass consumption economy that had a high demand for consumer products The automobile changed the pattern of American life Electricity was provided to millions of homes and appliances such as refrigerators, vacuum cleaners and washing machines improved the lives of these Americans


Republican politics: Harding, Coolidge, Hoover Harding did little more than approve measures such as a reduction in the income tax, an increase in tariff rates and establishment of the Bureau of the Budget Teapot Dome scandal was a major downfall in his presidency Coolidge believed in limited government and power of businesses He wanted to keep a close eye on the budget and cut down spending Hoover was blamed for the Great Depression because of his lack of involvement in improving the stock market situation Created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation which was a government agency whose purpose was to provide federal loans to troubled banks, railroads, and other businesses


The culture of Modernism: science, the arts, and entertainment Principles of scientific management led to the adoption of improved methods of mass production The increased use of coal and oil was important for the expansion of industry African American musicians helped make jazz a symbol of the new and modern culture of the cities The radio became the new medium of news and entertainment The movie industry centered in Hollywood became a big industry that was very popular but not as accessible as the radio


Responses to Modernism: religious fundamentalism, nativism, and Prohibition Fundamentalist doctrine taught that the Bible must be interpreted as literally true and that creationism explained the origin of all life Nativist sentiments were aroused by Protestants against the incoming Catholics and Jews from southern Europe Wartime concerns to conserve grain and maintain a sober workforce moved Congress to pass the 18 th amendment which prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages


The ongoing struggle for equality: African Americans and women The Second Ku Klux Klan was formed in Indiana by David Stephenson and terrorized anyone targeted as un-American They dressed in white hoods to disguise their identity Most middle-class women still expected to spend their lives as homemakers and mothers Margaret Sanger supported the acceptance of contraceptives for birth control

20. The Great Depression and the New Deal

A. Causes of the Great Depression Causes: B. Lack of business confidence Unequal distribution of wealth Banks speculated in land and the stock market with little government regulation Overproduction of consumer goods Hoover administration blamed international economic forces and sought to stabilize world currencies and debt structures Under-consumption

The Hoover administration's response Hoover believed that prosperity would soon return


He urged businesses not to cut wages or unions to strike but did not use much forceful legal action Hawley-Smoot Tariff set a major tax increase on foreign imports Created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and the Federal Farm Board that was made to stabilize farm prices

Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal The New Deal Philosophy was based on the three Rs: relief, recovery, and reform FDR says ensured America in his inaugural speech the the only thing we have to fear is fear itself FDR did not have a detailed plan for ending the Depression but he was committed to political solutions to economic problems


Labor and union recognition When the CIO was formed, all workers of an industry were allowed in the union regardless of skill Strikes were frequent because management still resisted the Unions demands Congress passed a Fair Labor Standards Act that established a minimum wage of 40 cents an hour, a maximum workweek of 40 hours, and child labor restrictions


The New Deal coalition and its critics from the Right and the Left Liberals criticized the New Deal for doing too much for business and not enough for the unemployed and working poor Conservatives criticized the New Deal for giving the federal government too much power and the relief programs bordered on the verge of socialism


Surviving hard times: American society during the Great Depression Most Americans acquired a Depression mentality which was characterized by an attitude of insecurity and economic concern Dust Bowl Farmers struggled with the severe drought and many Okies had to move to California to go on a desperate search for work as in John Steinbecks Grapes of Wrath Other races like African Americans were the last hired and the first fired and the hard times increased racial tensions

21. The Second World War

A. The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan, Italy, and Germany B. These three powers formed an alliance which formed the Axis Powers Benito Mussolini took control of Italy as a fascist dictator The Nazi Party began to expand its empire and bully the Jews Japan increase their military power in the 1920s and 30s and prepared for the invasion of China

Prelude to war: policy of neutrality These fascist dictatorships especially the Nazis began a series of aggressive actions such as the invasions of Ethiopia by Italy, Rhineland and Sudetenland by Germany, and China by Japan The U.S. and Allied response to this was appeasement, but FDR urged a policy of quarantining the aggressors Roosevelt built up the military but at first believing only in using it to protect the Western Hemisphere


The attack on Pearl Harbor and United States declaration of war US cut off oil supplies to Japan which made them angry and attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 High government officials knew this attack was imminent because they broke Japanese codes Congress immediately published a declaration of war


Fighting a multi-front war There were two theaters of operation in the Pacific and Europe Germany mostly fought with the Soviet Union during the first half of the war until their defeat at Stalingrad and the joining of the US in the War Japanese war was mostly with the US where the British, Soviet, and US forces combined to defeat the Germans in Europe


Diplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferences Conferences included Casablanca, Teheran and Yalta Casablanca was Roosevelt and Churchill agreeing to the policy of unconditional surrender Teheran was the first time the Big Three met and agreed on the drive to liberate France to be in spring of 1944 Yalta was to decide the fate of Germany and Japan after victory in Europe


The United States as a global power in the Atomic Age The United States enacted a top-secret program called the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb Truman approved the use of these bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki when he became president Japan surrendered after the atomic bombs and the war was over

22. The Home Front During the War

A. Wartime mobilization of the economy B. United States needed to build up wartime economy quickly since Britain and the Soviet Union were fairly weak In 1942, the War Production Board(WPB) was to be a superagency with broad powers over the economy There was an enormous boost in union membership which rose to over 13 million in 1945

Urban migration and demographic changes Large numbers of Mexican workers entered the United States during the war in response to labor shortages The population shifted to the Sunbelt African Americans migrated even more to the cities in the North while the whites began to move to the suburbs


Women, work, and family during the war There was a shortage of workers when the men went to war Women entered the work force in factories and offices (Rosie the Riveter) The Baby Boom began in 1941 due to the return of prosperity during the war Since women were working, there was limited childcare so they often had latchkey children


Civil liberties and civil rights during wartime Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act made it illegal to strike against government operated industry Fair Employment Practices Commission monitors war industry to ensure that blacks arent being discriminated against NAACP membership increases Japanese are put into internment camps


War and regional development


The government credited large manufacturing facilities in California and elsewhere to serve the needs of its military The government made $40 billion worth of capital investments (factories, highways, power plants, etc.) in the West during the war, more than any other region By the end of the war, the Pacific Coast had become the center of the growing American aircraft industry

Expansion of government power The Selective Service Act of 1940 imposed the draft on all men ages 18-45 Important items like meat, gas, and rubber needed for the troops were rationed The National War Labor Board was created to prevent work stoppages

23. The United States and the Early Cold War

A. Origins of the Cold War B. The Cold War originated from a general rivalry of the Soviet Union and the United States who were the two superpowers left Truman wanted to prevent the Soviet Union from spreading communism and went to great measures to stop them After the Bolshevik Revolution, the communist government was immediately seen as a threat to all capitalist nations

Truman and containment The containment policy was formulated by George Marshall, Dean Acheson, and George F. Kennan This was a policy that did not try to limit the Soviet Unions power but it was against any expansion of its communist influence Truman first had to use this policy to put down the Communist-led uprising in Greece This policy was prominent almost the end of the Cold War


The Cold War in Asia: China, Korea, Vietnam, Japan China Korea The Korean war was an indirect conflict with the Soviet Union where the North was procommunist and the South was pro-western General Douglas MacArthur was in charge of military operations in Korea Mao Zedong renewed a civil war in China which overthrew the Nationalist Chiang Kai-shek George Marshall tried to prevent the overthrow of Kai-shek but it was impossible US refused to recognize Zedongs government

Vietnam The Vietnam War was much like the Korean War only more costly, long-lasting, and controversial The war lasted up through Nixons presidency when the US finally pulled out of the war

Japan Japan was completely under the control of the US and had US troops stationed there even after a new government was set up to protect from foreign enemies


Diplomatic strategies and policies of the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations Eisenhower looked to his Secretary of State John Foster Dulles for foreign policy advice Dulles wanted a less passive policy by turning containment into liberation


He also advocated brinksmanship which the idea that if the US push communists to the brink of war, they would back down and the US would succeed Kennedy was not so successful in dealing with foreign policy He tried to overthrow the Castro regime in Cuba with the Bay of Pigs invasion which was a huge embarrassment His only success was ending the Cuban missile crisis by agreeing not to invade Cuba if the Soviet Union removed the nuclear weapons

The Red Scare and McCarthyism The outbreak of civil war in Europe and Asia led Americans to believe in the possible subversion in America Resulted in measures such as the McCarran Internal Security Act which outlawed the support of a totalitarian government Joseph McCarthy was a major leader in the Red Scare who began to accuse people of supporting communism which added fuel to the Scare McCarthy had his downfall during the Army McCarthy trials when his tactics were seen as bully-like and the witch hunt was ended


Impact of the Cold War on American society Emphasis on science education after the launch of Sputnik Americans had to be constantly ready for a nuclear attack

24. The 1950s

A. Emergence of the modern civil rights movement B. President Truman began to put some Civil Rights legislation in Congress The Brown v. Board of Education case triggered the modern movement Protests such as the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Greensboro sit-ins added momentum to the movement

The affluent society and "the other America" 1950s can be seen as a time of prosperity for many Americans Suburbs went through significant growth and women were encouraged to be housewives in the suburbs Economy expanded rapidly and was very healthy New appliances, televisions and other inventions made home life easier The rise in higher education and cheap energy were also important


Consensus and conformity: suburbia and middle-class America People of the time period were determined to build a good life with money, a decent job and access to conveniences Advertising and television added to the conformity of the consumer culture Highways make the suburbs more economically desirable


Social critics, nonconformists, and cultural rebels Many influential authors of the time period attacked conformity David Riesman wrote The Lonely Crowd which depicted Cold War society as conformist James Dean was an actor that was known as the rebel without cause and who represented the youthful rebelliousness Kerouac and Kinsberg were also influential authors that were social critics


Impact of changes in science, technology, and medicine This was a time period of many new inventions The UNIVAC computer was created which led to the future excitement about computers NASA and the space race was begun and Sputnik was the first successfully launched satellite New medicine such as penicillin and the polio vaccine were developed These new advancement encouraged science education in public schools

25. The Turbulent 1960s

A. From the New Frontier to the Great Society B. John F. Kennedy stated that America lies on the verge of a New Frontier Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president after Kennedys assassination and vows to continue Kennedys policies LBJ speech in 1964 says that Americans need to build a Great Society with social reforms to eliminate poverty and racial injustice

Expanding movements for civil rights The Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968 expanded in the 1960s to include sit-ins and the famous March on Washington in 1963 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a major legislative achievement banning discrimination by race, color, religion, or national origin Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his famous speech I have a dream in Washington in 1963


Cold War confrontations: Asia, Latin America, and Europe Asia Flexible Response- there were many brushfire wars in Southeast Asia in which insurgent forces were aided by Soviets. Kennedy developed the flexible response policy due to this

Latin America Cuban Missile Crisis- US discovered Russians were building sites in Cuba for launching nuclear missiles

Europe The building of the Berlin Wall began on August 13, 1961


Beginning of Dtente Dtente, or a relaxing of Cold War tensions began to be realized in the late 1960s under Nixon The first treaty in 1967 banned the use of outer space for military purposes Second treaty was on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons signed in 1968 SALT I was signed to reduce the number of ballistic missiles


The antiwar movement and the counterculture Students for a Democratic Society(SDS) started a trend of student protests Hundreds of campuses were disrupted by antiwar protests The counterculture movement reached its height in 1969 when young people attended Woodstock Music and Art Festival. Woodstock became a symbol of the antiwar movement The New Left went hand in hand with a new counterculture that was expressed by young people in rebellious styles of dress, music, drug use, and for some, communal living

26. Politics and Economics at the End of the Twentieth Century

A. The election of 1968 and the "Silent Majority" B. The election of 1968 was between Nixon and Kennedy and then Nixon and Humphrey after Kennedy was assassinated Nixon won the election against Humphrey The silent majority is how Nixon referred to the conservatives that were tired of antiwar protests, youth counterculture, etc.

Nixon's challenges: Vietnam, China, Watergate Nixons main policy in the Vietnam war was Vietnamization which was the gradual shift of the war effort to the Vietnamese and the withdrawal of American troops This policy worked at first, but then he expanded the war effort by invading Cambodia and then launching huge bombing raids when the North Vietnamese would not compromise Nixon went on important diplomatic meetings to Beijing and the Soviet Union Nixon met with Zedong that led to the recognition of the Communist regime Created SALT I with the Soviet Union to freeze the number of ballistic missiles The Watergate scandal led to Nixons downfall


Changes in the American economy: the energy crisis, deindustrialization, and the service economy Since the US seemed to support Israel in the Yom Kippur war, the OPEC placed an oil embargo on the US causing a major energy crisis Nixon tightened the money supply in order to decrease inflation


The New Right and the Reagan revolution The New Right was the result of a great conservative impulse that was a result of the major changes in society This group opposed big government, New Deal liberalism, gun control, feminism, gay rights, welfare, affirmative action, sexual permissiveness and more Reagan pledged to lower taxes, reduce government spending, build up the armed forces, and creative a more conservative court He delivered on these promises with Reaganomics and was a very popular


End of the Cold War The Soviet Union began to struggle economically and switch to a more democratic society Mikhail Gorbachev began to meet with Reagan to settle conflicts The Soviet Union broke up when nations under its control began to fight for independence The Cold War ended as the Soviet Union disbanded

27. Society and Culture at the End of the Twentieth Century

A. Demographic changes: surge of immigration after 1965, Sunbelt migration, and the graying of America B. A new surge of immigration came to the United States, but this time it was mainly Latinos and Asians The Sunbelt was the regions centered around Florida, Texas, and California that were the most dynamically growing areas during this era Most immigrants were pulled toward the sunbelt The graying of America was the result of a decrease in birthrate and a longer life expectancy This caused more Social Security pensions and Medicare costs

Revolutions in biotechnology, mass communication, and computers


The Human Genome project was completed in 2003 and was a huge success The internet started out as the Arpanet and was only used by research facilities and limited other groups When Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, the internet became extremely popular Intel created the microprocessor which allowed for the creation of the PC Microsoft made Windows software and formed a monopoly on the rapidly growing computer industry

Politics in a multicultural society The United States was now made up of many different ethnic groups and cultures so people sought a way of standardization of these cultures The media, retail chains, fast food, etc. standardized their products to make all American goods familiar and accessible to everyone

28. The United States in the Post-Cold War World

A. Globalization and the American economy B. The end of the Cold War brought foreign policy to foster globalization, and which would hopefully increase the growth of the US economy Clinton administration developed the Big Emerging Markets strategy to bring economic growth Globalization fostered the World Trade Organization, but some argue this process makes the US more subject to global forces of destruction such as terrorism

Unilateralism vs. multilateralism in foreign policy While the US seeks to enlist the support of other nations for its policies(Multilateralism), the US does not hesitate to act alone if necessary. (Unilateralism) International rules bend the US and limit Americas freedom of action but they bend other to the rules as well America has membership n multilateral institutions ranging from the United Nations to NATO


Domestic and foreign terrorism The War on Terror refers to an international military campaign against terrorism begun by the US and UK after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center The campaigns official purpose was to eliminate the Al Qaeda and other militant organizat ions Iraq has been listed as a sponsor of terrorism since 1990 when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait and is therefore a threat


Environmental issues in a global context The environmental movement continued to expand in the last dcades of the 20 th century The first Earth Day was April 22, 1970 Earth Summits in 1987 and 1992 produced some broad agreements on several global environmental problems In 1997, representatives from industrial nations agreed to a broad treaty banning certain emission into the atmosphere as a step toward reversing global warming